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Sample records for early acute myocardial

  1. Functionalized nanoparticles provide early cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Yao; Yang, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Han; Tang, Alan C L; Liao, Wei-Yin; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Lai, James J; Stayton, Patrick S; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2013-09-10

    Recent developments in nanotechnology have created considerable potential toward diagnosis and cancer therapy. In contrast, the use of nanotechnology in tissue repair or regeneration remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-complexed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (PLGA-IGF-1 NPs) increases IGF-1 retention, induces Akt phosphorylation, and provides early cardioprotection after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We synthesized 3 different sizes of PLGA particles (60 nm, 200 nm, and 1 μm) which were complexed with IGF-1 using electrostatic force to preserve the biological function of IGF-1. Afterward, we injected PLGA-IGF-1 NPs in the heart after MI directly. Compared with the other two larger particles, the 60 nm-sized PLGA-IGF-1 NPs carried more IGF-1 and induced more Akt phosphorylation in cultured cardiomyocytes. PLGA-IGF-1 NPs also prolonged Akt activation in cardiomyocytes up to 24h and prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, PLGA-IGF-1 NP treatment significantly retained more IGF-1 in the myocardium than the IGF-1 alone treatment at 2, 6, 8, and 24 h. Akt phosphorylation was detected in cardiomyocytes 24h post-MI only in hearts receiving PLGA-IGF-1 NP treatment, but not in hearts receiving injection of PBS, IGF-1 or PLGA NPs. Importantly, a single intramyocardial injection of PLGA-IGF-1 NPs was sufficient to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P<0.001), reduce infarct size (P<0.05), and improve left ventricle ejection fraction (P<0.01) 21 days after experimental MI in mice. Our results not only demonstrate the potential of nanoparticle-based technology as a new approach to treating MI, but also have significant implications for translation of this technology into clinical therapy for ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  3. Incessant ventricular tachycardia early after acute myocardial infarction: efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation but not of optimal coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, C; Ometto, R; Finocchi, G; Rulfo, F; La Vecchia, L; Vincenzi, M

    1999-12-01

    Incessant ventricular tachycardia is an arrhythmia refractory to conventional antiarrhythmic treatment. We describe the case of 55-year-old man who presented incessant ventricular tachycardia in the early post-acute phase of myocardial infarction. Optimal coronary revascularization was not effective, but radiofrequency catheter ablation was able to eliminate the anatomic substrate and clinical arrhythmic recurrence.

  4. N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide in the early evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Haaf, Philip; Balmelli, Cathrin; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Reiter, Miriam; Meissner, Julia; Schaub, Nora; Stelzig, Claudia; Freese, Michael; Paniz, Patricia; Meune, Christophe; Drexler, Beatrice; Freidank, Heike; Winkler, Katrin; Hochholzer, Willibald; Mueller, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Myocardial ischemia is a strong trigger of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release. As ischemia precedes necrosis in acute myocardial infarction, we hypothesized that NT-proBNP might be useful in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. In a prospective multicenter study, NT-proBNP was measured at presentation in 658 consecutive patients with acute chest pain. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Patients were followed long term regarding mortality. Acute myocardial infarction was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 117 patients (18%). NT-proBNP levels at presentation were significantly higher in acute myocardial infarction as compared with patients with other final diagnoses (median 886 pg/mL vs 135 pg/mL, P <.001). The diagnostic accuracy of NT-proBNP for acute myocardial infarction as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.83). When added to cardiac troponin T, NT-proBNP significantly increased the AUC from 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93) to 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.94; P=.033). Cumulative 24-month mortality rates were 0% in the first, 1.3% in the second, 8.3% in the third, and 23.3% in the fourth quartile of NT-proBNP (P <.001). NT-proBNP (AUC 0.85, 95% CI, 0.81-0.89) predicted all-cause mortality independently of and more accurately than both cardiac troponin T (AUC 0.66, 95% CI, 0.58-0.74; P <.001) and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score (AUC 0.79, 95% CI, 0.74-0.84; P <.001). Net reclassification improvement (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction vs additionally NT-proBNP) was 0.188 (P <.009), and integrated discrimination improvement was 0.100 (P <.001). Use of NT-proBNP improves the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic value of early in-hospital glycemic excursion in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Su, Gong; Mi, Shu-hua; Li, Zhao; Tao, Hong; Yang, Hong-xia; Zheng, Hong

    2013-02-11

    Acute phase hyperglycemia has been associated with increased mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the predictive value of glycemic excursion for adverse outcome in elderly AMI patients is not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of early in-hospital glycemic excursion and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for one-year major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in elderly patients with AMI. We studied 186 elderly AMI patients, whose clinical data were collected and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score were calculated on admission. The fluctuations of blood glucose in patients were measured by a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for 72 hours. Participants were grouped into tertiles of mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and grouped into HbA1c levels (as ≥6.5% or <6.5%). The MACE of patients, including new-onset myocardial infarction, acute heart failure and cardiac death, was documented during one year follow-up. The relationship of MAGE and HbA1c to the incidence of MACE in elderly AMI patients was analyzed. In all participants, a higher MAGE level was associated with the higher GRACE score (r = 0.335, p < 0.001). The rate of MACE by MAGE tertiles (>3.94 mmol/L, 2.55-3.94 mmol/L or <2.55 mmol/L) was 30.2% vs. 14.8% vs. 8.1%, respectively (p = 0.004); by HbA1c category (≥6.5% vs. <6.5%) was 22.7% vs. 14.4%, respectively (p = 0.148). Elderly AMI patients with a higher MAGE level had a significantly higher cardiac mortality. In multivariable analysis, high MAGE level was significantly associated with incidence of MACE (HR 3.107, 95% CI 1.190-8.117, p = 0.021) even after adjusting for GRACE risk score, but HbA1c was not. The early in-hospital intraday glycemic excursion may be an important predictor of mortality and MACE even stronger than HbA1c in elderly patients after AMI.

  6. Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rudradev; Gupta, Naveen K; Wander, Gurpreet S

    2011-12-01

    Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has to be made early in the emergency triage since maximal mortality occurs within first hour and the benefits of all interventions are greater once these are instituted early. Diagnosis is easy and based on simple principals of good history, physical examination, early and complete 12 lead electrocardiogram and use of echocardiography which should be available in the emergency triage area. Subsequently biomarkers are also available for documentation and risk stratification. The other causes of acute severe chest pain should be kept in mind and ruled out. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging for diagnosis of AMI is limited. The diagnosis also involves an estimation of the size of infarct, duration since onset of the process, any acute complications of AMI and the likely vessel involved since these have significant therapeutic implications.

  7. [Copeptin and ischemia modified albumin in early diagnosis and prognosis of myocardial damage in acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Li, Na; Li, Jia; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    To assess the value of combined detection of copeptin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). A total of 126 AOPP patients were examined for blood copepin and IMA levels and myocardial injury markers within 1 h after admission. Copeptin and IMA levels significantly increased in patients with AOPP compared with those in the control subjects. Copeptin and IMA levels were significantly higher in severe AOPP cases than in mild to moderate cases (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that increased copeptin and IMA levels and severe complications of AOPP were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Early detection of copeptin and IMA levels has important clinical value in early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with AOPP, and their levels are positively correlated with the severity of the condition.

  8. Usefulness of ambulatory radionuclide monitoring of left ventricular function early after acute myocardial infarction for predicting residual myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Breisblatt, W.M.; Weiland, F.L.; McLain, J.R.

    1988-11-15

    Ambulatory radionuclide monitoring of left ventricular function was performed with the nuclear Vest device in 35 patients early after acute myocardial infarction. Patients were evaluated during post-infarction treadmill, other activities that included mental stress and cold pressor challenge, and with stress thallium imaging and cardiac catheterization. Of the 35 patients evaluated, 14 had ischemic responses on treadmill testing and 21 had negative responses. By contrast, 20 had redistribution by thallium imaging suggesting ischemia. Vest studies demonstrated 56 responses suggestive of ischemia in 23 patients. Twenty-two occurred during exercise and 13 with mental stress. Seventy-five percent were silent and only 39%more » had associated electrocardiographic changes. Vest responses were compared in patients whose thallium scan was indicative of ischemia (thallium-positive) and those without ischemia (thallium-negative). Ejection fraction was higher in the thallium-positive group (0.52 +/- 0.11), as compared with thallium-negative patients (0.44 +/- 0.1). With exercise, ejection fraction decreased for the thallium-positive patients from 0.52 +/- 0.11 to 0.40 +/- 0.09 at peak exercise. For thallium-negative patients, ejection fraction changes were not significant. During mental stress, ejection fraction decreased from 0.51 +/- 0.11 to 0.45 +/- 0.12 for thallium-positive patients while thallium-negative patients were unchanged. Vest-measured decreases in ejection fraction of greater than or equal to 5 units during exercise were highly sensitive (90%), specific (73%) and predictive (82%) of a positive thallium scan. The same response for mental stress was specific (87%) and predictive (85%) of a positive scan result.« less

  9. Optimizing Early Rule-Out Strategies for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Utility of 1-Hour Copeptin.

    PubMed

    Hillinger, Petra; Twerenbold, Raphael; Jaeger, Cedric; Wildi, Karin; Reichlin, Tobias; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Engels, Ulrike; Miró, Oscar; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Puelacher, Christian; Nestelberger, Thomas; Röthlisberger, Michèle; Ernst, Susanne; Rentsch, Katharina; Mueller, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Combined testing of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and copeptin at presentation provides a very high-although still imperfect-negative predictive value (NPV) for the early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that a second copeptin measurement at 1 h might further increase the NPV. In a prospective diagnostic multicenter study, we measured hs-cTnT and copeptin concentrations at presentation and at 1 h in 1439 unselected patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists blinded to copeptin concentrations. We investigated the incremental value of 1-h copeptin in the rule-out setting (0-h hs-cTnT negative and 0-h copeptin negative) and the intermediate-risk setting (0-h hs-cTnT negative and 0-h copeptin positive). The adjudicated diagnosis was AMI in 267 patients (18.6%). For measurements obtained at presentation, the NPV in the rule-out setting was 98.6% (95% CI, 97.4%-99.3%). Whereas 1-h copeptin did not increase the NPV significantly, 1-h hs-cTnT did, to 99.6% (95% CI, 98.7%-99.9%, P = 0.008). Similarly, in the intermediate-risk setting (NPV 92.8%, 95% CI, 88.7%-95.8%), 1-h copeptin did not significantly increase the NPV (P = 0.751), but 1-h hs-cTnT did, to 98.6 (95% CI, 96%-99.7%, P < 0.001). One-hour copeptin increased neither the safety of the rule-out process nor the NPV in the intermediate-risk setting. In contrast, the incremental value of 1-h hs-cTnT was substantial in both settings. ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00470587. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Early Anti-inflammatory and Pro-angiogenic Myocardial Effects of Intravenous Serelaxin Infusion for 72 H in an Experimental Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mas, Jesus; Lax, Antonio; Asensio-Lopez, Mari C; Lencina, Miriam; Fernandez-Del Palacio, Maria J; Soriano-Filiu, Angela; de Boer, Rudolf A; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A

    2017-12-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At the time of AMI, a subcutaneous mini-osmotic pump was implanted and animals were randomized into three groups, according to the intravenous therapy received during the first 72 h: placebo-treated (saline), serelaxin10-treated (SRLX10 = 10 μg/kg/day), or serelaxin30-treated (SRLX30 = 30 μg/kg/day). Treatment with SRLX30 reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as the infiltration of macrophages, and increased the expression of pro-angiogenic markers and vessel density in the infarcted myocardium after 7 days. SRLX30 did not reduce early myocardial fibrosis but reduced myocardial levels of sST2 and galectin-3. No significant effects were observed with SRLX10 treatment. A significant correlation was observed between plasma levels of serelaxin and effect measures. The results suggest serelaxin has a protective effect in early processes of cardiac remodeling after AMI.

  11. Health and cost consequences of early versus late invasive strategy after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bøhmer, Ellen; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Arnesen, Harald; Halvorsen, Sigrun

    2011-10-01

    The NORwegian study on DIstrict treatment of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction showed an improved clinical outcome with early transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to a more conservative approach after thrombolysis. The aim of this substudy was to compare the 12-month quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs of these alternative strategies. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction <6 h duration and >90 min expected delay to PCI, received full-dose tenecteplase and were randomized to either early or late invasive strategy (n = 266). Detailed quality of life and resource use data were registered prospectively for a period of 12 months. Health outcomes were measured as quality of life using a generic instrument (15D). Quality of life scores were translated into QALYs. Unit costs were based on hospital accounts, fee schedules, and market prices. After 12 months of follow-up, patients in the early invasive group had 0.008 (95% CI -0.027 to 0.043) more QALYs compared to the late invasive group. The mean total costs were €18,201 in the early versus €17,643 in the late invasive group, with a mean difference of €558 (95% CI -2258 to 3484). Cost/QALY was €69,750 while cost/avoided clinical endpoint was €5636. Early and late invasive strategies after thrombolysis resulted in similar quality of life and similar costs in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients living far from a PCI centre (NCT00161005).

  12. Detection and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction with quantitative post-mortem cardiac 1.5T MR.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Schuster, Frederick; Riva, Fabiano; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, quantitative MR sequences have started being used in post-mortem imaging. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction can be detected and discerned by quantitative 1.5T post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values. In 80 deceased individuals (25 female, 55 male), a cardiac MR quantification sequence was performed prior to cardiac dissection at autopsy in a prospective study. Focal myocardial signal alterations detected in synthetically generated MR images were MR quantified for their T1, T2 and PD values. The locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at autopsy heart dissection and cardiac tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in PMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction. In PMCMR seventy-three focal myocardial signal alterations were detected in 49 of 80 investigated hearts. These signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n=39), acute (n=14), subacute (n=10) and chronic (n=10) age stages of myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their quantitative T1, T2 and PD values, a significant difference between all defined age groups of myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 1.5T PMCMR quantification based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values is feasible for characterization and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hospital variability in use of anticoagulant strategies during acute myocardial infarction treated with an early invasive strategy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Li, Shu-Xia; Alexander, Karen P; Spertus, John A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Curtis, Jeptha P; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Gupta, Aakriti; Wang, Tracy Y; Lin, Haiqun; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Strait, Kelly M; Lowe, Timothy J; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-06-15

    During a myocardial infarction, no single best approach of systemic anticoagulation is recommended, likely due to a lack of comparative effectiveness studies and trade-offs between treatments. We investigated the patterns of use and site-level variability in anticoagulant strategies (unfractionated heparin [UFH] only, low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] only, UFH+LMWH, any bivalirudin) of 63 796 patients with a principal diagnosis of myocardial infarction treated with an early invasive strategy with percutaneous coronary intervention at 257 hospitals. About half (47%) of patients received UFH only, 6% UFH+LMWH, 7% LMWH only, and 40% bivalirudin. Compared with UFH, the median odds ratio was 2.90 for LMWH+UFH, 4.70 for LMWH only, and 3.09 for bivalirudin, indicating that 2 "identical" patients would have a 3- to 4-fold greater likelihood of being treated with anticoagulants other than UFH at one hospital compared with another. We then categorized hospitals as low- or high-users of LMWH and bivalirudin. Using hierarchical, multivariate regression models, we found that low bivalirudin-using hospitals had higher unadjusted bleeding rates, but the risk-adjusted and anticoagulant-adjusted bleeding rates did not differ across the hospital anticoagulation phenotypes. Risk-standardized mortality and risk-standardized length of stay also did not differ across hospital phenotypes. We found substantial site-level variability in the choice of anticoagulants for invasively managed acute myocardial infarction patients, even after accounting for patient factors. No single hospital-use pattern was found to be clinically superior. More studies are needed to determine which patients would derive the greatest benefit from various anticoagulants and to support consistent treatment of patients with the optimal anticoagulant strategy. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Early Use of N-acetylcysteine With Nitrate Therapy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size (the NACIAM Trial [N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction]).

    PubMed

    Pasupathy, Sivabaskari; Tavella, Rosanna; Grover, Suchi; Raman, Betty; Procter, Nathan E K; Du, Yang Timothy; Mahadavan, Gnanadevan; Stafford, Irene; Heresztyn, Tamila; Holmes, Andrew; Zeitz, Christopher; Arstall, Margaret; Selvanayagam, Joseph; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F

    2017-09-05

    Contemporary ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction management involves primary percutaneous coronary intervention, with ongoing studies focusing on infarct size reduction using ancillary therapies. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant with reactive oxygen species scavenging properties that also potentiates the effects of nitroglycerin and thus represents a potentially beneficial ancillary therapy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The NACIAM trial (N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction) examined the effects of NAC on infarct size in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluated the effects of intravenous high-dose NAC (29 g over 2 days) with background low-dose nitroglycerin (7.2 mg over 2 days) on early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-assessed infarct size. Secondary end points included cardiac magnetic resonance-determined myocardial salvage and creatine kinase kinetics. Of 112 randomized patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, 75 (37 in NAC group, 38 in placebo group) underwent early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Median duration of ischemia pretreatment was 2.4 hours. With background nitroglycerin infusion administered to all patients, those randomized to NAC exhibited an absolute 5.5% reduction in cardiac magnetic resonance-assessed infarct size relative to placebo (median, 11.0%; [interquartile range 4.1, 16.3] versus 16.5%; [interquartile range 10.7, 24.2]; P =0.02). Myocardial salvage was approximately doubled in the NAC group (60%; interquartile range, 37-79) compared with placebo (27%; interquartile range, 14-42; P <0.01) and median creatine kinase areas under the curve were 22 000 and 38 000 IU·h in the NAC and placebo groups, respectively ( P =0.08). High-dose intravenous NAC administered with low-dose intravenous nitroglycerin is associated with reduced

  15. Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.

    1987-10-01

    The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) inmore » group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion.« less

  16. Copeptin helps in the early detection of patients with acute myocardial infarction: primary results of the CHOPIN trial (Copeptin Helps in the early detection Of Patients with acute myocardial INfarction).

    PubMed

    Maisel, Alan; Mueller, Christian; Neath, Sean-Xavier; Christenson, Robert H; Morgenthaler, Nils G; McCord, James; Nowak, Richard M; Vilke, Gary; Daniels, Lori B; Hollander, Judd E; Apple, Fred S; Cannon, Chad; Nagurney, John T; Schreiber, Donald; deFilippi, Christopher; Hogan, Christopher; Diercks, Deborah B; Stein, John C; Headden, Gary; Limkakeng, Alexander T; Anand, Inder; Wu, Alan H B; Papassotiriou, Jana; Hartmann, Oliver; Ebmeyer, Stefan; Clopton, Paul; Jaffe, Allan S; Peacock, W Frank

    2013-07-09

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate that copeptin levels <14 pmol/L allow ruling out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) when used in combination with cardiac troponin I (cTnI) <99 th percentile and a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram at the time of presentation to the emergency department (ED). Copeptin is secreted from the pituitary early in the course of AMI. This was a 16-site study in 1,967 patients with chest pain presenting to an ED within 6 hours of pain onset. Baseline demographic characteristics and clinical data were collected prospectively. Copeptin levels and a contemporary sensitive cTnI (99 th percentile 40 ng/l; 10% coefficient of variation 0.03 μg/l) were measured in a core laboratory. Patients were followed up for 180 days. The primary outcome was diagnosis of AMI. Final diagnoses were adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists blinded to copeptin results. AMI was the final diagnosis in 156 patients (7.9%). A negative copeptin and cTnI at baseline ruled out AMI for 58% of patients, with a negative predictive value of 99.2% (95% confidence interval: 98.5 to 99.6). AMIs not detected by the initial cTnI alone were picked up with copeptin >14 pmol/l in 23 (72%) of 32 patients. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions undetected by cTnI at 0 h were detected with copeptin >14 pmol/l in 10 (53%) of 19 patients. Projected average time-to-decision could be reduced by 43% (from 3.0 h to 1.8 h) by the early rule out of 58% of patients. Both abnormal copeptin and cTnI were predictors of death at 180 days (p < 0.0001 for both; c index 0.784 and 0.800, respectively). Both were independent of age and each other and provided additional predictive value (all p < 0.0001). Adding copeptin to cTnI allowed safe rule out of AMI with a negative predictive value >99% in patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndromes. This combination has the potential to rule out AMI in 58% of patients without serial blood draws. Copyright © 2013 American College

  17. Sgarbossa criteria and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Alang, Neha; Bathina, Jaya; Kranis, Mark; Angelis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle branch block is difficult. present a case of acute myocardial infarction with LBBB diagnosed and treated using the Sgarbossa criteria.

  18. Trends in Early Aspirin Use Among Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction in China, 2001–2011: The China PEACE‐Retrospective AMI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Hu, Shuang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Xi; Desai, Nihar R.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspirin is an effective, safe, and inexpensive early treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with few barriers to administration, even in countries with limited healthcare resources. However, the rates and recent trends of aspirin use for the early treatment of AMI in China are unknown. Methods and Results Using data from the China Patient‐centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Retrospective Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction (China PEACE‐Retrospective AMI Study), we identified a cohort of 14 041 patients with AMI eligible for early aspirin therapy. Early use of aspirin for AMI increased over time (78.4% in 2001, 86.5% in 2006, and 90.0% in 2011). However, about 15% of hospitals had a rate of use of <80% in 2011. Treatment was less likely in patients who were older, presented with cardiogenic shock at admission, presented without chest discomfort, had a final diagnosis of non‐ST‐segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, or did not receive reperfusion therapy. Hospitalization in rural regions was also associated with aspirin underuse. Conclusions Despite improvements in early use of aspirin for AMI in China, there remains marked variation in practice and opportunities for improvement that are concentrated in some hospitals and patient groups. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT01624883. PMID:25304853

  19. Relationship between Early Physician Follow-Up and 30-Day Readmission after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure are important patient outcome metrics. Early post-discharge physician follow-up has been promoted as a method of reducing 30-day readmission rates. However, the relationships between early post-discharge follow-up and 30-day readmission for AMI and heart failure are inconclusive. We used nationwide population-based data to examine associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission, and further associations of 7-day same physician (during the index hospitalization and at follow-up) and cardiologist follow-up with 30-day readmission for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or heart failure. Methods We analyzed all patients 18 years or older with NSTEMI and heart failure and discharged from hospitals in 2010 in Taiwan through Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Cox proportional hazard models with robust sandwich variance estimates and propensity score weighting were performed after adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics to test associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission. Results The study population for NSTEMI and heart failure included 5,008 and 13,577 patients, respectively. Early physician follow-up was associated with a lower hazard ratio of readmission compared with no early physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.57), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48–0.60). Same physician follow-up was associated with a reduced hazard ratio of readmission compared with different physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.48–0.65), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62–0.76). Conclusions For each condition, patients who have an outpatient visit with a physician within 7 days of discharge have a lower risk of 30-day readmission. Moreover

  20. [Acute myocardial infarction in women. Initial characteristics, management and early outcome. The FAST-MI registry].

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Puymirat, E; Lucke, V; Bouabdallaoui, N; Lognoné, T; Aissaoui, N; Cohen, S; Ashrafpoor, G; Roul, G; Jouve, B; Levy, G; Charpentier, S; Grollier, G; Ferrières, J; Danchin, N

    2013-08-01

    To assess gender differences in characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes in patients participating in the French FAST-MI 2010 registry. Three thousand and seventy-nine patients hospitalised for ST-elevation (STEMI) or non-ST-elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction in 213 French centres during a 1-month period at the end of 2010. Women account for 27% of the population and more frequently present with NSTEMI. They are 9 years older than men on average, although 25% of women with STEMI are less than 60 years of age. Management of STEMI is similar, after adjustment for baseline characteristics. However, fewer women are treated with primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In NSTEMI, although use of coronary angiography is similar, fewer women get treated with angioplasty. Most medications are used in a similar way in men and women, except thienopyridines, with fewer women receive prasugrel. After adjustment, in-hospital mortality is similar for men and women. Myocardial infarction is not specific to men: one out of four patients admitted for myocardial infarction is a woman. Initial management is rather similar for men and women, after taking into account differences in baseline characteristics. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty, however, remains less frequently used in women. In-hospital complications have become rarer and do not differ according to sex. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Safety of early performance of the six-minute walk test following acute myocardial infarction: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Lívia S; Neves, Victor R; Starke, Ana C; Barbosa, Marco P T; Britto, Raquel R; Ribeiro, Antônio L P

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple, low cost, reliable, and valid method for evaluating the functional capacity of cardiac patients. However, its early use and safety following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is recent and has been little investigated. To evaluate and to compare the safety and the cardiac behavior of early performance of the 6MWT in patients following uncomplicated AMI up to 4 days or more than 4 days after the event. Following discharge from the Coronary Care Unit, 152 stable asymptomatic patients diagnosed with uncomplicated AMI performed the 6MWT. During the test, in addition to the distance walked, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and adverse events were also recorded. Electrocardiography was recorded using a Holter monitor in 105 patients. Patients were allocated considering two groups according to the number of days since AMI: Up to 4 Days Group and After 4 Days Group. All patients completed the 6MWT, 66 in the Up to 4 Days Group and 86 in the After 4 Days Group. The walking distance was similar in both groups (85% of the predicted value), as well as the physiological responses (increase in systolic BP and HR), reaching 63% (median) of maximum HR. Only 3.9% of patients had major complications (angina, drop in BP, or ventricular tachycardia), with no difference between the groups. None of the complications regarded as severe led to truly significant complications or death. The 6MWT was proven to be safe and feasible for early functional evaluation following uncomplicated AMI. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Ventricular Tachycardia or Fibrillation in Patients With ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Impact on Mortality and Stent Thrombosis (from the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Kosmidou, Ioanna; Embacher, Monica; McAndrew, Thomas; Dizon, José M; Mehran, Roxana; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-11-15

    The prevalence and impact of early ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia [VT]/ventricular fibrillation [VF]) occurring before mechanical revascularization for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention are poorly understood. We sought to investigate the association between early VT/VF and long-term clinical outcomes using data from the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial. Among 3,602 patients with STEMI, 108 patients (3.0%) had early VT/VF. Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in patients with versus without early VT/VF. Patients with early VT/VF had shorter symptom-to-balloon times and lower left ventricular ejection fraction and underwent more frequent thrombectomy compared with patients without early VT/VF. Adjusted 3-year rates of all-cause death (15.7% vs 6.5%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 4.61, p <0.001) and stent thrombosis (13.7% vs 5.7%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.74, 95% confidence interval 1.52 to 4.93, p <0.001) were significantly higher in patients with early VT/VF compared with patients without early VT/VF. In conclusion, in the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial, VT/VF occurring before coronary angiography and revascularization in patients with STEMI was strongly associated with increased 3-year rates of death and stent thrombosis. Further investigation into the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of early stent thrombosis in patients with early VT/VF is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; D'Onofrio, Gail; Spatz, Erica; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-02-17

    Younger age and female sex are both associated with greater mental stress in the general population, but limited data exist on the status of perceived stress in young and middle-aged patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. We examined sex difference in stress, contributing factors to this difference, and whether this difference helps explain sex-based disparities in 1-month recovery using data from 3572 patients with acute myocardial infarction (2397 women and 1175 men) 18 to 55 years of age. The average score of the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale at baseline was 23.4 for men and 27.0 for women (P<0.001). Higher stress in women was explained largely by sex differences in comorbidities, physical and mental health status, intrafamily conflict, caregiving demands, and financial hardship. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, women had worse recovery than men at 1 month after acute myocardial infarction, with mean differences in improvement score between women and men ranging from -0.04 for EuroQol utility index to -3.96 for angina-related quality of life (P<0.05 for all). Further adjustment for baseline stress reduced these sex-based differences in recovery to -0.03 to -3.63, which, however, remained statistically significant (P<0.05 for all). High stress at baseline was associated with significantly worse recovery in angina-specific and overall quality of life, as well as mental health status. The effect of baseline stress on recovery did not vary between men and women. Among young and middle-aged patients, higher stress at baseline is associated with worse recovery in multiple health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Women perceive greater psychological stress than men at baseline, which partially explains women's worse recovery. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Long-term benefit of early pre-reperfusion metoprolol administration in patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the METOCARD-CNIC trial (Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Gonzalo; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Fuster, Valentin; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; García-Ruiz, José M; García-Álvarez, Ana; Mateos, Alonso; Barreiro, María V; Escalera, Noemí; Rodriguez, Maite D; de Miguel, Antonio; García-Lunar, Inés; Parra-Fuertes, Juan J; Sánchez-González, Javier; Pardillos, Luis; Nieto, Beatriz; Jiménez, Adriana; Abejón, Raquel; Bastante, Teresa; Martínez de Vega, Vicente; Cabrera, José A; López-Melgar, Beatriz; Guzman, Gabriela; García-Prieto, Jaime; Mirelis, Jesús G; Zamorano, José Luis; Albarrán, Agustín; Goicolea, Javier; Escaned, Javier; Pocock, Stuart; Iñiguez, Andrés; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sánchez-Brunete, Vicente; Macaya, Carlos; Ibanez, Borja

    2014-06-10

    The goal of this trial was to study the long-term effects of intravenous (IV) metoprolol administration before reperfusion on left ventricular (LV) function and clinical events. Early IV metoprolol during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown to reduce infarct size when used in conjunction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The METOCARD-CNIC (Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial recruited 270 patients with Killip class ≤II anterior STEMI presenting early after symptom onset (<6 h) and randomized them to pre-reperfusion IV metoprolol or control group. Long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 202 patients (101 per group) 6 months after STEMI. Patients had a minimal 12-month clinical follow-up. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at the 6 months MRI was higher after IV metoprolol (48.7 ± 9.9% vs. 45.0 ± 11.7% in control subjects; adjusted treatment effect 3.49%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44% to 6.55%; p = 0.025). The occurrence of severely depressed LVEF (≤35%) at 6 months was significantly lower in patients treated with IV metoprolol (11% vs. 27%, p = 0.006). The proportion of patients fulfilling Class I indications for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was significantly lower in the IV metoprolol group (7% vs. 20%, p = 0.012). At a median follow-up of 2 years, occurrence of the pre-specified composite of death, heart failure admission, reinfarction, and malignant arrhythmias was 10.8% in the IV metoprolol group versus 18.3% in the control group, adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.55; 95% CI: 0.26 to 1.04; p = 0.065. Heart failure admission was significantly lower in the IV metoprolol group (HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.015 to 0.95; p = 0.046). In patients with anterior Killip class ≤II STEMI undergoing pPCI, early IV metoprolol before reperfusion resulted in higher long-term LVEF, reduced incidence of severe LV systolic dysfunction

  5. Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Ulrich; Lemm, Holger; Heyer, Anke; Müller, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to test the diagnostic performance of the Elecsys® troponin T high-sensitive system combined with copeptin measurement for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in clinical practice. Troponin T high-sensitive (diagnostic cutoff: <14 pg/mL) and copeptin (diagnostic cutoff: <14 pmol/L) levels were determined at admission in addition to other routine laboratory parameters in patients with suspected acute MI presenting to the emergency department of a general hospital over a period of five months. Data from 142 consecutive patients (mean age 71.2 ± 13.5 years, 76 men) were analyzed. Final diagnoses were acute MI in 13 patients (nine ST elevation MI, four non-ST elevation MI, 9.2%) unstable angina pectoris in three (2.1%), cardiac symptoms not primarily associated with myocardial ischemia in 79 (55.6%), and noncardiac disease in 47 patients (33.1%). The patients with acute MI were younger and had higher troponin T high-sensitive and copeptin values than patients without acute MI. Seventeen patients had very high copeptin values (>150 pmol/L), one of whom had a level of >700 pmol/L and died of pulmonary embolism. A troponin T high-sensitive level of <14 pg/mL in combination with copeptin <14 pmol/L at initial presentation ruled out acute MI in 45 of the 142 patients (31.7%), each with a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%. According to this early experience, a single determination of troponin T high-sensitive and copeptin may enable early and accurate exclusion of acute MI in one third of patients, even in an emergency department of a general hospital.

  6. Use of cumulative mortality data in patients with acute myocardial infarction for early detection of variation in clinical practice: observational study.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, R A; Dorsch, M F; Sapsford, R J; Mackintosh, A F; Greenwood, D C; Jackson, B M; Morrell, C; Robinson, M B; Hall, A S

    2001-08-11

    Use of cumulative mortality adjusted for case mix in patients with acute myocardial infarction for early detection of variation in clinical practice. Observational study. 20 hospitals across the former Yorkshire region. All 2153 consecutive patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction identified during three months. Variable life-adjusted displays showing cumulative differences between observed and expected mortality of patients; expected mortality calculated from risk model based on admission characteristics of age, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure. The performance of two individual hospitals over three months was examined as an example. One, the smallest district hospital in the region, had a series of 30 consecutive patients but had five more deaths than predicted. The variable life-adjusted display showed minimal variation from that predicted for the first 15 patients followed by a run of unexpectedly high mortality. The second example was the main tertiary referral centre for the region, which admitted 188 consecutive patients. The display showed a period of apparently poor performance followed by substantial improvement, where the plot rose steadily from a cumulative net lives saved of -4 to 7. These variations in patient outcome are unlikely to have been revealed during conventional audit practice. Variable life-adjusted display has been integrated into surgical care as a graphical display of risk-adjusted survival for individual surgeons or centres. In combination with a simple risk model, it may have a role in monitoring performance and outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Combining High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and Cardiac Troponin T in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Noreen; Wildi, Karin; Twerenbold, Raphael; Pickering, John W; Than, Martin; Cullen, Louise; Greenslade, Jaimi; Parsonage, William; Nestelberger, Thomas; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Badertscher, Patrick; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Bekers, Otto; Schöni, Aline; Keller, Dagmar I; Sabti, Zaid; Puelacher, Christian; Cupa, Janosch; Schumacher, Lukas; Kozhuharov, Nikola; Grimm, Karin; Shrestha, Samyut; Flores, Dayana; Freese, Michael; Stelzig, Claudia; Strebel, Ivo; Miró, Òscar; Rentsch, Katharina; Morawiec, Beata; Kawecki, Damian; Kloos, Wanda; Lohrmann, Jens; Richards, A Mark; Troughton, Richard; Pemberton, Christopher; Osswald, Stefan; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Mingels, Alma M; Reichlin, Tobias; Meex, Steven J R; Mueller, Christian

    2018-04-24

    Background -Combining two signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of AMI. Methods -The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected AMI. The optimal rule out and rule in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule out was compared with the ESC 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. Results -Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the ESC 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6-24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34-41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value (NPV) 100% (95%CI: 99.5-100%); product: NPV 100% (95%CI: 99.5-100%) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% (95%CI: 99.0-99.9%); product: NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 98.8-99.8%). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule out (40-43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% (95%CI: 99.2-100%); NPV

  8. Acute myocardial infarction with changing axis deviation.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-07-01

    Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. Left anterior hemiblock development during acute inferior myocardial infarction can be an indicator of left anterior descending coronary artery lesions, multivessel coronary artery disease, and impaired left ventricular systolic function. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 62-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Interventional therapy of acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Zahn, R; Zeymer, U

    2008-09-01

    Currently an acute myocardial infarction has to be differentiated into ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). However, there exists another definition of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), which is more important in clinical practice, for all recommendations from the guidelines of the cardiac societies concerning the invasive strategies rely on this one. Here one has to differentiate an ACS with ST-elevation (STE-ACS = STEMI) from an ACS without ST-elevation (NSTE-ACS). The last one is further divided into an NSTE-ACS with or without high risk. In patients with an NSTE-ACS with high risk an early invasive strategy is recommended within 72 h after the diagnosis. In patients with an NSTE-ACS without high risk a more conservative approach can be pursued. In STE-ACS patients primary angioplasty is the reperfusion therapy of choice, if it can be performed in a timely fashion within 2 h after diagnosis at an interventional centre with experienced interventionalists and short "door-to-balloon" times. In Germany this goal is achievable almost everywhere. Therefore it is currently the most important task to establish local networks to reach this goal.

  10. Complementary Diagnostic Value of Heart Type Fatty Acid-binding Protein in Early Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sotoudeh Anvari, Maryam; Karimi, Mahsa; Shafiee, Akbar; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Bozorgi, Ali; Sedaghat, Reza; Jalali, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel biomarker for myocardial injury. We compared the use of H-FABP with serum levels of cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in the diagnosis of patients suspicious to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). From October 2013 to December 2014, 182 consecutive patients suspicious to acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this study, who presented within the past 6 hours from the onset of symptoms. Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline to measure serum biochemistry, high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT), creatine kinase-MB, and H-FABP, and the measurements were repeated after 8 hours. The patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the baseline and second measurements of cTnT and general characteristics, and changes of H-FABP levels were then compared between the groups. Sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP in predicting the presence of AMI was calculated. A total of 91 patients had AMI. Changes of H-FABP through time were also significantly different between the AMI and non-AMI patients (P < 0.001). A cutoff point of 7.15 for H-FABP could predict AMI with a sensitivity of 51.5%, specificity of 96.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 68.3%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for H-FABP at 8 hours was 79.4% (95% confidence interval: 73.0-85.9; P < 0.001). Positive predictive value and negative predictive value for H-FABP were 85% and 60%, respectively. H-FABP can be used as an additional cardiac biomarker in the diagnosis of AMI.

  11. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function of early intravenous injection of anistreplase in acute myocardial infarction. The APSIM Study Investigators.

    PubMed

    Bassand, J P; Bernard, Y; Lusson, J R; Machecourt, J; Cassagnes, J; Borel, E

    1990-03-01

    A total of 231 patients suffering from a first acute myocardial infarction were randomly allocated within 4 hours following the onset of symptoms either to anistreplase or anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC), 30 U over 5 minutes, or to conventional heparin therapy, 5000 IU in bolus injection. Heparin was reintroduced in both groups 4 h after initial therapy at a dosage of 500 IU/kg per day. A total of 112 patients received anistreplase and 119 received heparin within a mean period of 188 +/- 62 min following the onset of symptoms. Infarct size was estimated from single photon emission computerized tomography and expressed in percentage of the total myocardial volume. The patency rate of the infarct-related artery was 77% in the anistreplase group and 36% in the heparin group (p less than 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction determined from contrast angiography was significantly higher in the anistreplase group than in the heparin group (6 absolute percentage point difference). A significant 31% reduction in infarct size was found in the anistreplase group (33% for the anterior wall infarction subgroup [p less than 0.05] and 16% for the inferior wall infarction subgroup, NS). A close inverse relation was found between the values of left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size (r = -.73, p less than 0.01). In conclusion, early infusion of anistreplase in acute myocardial infarction produced a high early patency rate, a significant limitation of infarct size, and a significant preservation of left ventricular systolic function, mainly in the anterior wall infarctions.

  12. Lisinopril. A review of its pharmacology and clinical efficacy in the early management of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goa, K L; Balfour, J A; Zuanetti, G

    1996-10-01

    Following establishment of its efficacy in hypertension and congestive heart failure, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril has now been shown to reduce mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with myocardial infarction when administered as early treatment. The ability of lisinopril to attenuate the detrimental effects of left ventricular remodelling is a key mechanism; however, additional cardioprotective and vasculoprotective actions are postulated to play a role in mediating the early benefit. The GISSI-3 trial in > 19 000 patients has demonstrated that, when given orally within 24 hours of symptom onset and continued for 6 weeks, lisinopril (with or without nitrates) produces measurable survival benefits within 1 to 2 days of starting treatment. Compared with no lisinopril treatment, reductions of 11% in risk of mortality and 7.7% in a combined end-point (death plus severe left ventricular dysfunction) were evident at 6 weeks. Advantages were apparent in all types of patients. Thus, those at high risk-women, the elderly, patients with diabetes mellitus and those with anterior infarct and/or Killip class > 1 -also benefited. These gains in combined end-point events persisted in the longer term, despite treatment withdrawal after 6 weeks in most patients. At 6 months, the incidence rate for the combined end-point remained lower than with control (a 6.2% reduction). The GISSI-3 results concur with those from recent large investigations (ISIS-4, CCS-1, SMILE) of other ACE inhibitors as early management in myocardial infarction. However, the results of the CONSENSUS II trial (using intravenous enalaprilat then oral enalapril) were unfavourable in some patients. These findings, together with the development of persistent hypotension and, to a lesser extent, renal dysfunction among patients in the GISSI-3 trial, have prompted considerable debate over optimum treatment strategies. Present opinion generally holds that therapy with lisinopril or other ACE inhibitors

  13. Changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-07-09

    Changing axis deviation has been reported during acute myocardial infarction also associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 70-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction by Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-08

    Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); ST Elevation (STEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury; Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Angina, Unstable

  15. Impella 2.5 initiated prior to unprotected left main PCI in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock improves early survival.

    PubMed

    Meraj, Perwaiz M; Doshi, Rajkumar; Schreiber, Theodore; Maini, Brijeshwar; O'Neill, William W

    2017-06-01

    To assess post-procedural outcomes when Impella 2.5 percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) support is initiated either prior to or after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) culprit lesion in the context of acute myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock (AMICS). Initiation of Impella 2.5 pLVAD prior to PCI is associated with significant survival benefit in the setting of AMICS. Outcomes of those presenting with a ULMCA culprit lesion in this setting have not been well characterized. Thirty-six consecutive patients in the cVAD Registry supported with Impella 2.5 pLVAD for AMICS who underwent PCI on ULMCA culprit lesion were included in our multicenter study. The average age was 69.8 ± 14.2 years, 77.8% were male, 72.7% were in CS at admission, 44.4% sustained one or multiple cardiac arrests, and 30.6% had anoxic brain injury. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the Pre-PCI group (n = 20) and Post-PCI group (n = 16). Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and greater coronary disease burden were significantly more frequent in the Pre-PCI group but they had significantly better survival to discharge (55.0% vs 18.8%, P = 0.041). Kaplan-Meier 30-day survival analysis showed very poor survival in Post-PCI group (48.1% vs 12.5%, Log-Rank P = 0.004). Initiation of Impella 2.5 pLVAD prior to as compared with after PCI of ULMCA for AMICS culprit lesion is associated with significant early survival. As previously described, patients supported after PCI appear to have very poor survival at 30 days. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early exercise-based rehabilitation improves health-related quality of life and functional capacity after acute myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Thatiana C A; Begot, Isis; Bolzan, Douglas W; Machado, Lais; Reis, Michel S; Papa, Valeria; Carvalho, Antonio C C; Arena, Ross; Gomes, Walter J; Guizilini, Solange

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an early cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and functional capacity in patients who recently experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This program was initiated in the inpatient setting and was followed by an unsupervised outpatient intervention. After the same inpatient care plan, low-risk patients who experienced an AMI were randomized into 2 groups: (1) a control group (CG) (n = 43) entailing usual care and (2) an intervention group (IG) (n = 45) entailing outpatient (unsupervised) CR primarily centered on a progressive walking program. Initially, all patients underwent a supervised exercise program with early mobilization beginning 12 hours after an AMI. On hospital discharge, all patients were classified according to cardiovascular risk. Quality of life was evaluated by the MacNew Heart Disease HRQL questionnaire 30 days after discharge. Functional capacity was determined by a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance on the day of inpatient discharge as well as 30 days afterward. The HRQL global score was higher in the IG compared with the CG 30 days after discharge (P < 0.001); physical and emotional domain scores were both significantly higher in the IG (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the IG showed a greater 6MWT distance compared with the CG (P < 0.001). A CR program based on early progressive exercises, initiated by supervised inpatient training and followed by an unsupervised outpatient program, improved HRQL and functional capacity in patients at low cardiovascular risk who recently experienced an AMI. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Treatment, Early or Late After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Twelve Months CMR and Long-Term Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Sürder, Daniel; Manka, Robert; Moccetti, Tiziano; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Klersy, Catherine; Soncin, Sabrina; Turchetto, Lucia; Radrizzani, Marina; Zuber, Michel; Windecker, Stephan; Moschovitis, Aris; Bühler, Ines; Kozerke, Sebastian; Erne, Paul; Lüscher, Thomas F; Corti, Roberto

    2016-07-22

    Intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) may improve remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To demonstrate long-term efficacy of BM-MNC treatment after AMI. In a multicenter study, we randomized 200 patients with large AMI in a 1:1:1 pattern into an open-labeled control and 2 BM-MNC treatment groups. In the BM-MNC groups, cells were either administered 5 to 7 days (early) or 3 to 4 weeks (late) after AMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and after 12 months. The current analysis investigates the change from baseline to 12 months in global LV ejection fraction, LV volumes, scar size, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values comparing the 2 treatment groups with control in a linear regression model. Besides the complete case analysis, multiple imputation analysis was performed to address for missing data. Furthermore, the long-term clinical event rate was computed. The absolute change in LV ejection fraction from baseline to 12 months was -1.9±9.8% for control (mean±SD), -0.9±10.5% for the early treatment group, and -0.7±10.1% for the late treatment group. The difference between the groups was not significant, both for complete case analysis and multiple imputation analysis. A combined clinical end point occurred equally in all the groups. Overall, 1-year mortality was low (2.25%). Among patients with AMI and LV dysfunction, treatment with BM-MNC either 5 to 7 days or 3 to 4 weeks after AMI did not improve LV function at 12 months, compared with control. The results are limited by an important drop out rate. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00355186. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Difference in the Clinical Characteristics of Ventricular Fibrillation Occurrence in the Early Phase of an Acute Myocardial Infarction Between Patients With and Without J Waves.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Yoshihisa; Nogami, Akihiko; Harimura, Yoshie; Ishibashi, Mayu; Noguchi, Yuichi; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Sato, Akira; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2015-08-01

    We recently showed that the presence of J waves increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurrence in the early phase of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of VF occurrences in the early phase of an AMI between patients with and without J waves. This retrospective, observational study included 281 consecutive patients with an AMI (69 ± 12 years; 207 men) in whom 12-lead ECGs before AMI onset could be evaluated. The patients were classified based on a VF occurrence <48 hours after AMI onset and the presence of J waves. J waves were electrocardiographically defined as an elevation of the terminal portion of the QRS complex of >0.1 mV from baseline in at least 2 contiguous inferior or lateral leads. VF occurred in 24 patients, and J waves were present in 37. VF occurrence was more prevalent in the patients with than without J waves (27% vs. 6%; P < 0.001). Among the 244 patients without J waves, peak creatine kinase level (P < 0.01), number of diseased coronary arteries (P < 0.01), and male sex (P < 0.05) were higher in the patients with than without VF occurrence. However, among the 37 patients with J waves, there was no significant difference in these variables. There was no association between the location of J waves and the infarct area. In patients with AMI, those with J waves were more likely to develop VF and less likely to have high-risk clinical characteristics than those without J waves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Does overprotection cause cardiac invalidism after acute myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Riegel, B J; Dracup, K A

    1992-01-01

    To determine if overprotection on the part of the patient's family and friends contributes to the development of cardiac invalidism after acute myocardial infarction. Longitudinal survey. Nine hospitals in the southwestern United States. One hundred eleven patients who had experienced a first acute myocardial infarction. Subjects were predominantly male, older-aged, married, caucasian, and in functional class I. Eighty-one patients characterized themselves as being overprotected (i.e., receiving more social support from family and friends than desired), and 28 reported receiving inadequate support. Only two patients reported receiving as much support as they desired. Self-esteem, emotional distress, health perceptions, interpersonal dependency, return to work. Overprotected patients experienced less anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, more vigor, and higher self-esteem than inadequately supported patients 1 month after myocardial infarction (p < 0.05). Inadequately supported patients were more dependent 4 months after the event. Overprotection on the part of family and friends may facilitate psychosocial adjustment in the early months after an acute myocardial infarction rather than lead to cardiac invalidism.

  20. National Assessment of Early Beta-Blocker Therapy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction in China, 2001–2011: The China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haibo; Masoudi, Frederick A; Li, Jing; Wang, Qing; Li, Xi; Spertus, John A; Ross, Joseph S; Desai, Nihar R; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 2007, clinical practice guidelines have recommended beta-blocker therapy early in the course of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for patients who are not at high risk for complications. Our objective was to perform a national quality assessment of early beta-blocker use during hospitalization for AMI over the past decade in China. Methods We conducted medical record review of a nationally representative sample of patients admitted to Chinese hospitals with AMI and studied those without absolute contraindications to beta-blocker therapy during 2001, 2006, and 2011. We evaluated the use, type, and dose of beta-blockers within the first 24 hours of admission over time and identified predictors of not using this treatment both in ideal candidates and in those with risk factors for cardiogenic shock. Results Among 14,241 patients with AMI (representing 43,165 patients in 2001, 106,167 patients in 2006, and 221,874 patients in 2011 in China, respectively), 45.1% had no contraindications to early beta-blocker therapy; 21.1% had risk factors for cardiogenic shock but no absolute contraindication. Beta-blocker use in ideal patients was 54.3% in 2001, 67.8% in 2006, and 61.8% in 2011 (P=0.28 for trend). Predictors of non-treatment were older age, lower systolic blood pressure, lower heart rate, absence of chest discomfort and admission to a non-teaching hospital. Use in patients with risk factors for cardiogenic shock was 42.6% in 2001, 59.5% in 2006, and 52.9% in 2011 (P=0.31 for trend). Metoprolol was used most frequently (91.5%), but dosages were often below those recommended in guidelines. Conclusions The use of early beta-blocker therapy for patients with AMI in China is suboptimal, with underuse in patients who could benefit and substantial use among those who might be harmed. Patterns of use have not changed over time, thus creating an important target of efforts to improve quality of care for AMI. PMID:26385034

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stress Cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Methods Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. Results There was a significant increase in overall admissions (p<0.003), ST elevation myocardial infarction (p<0.016), and non cardiac chest pain (p<0.022) in the first 2 weeks following the early morning September earthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6–6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44–2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (p<0.05). Conclusion The early morning September earthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events. PMID:23844213

  2. Acute myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36 am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. There was a significant increase in overall admissions (p<0.003), ST elevation myocardial infarction (p<0.016), and non cardiac chest pain (p<0.022) in the first 2 weeks following the early morning September earthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (p<0.05). The early morning September earthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.

  3. Adopting an early invasive strategy for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Analysis of the Portuguese Registry on Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Gonçalo; Pereira, Hélder; Caldeira, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    In patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), the best timing for coronary angiography is not definitely established, although it is recognized that in high-risk patients it should be performed within the first 24 hours. The aim of this work was to describe the evolution over time of the use of an invasive strategy in the treatment of NSTEMI and in-hospital mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with NSTEMI included in the Portuguese Registry on Acute Coronary Syndromes (ProACS) between 2002 and 2015. The annual proportion of patients undergoing coronary angiography and the time from admission to coronary angiography were assessed, as were changes in mortality and length of stay. A total of 18 639 patients with NSTEMI were included in the ProACS registry between 2002 and 2015. Over this period there were significant increases in the proportion of patients undergoing coronary angiography (from 52.0 to 83.6%) and angioplasty (from 23.3 to 53.0%), as well as in the proportion of patients who underwent coronary angiography within 24 hours of admission (from 21.0 to 48.1%). In-hospital mortality decreased in those aged over 74 years (from 9.5 to 3.7%) and in males. The progressive adoption of an invasive strategy, particularly an early one (within 24 hours), was accompanied by a reduction in in-hospital mortality. Since coronary angiography is performed late (>24 hours) in half of NSTEMI patients, these patients could benefit from initiatives similar to Stent for Life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Diagnostic Performance of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis of Contemporary Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Qian; Yang, Yun-Mei; Tong, Hong; Xu, Chang-Fu

    2018-04-01

    Although cardiac troponin is the cornerstone in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the accuracy is still suboptimal in the early hours after chest pain onset. Due to its small size, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has been reported accurate in diagnosis of AMI, however, this remains undetermined. The aim is to investigate the diagnostic performance of H-FABP alone and in conjunction with high-sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) within 6 hours of symptom onset. Furthermore, accuracy in 0h/3h algorithm was also assessed. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched; sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) were used as measures of the diagnostic accuracy. We pooled data on bivariate modelling, threshold effect and publication bias was applied for heterogeneity analysis. Twenty-two studies with 6602 populations were included, pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC of H-FABP were 0.75 (0.68-0.81), 0.81 (0.75-0.86) and 0.85 (0.82-0.88) within 6 hours. Similar sensitivity (0.76, 0.69-0.82), specificity (0.80, 0.71-0.87) and AUC (0.85, 0.82-0.88) of H-FABP were observed in 4185 (63%) patients in 0h/3h algorithm. The additional use of H-FABP improved the sensitivity of hs-Tn alone but worsened its specificity (all p<0.001), and resulted in no improvement of AUC (p>0.99). There was no threshold effect (p=0.18) and publication bias (p=0.31) in this study. H-FABP has modest accuracy for early diagnosis of AMI within 3 and 6 hours of symptom onset. The incremental value of H-FABP seemed much smaller and was of uncertain clinical significance in addition to hs-Tn in patients with suspected AMI. Routine use of H-FABP in early presentation does not seem warranted. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Right ventricular myocardial infarction: presentation and acute outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chockalingam, Anand; Gnanavelu, G; Subramaniam, T; Dorairajan, Smrita; Chockalingam, V

    2005-01-01

    Acute inferior wall myocardial infarction can be complicated by right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI), and the excess mortality cannot be fully explained by mechanical reasons. The authors try to systematically assess the incidence, clinical presentation and early outcomes of right ventricular infarction in a tertiary-care setup. Their study was a prospective observational series of consecutive patients with RVMI. All patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction (n=135) were enlisted. RVMI was diagnosed by > or = 1 mm ST elevation in lead V(4R) in a right-sided electrocardiogram. Right ventricular (RV) infarction occurred in 37% (n=50) of patients with acute inferior infarctions. Patients with isolated inferior infarction served as controls (n=85). Echocardiography was performed within 24 hours of admission. From both groups, 66% qualified for thrombolysis. The incidence of hypotension-bradycardia and heart blocks requiring pacing support was much higher in right ventricular infarction (n=21) than in inferior infarction (n=13). Clinically manifest RV dysfunction (raised jugular venous pulse [JVP], hypotension, tricuspid regurgitation) and right ventricular dilation detected by echocardiography were seen in only 13 patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher (n=8, 16%) in right ventricular infarction group than in inferior infarction group (n=3, 3.5%). Right ventricular infarction was seen in a third of inferior myocardial infarctions (IMIs), but hemodynamically evident right ventricular dysfunction occurred in only a tenth of acute IMIs. Nevertheless, the acute in-hospital mortality rate of patients with right ventricular infarction was much higher than in those with inferior infarction owing to arrhythmic and mechanical complications.

  6. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-01-01

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. PMID:26989121

  7. Early detection of myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma by computed tomography: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thung-Lip; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Shih, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Huai-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Shan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Hsu, Kwan-Lih

    2017-02-10

    Blunt cardiac trauma encompasses a wide range of clinical entities, including myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, valve avulsion, pericardial injuries, arrhythmia, and even myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection after blunt chest trauma is rare and may be life threatening. Differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from cardiac contusion at this setting is not easy. Here we demonstrated a case of blunt chest trauma, with computed tomography detected myocardium enhancement defect early at emergency department. Under the impression of acute myocardial infarction, emergent coronary angiography revealed left anterior descending artery occlusion. Revascularization was performed and coronary artery dissection was found after thrombus aspiration. Finally, the patient survived after coronary stenting. Perfusion defects of myocardium enhancement on CT after blunt chest trauma can be very helpful to suggest myocardial infarction and facilitate the decision making of emergent procedure. This valuable sign should not be missed during the initial interpretation.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of a Pharmaco-Invasive Strategy With Half-Dose Alteplase Versus Primary Angioplasty in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: EARLY-MYO Trial (Early Routine Catheterization After Alteplase Fibrinolysis Versus Primary PCI in Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Pu, Jun; Ding, Song; Ge, Heng; Han, Yaling; Guo, Jinchen; Lin, Rong; Su, Xi; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Lianglong; He, Ben

    2017-10-17

    Timely primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) cannot be offered to all patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Pharmaco-invasive (PhI) strategy has been proposed as a valuable alternative for eligible patients with STEMI. We conducted a randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of a PhI strategy with half-dose fibrinolytic regimen versus PPCI in patients with STEMI. The EARLY-MYO trial (Early Routine Catheterization After Alteplase Fibrinolysis Versus Primary PCI in Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) was an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing a PhI strategy with half-dose alteplase versus PPCI in patients with STEMI 18 to 75 years of age presenting ≤6 hours after symptom onset but with an expected PCI-related delay. The primary end point of the study was complete epicardial and myocardial reperfusion after PCI, defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 3, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade 3, and ST-segment resolution ≥70%. We also measured infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction with cardiac magnetic resonance and recorded 30-day clinical and safety outcomes. A total of 344 patients from 7 centers were randomized to PhI (n=171) or PPCI (n=173). PhI was noninferior (and even superior) to PPCI for the primary end point (34.2% versus 22.8%, P noninferiority <0.05, P superiority =0.022), with no significant differences in the frequency of the individual components of the combined end point: thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow 3 (91.3% versus 89.2%, P =0.580), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade 3 (65.8% versus 62.9%, P =0.730), and ST-segment resolution ≥70% (50.9% versus 45.5%, P =0.377). Infarct size (23.3%±11.3% versus 25.8%±13.7%, P =0.101) and left ventricular ejection fraction (52.2%±11.0% versus 51.4%±12.0%, P =0.562) were similar in both

  9. Myocardial Bridge and Acute Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Leor; Daniels, David; Schwartz, Jonathan; Tanaka, Shige; Yeung, Alan; Tremmel, Jennifer A.; Schnittger, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial bridge (MB) is a common anatomic variant, most frequently located in the left anterior descending coronary artery, where a portion of the coronary artery is covered by myocardium. Importantly, MBs are known to result in a proximal atherosclerotic lesion. It has recently been postulated that these lesions predispose patients to acute coronary events, even in cases of otherwise low-risk patients. One such mechanism may involve acute plaque rupture. In this article, we report 2 cases of patients with MBs who presented with acute coronary syndromes despite having low cardiovascular risk. Their presentation was life-risking and both were treated urgently and studied with coronary angiographies and intravascular ultrasound. This latter modality confirmed a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque proximal to the MB as a likely cause of the acute events. These cases, of unexplained acute coronary syndrome in low-risk patients, raise the question of alternative processes leading to the event and the role MB play as an underlying cause of ruptured plaques. In some cases, an active investigation for this entity may be warranted, due to the prognostic implications of the different therapeutic modalities, should an MB be discovered. PMID:28251167

  10. Myocardial Bridge and Acute Plaque Rupture.

    PubMed

    Perl, Leor; Daniels, David; Schwartz, Jonathan; Tanaka, Shige; Yeung, Alan; Tremmel, Jennifer A; Schnittger, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial bridge (MB) is a common anatomic variant, most frequently located in the left anterior descending coronary artery, where a portion of the coronary artery is covered by myocardium. Importantly, MBs are known to result in a proximal atherosclerotic lesion. It has recently been postulated that these lesions predispose patients to acute coronary events, even in cases of otherwise low-risk patients. One such mechanism may involve acute plaque rupture. In this article, we report 2 cases of patients with MBs who presented with acute coronary syndromes despite having low cardiovascular risk. Their presentation was life-risking and both were treated urgently and studied with coronary angiographies and intravascular ultrasound. This latter modality confirmed a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque proximal to the MB as a likely cause of the acute events. These cases, of unexplained acute coronary syndrome in low-risk patients, raise the question of alternative processes leading to the event and the role MB play as an underlying cause of ruptured plaques. In some cases, an active investigation for this entity may be warranted, due to the prognostic implications of the different therapeutic modalities, should an MB be discovered.

  11. [Diagnostics of acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bahrmann, P; Heppner, H J; Bahrmann, A; Christ, M; Bertsch, T; Sieber, C C

    2011-06-01

    The early diagnosis of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is improved by the introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays. These assays can measure low level myocardial injury not detectable by standard troponin assays. Especially in older patients who appear to have a higher basal troponin level, the results must always be judged in the context of the medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and any further findings. Even small increases in high-sensitivity troponin indicate increased risk for death or MI during follow-up. In the case of MI an invasive strategy results in better survival rates compared with conservative therapy but at the expense of an increased risk of bleeding in elderly patients. This article provides an overview on the diagnosis of MI in elderly patients.

  12. Polycythemia vera presenting as acute myocardial infarction: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bahbahani, Hussain; Aljenaee, Khaled; Bella, Abdelhaleem

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is usually seen in the setting of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors. Myocardial infarction in the young poses a particular challenge, as the disease is less likely, due to atherosclerosis. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who presented with ST segment elevation anterolateral AMI. The only abnormality on routine blood investigation was raised hemoglobin and hematocrit. After further testing, she was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria with polycythemia vera. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing polycythemia vera as an important cause of thrombosis, which can present initially as AMI, and to emphasize the early recognition of the disease in order to initiate appropriate management strategies. PMID:25544823

  13. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lu; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Dart, Anthony M; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI. PMID:26089856

  14. Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Offer; Smith, Ronald; Nishikawa, Akaira; Gregoric, Igor D.; Smart, Frank W.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case of subacute left ventricular free wall rupture during acute myocardial infarction in a 68-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiography. The patient was supported by an intra-aortic balloon pump until the ruptured wall could be successfully repaired by suturing and gluing a pericardial patch over the defect and bypassing the left anterior descending coronary artery with a vein graft. This case demonstrates that left ventricular free wall rupture is not always fatal and that early diagnosis and institution of intra-aortic balloon pump support in such patients can allow successful bridging to definitive emergency surgical therapy. PMID:16392235

  15. [A scale for early assessment of risk of death and myocardial infarction during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (based on data from the RECORD registry)].

    PubMed

    Érlikh, A D

    2010-01-01

    Independent predictors of death and death or myocardial infarction (MI) during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were determined using database of Russian independent ACS registry RECORD. These predictors (admission Killip class II, ST-segment elevation 1 mm, systolic blood pressure 100 mm Hg, hemoglobin <110 g/L, age 65 years, history of diabetes) were attributed equal weight (1 point) and combined in a prognostic scale for assessment of risk of inhospital death and death or MI. The scale did not include markers of necrosis, and the most time consuming component was measurement of hemoglobin. Sensitivity and specificity of risk scores for prediction of death were 78.5%. The use of GRACE score in this group of patients gave similar results. These preliminary data require confirmation on larger populations of patients with ACS.

  16. Early Treatment With Zofenopril and Ramipril in Combination With Acetyl Salicylic Acid in Patients With Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results of a 5-Year Follow-up of Patients of the SMILE-4 Study.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Omboni, Stefano; Novo, Salvatore; Vinereanu, Dragos; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ambrosioni, Ettore

    2017-05-01

    The SMILE-4 study showed that in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) after acute myocardial infarction, early treatment with zofenopril plus acetyl salicylic acid is associated with an improved 1-year survival, free from death or hospitalization for cardiovascular (CV) causes, as compared to ramipril plus acetyl salicylic acid. We now report CV outcomes during a 5-year follow-up of the patients of the SMILE-4 study. Three hundred eighty-six of the 518 patients completing the study (51.2%) could be tracked after the study end and 265 could be included in the analysis. During the 5.5 (±2.1) years of follow-up, the primary endpoint occurred in 27.8% of patients originally randomized and treated with zofenopril and in 43.8% of patients treated with ramipril [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval, 0.65 (0.43-0.98), P = 0.041]. Such a result was achieved through a significantly larger reduction in CV hospitalization under zofenopril [OR: 0.61 (0.37-0.99), P = 0.047], whereas reduction in mortality rate with zofenopril did not achieve statistical significance versus ramipril [OR: 0.75 (0.36-1.59), P = 0.459]. These results were in line with those achieved during the initial 1-year follow-up. Benefits of early treatment of patients with LVD after acute myocardial infarction with zofenopril are sustained over many years as compared to ramipril.

  17. Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Juan B; Burls, Amanda; Emparanza, José I; Bayliss, Susan E; Quinn, Tom

    2016-12-19

    Oxygen (O 2 ) is widely used in people with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous systematic reviews concluded that there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen reduced, increased or had no effect on heart ischaemia or infarct size. Our first Cochrane review in 2010 also concluded there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen should be used. Since 2010, the lack of evidence to support this widely used intervention has attracted considerable attention, prompting further trials of oxygen therapy in myocardial infarction patients. It is thus important to update this Cochrane review. To assess the effects of routine use of inhaled oxygen for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We searched the following bibliographic databases on 6 June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters). LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) was last searched in September 2016. We also contacted experts to identify eligible studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials in people with suspected or proven AMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI) within 24 hours after onset, in which the intervention was inhaled oxygen (at normal pressure) compared to air, regardless of co-therapies provided to participants in both arms of the trial. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies to see if they met the inclusion criteria and independently undertook the data extraction. We assessed the quality of studies and the risk of bias according to guidance in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The primary outcome was death. The measure of effect used was the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to evaluate the quality of the evidence and the GRADE profiler (GRADEpro

  18. An Unusual Complication Following Transarterial Chemoembolization: Acute Myocardial Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Yiliang; Chang Weichou; Kuo Wuhsien

    Transarterial chemoembolization has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Various complications have been reported, but they have not included acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction results mainly from coronary artery occlusion by plaques that are vulnerable to rupture or from coronary spasm, embolization, or dissection of the coronary artery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case report that describes a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization and died subsequently of acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this complication induced by transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellularmore » carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to be aware of acute myocardial infarction when transarterial chemoembolization is planned for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.« less

  19. Asian dust exposure triggers acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sunao; Michikawa, Takehiro; Ueda, Kayo; Sakamoto, Tetsuo; Matsui, Kunihiko; Kojima, Tomoko; Tsujita, Kenichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2017-11-14

    To elucidate whether Asian dust is associated with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to clarify whether patients who are highly sensitive to Asian dust will develop AMI. Twenty-one participating institutions located throughout Kumamoto Prefecture and capable of performing coronary intervention were included in the study. Data for ground-level observations of Asian dust events were measured at the Kumamoto Local Meteorological Observatory. Data collected between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015 were analysed, and 3713 consecutive AMI patients were included. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to examine the association between Asian dust exposure and AMI. The occurrence of Asian dust events at 1 day before the onset of AMI was associated with the incidence of AMI [odds ratio (OR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.95] and especially, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was significant (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30-3.15). A significant association between AMI and Asian dust was observed in patients with age ≥75 years, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, never-smoking status, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, Asian dust events had a great impact on AMI onset in patients with CKD (P < 0.01). A scoring system accounting for several AMI risk factors was developed. The occurrence of Asian dust events was found to be significantly associated with AMI incidence among patients with a risk score of 5-6 (OR 2.45; 95% CI: 1.14-5.27). Asian dust events may lead to AMI and have a great impact on its onset in patients with CKD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Calcineurin Regulates Myocardial Function during Acute Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mandar S.; Julian, Mark W.; Huff, Jennifer E.; Bauer, John A.; Xia, Yong; Crouser, Elliott D.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known to preserve cardiac contractile function during endotoxemia, but the mechanism is unclear. Increased nitric oxide (NO) production and altered mitochondrial function are implicated as mechanisms contributing to sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, and CsA has the capacity to reduce NO production and inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction relating to the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Objectives: We hypothesized that CsA would protect against endotoxin-mediated cardiac contractile dysfunction by attenuating NO production and preserving mitochondrial function. Methods: Left ventricular function was measured continuously over 4 h in cats assigned as follows: control animals (n = 7); LPS alone (3 mg/kg, n = 8); and CsA (6 mg/kg, n = 7), a calcineurin inhibitor that blocks the MPT, or tacrolimus (FK506, 0.1 mg/kg, n = 7), a calcineurin inhibitor lacking MPT activity, followed in 30 min by LPS. Myocardial tissue was then analyzed for NO synthase-2 expression, tissue nitration, protein carbonylation, and mitochondrial morphology and function. Measurements and Main Results: LPS treatment resulted in impaired left ventricular contractility, altered mitochondrial morphology and function, and increased protein nitration. As hypothesized, CsA pretreatment normalized cardiac performance and mitochondrial respiration and reduced myocardial protein nitration. Unexpectedly, FK506 pretreatment had similar effects, normalizing both cardiac and mitochondrial parameters. However, CsA and FK506 pretreatments markedly increased protein carbonylation in the myocardium despite elevated manganese superoxide dismutase activity during endotoxemia. Conclusions: Our data indicate that calcineurin is a critical regulator of mitochondrial respiration, tissue nitration, protein carbonylation, and contractile function in the heart during acute endotoxemia. PMID:16424445

  1. Could missile attacks trigger acute myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Zubaid, Mohammad; Suresh, Cheiyil G; Thalib, Lukman; Rashed, Wafa

    2006-08-01

    During the Gulf war in 2003, Kuwait was targeted with missile attacks for 10 consecutive days. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of missile attacks on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We retrospectively compared the number of admissions for AMI presenting to a major general hospital during missile attacks period (MAP) in 2003 with four control periods. MAP and each control period consisted of the same number of days (10 days). The four control periods were the 10 days immediately before and after MAP; and the same time period as MAP for the years 2001 and 2002. The number of admissions for AMI was highest during MAP, 21 cases compared to 14-16 cases in the four control periods, with a trend towards increase during MAP (incidence rate ratio = 1.59; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.66, p < 0.07). The number of admissions for AMI during the first 5 days of MAP was significantly higher compared to the first 5 days of the four control periods (incidence rate ratio = 2.43; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.26, p < 0.01). The observed AMI admission rate during the first 5 days of MAP was significantly higher than expected for a 5-day period in the years 2001, 2002 and 2003. This increase was specific to AMI and did not affect other acute cardiac conditions. Missile attacks were associated with an increase in the incidence of AMI. This increase was specific to AMI and did not influence acute cardiac conditions.

  2. Contemporary Patterns of Early Coronary Angiography Use in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States: Insights From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry.

    PubMed

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Wang, Tracy Y; Chen, Anita Y; Chiswell, Karen; Bhatt, Deepak L; Enriquez, Jonathan R; Henry, Timothy; Roe, Matthew T

    2018-02-26

    The study sought to characterize patient- and hospital-level variation in early angiography use among non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. Contemporary implementation of guideline recommendations for early angiography use in NSTEMI patients in the United States have not been described. The study analyzed NSTEMI patients included in ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) registry (2012 to 2014) who underwent in-hospital angiography. Timing of angiography was categorized as early (≤24 h) vs. delayed (>24 h). The study evaluated factors associated with early angiography, hospital-level variation in early angiography use, and the relationship with quality-of-care measures. A total of 79,760 of 138,688 (57.5%) patients underwent early angiography. Factors most strongly associated with delayed angiography included weekend or holiday presentation, lower initial troponin ratio values, higher initial creatinine values, heart failure on presentation, and older age. Median hospital-level use of early angiography was 58.5% with wide variation across hospitals (21.7% to 100.0%). Patient characteristics did not differ substantially across hospitals grouped by tertiles of early angiography use (low, middle, and high). Hospitals in the highest tertile tended to more commonly use guideline-recommended medications and had higher defect-free care quality scores. In contemporary U.S. practice, high-risk clinical characteristics were associated with lower use of early angiography in NSTEMI patients; hospital-level use of early angiography varied widely despite few differences in case mix. Hospitals that most commonly utilized early angiography also had higher quality-of-care metrics, highlighting the need for improved NSTEMI guideline adherence. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing paradigms in thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gotsman, M S; Rozenman, Y; Admon, D; Mosseri, M; Lotan, C; Zahger, D; Weiss, A T

    1997-05-23

    Acute myocardial infarction occurs when a ruptured coronary artery plaque causes sudden thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery and cessation of coronary artery blood flow. This paper reviews the underlying coronary pathology in progressive coronary atherosclerosis, mechanisms of plaque rupture and arterial occlusion and the time relationship between coronary occlusion and myocardial necrosis. Reperfusion can be achieved by chemical thrombolysis with different thrombolytic agents. Early lysis is achieved best by prehospital administration, a transtelephonic monitor, a mobile intensive care unit, active general practitioner treatment or by warning the emergency room of impending arrival of a patient. Thrombolytic therapy may be unsuccessful and not achieve Grade III TIMI flow in less than 4 h (or even 2 h) due to inadequate or intermittent perfusion or reocclusion. Adjuvant therapy includes aspirin and platelet receptor antagonists. Bleeding is a constant danger. Direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) may be as effective or better than chemical thrombolysis. Reperfusion protects the myocardium and salvages viable tissue. It also improves mechanical remodelling of the ventricle. Long-term follow-up has shown that quantum leaps of fresh coronary occlusion causes step-wise progression in patient disability and that further early, prompt reperfusion can salvage myocardium and prevent this inexorable progress of the disease.

  4. Improving Use of Prehospital 12-Lead Electrocardiography for Early Identification and Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome and ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Daudelin, Denise H.; Sayah, Assaad J.; Kwong, Manlik; Restuccia, Marc C.; Porcaro, William A.; Ruthazer, Robin; Goetz, Jessica D.; Lane, William M.; Beshansky, Joni R.; Selker, Harry P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Performance of Prehospital electrocardiograms (PH-ECGs) expedites identification of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and reduces door-to-balloon (D2B) times for patients receiving reperfusion therapy. To fully realize this benefit, emergency medical service (EMS) performance must be measured and used in feedback reporting and quality improvement (QI). Methods and Results This quasi-experimental design trial tested an approach to improving EMS PH-ECG using feedback reporting and QI interventions in two cities' EMS agencies and receiving hospitals. All patients ≥ 30 years, calling 9-1-1 with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. In total 6,994 patients were included: 1,589 patients in the baseline period without feedback and 5,405 in the intervention period when there were feedback reports and QI interventions. Mean age (SD) was 66 (±17) and women represented 51%. Feedback and QI increased PH-ECG performance for patients with ACS from 76% to 93% (p=<.0001) and for patients with STEMI from 77% to 99% (p= <.0001). Aspirin administration increased from 75% to 82% (p=0.001) but the median total EMS run time remained the same at 22 minutes. The proportion of patients with D2B times of ≤90 minutes increased from 27% to 67% (p=0.006). Conclusion Feedback reports and QI improved PH-ECG performance for patients with ACS and STEMI and increased aspirin administration, without prehospital transport delays. Improvements in D2B times were also seen. PMID:20484201

  5. [Reduction of in-hospital mortality and improved secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction. First results from the registry of secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction (SAMI)].

    PubMed

    Tebbe, U; Messer, C; Stammwitz, E; The, G S; Dietl, J; Bischoff, K-O; Schulten-Baumer, U; Tebbenjohanns, J; Gohlke, H; Bramlage, P

    2007-07-30

    In hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reduced due to the availability of better therapeutic strategies. But there is still a gap between mortality rates in randomised trials and daily clinical practice. Thus, it was aim of the present registry to document the course and outcome of patients with AMI and to improve patient care by implementing recent guidelines. In a nationwide registry study in hospitals in Germany with a cardiology unit or an internal medicine department data on consecutive patients were recorded for six to twelve months at admission, discharge and during a follow-up of one year. From 02/2003 until 10/2004 a total of 5,353 patients with acute myocardial infarction (65.7 % male, mean age of 67.6 +/- 17.7 years; 55.1 % of them with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included in the registry. Of the patients with STEMI, 76.6 % underwent acute intervention, 37.1 % had thrombolysis, 69.7 % percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). 40.0 % of those with non-Stemi (NSTEMI) had an acute intervention, 6.6 % thrombolysis, 73.5 % PTCA. Recommended secondary prevention consisted of ASS (93.2 %), beta-blockers (93.0 %), CSE-inhibitors (83.5 %), ACE-inhibitors (80.9 %) and clopidogrel (74.0 %). In-hospital mortality was 10.5 % (STEMI) and 7.4 % (NSTEMI). The 9 % mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in the hospitals participating in the SAMI registry is low compared to that in similar collectives. The high number of patients who had thrombofibrinolysis and coronary interventions as well as the early initiation of drug therapy contributed to these results. Medical treatment in the prehospital phase of these patients remains still insufficient and to a substantial extent contributes to the mortality of acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Comparison of the new high sensitive cardiac troponin T with myoglobin, h-FABP and cTnT for early identification of myocardial necrosis in the acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Kerstin; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Becker, Maike; Hess, Georg; Zdunek, Dietmar; Katus, Hugo A

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine the performance of the new high sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay (TnThs) for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compare it with the fourth generation cTnT assay, myoglobin and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP). Ninety-four patients with diagnosis of suspected ACS without ST-segment elevation admitted to our chest pain unit were included. Patients were divided according to time from onset of symptoms to presentation into an early presenter group (<4 h) and a late presenter group (≥4 h). A median of six samples (range 2-8) were available per patient. The diagnostic performance of TnThs was assessed using ROC analysis. Areas under the curve (AUC) of baseline and follow-up results of TnThs, cTnT, myoglobin, and h-FABP were compared using c statistics. The TnThs assay allows an excellent prediction of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) at presentation, particularly among late presenters. A follow-up sample improves diagnostic performance in a time-dependent manner. The AUC of TnThs was superior to cTnT at all time points. The performance of TnThs was at least as good as myoglobin and h-FABP at presentation and during follow-up. A baseline sample of TnThs allows an earlier prediction of non-STEMI than the less sensitive and precise fourth generation cTnT assay. Probably, this excellent performance of TnThs at baseline and follow-up could obviate the need for other early markers of necrosis in future.

  7. Stem cell treatment for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheila A; Zhang, Huajun; Doree, Carolyn; Mathur, Anthony; Martin-Rendon, Enca

    2015-09-30

    Cell transplantation offers a potential therapeutic approach to the repair and regeneration of damaged vascular and cardiac tissue after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This has resulted in multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) across the world. To determine the safety and efficacy of autologous adult bone marrow stem cells as a treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), focusing on clinical outcomes. This Cochrane review is an update of a previous version (published in 2012). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1974 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015) and the Transfusion Evidence Library (1980 to March 2015). In addition, we searched several international and ongoing trial databases in March 2015 and handsearched relevant conference proceedings to January 2011. RCTs comparing autologous bone marrow-derived cells with no cells in patients diagnosed with AMI were eligible. Two review authors independently screened all references, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and extracted data. We conducted meta-analyses using random-effects models throughout. We analysed outcomes at short-term (less than 12 months) and long-term (12 months or more) follow-up. Dichotomous outcomes are reported as risk ratio (RR) and continuous outcomes are reported as mean difference (MD) or standardised MD (SMD). We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the results in the context of the risk of selection, performance and attrition bias. Exploratory subgroup analysis investigated the effects of baseline cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF) and cell dose, type and timing of administration, as well as the use of heparin in the final cell solution. Forty-one RCTs with a total of 2732 participants (1564 cell therapy, 1168 controls) were eligible for inclusion. Cell treatment was not associated with any changes in the risk of all-cause mortality

  8. Diagnostics on acute myocardial infarction: Cardiac troponin biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Fathil, M F M; Md Arshad, M K; Gopinath, Subash C B; Hashim, U; Adzhri, R; Ayub, R M; Ruslinda, A R; Nuzaihan M N, M; Azman, A H; Zaki, M; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2015-08-15

    Acute myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction (MI) is a major health problem, due to diminished flow of blood to the heart, leads to higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Data from World Health Organization (WHO) accounted 30% of global death annually and expected more than 23 million die annually by 2030. This fatal effects trigger the need of appropriate biomarkers for early diagnosis, thus countermeasure can be taken. At the moment, the most specific markers for cardiac injury are cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) which have been considered as 'gold standard'. Due to higher specificity, determination of the level of cardiac troponins became a predominant indicator for MI. Several ways of diagnostics have been formulated, which include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, chemiluminescent, fluoro-immunoassays, electrical detections, surface plasmon resonance, and colorimetric protein assay. This review represents and elucidates the strategies, methods and detection levels involved in these diagnostics on cardiac superior biomarkers. The advancement, sensitivity, and limitations of each method are also discussed. In addition, it concludes with a discussion on the point-of care (POC) assay for a fast, accurate and ability of handling small sample measurement of cardiac biomarker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Acute myocardial infarction in Morocco: FES-AMI registry data].

    PubMed

    Akoudad, H; El Khorb, N; Sekkali, N; Mechrafi, A; Zakari, N; Ouaha, L; Lahlou, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the most dangerous complication of coronary atherothrombosis. There are several disparities in regard to its management around the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the specificities of management of acute myocardial infarction in Morocco. FES-AMI (Fès Acute Myocardial Infarction) is a prospective monocentric registry conducted in cardiology department of Hassan II university hospital in Fès. In this registry, we enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction who presented within 5 days after symptom onset. From January 2005 to August 2015, we enrolled 1835 patients. Seventy-five percent of patients were males and mean age was 60 years old. Fifty-one percent of patients were smokers, 27% were hypertensives and 14% were diabetics. Sixty-six percent of patients had more than 2 risk factors. Time from symptom onset to hospital admission was less than six hours for 40% of the patients. Thirty-six percent of patients were admitted more than twelve hours after the onset of chest pain. Only 37% of patients received reperfusion therapy, 31% with in-hospital thrombolysis and 6% with primary angioplasty. In-hospital mortality was 7.6%. The patients enrolled in our registry have late presentation of acute myocardial infarction and less rate of reperfusion therapy. Furthermore, the majority of our patients have multiple risk factors and this result underlines the failure of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. National Quality Assessment of Early Clopidogrel Therapy in Chinese Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in 2006 and 2011: Insights From the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE)–Retrospective AMI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihua; Desai, Nihar R; Li, Jing; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Qing; Li, Xi; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Nuti, Sudhakar V; Wang, Sisi; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Early clopidogrel administration to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in a large Chinese trial. However, patterns of use of clopidogrel for patients with AMI in China are unknown. Methods and Results From a nationally representative sample of AMI patients from 2006 and 2011, we identified 11 944 eligible patients for clopidogrel therapy and measured early clopidogrel use, defined as initiation within 24 hours of hospital admission. Among the patients eligible for clopidogrel, the weighted rate of early clopidogrel therapy increased from 45.7% in 2006 to 79.8% in 2011 (P<0.001). In 2006 and 2011, there was significant variation in early clopidogrel use by region, ranging from 1.5% to 58.0% in 2006 (P<0.001) and 48.7% to 87.7% in 2011 (P<0.001). While early use of clopidogrel was uniformly high in urban hospitals in 2011 (median 89.3%; interquartile range: 80.1% to 94.5%), there was marked heterogeneity among rural hospitals (median 50.0%; interquartile range: 11.5% to 84.4%). Patients without reperfusion therapy and those admitted to rural hospitals were less likely to be treated with clopidogrel. Conclusions Although the use of early clopidogrel therapy in patients with AMI has increased substantially in China, there is notable wide variation across hospitals, with much less adoption in rural hospitals. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to increase consistency of early clopidogrel use for patients with AMI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01624883. PMID:26163041

  11. Transmyocardial laser revascularization in the acute ischaemic heart: no improvement of acute myocardial perfusion or prevention of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, F S; Scheule, A M; Vogel, U; Schmid, S T; Miller, S; Jurmann, M J; Ziemer, G

    1999-05-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) has been used to provide enhanced myocardial perfusion in patients not suitable for coronary revascularization or angioplasty. This study investigates the acute changes in myocardial perfusion after TMLR with a Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet (YAG) laser with a thermal imaging camera in a model of acute ischaemia, and confirms its midterm effects by post-mortem investigation of magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological examination. Acute myocardial ischaemia was induced by occlusion of the dominant diagonal branch in ten sheep. Perfusion measurements were undertaken first in the unaffected myocardium, then after temporary occlusion of the coronary to obtain a control measurement for ischaemic myocardium. Myocardial perfusion was then evaluated during reperfusion after release of coronary occlusion. Then the coronary was permanently occluded and 20.5+/-2 channels were drilled with the Holmium:YAG laser and perfusion was measured again. The other four sheep served as control with untreated ischaemia. All animals were sacrificed after 28 days following administration of gadolinium i.v. to serve as contrast medium for magnetic resonance tomography. The hearts were subjected to magnetic resonance tomography and histopathological examination. Intraoperative perfusion measurements revealed a decreased perfusion after temporary occlusion and an increased perfusion in reperfused myocardium. After TMLR, no improvement of myocardial perfusion above the ischaemic level could be shown. Magnetic resonance images could neither confirm patent laser channels nor viable myocardium within ischaemic areas. On histology no patent endocardial laser channel could be detected. The transmural features were myocardial infarct with scar tissue. In the presented sheep model with acute ischaemia, TMLR with a Holmium:YAG laser did not provide acute improvement of myocardial perfusion as assessed by a thermal imaging camera. This would

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Herbert D; Abbott, J Dawn; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2018-03-27

    Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction, which can result in cardiogenic shock. Data on the relation of diabetes and the occurrence and prognosis of cardiogenic shock postacute myocardial infarction are scant. Among the National Inpatient Sample patients aged ≥18 years and hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction during the 2012-2014 period, we examined the association between diabetes and the incidence and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Of 1,332,530 hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, 72,765 (5.5%) were complicated by cardiogenic shock. In acute myocardial infarction patients, cardiogenic shock incidence was higher among those with vs without diabetes (5.8% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.19; P < .001), with 42.8% (n = 31,135) of patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock having diabetes. Diabetic patients were less likely to undergo revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) (67.1% vs 68.7%; aOR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .003). Diabetes was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (37.9% vs 36.8%; aOR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.28; P < .001). Among survivors, patients with diabetes had a longer hospital stay (mean ± SEM: 11.6 ± 0.16 vs 10.9 ± 0.16 days; adjusted estimate 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; P < .001) and were more likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing home or with home health care (56.0% vs 50.5%; aOR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33; P = .001). In a large cohort of acute myocardial infarction patients, preexisting diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiogenic shock and worse outcomes in those with cardiogenic shock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of acute myocardial infarction study (MAMIS).

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram B; Pella, Daniel; Neki, Nirankar S; Chandel, J P; Rastogi, Saurabh; Mori, Heideki; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Gupta, Pankaj

    2004-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a highly dynamic event, which is associated with marked neuroendocrinological dysfunction in addition to cardiac damage. The immediate trigger for AMI is not precisely known. Studies conducted by Lown, Braunwald, Halberg, Otsuka and our group have demonstrated a marked increase in sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, and magnesium and potassium deficiency during AMI. Clinical studies have reported an increased incidence of AMI, sudden death and ischemia during first quarter of the day when there is a rapid withdrawal of vagal activity and increase in sympathetic tone. In one case-control study of 202 patients with AMI, there was a significant (P < 0.02) increase in cardiac events in the second quarter of the day compared to other quarters, respectively (16.8%, 41.0%, 13.8%, 28.2% per quarter). This characteristic remained prevalent in both men and women and among patients with and without known AMI (n = 52), diabetes (n = 53) or hypertension (n = 75). Triggers of AMI were noted among 162 (82.2%) of the patients. Neuropsychological mechanisms were observed as follows: emotional stress (45.5%), sleep deprivation (27.7%), cold climate (29.2%), hot climate (24.7%), large meals (47.5%) and physical exertion (31.2%). These triggering factors are known to enhance sympathetic activity and decrease vagal tone, resulting in an increased secretion of plasma cortisol, noradrenaline, aldosterone, angiotension-converting enzyme (ACE), interleukin (IL)-1, -2, -6, -18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), all of which are are proinflammatory agents. There is also a deficiency in the serum levels of vitamin A, E, and C and magnesium, potassium, melatonin, and IL-10 (an anti-inflammatory agent). In our study, we found a decrease in magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, E, C and beta carotene combined with an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), MDA and diene conjugates, TNF-alpha and IL-6, all of which are indicators

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 5G/5G genotype is associated with early spontaneous recanalization of the infarct-related artery in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cagliyan, Caglar E; Yuregir, Ozge O; Balli, Mehmet; Tekin, Kamuran; Akilli, Rabia E; Bozdogan, Sevcan T; Turkmen, Serdar; Deniz, Ali; Baykan, Oytun A; Aslan, Huseyin; Cayli, Murat

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to examine the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genetic polymorphism and early spontaneous recanalization in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients admitted to our emergency department with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the first 6 h of symptom onset were included. An immediate primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. Patients were grouped according to the initial patency of the infarct-related artery (IRA) as follows: total occlusion (TO) group [Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 0-1 flow in the IRA], partial recanalization group (TIMI 2 flow in the IRA), and complete recanalization (CR) group (TIMI 3 flow in the IRA). PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was detected using the real-time PCR method. There were 107 patients in the TO group, 30 patients in the partial recanalization group, and 45 patients in the CR group. When we evaluated degrees of patency according to the PAI-1 genotype, TO of the IRA was the highest in patients with the PAI 4G/4G genotype (PAI-1 4G/4G: 66.7%, PAI-1 4G/5G: 65.9%, PAI-1 5G/5G: 40.4%) and CR of the IRA was the highest in patients with the PAI 5G/5G genotype (PAI-1 5G/5G: 38.5%, PAI-1 4G/5G: 19.8%, PAI-1 4G/4G: 17.9%). The distribution of genotypes in different degrees of patency of IRA was statistically significant (P=0.029). In logistic regression analysis, the PAI-1 5G/5G genotype was associated independently with the spontaneous CR of the IRA (odds ratio: 2.875, 95% confidence interval [1.059-7.086], P=0.038). Patients with the PAI-1 5G/5G genotype seem to be luckier than others in terms of early spontaneous recanalization of the IRA. Further prospective studies with large patient populations are required for more precise results.

  15. Myocardial Rupture in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Mechanistic Explanation Based on the Ventricular Myocardial Band Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Barron, Jesús; Antunez-Montes, Omar-Yassef; Roldán, Francisco-Javier; Aranda-Frausto, Alberto; González-Pacheco, Hector; Romero-Cardenas, Ángel; Zabalgoitia, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Torrent-Guasp explains the structure of the ventricular myocardium by means of a helical muscular band. Our primary purpose was to demonstrate the utility of echocardiography in human and porcine hearts in identifying the segments of the myocardial band. The second purpose was to evaluate the relation of the topographic distribution of the myocardial band with some post-myocardial infarction ruptures. Five porcine and one human heart without cardiopathy were dissected and the ventricular myocardial segments were color-coded for illustration and reconstruction purposes. These segments were then correlated to the conventional echocardiographic images. Afterwards in three cases with post-myocardial infarction rupture, a correlation of the topographic location of the rupture with the distribution of the ventricular band was made. The human ventricular band does not show any differences from the porcine band, which confirms the similarities of the four segments; these segments could be identified by echocardiography. In three cases with myocardial rupture, a correlation of the intra-myocardial dissection with the distribution of the ventricular band was observed. Echocardiography is helpful in identifying the myocardial band segments as well as the correlation with the topographic distribution of some myocardial post-infarction ruptures.

  16. Myocardial oedema in acute myocarditis detected by echocardiographic 2D myocardial deformation analysis.

    PubMed

    Løgstrup, B B; Nielsen, J M; Kim, W Y; Poulsen, S H

    2016-09-01

    The clinical diagnosis of acute myocarditis is based on symptoms, electrocardiography, elevated myocardial necrosis biomarkers, and echocardiography. Often, conventional echocardiography reveals no obvious changes in global cardiac function and therefore has limited diagnostic value. Myocardial deformation imaging by echocardiography is an evolving method used to characterize quantitatively longitudinal systolic function, which may be affected in acute myocarditis. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of echocardiographic deformation imaging of the left ventricle in patients with diagnosed acute myocarditis in whom cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) evaluation was performed. We included 28 consecutive patients (mean age 32 ± 13 years) with CMR-verified diagnosis of acute myocarditis according to the Lake Louise criteria. Cardiac function was evaluated by a comprehensive assessment of left ventricular (LV) function, including 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography. We found no significant correlation between the peak values of cardiac enzymes and the amount of myocardial oedema assessed by CMR (troponin: r= 0.3; P = 0.05 and CK-MB: r = 0.1; P = 0.3). We found a larger amount of myocardial oedema in the basal part of the left ventricle [American Heart Association (AHA) segments 1-6] in inferolateral and inferior segments, compared with the anterior, anterolateral, anteroseptal, and inferoseptal segments. In the mid LV segments (AHA segments 7-12), this was more pronounced in the anterior, anterolateral, and inferolateral segments. Among conventional echocardiographic parameters, LV function was not found to correlate with the amount of myocardial oedema of the left ventricle. In contrast, we found the wall motion score index to be significantly correlated with the amount of myocardial oedema, but this correlation was only present in patients with an extensive amount of oedema (>11% of the total left ventricle). Global longitudinal systolic myocardial

  17. Non-arrhythmic therapy of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, P

    2006-12-01

    The management of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and prevention of sudden cardiac death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) underwent important evolution. In the CAST study, encanaide and other antiarrhythmic drugs were not only ineffective but also increased mortality after myocardial infarction. Amiodarone had some beneficial effect on arrhythmic events without improving survival, and ICDs failed to improve outcome early after AMI. In comparison, short and long term survival benefits of beta blockers, angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors and aldosterone antagonists after AMI is well established. This review discusses the role of non-arrhythmic therapy in the prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmia's and sudden cardiac death after AMI.

  18. A History of Streptokinase Use in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Nikhil; Bardia, Amit

    2007-01-01

    A serendipitous discovery by William Smith Tillett in 1933, followed by many years of work with his student Sol Sherry, laid a sound foundation for the use of streptokinase as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The drug found initial clinical application in combating fibrinous pleural exudates, hemothorax, and tuberculous meningitis. In 1958, Sherry and others started using streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction and changed the focus of treatment from palliation to “cure.” Initial trials that used streptokinase infusion produced conflicting results. An innovative approach of intracoronary streptokinase infusion was initiated by Rentrop and colleagues in 1979. Subsequently, larger trials of intracoronary infusion achieved reperfusion rates ranging from 70% to 90%. The need for a meticulously planned and systematically executed randomized multicenter trial was fulfilled by the Gruppo Italiano per la Sperimentazione della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) trial in 1986, which not only validated streptokinase as an effective therapeutic method but also established a fixed protocol for its use in acute myocardial infarction. Currently, despite the wide use of tissue plasminogen activator in developed nations, streptokinase remains essential to the management of acute myocardial infarction in developing nations. PMID:17948083

  19. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  20. Critical review and meta-analysis on the combination of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and troponin for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    An early diagnosis is crucial for effective triage and management of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although troponin testing is the cornerstone of diagnosis, the sensitivity of this biomarker is still suboptimal at patient admission. The heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is an early and sensitive biomarker of myocardial ischemia, whose appropriate setting is in combination with troponin testing. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles that have assessed the combination of troponin and H-FABP in the early diagnosis of AMI. Eight studies, totaling 2735 patients, met the inclusion criteria but none of them used a high-sensitivity troponin immunoassay. The between-study variation was high (98.5%), and attributable to heterogeneity. When considered alone, troponin exhibited a significantly greater pooled area under the curve (AUC) than H-FABP alone (0.820 versus 0.784; p<0.001). The pooled specificity was also higher for troponin alone than for H-FABP alone (0.94 versus 0.83; p<0.001), whereas the cumulative sensitivity was lower for troponin than for H-FABP (0.73 versus 0.80; p=0.02). The combination of both biomarkers exhibited a greater AUC than troponin alone (0.881; p<0.001), as well as a higher pooled sensitivity (0.91; p<0.001), which was however counterbalanced by a lower specificity (0.82; p<0.001). These results attest that the combination of H-FABP with a conventional troponin immunoassay seems advantageous for increasing the sensitivity of the former biomarker, at the expense of a lower specificity. The introduction of H-FABP testing would hence require careful assessment of laboratory data or clinical signs and symptoms for excluding sources of elevation different from AMI. Further studies are needed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of combining H-FABP with a high-sensitivity troponin immunoassay. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. In vivo characterization of acute myocardial ischemia using photoacoustic imaging with a focused transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2011-03-01

    We explore the feasibility of using photoacoustic imaging based on a focused transducer to characterizing acute myocardial ischemia at different stage. In this study, we blocked rat left anterior coronary descending artery (LAD) to induce the acute myocardial ischemia. The results show that the intensity and areas of photoacoustic images of myocardial decrease with the LAD time increasing, which suggests that photoacoustic imaging has a potential for diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia.

  2. Regional heterogeneity in cardiac sympathetic innervation in acute myocardial infarction: relationship with myocardial oedema on magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gimelli, Alessia; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Liga, Riccardo; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Lombardi, Massimo; Marzullo, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationships between myocardial structure and function on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and sympathetic tone on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy early after myocardial infarction (MI). Ten patients underwent (123)I-MIBG and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin rest cadmium zinc telluride scintigraphy 4 ± 1 days after MI. The segmental left ventricular (LV) relative radiotracer uptake of both (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and early (123)I-MIBG was calculated. The day after scintigraphy, on CMR imaging, the extent of ischaemia-related oedema and of myocardial fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement, LGE) was assessed. Accordingly, the extent of oedema and LGE was evaluated for each segment and segmental wall thickening determined. Based on LGE distribution, LV segments were categorized as "infarcted" (56 segments), "adjacent" (66 segments) or "remote" (48 segments). Infarcted segments showed a more depressed systolic wall thickening and greater extent of oedema than adjacent segments (p < 0.001) and remote segments (p < 0.001). Interestingly, while uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin was significantly depressed only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. both adjacent and remote segments), uptake of (123)I-MIBG was impaired not only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. remote) but also in adjacent segments (p = 0.024 vs. remote segments). At the regional level, after correction for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and LGE distribution, segmental (123)I-MIBG uptake (p < 0.001) remained an independent predictor of ischaemia-related oedema. After acute MI the regional impairment of sympathetic tone extends beyond the area of altered myocardial perfusion and is associated with myocardial oedema.

  3. Current trend of acute myocardial infarction in Korea (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from 2006 to 2013).

    PubMed

    Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong

    2014-12-15

    Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p <0.001). In contrast, a gradual increase in the incidence rates of NSTEMI was observed from 39.5% in 2006 to 51.9% in 2013 (p <0.001). As risk factors, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were much more common in patients with NSTEMI than STEMI. Among medical treatments, the use of β blockers, angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin were increased from 2006 to 2013 in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Patients with STEMI and NSTEMI were more inclined to be increasingly treated by invasive treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the trend of myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study design for the "effect of METOprolol in CARDioproteCtioN during an acute myocardial InfarCtion" (METOCARD-CNIC): a randomized, controlled parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of early pre-reperfusion metoprolol administration in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Borja; Fuster, Valentin; Macaya, Carlos; Sánchez-Brunete, Vicente; Pizarro, Gonzalo; López-Romero, Pedro; Mateos, Alonso; Jiménez-Borreguero, Jesús; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanz, Ginés; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Corral, Ervigio; Barreiro, Maria-Victoria; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; Goicolea, Javier; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Acebal, Carlos; García-Rubira, Juan Carlos; Albarrán, Agustín; Zamorano, José Luis; Casado, Isabel; Valenciano, Juan; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe; de la Torre, José María; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Martínez-Tenorio, Pedro; Iñiguez, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Infarct size predicts post-infarction mortality. Oral β-blockade within 24 hours of a ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a class-IA indication, however early intravenous (IV) β-blockers initiation is not encouraged. In recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based experimental studies, the β(1)-blocker metoprolol has been shown to reduce infarct size only when administered before coronary reperfusion. To date, there is not a single trial comparing the pre- vs. post-reperfusion β-blocker initiation in STEMI. The METOCARD-CNIC trial is testing whether the early initiation of IV metoprolol before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) could reduce infarct size and improve outcomes when compared to oral post-pPCI metoprolol initiation. The METOCARD-CNIC trial is a randomized parallel-group single-blind (to outcome evaluators) clinical effectiveness trial conducted in 5 Counties across Spain that will enroll 220 participants. Eligible are 18- to 80-year-old patients with anterior STEMI revascularized by pPCI ≤6 hours from symptom onset. Exclusion criteria are Killip-class ≥III, atrioventricular block or active treatment with β-blockers/bronchodilators. Primary end point is infarct size evaluated by MRI 5 to 7 days post-STEMI. Prespecified major secondary end points are salvage-index, left ventricular ejection fraction recovery (day 5-7 to 6 months), the composite of (death/malignant ventricular arrhythmias/reinfarction/admission due to heart failure), and myocardial perfusion. The METOCARD-CNIC trial is testing the hypothesis that the early initiation of IV metoprolol pre-reperfusion reduces infarct size in comparison to initiation of oral metoprolol post-reperfusion. Given the implications of infarct size reduction in STEMI, if positive, this trial might evidence that a refined use of an approved inexpensive drug can improve outcomes of patients with STEMI. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Myocardial Ischemia: Cellular Mechanisms Underlying ST Segment Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Di Diego, José M.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an essential tool for the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia in the emergency department, as well as for that of an evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Changes in the surface ECG in leads whose positive poles face the ischemic region are known to be related to injury currents flowing across the boundaries between the ischemic and the surrounding normal myocardium. Although experimental studies have also shown an endocardium to epicardium differential sensitivity to the effect of acute ischemia, the important contribution of this transmural heterogeneous response to the changes observed in the surface ECG are less appreciated by the clinical cardiologist. This review briefly discusses our current knowledge regarding the electrophysiology of the ischemic myocardium focusing primarily on the electrophysiologic changes underlying the ECG alterations observed at the onset of a transmural AMI. PMID:24742586

  6. [Use of antihypoxants in the acute period of myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Semigolovskiĭ, N Iu

    1998-01-01

    A total of 620 patients with acute myocardial infarction were followed up in order to assess the efficacy of antihypoxants as a component of intensive care. 385 of these patients, divided into groups of 20-40 subjects, were administered one of 12 antihypoxants or sessions of hyperbaric oxygenation during the acute period of the disease, the rest were treated traditionally. Analysis of clinical, laboratory, and prognostic values showed the highest protective effect of amtizol, lithium hydroxybutyrate, piracetam, and ubiquinone. Cytochrome C, riboxine, mildronate, and olifen were somewhat less active, and solcoseryl, bemitil, trimethasidine, and aspisol were the least effective. The protective potentialities of standard sessions of hyperbaric oxygenation were virtually null. The author proposes a parameter D, reflecting the difference between actual and predicted mortality, and the rating (score) system for assessing the routine laboratory diagnostic tests to be used together with the known criteria for evaluation of the protective effects of antihypoxants in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Cannabis: a trigger for acute myocardial infarction? A case report.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Francesco; Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2008-07-01

    Cannabis smoking is consistently increasing in Europe and after alcohol it is the most common recreational drug in the western world. Users and lay people believe that marijuana or hashish is safe. Over the past four decades, however, it has been well established that cannabis has pathophysiological effects on the cardiovascular system. Information concerning the link between cannabis consumption and myocardial infarction is limited and existing data are controversial on this topic. In our case report, we describe a case of a young man who after smoking marijuana experienced ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by acute thrombosis of the descending artery, submitted to efficacious primary coronary angioplasty.

  8. Inflammatory response, neutrophil activation, and free radical production after acute myocardial infarction: effect of thrombolytic treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, D; Jackson, M; Nicoll, J J; Millar, A; Dawes, J; Muir, A L

    1990-01-01

    Activated neutrophils releasing proteolytic enzymes and oxygen free radicals have been implicated in extending myocardial injury after myocardial infarction. Neutrophil elastase was used as a marker of neutrophil activation and the non-peroxide diene conjugate of linoleic acid was used as an indicator of free radical activity in 32 patients after acute myocardial infarction; 17 were treated by intravenous thrombolysis. Patients with acute myocardial infarction had higher plasma concentrations of neutrophil elastase and the non-peroxide diene conjugated isomer of linoleic acid than normal volunteers or patients with stable ischaemic heart disease. Patients treated by thrombolysis had an early peak of neutrophil elastase at eight hours while those who had not been treated by thrombolysis showed a later peak 40 hours after infarction. The plasma concentration of non-peroxide conjugated diene of linoleic acid was highest 16 hours after the infarction irrespective of treatment by thrombolysis. Quantitative imaging with single photon emission tomography showed decreased uptake of indium-111 labelled neutrophils in the infarcted myocardium (as judged from technetium-99m pyrophosphate) in those who had received thrombolysis, suggesting a decreased inflammatory response. The results indicate increased neutrophil activation and free radical production after myocardial infarction; they also suggest that thrombolysis does not amplify the inflammatory response and may indeed suppress it. Images PMID:2317413

  9. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2013-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6C(hi) monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell-selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction.

  10. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chi monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell–selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  11. Risk stratification following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the current risk assessment models available for patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI). These practical tools enhance the health care provider's ability to rapidly and accurately assess patient risk from the event or revascularization therapy, and are of paramount importance in managing patients presenting with MI. This article highlights the models used for ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) and provides an additional description of models used to assess risks after primary angioplasty (ie, angioplasty performed for STEMI).

  12. Thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction due to painless thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Jung, Tae Sik; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Chung, Soon Il

    2011-10-01

    Thyrotoxicosis influences cardiovascular hemodynamics and can induce coronary vasospasm. Patients with thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unusual and almost all reported cases have been associated with Graves' disease. Patients with painless thyroiditis show a thyrotoxic phase during the early stages. Here we describe a very rare case of thyrotoxicosis with painless thyroiditis-induced AMI. A 35-year-old Korean man visited the emergency room for a 2-hour duration of typical AMI chest pain. The patient did not have any coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The electrocardiogram showed 3 mm of ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF, which is consistent with inferior AMI. We immediately treated the patient with aspirin, clopidogrel, and nitroglycerine and performed emergent coronary angiography. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries without any stenotic lesions. Consistent with AMI, cardiac enzyme levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, and troponin-I were also elevated. Laboratory findings showed thyrotoxicosis without any thyroid autoantibodies. A 99m-technetium scintigraphy showed markedly decreased thyroid uptake compatible with thyroiditis. We treated the patient with calcium channel blockers and nitrates. The patient spontaneously recovered normal thyroid function after 6 weeks of observation and did not complain of chest pain. Thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis provoked AMI in a young man who had no atherosclerotic coronary lesions and no CAD risk factors.

  13. Relation of coronary flow pattern to myocardial blush grade in patients with first acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, R; Haager, P; Lepper, W; Franke, A; Hanrath, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Analysis of myocardial blush grade (MBG) and coronary flow velocity pattern has been used to obtain direct or indirect information about microvascular damage and reperfusion injury after percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography for acute myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the relation between coronary blood flow velocity pattern and MBG immediately after angioplasty plus stenting for acute myocardial infarction. Design: The coronary blood flow velocity pattern in the infarct related artery was determined immediately after angioplasty in 35 patients with their first acute myocardial infarct using a Doppler guide wire. Measurements were related to MBG as a direct index of microvascular function in the infarct zone. Results: Coronary flow velocity patterns were different between patients with absent myocardial blush (n = 14), reduced blush (n = 7), or normal blush (n = 14). The following variables (mean (SD)) differed significantly between the three groups: systolic peak flow velocity (cm/s): absent blush 10.9 (4.2), reduced blush 14.2 (6.4), normal blush 19.2 (11.2); p = 0.036; diastolic deceleration rate (ms): absent blush 103 (58), reduced blush 80 (65), normal blush 50 (19); p = 0.025; and diastolic–systolic velocity ratio: absent blush 4.06 (2.18), reduced blush 2.02 (0.55), normal blush 1.88 (1.03); p = 0.002. In a multivariate analysis MBG was the only variable with a significant impact on the diastolic deceleration rate (p = 0.034,) while age, infarct location, time to revascularisation, infarct vessel diameter, and maximum creatine kinase had no significant impact. Conclusions: The coronary flow velocity pattern in the infarct related epicardial artery is primarily determined by the microvascular function of the dependent myocardium, as reflected by MBG. PMID:12975402

  14. Clinical disease registries in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Reza; Hussain, Hussain; Brisk, Robert; Boardman, Leanne; Weston, Clive

    2014-06-26

    Disease registries, containing systematic records of cases, have for nearly 100 years been valuable in exploring and understanding various aspects of cardiology. This is particularly true for myocardial infarction, where such registries have provided both epidemiological and clinical information that was not readily available from randomised controlled trials in highly-selected populations. Registries, whether mandated or voluntary, prospective or retrospective in their analysis, have at their core a common study population and common data definitions. In this review we highlight how registries have diversified to offer information on epidemiology, risk modelling, quality assurance/improvement and original research-through data mining, transnational comparisons and the facilitation of enrolment in, and follow-up during registry-based randomised clinical trials.

  15. Molecular tissue changes in early myocardial ischemia: from pathophysiology to the identification of new diagnostic markers.

    PubMed

    Aljakna, Aleksandra; Fracasso, Tony; Sabatasso, Sara

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosing early myocardial ischemia (the initial 4 to 6 h after interruption of blood flow to part of the myocardium) remains a challenge for clinical and forensic pathologists. Several immunohistochemical markers have been proposed for improving postmortem detection of early myocardial ischemia; however, no single marker appears to be both sufficiently specific as well as sensitive. This review summarizes the diverse categories of molecular tissue markers that have been investigated in human autopsy samples with acute myocardial infarction as well as in the well-established and widely used in vivo animal model of early myocardial ischemia (permanent ligation of the coronary artery). Recently identified markers appearing during the initial 2 h of myocardial ischemia are highlighted. Among them, only six were tested for specificity (C5b-9, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, heart fatty acid binding protein, connexin 43, and JunB). Despite the discovery of several potentially promising markers (in terms of early expression and specificity), many of them remain to be tested and validated for application in routine diagnostics in clinical and forensic pathology. In particular, research investigating the postmortem stability of these markers is required before any might be implemented into routine diagnostics. Establishing a standardized panel of immunohistochemical markers may be more useful for improving sensitivity and specificity than searching for a single marker.

  16. [Acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation: Code I].

    PubMed

    Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto; Ramírez-Árias, Erick; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Arriaga-Dávila, José de Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Code infarction is a timely strategy for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with elevation of the ST segment. This strategy has shown an increase in survival and quality of life of patients suffering from this event around the world. The processes of management and disposition aimed at the reduction of time for effective and timely reperfusion are undoubtedly a continuous challenge. In the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) the mortality due to AMI has been reduced more than 50%, which is a historical situation that deserves much attention. Nonetheless, the continuous improvement and a wider coverage of this strategy in our country are the key factors that will outline a change in the natural history of the leading cause of death in Mexico. This review focuses on current strategies for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Transarterial pacemaker lead implantation results in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Issa, Ziad F; Gill, John B

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of inadvertent transarterial implantation of dual-chamber pacemaker leads; the ventricular lead positioned across the aortic valve into the left ventricle and the atrial lead curving in the aortic root with the tip positioned into the left circumflex artery, resulting in acute myocardial infarction. The diagnosis was made based on the finding on the chest X-ray, surface ECG, and coronary angiography.

  18. Acute myocardial infarction quality of care: the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Best, Lyle G; Butt, Amir; Conroy, Britt; Devereux, Richard B; Galloway, James M; Jolly, Stacey; Lee, Elisa T; Silverman, Angela; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Welty, Thomas K; Kedan, Ilan

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate the quality of care provided patients with acute myocardial infarction and compare with similar national and regional data. Case series. The Strong Heart Study has extensive population-based data related to cardiovascular events among American Indians living in three rural regions of the United States. Acute myocardial infarction cases (72) occurring between 1/1/2001 and 12/31/2006 were identified from a cohort of 4549 participants. The proportion of cases that were provided standard quality of care therapy, as defined by the Healthcare Financing Administration and other national organizations. The provision of quality services, such as administration of aspirin on admission and at discharge, reperfusion therapy within 24 hours, prescription of beta blocker medication at discharge, and smoking cessation counseling were found to be 94%, 91%, 92%, 86% and 71%, respectively. The unadjusted, 30 day mortality rate was 17%. Despite considerable challenges posed by geographic isolation and small facilities, process measures of the quality of acute myocardial infarction care for participants in this American Indian cohort were comparable to that reported for Medicare beneficiaries nationally and within the resident states of this cohort.

  19. Augmented healing process in female mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangfei; Keimig, Thomas; He, Quan; Ding, Jennifer; Zhang, Zhenggang; Pourabdollah-Nejad, Siamak; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2007-09-01

    It is well established that premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease. This gender difference in favor of females is also demonstrated in animal studies. Our research group previously found that female mice had much lower incidence of cardiac rupture and mortality than did males during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the mechanisms responsible for such protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the favorable cardiac effect observed in female mice with MI is due to an augmented healing process that includes less inflammation, reduced matrix degradation, and enhanced neovascularization. Twelve-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and then euthanized at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-MI. Inflammatory cell infiltration and myofibroblast transformation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-I expression, and neovascularization were examined by immunohistochemistry, zymography, Western blot, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography on day 14. We found that: (1) neutrophil infiltration during the early phase of MI (1-4 days) was much lower in females than in males and was associated with lower MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 protein expression, indicating less-exaggerated inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation in females; (2) myofibroblast transformation, as indicated by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, was significantly greater in females than in males at day 7 of MI (P<0.05), indicating facilitated collagen deposition and scar formation; and (3) neovascularization (vascular area in the infarct border) was markedly increased in females, and was associated with better preserved cardiac function and less left ventricular dilatation. Our data suggest that less

  20. Investigation of ischemia modified albumin, oxidant and antioxidant markers in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hazini, Ahmet; Işıldak, İbrahim; Alpdağtaş, Saadet; Önül, Abdullah; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Tuba; Dur, Ali; Iraz, Mustafa; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still one of the most common causes of death worldwide. In recent years, for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, a new parameter, called ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which is thought to be more advantageous than common methods, has been researched. Aim In this study, systematic analysis of parameters considered to be related to myocardial ischemia has been performed, comparing between control and myocardial ischemia groups. Material and methods We selected 40 patients with AMI and 25 healthy controls for this study. Ischemia modified albumin levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid levels were investigated in both groups. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which are indicators of oxidative stress, were compared between patient and control groups. Results Ischemia modified albumin levels were found significantly higher in the AMI diagnosed group when compared with controls. The MDA level was elevated in the patient group, whereas the GSH level was decreased. SOD, GPx and CAT enzyme levels were decreased in the patient group, where it could be presumed that oxidative stress causes the cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Due to the increased oxidative stress, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacity was affected. Systematic investigation of parameters related to myocardial infarction has been performed, and it is believed that such parameters can contribute to protection and early diagnosis of AMI and understanding the mechanism of development of the disease. PMID:26677379

  1. Extreme Right Axis Deviation in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Hazardous Signal of Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyu; Pan, Shuo; Liu, Fuqiang; Yang, Dan; Wang, Jun-Kui

    2018-05-11

    BACKGROUND New-onset extreme right axis deviation and right bundle branch block (RBBB) are rare during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and has only been reported in several cases reflecting the severity of AMI. It could predict severe clinical complications and higher risks in coronary artery disease. Although there is little electrophysiological explanation, the complications are severe. They should be emphasized in newly diagnosed extreme right axis deviation and RBBB in AMI. CASE REPORT A 72-year-old male was admitted to our department with a chief complaint of intermittent retrosternal chest pain and was diagnosed with extensive anterior myocardial infarction with RBBB, by elevated myocardial enzymes and ECG. The main wave direction of QRS in lead aVR was positive and showed an extreme right axis deviation. After a month, the patient's chest distress and the RBBB vanished, but a right axis deviation still existed. The echocardiogram showed prior extensive anterior myocardial infarction (including apex myocardia) and lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS New diagnosed RBBB and right axis deviation is uncommon and could be a useful clue to evaluate myocardial ischemia in AMI cases. This electrocardiographic marker can identify coronary artery occlusion where ST-segments are hard to evaluate, and hence, patients may benefit most from early and complete revascularization strategies such as primary angioplasty.

  2. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  3. [Acute myocardial infarction after wasp sting without anaphylactic reaction].

    PubMed

    Bongo, Angelo Sante; Fornaro, Gianluigi; Sansa, Mara; Macciò, Sergio; Rognoni, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    Bites of hymenopterans (bees, wasps and hornets) are very frequent phenomena that can stir up allergical reactions in venom-susceptible patients but that seldom provoke acute myocardial infarction. In the literature we can find case reports of myocardial infarction after bites of hymenopterans, and preceded by an allergic reaction (sometimes with angiographic evidence of undamaged coronary arteries). The pathophysiological determinant seems to be related to the chemical composition of hymenopterans venom, basically made up by vasoactive and thrombogenic substances able to create vasospasm and coronary thrombosis. Our report refers to a 65-year-old male patient without prior cardiological and allergic events who, bitten by a sharm of three bees, complains of an acute large anterior myocardial infarction with angiographic evidence of thrombotic lesion of the proximal left anterior descending artery treated with direct stenting with procedural success, without showing allergical symptoms. The pathophysiological determinant seems to be related to the release of vasoactive amines and thrombogenic substances contained into the hymenopterans venom, the former able to produce vasospasm, the latter able to create diffuse thrombosis. The use of adrenaline itself to counteract the possible systemic allergic reaction appears to advise against the treatment of patients with cardiological symptoms or coronary artery disease and because of its strong vasoactive activity (it leads, in fact, to vasoconstriction) and thrombogenic effects.

  4. Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction and Acute Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Tibaut, Miha; Mekis, Dusan; Petrovic, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    On an annual basis, 13.2% of all deaths are attributable to coronary artery disease (CAD), which makes CAD - with 7.4 million deaths - the leading cause of death in the world. In this review, we discuss current knowledge in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis with its progression to stable CAD and its destabilization and complication with thrombus formation - myocardial infarction (MI). Next, we describe mechanisms of myocardial cell death in MI, the ischemia-reperfusion injury, leftventricular remodeling and complications of MI. Furthermore, we add acute management strategies concentrating on medical therapy, a decision on the reperfusion strategy, timing and cardiac protection by ischemic preconditioning, post-conditioning and remote ischemic conditioning. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy Triggered by Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Series Challenging the Mayo Clinic Definition.

    PubMed

    Christodoulidis, Georgios; Kundoor, Vishwa; Kaluski, Edo

    2017-08-28

    BACKGROUND Various physical and emotional factors have been previously described as triggers for stress induced cardiomyopathy. However, acute myocardial infarction as a trigger has never been reported. CASE REPORT We describe four patients who presented with an acute myocardial infarction, in whom the initial echocardiography revealed wall motion abnormalities extending beyond the coronary distribution of the infarct artery. Of the four patients identified, the mean age was 59 years; three patients were women and two patients had underlying psychiatric history. Electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation in the anterior leads in three patients; QTc was prolonged in all cases. All patients had ≤ moderately elevated troponin. Single culprit lesion was found uniformly in the proximal or mid left anterior descending artery. Initial echocardiography revealed severely reduced ejection fraction with relative sparing of the basal segments, whereas early repeat echocardiography revealed significant improvement in the left ventricular function in all patients. CONCLUSIONS This is the first case series demonstrating that acute myocardial infarction can trigger stress induced cardiomyopathy. Extensive reversible wall motion abnormalities, beyond the ones expected from angiography, accompanied by modest elevation in troponin and marked QTc prolongation, suggest superimposed stress induced cardiomyopathy.

  6. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effects of VEGF165 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Methods Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF165 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. Results There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF165. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF165, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. Conclusion The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF165 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct. PMID:25993074

  7. Levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble p-selectin in patients of acute myocardial infarction (case control study).

    PubMed

    Hameed, Aisha; Rubab, Zille; Abbas Rizvi, Syed Khizar; Hussain, Shabbir; Latif, Waqas; Mohsin, Shahida

    2017-07-01

    TTo measure levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin in patients of acute myocardial infarction and their comparison with healthy controls. This case-control study was conducted in Department of Haematology, University of Health Sciences Lahore from April to September 2013, and comprised patients of acute myocardial infarction in group 1 and healthy controls in group 2. Platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SPSS21 was used for data analysis. Of the 80 participants, 50(62.5%) were patients and 30(37.5%) were controls. The mean levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin were significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (45.70±10.30 vs 10.60±0.96, and 51.46±9.30 vs 9.16±1.04, respectively) (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin in three intervals after acute myocardial infarction (p>0.05). Although levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin did not correlate to creatinekinase-myocardial band levels (p>0.05), but there was a trend of significant correlation with cardiac troponin T (p<0.05). Levels of platelet-derived microparticles and soluble P-selectin can be used as novel early diagnostic marker of acute myocardial infarction.

  8. Radiologic evaluation of acute chest pain--suspected myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Stanford, William

    2007-08-15

    The American College of Radiology has developed appropriateness criteria for a number of clinical conditions and procedures. Criteria are available on imaging tests used in the evaluation of acute chest pain--suspected myocardial ischemia. Imaging tests for a suspected cardiac etiology include transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, radionuclide perfusion imaging, radionuclide ventriculography, radionuclide infarct avid imaging, and positron emission tomography. If the cardiac ischemic work-up is negative or indeterminate, applicable tests include chest radiography; conventional, multidetector, and electron beam computed tomography; and magnetic resonance imaging. A summary of the criteria, with the advantages and limitations of each test, is presented in this article.

  9. [Acute myocardial infarction in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction : ESC guidelines 2017].

    PubMed

    Thiele, H; Desch, S; de Waha, S

    2017-12-01

    This article gives an update on the management of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) according to the recently released European Society of Cardiology guidelines 2017 and the modifications are compared to the previous STEMI guidelines from 2012. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains the preferred reperfusion strategy. New guideline recommendations relate to the access site with a clear preference for the radial artery, use of drug-eluting stents over bare metal stents, complete revascularization during the index hospitalization, and avoidance of routine thrombus aspiration. For periprocedural anticoagulation during PCI, bivalirudin has been downgraded. Oxygen treatment should be administered only if oxygen saturation is <90%. In cardiogenic shock, intra-aortic balloon pumps should no longer be used. New recommendations are in place with respect to the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy for patients without bleeding events during the first 12 months. Newly introduced sections cover myocardial infarction with no relevant stenosis of the coronary arteries (MINOCA), the introduction of new indicators for quality of care for myocardial infarction networks and new definitions for the time to reperfusion.

  10. Emergence of dendritic cells in the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction - implications for inflammatory myocardial damage.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Atilla; Dietel, Barbara; Cicha, Iwona; Schubert, Katja; Hausmann, Roland; Daniel, Werner G; Garlichs, Christoph D; Stumpf, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial for T cell mediated immune responses. Recently, we observed a significant decrease in circulating myeloid DC precursors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether myeloid DC are present in infarcted myocardium. Myocardial specimens of 10 patients with AMI and 7 accident victims (controls) were collected after autopsy. In immunostainings the presence of DC (CD209(+), fascin(+)), T cells (CD3(+)), macrophages (CD68(+)), and HLA-DR expression was analyzed. Significantly higher numbers of CD209(+)-DC (97 vs. 44 cells/0.25 mm(2), p=0.03), fascin(+)-DC (54 vs. 8 cells/0.25 mm(2), p=0.02), T cells (27 vs. 6 cells/0.25 mm(2), p=0.02), and macrophages (44 vs. 6 cells/0.25 mm(2), p=0.01) associated with high HLA-DR expression were detected in infarcted myocardium. Frequent colocalizations of DC and T cells were observed. In occluded coronary arteries numerous DC, T cells, macrophages and high HLA-DR expression were found. We show that DC are present in infarcted myocardium after AMI. High HLA-DR expression and the colocalization with T cells suggest that they might trigger an immune response leading to further myocardial damage.

  11. Risk factor assessment of young patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Gohar; Jamil, Mujgan; AlKhazraji, Hind; Haque, Amber; Chedid, Fares; Balasubramanian, Manjula; Khairallah, Bahaa; Qureshi, Anwer

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East represents an attractive area for young individuals to seek employment, where they are exposed to numerous environmental conditions. The pursuit of a better standard of living has driven hundreds to the Middle East over the recent decades. This influx has also resulted in a predisposition to premature coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the risk factors in patients younger than 45 years, presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Out of the 148 patients analyzed, 137 were males and 11 females. 119 were from South Asia and 29 were Arabs. Their mean age was 36 ± 4.2 years. Smoking was the most prevalent risk factor in both groups at 67.6%. This was followed by hypertension, family history of CAD, hyperlipidemia and Diabetes mellitus. There was no significant difference in the clinical risk factor profile between these two groups. ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was noted in 67.6%, while 32.4% patients suffered a Non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). 84.5% received coronary stents, 8.8% had lone thrombus aspiration or balloon angioplasty only, while the rest were treated by conservative medical management or referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the CAD risk profile between young South Asian and Arab patients. Preventive strategies focused on risk factor reduction, especially smoking cessation, should be implemented to protect young adults in the most productive years of their life. PMID:23991352

  12. Functional CT assessment of extravascular contrast distribution volume and myocardial perfusion in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    So, Aaron; Wisenberg, Gerald; Teefy, Patrick; Yadegari, Andrew; Bagur, Rodrigo; Hadway, Jennifer; Morrison, Laura; MacDonald, Anna; Gaskin, Dave; Butler, John; Biernaski, Heather; Skanes, Stephanie; Park, Stella DohYeoun; Islam, Ali; Hsieh, Jiang; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2018-04-26

    In a pig model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we validated a functional computed tomography (CT) technique for concomitant assessment of myocardial edema and ischemia through extravscualar contrast distribution volume (ECDV) and myocardial perfusion (MP) measurements from a single dynamic imaging session using a single contrast bolus injection. In seven pigs, balloon catheter was used to occlude the distal left anterior descending artery for one hour followed by reperfusion. CT and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging studies were acquired on 3 days and 12 ± 3 day post ischemic insult. In each CT study, 0.7 ml/kg of iodinated contrast was intravenously injected at 3-4 ml/s before dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) cardiac images were acquired with breath-hold using a 64-row CT scanner. DCE cardiac images were analyzed with a model-based deconvolution to generate ECDV and MP maps. ECDV as an imaging marker of edema was validated against CMR T2 weighted imaging in normal and infarcted myocardium delineated from ex-vivo histological staining. ECDV in infarcted myocardium was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in normal myocardium on both days post AMI and was in agreement with the findings of CMR T2 weighted imaging. MP was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the infarcted region compared to normal on both days post AMI. This imaging technique can rapidly and simultaneously assess myocardial edema and ischemia through ECDV and MP measurements, and may be useful for delineation of salvageable tissue within at-risk myocardium to guide reperfusion therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katus, Hugo; Ziegler, André; Ekinci, Okan; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Achenbach, Stephan; Blankenberg, Stefan; Brueckmann, Martina; Collinson, Paul; Comaniciu, Dorin; Crea, Filippo; Dinh, Wilfried; Ducrocq, Grégory; Flachskampf, Frank A; Fox, Keith A A; Friedrich, Matthias G; Hebert, Kathy A; Himmelmann, Anders; Hlatky, Mark; Lautsch, Dominik; Lindahl, Bertil; Lindholm, Daniel; Mills, Nicholas L; Minotti, Giorgio; Möckel, Martin; Omland, Torbjørn; Semjonow, Véronique

    2017-11-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of acute chest pain has been augmented in recent years by advances in the sensitivity and precision of cardiac troponin assays, new biomarkers, improvements in imaging modalities, and release of new clinical decision algorithms. This progress has enabled physicians to diagnose or rule-out acute myocardial infarction earlier after the initial patient presentation, usually in emergency department settings, which may facilitate prompt initiation of evidence-based treatments, investigation of alternative diagnoses for chest pain, or discharge, and permit better utilization of healthcare resources. A non-trivial proportion of patients fall in an indeterminate category according to rule-out algorithms, and minimal evidence-based guidance exists for the optimal evaluation, monitoring, and treatment of these patients. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the ESC proposes approaches for the optimal application of early strategies in clinical practice to improve patient care following the review of recent advances in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The following specific 'indeterminate' patient categories were considered: (i) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin <99th percentile; (ii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin <99th percentile but above the limit of detection; (iii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile but without dynamic change; and (iv) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile and dynamic change but without coronary plaque rupture/erosion/dissection. Definitive evidence is currently lacking to manage these patients whose early diagnosis is 'indeterminate' and these areas of uncertainty should be assigned a high priority for research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pandie, S; Hellenberg, D; Hellig, F; Ntsekhe, M

    2016-03-01

    Patient history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers are key components of an effective chest pain assessment. The first priority is excluding serious chest pain syndromes, namely acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax. On history, the mnemonic SOCRATES (Site Onset Character Radiation Association Time Exacerbating/relieving factor and Severity) helps differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac pain. On examination, evaluation of vital signs, evidence of murmurs, rubs, heart failure, tension pneumothoraces and chest infections are important. A 12-lead ECG should be interpreted within 10 minutes of first medical contact, specifically to identify ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). High-sensitivity troponins improve the rapid rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) and confirmation of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI). ACS (STEMI and NSTEMI/unstable anginapectoris (UAP)) result from acute destabilisation of coronary atheroma with resultant complete (STEMI) or subtotal (NSTEMI/UAP) thrombotic coronary occlusion. The management of STEMI patients includes providing urgent reperfusion: primary percutaneous coronary intervention(PPCI) if available, deliverable within 60 - 120 minutes, and fibrinolysis if PPCI is not available. Essential adjunctive therapies include antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors), anticoagulation (heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin) and cardiac monitoring.

  15. Sibutramine-induced acute myocardial infarction in a young lady.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kin-Ming Anfernee; Ng, Hon Wah; Chan, Chi-Kin; Yip, Gabriel; Lau, Fei Lung

    2008-11-01

    Sibutramine is an amphetamine-like drug used for its weight reducing effect. Sibutramine-induced acute coronary syndrome has rarely been reported. We report a case of myocardial infarction associated with the use of sibutramine. A 37-year-old woman presented to an Emergency Department (ED) with intermittent retrosternal chest pain, nausea, and sweating for 3 days. She reported taking one sibutramine tablet each day for 3 days. Blood pressure was 128/89 mm Hg and pulse 66 beats/min. An electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation over the inferior leads and ST depression over leads AVR and V1, the other leads were normal. Serum troponin T was 0.65 microg/L, and sibutramine was identified in her urine. Echocardiography revealed mild hypokinesia over the inferior wall without evidence of acute aortic dissection. The ST segment changes resolved spontaneously within 24 h of cardiac care unit (CCU) admission, a coronary angiogram performed 1 week later was unremarkable, and echocardiography performed 4 weeks after the event showed normal resting regional wall motion. Seventeen medications containing sibutramine as an active ingredient were registered in Hong Kong in 2007. Sibutramine was introduced in the United States in 1997 and in Australia, United Kingdom, and Italy in 2001. Hypertension, tachycardia, dry mouth, and headache are the most commonly reported adverse reactions. Cardiovascular toxicities include tachycardia, palpitation, hypertension, and tachyarrhythmia. We postulate that the myocardial infarction was the result of coronary vasospasm associated with the therapeutic use of sibutramine-containing slimming pills.

  16. Chest pain emergency centers: improving acute myocardial infarction care.

    PubMed

    Ornato, J P

    1999-08-01

    Uncertainty and delay are common in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In the last 20 years, the need for faster, more accurate, and more cost-effective diagnosis gave rise to the concept of specialized treatment of patients with chest pain in emergency departments (EDs). The original strategy dedicated a separate section of the ED and a nursing staff to the task of rapid intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and triage of low-risk patients. Chest pain centers grew quickly in popularity but evolved with a variety of goals, staffing plans, diagnostic resources, and levels of commitment. There existing centers--the University of Cincinnati Heart ER, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the Medical College of Virginia--have implemented chest pain strategies with the common aims of (1) screening for the entire spectrum of coronary artery disease, (2) avoiding unnecessary admissions, and (3) using multiple diagnostic modalities. Yet, they differ in the specifics of their approaches and diagnostic methods (e.g., echocardiography vs. treadmill vs. myocardial perfusion imaging). The safety and cost effectiveness of these centers are discussed.

  17. Antiarrhythmic effect of uridine and uridine-5'-monophosphate in acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bul'on, V V; Krylova, I B; Selina, E N; Rodionova, O M; Evdokimova, N R; Sapronov, N S; Mironova, G D

    2014-10-01

    Experiments on rats with acute myocardial ischemia accompanied by early postocclusive arrhythmias have shown normalizing, energy-stabilizing, and antiarrhythmic effects of uridine and uridine-5'-monophosphate. The drugs decreased lactate and restored reserves of glycogen and creatine phosphate depleted by ischemia. Uridine and uridine-5'-monophosphate significantly decreased the severity of ventricular arrhythmias. Both drugs reduced the incidence and duration of fibrillation. Uridine -5'-monophosphate demonstrated most pronounced antifibrillatory effectiveness. We hypothesize that the antiarrhythmic effect of the drugs is determined by their capacity to activate energy metabolism.

  18. G-CSF in acute myocardial infarction - experimental and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Ince, Hüseyin; Petzsch, Michael; Rehders, Tim C; Dunkelmann, Simone; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2006-09-01

    Early data from clinical studies suggest that intracoronary injection of autologous progenitor cells may beneficially affect postinfarction remodeling and perfusion. Beyond intracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow mononuclear CD34+ cells (MNCCD34+), mobilization of stem cells by G-CSF has recently attracted attention because of various advantages such as the noninvasive nature of MNCCD34+ mobilization by subcutaneous injections. It is the aim of the present work to give an overview about the current experimental and clinical findings of G-CSF treatment in acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Hurford, W.; Lowenstein, E.; Zapol, W.

    1985-05-01

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-(p-(iodophenyl))-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM)more » to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction.« less

  20. Patient adherence to generic versus brand statin therapy after acute myocardial infarction: Insights from the Can Rapid Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines Registry.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Emily C; McCoy, Lisa A; Thomas, Laine; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y

    2015-07-01

    Statins reduce mortality after acute myocardial infarction, but up to half of patients discontinue statin use within 1 year of therapy initiation. Although cost may influence medication adherence, it is unknown whether use of generic versus brand statins influences adherence. We linked detailed inhospital clinical data for 1421 non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients discharged on a statin in 2006 to Medicare Part D medication claims records to examine postdischarge medication use. One-year statin adherence was defined using the proportion of days covered with optimal adherence ≥80%. We examined the association of brand versus generic statin prescription and 1-year adherence after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors, predischarge lipid values, prior statin use, and socioeconomic status. Overall, 65.5% of statin fills were for brand-name statins. There were few baseline differences in demographics and clinical factors among generic versus brand users. Patient copay amounts were higher for brand versus generic statins (median = $25 vs $5, P < .001), yet the mean proportion of days covered over 1 year was similar (71.5% vs 68.9%; P = .97; unadjusted odds ratio 1.15 [95% CI 0.96-1.37]). Proportion of days covered ≥80% was low for both generic (56.2%) and brand statins (55.9%; P = .93). Statin adherence rates remained similar between generic and brand users after adjusting for demographics, clinical risk factors, lipid value, prior statin use, and socioeconomic status. In a cohort of older non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, we found no evidence that use of generic versus brand drug was associated with higher adherence to statins at 1 year after hospital discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: A correlational study of the discrepancy between patients' expectations and experiences.

    PubMed

    Abed, Mona A; Ali, Raeda M Abu; Abu Ras, Motaz M; Hamdallah, Faten O; Khalil, Amani A; Moser, Debra K

    2015-10-01

    Patients' responses to acute myocardial infarction symptoms are affected by symptom incongruence, which is the difference between the symptoms they expect to experience and the symptoms they actually experienced during an acute myocardial infarction. To examine the relationship of patients' demographics, clinical characteristics and sources of information about acute myocardial infarction with their symptom expectations, actual experiences and symptom incongruence. Descriptive correlational study. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals in the two most populated cities in Jordan (Amman and Al Zarqa). Jordanian patients with acute myocardial infarction were recruited. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years or older, diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, oriented, mentally competent and fluent in Arabic. Exclusion criteria were experiencing acute myocardial infarction during a hospitalization or having severe psychiatric illnesses. The Morgan Incongruence of Heart Attack Symptoms Index was used to quantify symptom incongruence and identify patients' expected and experienced acute myocardial infarction symptoms. Patients' information sources about acute myocardial infarction and demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by interview and medical chart review. Patients (N=299) were mostly males (80%) and married (92%). The average age was 56±12.3 years. Patients expected a limited number of acute myocardial infarction symptoms and these expectations were largely confined to typical symptoms and matched their experiences. Patients who were female, elderly, nonsmokers, poorly educated, with low income, and those who were normolipidemic, had no personal or family cardiac history, and were informed about acute myocardial infarction by relatives expected fewer symptoms (mostly typical and atypical) than their counterparts. Elderly patients and those with hyperlipidemia experienced fewer typical symptoms than their counterparts. Patients with ST

  2. Safety of air travel following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Roby, Howard; Lee, Anna; Hopkins, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    initiated in one patient with chest pain that turned out to be non-ischemic when the Holter traces were later analyzed. This study suggests that, provided that care is taken during the immediate preflight and postflight phases not to overexert the patients, neither supplemental oxygen nor medical escorts are needed in the transportation of patients who fly 2 wk after acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Prostate-specific antigen and acute myocardial infarction: a possible new intriguing scenario.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2009-05-29

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been identified as a member of the human kallikrein family of serine proteases and it is an established marker for detection of prostate cancer. Apparently spurious result has been reported in a work about mean serum PSA concentration during acute myocardial infarction with mean serum PSA concentration significantly lower on day 2 than either day 1 or day 3 and it has been reported that these preliminary results could reflect several factors, such as antiinfarctual treatment, reduced physical activity or an acute-phase response. Elevation of prostate-specific antigen has also been reported during acute myocardial infarction in three patients and in another one also after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and without histological diagnosis of prostate cancer. In our report we present three cases of diminution of serum PSA concentration during acute myocardial infarction. Our report extends the evaluation of PSA during acute myocardial infarction. It seems that when elevation of prostate-specific antigen occurs during acute myocardial infarction, coronary lesions are frequent and often more severe than when diminution of prostate-specific antigen occurs during acute myocardial infarction. It opens a possible new intriguing scenario of the role of the prostate-specific antigen in acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Role of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in AGEs-induced myocardial injury in a mice model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tongqing; Lu, Wenbin; Zhu, Jian; Jin, Xian; Ma, Genshan; Wang, Yuepeng; Meng, Shu; Zhang, Yachen; Li, Yigang; Shen, Chengxing

    2015-01-01

    Polymorph neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells and play a crucial role on the pathogenesis of myocardial injury at the early stage of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the precursors and the differentiation of neutrophils are not fully understood. Here we explored the role of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) on myocardial injury in the absence and presence of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in a mice model of AMI. Male C57BL/6J mice were selected. Fluorescent actived cell sortor (FACS) data demonstrated significantly increased CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs both in peripheral blood circulation and in the ischemic myocardium at 24 hours post AMI. Quantitative-real-time PCR results also revealed significantly upregulated CD11b and Ly6G mRNA expression in the ischemic myocardium. AGEs treatment further aggravated these changes in AMI mice but not in sham mice. Moreover, AGEs treatment also significantly increased infarction size and enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and iNOS2 was also significantly increased in AMI + AGEs group compared to AMI group. These data suggest enhanced infiltration of MDSCs by AGEs contributes to aggravated myocardial injury in AMI mice, which might be one of the mechanisms responsible for severer myocardial injury in AMI patients complicating diabetes.

  5. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by different means of transportation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Annette; von Klot, Stephanie; Mittleman, Murray A; Meisinger, Christine; Hörmann, Allmut; Kuch, Bernhard; Wichmann, H Erich

    2013-10-01

    Prior studies have reported an association between traffic-related air pollution in urban areas and exacerbation of cardiovascular disease. We assess here whether time spent in different modes of transportation can trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We performed a case-crossover study. We interviewed consecutive cases of AMI in the KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry in Augsburg, Southern Germany between February 1999 and December 2003 eliciting data on potential triggers in the four days preceding myocardial infarction onset. A total of 1459 cases with known date and time of AMI symptom onset, who had survived 24 hours after the onset, completed the registry's standard interview on potential triggers of AMI. An association between exposure to traffic and AMI onset 1 hour later was observed (odds ratio: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-3.9, p < 0.001). Using a car was the most common source of traffic exposure; nevertheless, times spent in public transport or on a bicycle were similarly associated with AMI onset 1 hour later. While the highest risk for AMI onset was within 1 hour of exposure to traffic, the elevated risk persisted for up to 6 hours. Women, patients aged 65 years or older, patients not part of the workforce, and those with a history of angina or diabetes exhibited the largest associations between times spent in traffic and AMI onset 1 hour later. The data suggest that transient exposure to traffic regardless of the means of transportation may increase the risk of AMI transiently.

  6. Role of adenosine as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Mervyn B; Stone, Gregg W; Jackson, Edwin K

    2006-01-01

    Although early reperfusion and maintained patency is the mainstay therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction, experimental studies demonstrate that reperfusion per se induces deleterious effects on viable ischemic cells. Thus "myocardial reperfusion injury" may compromise the full potential of reperfusion therapy and may account for unfavorable outcomes in high-risk patients. Although the mechanisms of reperfusion injury are complex and multifactorial, neutrophil-mediated microvascular injury resulting in a progressive decrease in blood flow ("no-reflow" phenomenon) likely plays an important role. Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside found in large quantities in myocardial and endothelial cells. It activates four well-characterized receptors producing various physiological effects that attenuate many of the proposed mechanisms of reperfusion injury. The cardio-protective effects of adenosine are supported by its role as a mediator of pre- and post-conditioning. In experimental models, administration of adenosine in the peri-reperfusion period results in a marked reduction in infarct size and improvement in ventricular function. The cardioprotective effects in the canine model have a narrow time window with the drug losing its effect following three hours of ischemia. Several small clinical studies have demonstrated that administration of adenosine with reperfusion therapy reduces infarct size and improves ventricular function. In the larger AMISTAD and AMISTAD II trials a 3-h infusion of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion resulted in a striking reduction in infarct size (55-65%). Post hoc analysis of AMISTAD II showed that this was associated with significantly improved early and late mortality in patients treated within 3.17 h of symptoms. An intravenous infusion of adenosine for 3 h should be considered as adjunctive therapy in high risk-patients undergoing reperfusion therapy.

  7. Lessons from the management of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M

    2005-05-01

    The National Service Framework for coronary heart disease set a number of challenging targets for the care of patients following an acute myocardial infarction. The Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project (MINAP) was devised to monitor progress and has been notably successful in winning professional support and participation and helping trusts to meet these targets. The new challenge is in translating this success to other areas of medicine. Heart failure is one such area, although it poses a number of difficulties relating primarily to disease definition and the definition of a successful outcome. MINAP was overseen by a multidisciplinary group of stakeholders, including patient organisations, and was project managed by a professionally led team at the Royal College of Physicians. Successful projects must retain confidence of all stakeholders and in part this depends on ensuring that timelines are met. Central monitoring of returns and anticipation of problems has been an important component of data completeness and quality. Next day updates to those collecting the data and more detailed quarterly reports for clinicians and chief executives within days of quarter end have been vital. Change depends on clinicians and managers working together. But most importantly, the attention to detail outlined above means the data have been believed and the resulting change for patients has been remarkable.

  8. "Spice" (Synthetic Marijuana) Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, E; Shafiq, A; Khan, A A; Awan, A A; Ezad, S; Minteer, W J; Omar, B

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely abused "recreational" substance in the United States, with highest prevalence in young adults. It is reported to cause ischemic strokes, hepatitis, anxiety, and psychosis. Although it is associated with dose dependent tachycardia and can lead to coronary vasospasm, it has not been directly related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Marijuana induced coronary vasospasm can result in endothelial denudation at the site of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in response to hemodynamic stressors, potentially causing an AMI. Spice refers to herbal mixture with composition and effects similar to that of marijuana and therefore is referred to as "synthetic marijuana." Herein, we report 3 cases of spice induced ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were relatively young and had few or absolutely no risk factors for cardiovascular disease. All patients underwent emergent coronary angiography, with two needing stent placement and the third requiring only aspiration thrombectomy. Our case series emphasizes the importance of suspecting and investigating synthetic marijuana use in low risk young adults presenting with AMI.

  9. Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction after Coronary Stent Fracture.

    PubMed

    Rafighdust, Abbasali; Eshraghi, Ali

    2015-10-27

    The invention of the drug-eluting stent (DES) has brought about revolutionary changes in the field of interventional cardiology. In the DES era, in-stent restenosis has declined but new issues such as stent thrombosis have emerged. One of the emerging paradigms in the DES era is stent fracture. There are reports about stent fracture leading to in-stent restenosis or stent thrombosis. Most of these reports concern the Sirolimus-eluting stent. The present case is a representation of a Biolimus-eluting stent fracture. We introduce a 64-year-old male patient, for whom the BioMatrix stent was deployed in the right coronary artery. Five months after the implantation, he experienced acute myocardial infarction, with stent fracture leading to stent thrombosis being the causative mechanism. Another DES (Cypher) was used to manage this situation, and the final result was good.

  10. Climate and environmental triggers of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Marc J; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nawrot, Tim S; Brook, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence has led to heightened concerns about the potential short- and long-term deleterious effects of the environment on cardiovascular health, including the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This review highlights the increased risk of AMI caused by exposure to air pollution and cold temperatures. These factors should be considered modifiable risk factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The current body of knowledge about the biological mechanisms linking environmental changes to atherothrombotic events and the impact of climate change on cardiovascular health are discussed. Finally, recommendations for prevention and public policy are presented. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of initial temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuanyu; Liu, Jie; Ma, Jinling; Meng, Qingyi; Peng, Chaoying

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of initial body temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients was investigated. A total of 315 AMI patients were enrolled and the mean temperature was calculated based on their body temperature within 24 h of admission to hospital. The patients were divided into four groups according to their normal body temperature: Group A, <36.5°C; group B, ≥36.5°C and <37.0°C; group C, ≥37.0°C and <37.5°C and group D, ≥37.5°C. The levels of percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial enzymes and troponin T (TNT), as well as cardiac ultrasound images, were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the quantity of creatine kinase at 12 and 24 h following admission were identified between group A and groups C and D (P<0.01). A significant difference in TNT at 12 h following admission was observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, this difference was not observed with groups B and C. The difference in TNT between the groups at 24 h following admission was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed with groups B and C (P>0.05). Significant differences in glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed in groups B and C (P>0.05). However, no significant differences were identified in cardiac function index between all the groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that AMI patients with low initial body temperatures exhibited decreased levels of myocardial enzymes and TNT. Thus, the observation of an initially low body temperature may be used as a protective factor for AMI and may improve the existing clinical program.

  12. Acute triggers of myocardial infarction: A case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ghiasmand, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Mohammad Taghi; Pourshaikhian, Majid; Kazemnejad Lili, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most preventable non-communicable diseases in human. Identifying triggers of myocardial infarction (MI) and prevention ways of exposure-induced complications can reduce morbidity and mortality in people at risk. The aim of this study was to identify the emotional, environmental, physical and chemical dimensions of acute triggers in patients with AMI. This case-crossover study was conducted on 269 patients with AMI, hospitalized at two remedial centers in Rasht in 2015. The study samples were selected by convenient sampling method. Data were collected using researcher-made questionnaire through interviews. Hazard and control periods for each trigger and its effects on the development of MI were studied. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical methods, Cochran test, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with logistics function default in SPSS version 21, and p  < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that quarrel ( P  = 0.008, OR = 2.01) and hearing the sudden news ( P  = 0.001, OR = 2.19) were the most common emotional triggers. Respiratory infections ( P  = 0.0001, OR = 6.78) and exposure to hot or cold weather ( P  = 0.005, OR = 2.19) were the most frequent environmental triggers. Doing heavy activities ( P  = 0.005, OR = 1.66) and sexual activities ( P  = 0.003, OR = 2.36) were among the most common physical triggers. High-fat foods consumption and overeating ( P  = 0.0001, OR = 3.79) were the most frequent chemical triggers of AMI. It seems that given the importance of the triggers in the incidence of AMI, planning is necessary to train vulnerable individuals to reduce exposure to triggers.

  13. Unmet goals in the treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Review

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Alejandro; Barbagelata, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Reperfusion therapy decreases myocardium damage during an acute coronary event and consequently mortality. However, there are unmet needs in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, consequently mortality and heart failure continue to occur in about 10% and 20% of cases, respectively. Different strategies could improve reperfusion. These strategies, like generation of warning sign recognition and being initially assisted and transferred by an emergency service, could reduce the time to reperfusion. If the first electrocardiogram is performed en route, it can be transmitted and interpreted in a timely manner by a specialist at the receiving center, bypassing community hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities. To administer thrombolytic therapy during transport to the catheterization laboratory could reduce time to reperfusion in cases with expected prolonged transport time to a percutaneous coronary intervention center or to a center without primary percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities with additional expected delay, known as pharmaco-invasive strategy. Myocardial reperfusion is known to produce damage and cell death, which defines the reperfusion injury. Lack of resolution of ST segment is used as a marker of reperfusion failure. In patients without ST segment resolution, mortality triples. It is important to note that, until recently, reperfusion injury and no-reflow were interpreted as a single entity and we should differentiate them as different entities; whereas no-reflow is the failure to obtain tissue flow, reperfusion injury is actually the damage produced by achieving flow. Therefore, treatment of no-reflow is obtained by tissue flow, whereas in reperfusion injury the treatment objective is protection of susceptible myocardium from reperfusion injury. Numerous trials for the treatment of reperfusion injury have been unsuccessful. Newer hypotheses such as “ controlled reperfusion”, in which the interventional

  14. The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

  15. Outcomes with invasive vs conservative management of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Gupta, Navdeep; Guo, Yu; Lala, Anuradha; Balsam, Leora; Roswell, Robert O; Reyentovich, Alex; Hochman, Judith S

    2015-06-01

    In the SHOCK trial, an invasive strategy of early revascularization was associated with a significant mortality benefit at 6 months when compared with initial stabilization in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Our objectives were to evaluate the data on real-world practice and outcomes of invasive vs conservative management in patients with cardiogenic shock. We analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2011 with primary discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and secondary diagnosis of cardiogenic shock. Propensity score matching was used to assemble a cohort of patients managed invasively (with cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery) vs conservatively with similar baseline characteristics. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We identified 60,833 patients with cardiogenic shock, of which 20,644 patients (10,322 in each group) with similar propensity scores, including 11,004 elderly patients (≥75 years), were in the final analysis. Patients who underwent invasive management had 59% lower odds of in-hospital mortality (37.7% vs 59.7%; odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.43; P < .0001) when compared with those managed conservatively. This lower mortality was consistently seen across all tested subgroups; specifically in the elderly (≥75 years) (44.0% vs 63.6%; OR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42-0.49; P < .0001) and those younger than 75 years (30.6% vs 55.1%; OR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.33-0.39; P < .0001), although the magnitude of risk reduction differed (Pinteraction < .0001). In this largest cohort of patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, patients managed invasively had significantly lower mortality when compared with those managed conservatively, even in the elderly. Our results emphasize the need for aggressive management in this high-risk subgroup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters.

  17. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K.; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters. PMID:28002439

  18. Early myocardial damage assessment in dystrophinopathies using (99)Tc(m)-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhe; Hu, Ke-You; Tian, Qing-Bao; Wei, Ling-Ge; Zhao, Zhe; Shen, Hong-Rui; Hu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of muscular dystrophy (MD)-associated cardiomyopathy is important because early medical treatment may slow cardiac remodeling and attenuate symptoms of cardiac dysfunction; however, no sensitive and standard diagnostic method for MD at an earlier stage has been well-recognized. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the early diagnostic value of technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99)Tc(m)-MIBI) gated myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI) for MD. Ninety-one patients underwent (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI examinations when they were diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (n=77) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD; n=14). (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI examinations were repeated in 43 DMD patients who received steroid treatments for 2 years as a follow-up examination. Myocardial defects were observed in nearly every segment of the left ventricular wall in both DMD and BMD patients compared with controls, especially in the inferior walls and the apices by using (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI. Cardiac wall movement impairment significantly correlated with age in the DMD and BMD groups (r s=0.534 [P<0.05] and r s=0.784 [P<0.05], respectively). Intermittent intravenous doses of glucocorticoids and continuation with oral steroid treatments significantly improved myocardial function in DMD patients (P<0.05), but not in BMD patients. (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI is a sensitive and safe approach for early evaluation of cardiomyopathy in patients with DMD or BMD, and can serve as a candidate method for the evaluation of progression, prognosis, and assessment of the effect of glucocorticoid treatment in these patients.

  19. [Acute myocardial infarction in Djibouti: 2-year prospective study].

    PubMed

    Maurin, O; Massoure, P L; de Regloix, S; Topin, F; Sbardella, F; Lamblin, G; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-threatening emergency. In Africa, the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is leading to an epidemiological transition. No data have yet been reported about AMI in Djibouti. This study prospectively included all patients with acute coronary syndrome and persistent ST segment elevation admitted to the emergency department of Bouffard Military Hospital in Djibouti from January 2009 through December 2010. It analyzed their clinical data and management. The study included 35 patients. Their mean age was 52 ± 11 years [range: 29-76]. The sex ratio was 7.7 (men/women). Cardiovascular risk factors were: hypercholesterolemia (83%), tobacco use (60%), khat chewing (57%), diabetes (49%), hypertension (46%), and heredity (20%). AMI was anterior in 40% of cases. Fifteen patients (43%) arrived within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms (average 5 hours); thrombolysis was successful for 11 of them (73%). Seven patients (20%) died over the entire follow-up (11.3 ± 9 months), 5 within the first month. Mortality was significantly associated with diabetes (p<0.01), initial severe clinical complications (p<0.01) and initial low left ventricular ejection fraction (p<10(-6)). Patients with AMI in Djibouti are 10 to 15 years younger than in Western countries. Their high level of cardiovascular risk is remarkable. Khat use did not significantly affect prognosis. The high mortality rate was similar to rates reported before the percutaneous coronary angioplasty era.

  20. Myocardial viability assessment after acute myocardial infarction: low-dose dobutamine echocardiography versus rest-redistribution thallium-201 SPECT.

    PubMed

    Castini, D; Bestetti, A; Garbin, M; Di Leo, C; Bigi, R; Sponzilli, C; Concardi, G; Gioventù, M; Tarolo, G L; Lombardi, F; Fiorentini, C

    1999-09-01

    The presence of tissue viability is of great importance in the prognostic work-up of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. However, uncertainty still exists concerning the optimal tool for its assessment. The present study was undertaken in order to compare low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and rest-redistribution thallium SPECT for predicting late improvement of regional left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients undergoing coronary angiography, low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and rest-redistribution thallium SPECT after thrombolyzed anterior acute myocardial infarction were studied. A 3 month follow-up echocardiogram was performed in all patients and 9 underwent coronary revascularization. A significant (> or = 70%) residual stenosis of the infarct-related artery was present in 14 patients, whilst a total occlusion was observed in 1. At 3 month follow-up, 41% of the dyssynergic segments improved. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for late wall motion improvement was 61, 89 and 77% for low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and, respectively, 76, 45 and 58% for rest-redistribution thallium SPECT. Tissue viability was detected in 65 and 31% of dyssynergic segments by rest-redistribution thallium SPECT and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography, respectively (p < 0.001). The agreement between the two techniques was 48%. Low-dose dobutamine echocardiography is more accurate than rest-redistribution thallium SPECT for predicting 3 month wall motion improvement in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction, mainly due to its significantly better specificity.

  1. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

  2. Does childhood misfortune raise the risk of acute myocardial infarction in adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Patricia M.; Mustillo, Sarah A.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas most research on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has focused on more proximal influences, such as adult health behaviors, the present study examines the early origins of AMI. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (N=3,032), a nationally representative survey of men and women aged 25–74, which spans from 1995 to 2005. A series of event history analyses modeling age of first AMI investigated the direct effects of accumulated and separate domains of childhood misfortune as well as the mediating effects of adult health lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Findings reveal that accumulated childhood misfortune and child maltreatment increased AMI risk, net of several adult covariates, including family history of AMI. Smoking fully mediated the effects of both accumulated childhood misfortune and child maltreatment. These findings reveal the importance of the early origins of AMI and health behaviors as mediating factors. PMID:24581071

  3. Metabolic Syndrome is Associated With Higher Wall Motion Score and Larger Infarct Size After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mitra; Chitsazan, Mandana; Haghjoo, Majid; Babaali, Nima; Norouzzadeh, Zahra; Mohsenian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infarct size is an important surrogate end point for early and late mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Despite the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with atherosclerotic diseases, adequate data are still lacking regarding the extent of myocardial necrosis after acute myocardial infarction in these patients. Objectives: In the present study we aimed to compare myocardial infarction size in patients with metabolic syndrome to those without metabolic syndrome using peak CK-MB and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Patients and Methods: One-hundred patients with metabolic syndrome (group I) and 100 control subjects without metabolic syndrome (group II) who experienced acute myocardial infarction were included in the study. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines published in 2001. Myocardial infarction size was compared between the two groups of patients using peak CK-MB and cTnI level in 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Results: Peak CK-MB and cTnI in 72 hours were found to be significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with control subjects (both P < 0.001). Patients with metabolic syndrome also had markedly higher wall motion abnormality at 72 hours after the onset of symptoms as assessed by echocardiographically-derived Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI) (P < 0.001). Moreover, statistically significant relationships were found between WMSI and peak CK-MB and also cTnI at 72 hours (Spearman's rho = 0.56, P < 0.001 and Spearman's rho = 0.5, P < 0.001; respectively). However, association between WMSI and left ventricular ejection fraction was insignificant (Spearman's rho = -0.05, P = 0.46). Conclusions: We showed that patients with metabolic syndrome have larger infarct size compared to control subjects. PMID:25789257

  4. The 1999 Ji-Ji (Taiwan) earthquake as a trigger for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Hong; Lung, For-Wey; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of stress due to the Ji-Ji, Taiwan, earthquake, which occurred at 1:47 a.m. on September 21, 1999, on the onset of acute myocardial infarction in six counties near the earthquake epicenter. The rate of hospitalization due to acute myocardial infarction increased during the 6 weeks after the earthquake, and a significantly higher number of patients were hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction during that period, compared with the same 6-week period in the previous year (99 and 65 patients, respectively). The findings suggest that extreme emotional stress due to the natural disaster, superimposed on the stress of awakening, increased the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in this population.

  5. Very late coronary spasm inducing acute myocardial infarction in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Francesco; Lopizzo, Agostino; Centola, Antonio; Cuculo, Andrea; Ruggiero, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo; Brunetti, Natale Daniele

    2016-12-01

    : We report coronary angio findings of very late (10-year) coronary spasm inducing acute myocardial infarction with typical chest pain in a heart transplant recipient. Coronary spasm was promptly relieved by intra-coronary infusion of nitrates.

  6. Early and late benefits of prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a TRITON-TIMI 38 (TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) analysis.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Wiviott, Stephen D; Murphy, Sabina A; Voitk, Juri; Hasin, Yonathan; Widimsky, Petr; Chandna, Harish; Macias, William; McCabe, Carolyn H; Braunwald, Eugene

    2008-05-27

    We evaluated the relative contributions of the loading and maintenance doses of prasugrel on events in a TRITON-TIMI 38 (TRial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet InhibitioN with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) analysis. Prasugrel is superior to clopidogrel in preventing ischemic events in patients with an acute coronary syndrome who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but it is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding. Landmark analyses for efficacy, safety, and net clinical benefit were performed from randomization to day 3 and from day 3 to the end of the trial. Significant reductions in ischemic events, including myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and urgent target vessel revascularization, were observed with the use of prasugrel both during the first 3 days and from 3 days to the end of the trial. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major non-coronary artery bypass graft bleeding was similar to clopidogrel during the first 3 days but was significantly greater with the use of prasugrel from 3 days to the end of the study. Net clinical benefit significantly favored prasugrel both early and late in the trial. Both the loading dose and maintenance dose of prasugrel were superior to clopidogrel for the reduction of ischemic events. This result emphasizes the importance of maintaining high levels of inhibition of platelet aggregation via P2Y(12) receptor inhibition, not only for the prevention of periprocedural ischemic events but also during long-term follow-up. The excess major bleeding observed with the use of prasugrel occurred predominantly during the maintenance phase. Approaches to reduce the relative excess of bleeding with prasugrel should focus on the maintenance dose (e.g., reduction in maintenance dose in previously reported high-risk subgroups, such as the elderly and those patients with low body weight). (A Comparison of CS-747 and Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome

  7. Clinical Implications of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Nakhleh, Morad; Zeidan-Shwiri, Tawfiq; Mutlak, Michael; Lavie, Peretz; Lavie, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia, is associated with multiple pathophysiologic alterations that may adversely affect patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This prospective study investigated whether the metabolic perturbations associated with SDB are present when these patients develop AMI and if they affect clinical outcomes. Methods We prospectively enrolled 180 AMI patients. SDB was defined as oxygen desaturation index (ODI) >5 events/hour based on a Watch Pat-100 sleep study. Blood samples were obtained for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides [PD] and serum paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] (arylesterase activity). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac dimensions and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Results SDB was present in 116 (64%) patients. Hs-CRP levels, PD and PON-1 were similar in patients with and without SDB. Echocardiography revealed higher left atrial dimension (4.1±0.5 vs 3.8±0.5 cm; P = 0.003) and a significant positive correlation between ODI and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.41, P<0.0001). After a median follow up of 68 months, no significant differences were observed between the study groups with regard to clinical outcomes, including death, heart failure, myocardial infarction and unstable angina. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed SDB among patients with AMI. SDB in the setting of AMI is associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure. SDB was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:24523943

  8. Predictors of symptom congruence among patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fox-Wasylyshyn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The extent of congruence between one's symptom experience and preconceived ideas about the nature of myocardial infarction symptoms (ie, symptom congruence) can influence when acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients seek medical care. Lengthy delays impede timely receipt of medical interventions and result in greater morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to symptom congruence. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine how AMI patients' symptom experiences and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics contribute to symptom congruence. Secondary data analyses were performed on interview data that were collected from 135 AMI patients. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine how specific symptom attributes and demographic and clinical characteristics contribute to symptom congruence. Chest pain/discomfort and other symptom variables (type and location) were included in step 1 of the analysis, whereas symptom severity and demographic and clinical factors were included in step 2. In a second analysis, quality descriptors of discomfort replaced chest pain/discomfort in step 1. Although chest pain/discomfort, and quality descriptors of heaviness and cutting were significant in step 1 of their respective analyses, all became nonsignificant when the variables in step 2 were added to the analyses. Severe discomfort (β = .29, P < .001), history of AMI (β = .21, P < .01), and male sex (β = .17, P < .05) were significant predictors of symptom congruence in the first analysis. Only severe discomfort (β = .23, P < .01) and history of AMI (β = .17, P < .05) were predictive of symptom congruence in the second analysis. Although the location and quality of discomfort were important components of symptom congruence, symptom severity outweighed their importance. Nonsevere symptoms were less likely to meet the expectations of AMI symptoms by those experiencing this event. Those without a previous

  9. Supplemental oxygen therapy does not affect the systemic inflammatory response to acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, R; Tornvall, P; Witt, N; Alfredsson, J; Svensson, L; Jonasson, L; Nilsson, L

    2018-04-01

    Oxygen therapy has been used routinely in normoxemic patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) despite limited evidence supporting a beneficial effect. AMI is associated with a systemic inflammation. Here, we hypothesized that the inflammatory response to AMI is potentiated by oxygen therapy. The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) multicentre trial randomized patients with suspected AMI to receive oxygen at 6 L min -1 for 6-12 h or ambient air. For this prespecified subgroup analysis, we recruited patients with confirmed AMI from two sites for evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers at randomization and 5-7 h later. Ninety-two inflammatory biomarkers were analysed using proximity extension assay technology, to evaluate the effect of oxygen on the systemic inflammatory response to AMI. Plasma from 144 AMI patients was analysed whereof 76 (53%) were randomized to oxygen and 68 (47%) to air. Eight biomarkers showed a significant increase, whereas 13 were decreased 5-7 h after randomization. The inflammatory response did not differ between the two treatment groups neither did plasma troponin T levels. After adjustment for increase in troponin T over time, age and sex, the release of inflammation-related biomarkers was still similar in the groups. In a randomized controlled setting of normoxemic patients with AMI, the use of supplemental oxygen did not have any significant impact on the early release of systemic inflammatory markers. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Autonomic responses during acute myocardial infarction in the rat model: implications for arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, Theofilos M; Kontonika, Marianthi; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Vlahos, Antonios P; Baltogiannis, Giannis G; Gatzoulis, Konstantinos A; Chrousos, George P

    2018-04-10

    Autonomic responses participate in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction, but their precise time course remains unclear. Here, we investigated the autonomic activity and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in conscious, unrestrained rats post-infarction. The left coronary artery was ligated in 12 Wistar rats, and six rats were sham operated, followed by 24-h electrocardiographic recording via implanted telemetry transmitters. Sympathetic activity was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis and vagal activity by time- and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability. The duration of the ventricular tachyarrhythmias was measured, and voluntary motion served as a marker of heart failure. In sham-operated rats, heart rate and sympathetic activity remained low, whereas vagal activity rose progressively after the fourth hour. Post-ligation, medium-sized antero-septal necrosis was observed, reaching ~20% of the left ventricular volume; tachyarrhythmias were frequent, displaying a bimodal curve, and motion counts were low. Vagal activity decreased early post-ligation, coinciding with a high incidence of tachyarrhythmias, but tended to rise subsequently in rats with higher motion counts. Sympathetic activity increased after the third hour, along with a second tachyarrhythmia peak, and remained elevated throughout the 24-h period. Vagal withdrawal, followed by gradual sympathetic activation, may participate in arrhythmogenesis during acute myocardial infarction.

  11. Revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-05-19

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been also rarely reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation too. We present a case of a 49-year-old Italian man with revelation of changing axis deviation at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender differences in physical activity following acute myocardial infarction in adults: A prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Strait, Kelly M; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Camhi, Sarah M; Lichtman, Judith; Geda, Mary; Dreyer, Rachel P; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F; Curtis, Jeptha P; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-01-01

    Aims Despite the benefits of regular physical activity participation following acute myocardial infarction, little is known about gender differences in physical activity among patients after acute myocardial infarction. We described, by gender, physical activity trajectories pre- and post-acute myocardial infarction, and determined whether gender was independently associated with physical activity. Methods and results The Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI patients (VIRGO) study, conducted at 103 US, 24 Spanish, and three Australian hospitals, was designed, in part, to evaluate gender differences in lifestyle behaviors following acute myocardial infarction. We used baseline, one-month, and 12-month data collected from patients aged 18-55 years ( n = 3572). Patients were assigned to American Heart Association-defined levels of physical activity. A generalized estimating equation model was used to account for repeated measures within the same individual over time. Men were more active (≥150 min/wk moderate or ≥75 min/wk vigorous activity) than women at baseline (42% vs 34%), one month (45% vs 34%), and 12 months (48% vs 36%) (all p < 0.0001). Men engaged in a significantly longer duration of activity at each time point. When controlling for all other factors, women had 1.37 times the odds of being less active than men from pre-acute myocardial infarction to 12-months post-acute myocardial infarction (95% confidence interval: 1.21-1.55). Non-white race, non-active workplaces, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were also associated independently with being less active over time (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Although activity increased modestly over time, women recovering from acute myocardial infarction were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than were men. By identifying factors associated with low levels of activity during acute myocardial infarction recovery, targeted interventions can be

  13. Influence of climate variability on acute myocardial infarction mortality in Havana, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Alina; Bolufé, Javier; Ortiz, Paulo L; Rodríguez, Yunisleydi; Reyes, María C

    2015-04-01

    Death from acute myocardial infarction is due to many factors; influences on risk to the individual include habits, lifestyle and behavior, as well as weather, climate and other environmental components. Changing climate patterns make it especially important to understand how climatic variability may influence acute myocardial infarction mortality. Describe the relationship between climate variability and acute myocardial infarction mortality during the period 2001-2012 in Havana. An ecological time-series study was conducted. The universe comprised 23,744 deaths from acute myocardial infarction (ICD-10: I21-I22) in Havana residents from 2001 to 2012. Climate variability and seasonal anomalies were described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index (comprising variables of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure), along with series analysis to determine different seasonal-to-interannual climate variation signals. The role played by climate variables in acute myocardial infarction mortality was determined using factor analysis. The Mann-Kendall and Pettitt statistical tests were used for trend analysis with a significance level of 5%. The strong association between climate variability conditions described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index and acute myocardial infarctions accounts for the marked seasonal pattern in AMI mortality. The highest mortality rate occurred during the dry season, i.e., the winter months in Cuba (November-April), with peak numbers in January, December and March. The lowest mortality coincided with the rainy season, i.e., the summer months (May-October). A downward trend in total number of deaths can be seen starting with the change point in April 2009. Climate variability is inversely associated with an increase in acute myocardial infarction mortality as is shown by the Bultó-1 index. This inverse relationship accounts for acute myocardial infarction mortality's seasonal pattern.

  14. Clinical information transfer and data capture in the acute myocardial infarction pathway: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Sujatha; Kelay, Tanika; Collins, Ruth E; Cox, Benita; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger L; Sevdalis, Nick

    2013-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarctions (MIs) or heart attacks are the result of a complete or an incomplete occlusion of the lumen of the coronary artery with a thrombus. Prompt diagnosis and early coronary intervention results in maximum myocardial salvage, hence time to treat is of the essence. Adequate, accurate and complete information is vital during the early stages of admission of an MI patient and can impact significantly on the quality and safety of patient care. This study aimed to record how clinical information between different clinical teams during the journey of a patient in the MI care pathway is captured and to review the flow of information within this care pathway. A prospective, descriptive, structured observational study to assess (i) current clinical information systems (CIS) utilization and (ii) real-time information availability within an acute cardiac care setting was carried out. Completeness and availability of patient information capture across four key stages of the MI care pathway were assessed prospectively. Thirteen separate information systems were utilized during the four phases of the MI pathway. Observations revealed fragmented CIS utilization, with users accessing an average of six systems to gain a complete set of patient information. Data capture was found to vary between each pathway stage and in both patient cohort risk groupings. The highest level of information completeness (100%) was observed only in the discharge stage of the MI care pathway. The lowest level of information completeness (58%) was observed in the admission stage. The study highlights fragmentation, CIS duplication, and discrepancies in the current clinical information capture and data transfer across the MI care pathway in an acute cardiac care setting. The development of an integrated and user-friendly electronic data capture and transfer system would reduce duplication and would facilitate efficient and complete information provision at the point of care. © 2012

  15. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging parameters as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a variety of parameters potentially suited as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction such as infarct size, myocardial salvage, microvascular obstruction or left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. The present article reviews each of these parameters with regard to the pathophysiological basis, practical aspects, validity, reliability and its relative value (strengths and limitations) as compared to competitive modalities. Randomized controlled trials of acute myocardial infarction which have used CMR parameters as a primary endpoint are presented. PMID:21917147

  16. Limitation of myocardial infarct size and preservation of left ventricular function by early administration of APSAC in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bassand, J P; Machecourt, J; Cassagnes, J; Lusson, J R; Borel, E; Schiele, F

    1989-07-05

    In cases of acute myocardial infarction (MI), it has been shown that preserving left ventricular function and limiting infarct size with early reperfusion of the occluded artery by means of a thrombolytic agent could eventually result in a reduced mortality rate. The aim of the APSIM study (anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex [APSAC] dans l'infarctus du Myocarde) was to demonstrate that early administration of APSAC in patients with recent acute MI could limit the infarct size and preserve left ventricular systolic function. In all, 231 patients with a first acute MI were randomly allocated to either APSAC (30 U over 5 minutes) or to conventional heparin therapy (5,000 IU in bolus injection) within 5 hours of the onset of symptoms. Of these patients, 112 received APSAC and 119 received heparin within a mean period of 188 +/- 62 minutes after the onset of symptoms. The patency rate of the infarct-related artery was 77% in the APSAC group and 36% in the heparin group (p less than 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction determined from contrast angiography was significantly higher in the APSAC than in the heparin group. This was true for the entire population (0.53 +/- 0.13 vs 0.47 +/- 0.13, p = 0.002) as well as for the subgroups of anterior and inferior wall infarctions (0.47 +/- 0.13 vs 0.4 +/- 0.16, p = 0.004 and 0.56 +/- 0.11 vs 0.51 +/- 0.09, p = 0.02). At 3 weeks, the difference remained significant for patients with anterior MI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Detection of von Willebrand factor and tissue factor in platelets-fibrin rich coronary thrombi in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Sumi, Takahiro; Goto, Shinya; Hoshiba, Yasunari; Nishihira, Kensaku; Kawamoto, Riichirou; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Date, Haruhiko; Imamura, Takuroh; Ogawa, Hisao; Asada, Yujiro

    2006-01-01

    The rapid closure of coronary arteries due to occlusive thrombi is the major cause of acute myocardial infarction. However, the mechanisms of coronary thrombus formation have not been elucidated. We immunohistochemically assessed the localizations and their changes over time of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, fibrin, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and tissue factor (TF), after the onset of chest pain (<4, 4 to 6, or 6 to 12 hours), in fresh coronary thrombi causing acute myocardial infarction. The occlusive thrombi were consistently composed of platelets, fibrin, vWF, and TF from the early phase of onset, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and fibrin were closely associated with vWF and TF, respectively. vWF and/or TF may contribute to occlusive thrombus formation and be novel therapeutic candidates for treating patients with coronary thrombosis.

  18. Dream anxiety is an emotional trigger for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali; Gulec, Mustafa; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Ozdemir, Pinar G; Kilic, Sultan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between nightmares and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurring during sleep, and also to evaluate the influence of several related factors. The sample comprised AMI patients who had been admitted to the coronary care unit. The patients were grouped into two categories; the asleep-AMI group consisted of 36 patients who had the onset of symptoms of AMI during sleep, and the awake-AMI group included 183 patients who had AMI while they were awake. The sleep quality and dream anxiety for the 1-month interval before AMI were assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS), respectively. Asleep-AMI patients reported significantly poorer subjective sleep quality, significantly higher global PSQI scores, and displayed significantly higher nightmare frequency, difficulty in falling asleep after a nightmare, higher autonomic hyperactivity, dream recall frequency, daytime anxiety, psychological problems, and higher global dream anxiety scores than awake-AMI patients. The present study suggests that sleep anxiety and related emotions are associated with AMI during sleep. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prehospital care of patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Arntz, Hans-Richard

    2005-12-01

    Symptomatic prehospital therapy of patients suffering from an ST elevation myocardial infarction basically does not differ from in-hospital care regarding pain relief, beta-blockers, antiplatelets, and thrombin antagonists as well as therapy of elevated blood pressure and acute heart failure. Precondition of a targeted and adequate treatment, however, is the twelve-lead ECG whose reliability does not differ from the ECG in the hospital. Biomarkers have no role in the prehospital setting. Out-of-hospital thrombolysis, which has been proven to be superior to later in-hospital initiation, can be used as a safe strategy for reperfusion. Only the prehospital phase offers a chance to treat the majority of patients within the first 2 h after symptom onset, a time window where thrombolysis results in equal or even better outcomes with respect to mortality, if compared to percutaneous intervention. Therefore, prehospital thrombolysis should be routinely applied in areas with a weak infrastructure and few and less experienced facilities for intervention but should also be considered a principal way for earliest start of reperfusion therapy. There is increasing evidence supporting the "rescue PCI" concept in patients in whom thrombolysis has failed. By contrast, the role of "facilitated PCI" still has to be defined.

  20. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P < .001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combination of 2-hour absolute and relative change (hs-cTnT 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.97-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk determination after an acute myocardial infarction: review of 3 clinical risk prediction tools.

    PubMed

    Scruth, Elizabeth Ann; Page, Karen; Cheng, Eugene; Campbell, Michelle; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide comprehensive information for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) on commonly used clinical prediction (risk assessment) tools used to estimate risk of a secondary cardiac or noncardiac event and mortality in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The evolution and widespread adoption of primary PCI represent major advances in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, specifically STEMI. The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association have recommended early risk stratification for patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes using several clinical risk scores to identify patients' mortality and secondary event risk after PCI. Clinical nurse specialists are integral to any performance improvement strategy. Their knowledge and understandings of clinical prediction tools will be essential in carrying out important assessment, identifying and managing risk in patients who have sustained a STEMI, and enhancing discharge education including counseling on medications and lifestyle changes. Over the past 2 decades, risk scores have been developed from clinical trials to facilitate risk assessment. There are several risk scores that can be used to determine in-hospital and short-term survival. This article critiques the most common tools: the Thrombolytic in Myocardial Infarction risk score, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, and the Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications risk score. The importance of incorporating risk screening assessment tools (that are important for clinical prediction models) to guide therapeutic management of patients cannot be underestimated. The ability to forecast secondary risk after a STEMI will assist in determining which patients would require the most aggressive level of treatment and monitoring postintervention including

  2. Educational technology improves ECG interpretation of acute myocardial infarction among medical students and emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Ali; Tanski, Mary; Davis, Steven; Shokoohi, Hamid; Lucas, Raymond; Zaver, Fareen

    2015-01-01

    Asynchronous online training has become an increasingly popular educational format in the new era of technology-based professional development. We sought to evaluate the impact of an online asynchronous training module on the ability of medical students and emergency medicine (EM) residents to detect electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We developed an online ECG training and testing module on AMI, with emphasis on recognizing ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and early activation of cardiac catheterization resources. Study participants included senior medical students and EM residents at all post-graduate levels rotating in our emergency department (ED). Participants were given a baseline set of ECGs for interpretation. This was followed by a brief interactive online training module on normal ECGs as well as abnormal ECGs representing an acute MI. Participants then underwent a post-test with a set of ECGs in which they had to interpret and decide appropriate intervention including catheterization lab activation. 148 students and 35 EM residents participated in this training in the 2012-2013 academic year. Students and EM residents showed significant improvements in recognizing ECG abnormalities after taking the asynchronous online training module. The mean score on the testing module for students improved from 5.9 (95% CI [5.7-6.1]) to 7.3 (95% CI [7.1-7.5]), with a mean difference of 1.4 (95% CI [1.12-1.68]) (p<0.0001). The mean score for residents improved significantly from 6.5 (95% CI [6.2-6.9]) to 7.8 (95% CI [7.4-8.2]) (p<0.0001). An online interactive module of training improved the ability of medical students and EM residents to correctly recognize the ECG evidence of an acute MI.

  3. The Olson method for detection of acute myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Thomas; Olson, Charles W; Swenne, Cees A; Man, Sumche; Pahlm, Olle

    An automated ECG-based method may provide diagnostic support in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Olson method has previously proved to accurately identify the culprit artery in patients with acute coronary occlusion. The Olson method was applied to 360 patients without acute myocardial ischemia and 52 patients with acute coronary occlusion. This study establishes the normal variation of the Olson wall scores in patients without acute myocardial ischemia, which provides the basis for implementation of the Olson method for triage of patients with acute coronary syndrome. All patients with acute occlusion had Olson wall scores above the upper limit of normal. The Olson method can be used for ischemia detection with very high sensitivity. Future studies are needed to explore specificity in patients with non-ischemic ST elevation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Reduces Inflammation After Induction of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiechter, Danielle; Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; van Middelaar, Ben; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique; Seinen, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increasing evidence suggesting that lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin may be an important activator of the innate immune system after acute myocardial infarction. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduces inflammation in several endotoxin mediated diseases by dephosphorylation of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on reducing inflammation after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Just before permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery to induce acute myocardial infarction in Balb/c mice, bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP) was administrated intravenously. After 4 hours, mice were sacrificed and the inflammatory response was assessed. Acute myocardial infarction induced the production of different cytokines, which were measured in blood. Results Treatment with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and the chymase mouse mast cell protease-1. No difference in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed between the control group and the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase treated group. Conclusion In a mouse model of permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, bIAP diminishes the pro-inflammatory responses but does not have an effect on the anti-inflammatory response in the acute phase after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:28357012

  5. Bovine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Reduces Inflammation After Induction of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, Danielle; Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; van Middelaar, Ben; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique; Seinen, Willem

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing evidence suggesting that lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin may be an important activator of the innate immune system after acute myocardial infarction. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduces inflammation in several endotoxin mediated diseases by dephosphorylation of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on reducing inflammation after acute myocardial infarction. Just before permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery to induce acute myocardial infarction in Balb/c mice, bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP) was administrated intravenously. After 4 hours, mice were sacrificed and the inflammatory response was assessed. Acute myocardial infarction induced the production of different cytokines, which were measured in blood. Treatment with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and the chymase mouse mast cell protease-1. No difference in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed between the control group and the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase treated group. In a mouse model of permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, bIAP diminishes the pro-inflammatory responses but does not have an effect on the anti-inflammatory response in the acute phase after acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Multislice coronary computed tomographic angiography in emergency department presentations of unsuspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Harvey S; Bhatti, Tandeep

    2009-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is not indicated in the setting of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department (ED). Nonetheless, acute coronary syndromes may have atypical presentations, and CCTA may be inadvertently performed in this setting. This study was designed to determine the frequency and characteristics of CCTA imaging of unsuspected acute myocardial infarction in the ED. All CCTAs performed in the ED at Lenox Hill Hospital were reviewed for clinical indications and subsequent course; patients with documented acute myocardial infarction were identified. Of the 500 CCTAs performed on ED patients in the Lenox Hill laboratory, 5 patients (1%) were imaged during the initial phase of an unsuspected acute myocardial infarction; in all cases the CCTAs were key to the diagnosis. The imaging characteristics were (1) total or subtotal occlusion and (2) transmural hypodensity in the infarct area. Although acute myocardial infarction on CCTA in ED patients is an infrequent event, proper and prompt recognition is critical for appropriate patient care, particularly as applications to the ED increase.

  7. Single High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I to Rule Out Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Yader; Smith, Stephen W; Love, Sara A; Sexter, Anne; Schulz, Karen; Apple, Fred S

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the performance of single high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) measurement strategies to rule out acute myocardial infarction. This was a prospective, observational study of consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (n = 1631) in whom cTnI measurements were obtained using an investigational hs-cTnI assay. The goals of the study were to determine 1) negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, type 1 myocardial infarction, and type 2 myocardial infarction; and 2) safety outcome of acute myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days using hs-cTnI less than the limit of detection (LoD) (<1.9 ng/L) or the High-STEACS threshold (<5 ng/L) alone and in combination with normal electrocardiogram (ECG). Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 170 patients (10.4%), including 68 (4.2%) type 1 myocardial infarction and 102 (6.3%) type 2 myocardial infarction. For hs-cTnIacute myocardial infarction were 99.6% (95% confidence interval 98.9%-100%) and 98.8 (97.2%-100%). For hs-cTnI<5 ng/L (50%), the NPV and sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction were 98.9% (98.2%-99.6%) and 94.7% (91.3%-98.1%). In combination with a normal ECG, 1) hs-cTnIacute myocardial infarction and who are at very low risk for adverse events at 30 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Echocardiographic indices related with acute coronary anatomy in acute phase of myocardial infarction: our experience].

    PubMed

    Belluzzi, Fabio; Ciocca, Anna; Grosso Di Palma, Lucia; Cattaneo, Mattia; Conti, Caterina; Magrini, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    Inferior acute myocardial infarction (IAMI) is often associated with right ventricle involvement (RVAMI). Echocardiogram (Echo) shows the ischemic involvement of the right ventricle with an initial dilatation (RVD) and segmental cinetic abnormalities (RVSCS). During RVAMI the normal convexity of the interatrial septum (IAS) toward right atrium is inverted (IASI). 53 patients with IAMI were studied with ECG, echo and hemodinamic monitoring by a Swan-Ganz catheter. Echo was early performed and patients were subdivided into three groups: 1. IAMI with RVSCS and/or RVD with IASI (12 patients); 2. IAMI with RVSCS and/or RVD without IASI (8 patients); 3. IAMI without VSCS, RVD IASI (33 patients). ECG showed RV involvement only in A and B groups (ST-T segment elevation more than 2 mm in V3 r - V5 r). Echo-Doppler showed no statistically differences between the two groups on RV protodiastolic pression; no hemodinamic differences between the two groups (p = n.s.); no statistically differences in central venous pressure, right ventricular pressure, cardiac output, wedge pressure. Complications (arrhytmias, heart failure, ipotension, pericarditis, 3rd A-V block) were so subdivided: group A: 6 patients (50%); group B: 2 patients (24%); group C: 4 patients (12%) with statistical significance (p<0.03) between all three groups. Coronarography showed that in group A significative lesions were localized in the proximal tract of the right coronary and/or in the proximal tract of the circumflex coronary; on the contrary in B and C groups the lesions were localized in medium and distal tract of the two vessels. Mortality at six months was 41 % in group A (5 patients); 20 % in group B (2 patients); 6 % in group C (2 patients), with p<0.01 between all three groups. Echo after six months showed IASI only in two patients of group A. Patients with IASI revealed complications (residual angina, ventricular ipercinetic arrytmias). IASI in patients with IAMI and RVAMI seems to identify a group

  9. Time course evaluation of myocardial perfusion after reperfusion therapy by 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, R; Nakamura, T

    2001-09-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-labeled agents immediately after reperfusion therapy can underestimate myocardial salvage. It is also conceivable that delayed imaging is useful for assessing the risk area. However, to our knowledge, very few studies have sequentially evaluated these image changes. We conducted 99mTc-tetrofosmin (TF) and 123I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) SPECT before and after reperfusion to treat acute myocardial infarction and quantified changes in TF myocardial accumulation and reverse redistribution. Seventeen patients with a first myocardial infarction underwent successful reperfusion. We examined SPECT images obtained at the onset (preimage), those acquired 30 min (early image) and 6 h (delayed image) after TF injection, and images acquired 1, 4, 7, and 20 d after reperfusion (post-1-d, post-4-d, post-7-d, and post-20-d image, respectively). We also examined BMIPP SPECT images after 7 +/- 1.8 d (BMIPP image). Polar maps were divided into 48 segments to calculate percentage uptake, and time course changes in segment numbers below 60% were observed as abnormal area. Moreover, cardiac function was analyzed by gated TF SPECT on 1 and 20 d after reperfusion. In reference to the abnormal area on the early images, the post-1-d image was significantly improved compared with the preimage (P < 0.01) as was the post-7-d image compared with the post-1-d and post-4-d images (P < 0.05, respectively). However, post-20-d and post-7-d images did not significantly differ. Therefore, the improvement in myocardial accumulation reached a plateau 7 d after reperfusion. On the other hand, the abnormal area on the delayed images was significantly greater (P < 0.01) compared with that on the early images from 4 to 20 d after reperfusion, as the value was essentially constant. The correlations of the abnormal area between the preimage and the post-7-d delayed image, the preimage and the BMIPP image, and the post-7-d delayed image and the

  10. Regional Myocardial Blood Flow and Ultrastructure Following Acute Temporary Ischemia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    relationship of vascular injury and myocardial hemorrhage to necrosis after reperfusion. Circulation 62:1274-1279 39. Flores J, DiBona DR, Beck CH, Leaf A...the reptilian and amphibian circulations. Anat Rec 3:75-109 87. Powell WF, Flores J, DiBona DR, Leaf A (1973) The role of cell swelling in myocardial

  11. Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; An, Shoukuan; Li, Junquan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P < .05 was used as the cutoff for a differentially expressed gene (DEG). The expression data matrices of DEGs were imported in ReactomeFIViz to construct a gene functional interaction (FI) network. Then, DEGs in each module were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MiRNAs and transcription factors predicted to regulate target DEGs were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to verify the expression of genes. A total of 913 upregulated genes and 1060 downregulated genes were identified in the AMI group. A FI network consists of 21 modules and DEGs in 12 modules were significantly enriched in pathways. The transcription factor-miRNA-gene network contains 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p. RT-PCR validations showed that expression levels of FOXO3 and MYBL2 were significantly increased in AMI, and expression levels of hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p were obviously decreased in AMI. A total of 41 DEGs, such as SOCS3, VAPA, and COL5A2, are speculated to have roles in the pathogenesis of AMI; 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p may be involved in the regulation of the expression of these DEGs.

  12. Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; An, Shoukuan; Li, Junquan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. Methods: Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P < .05 was used as the cutoff for a differentially expressed gene (DEG). The expression data matrices of DEGs were imported in ReactomeFIViz to construct a gene functional interaction (FI) network. Then, DEGs in each module were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MiRNAs and transcription factors predicted to regulate target DEGs were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to verify the expression of genes. Result: A total of 913 upregulated genes and 1060 downregulated genes were identified in the AMI group. A FI network consists of 21 modules and DEGs in 12 modules were significantly enriched in pathways. The transcription factor-miRNA-gene network contains 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p. RT-PCR validations showed that expression levels of FOXO3 and MYBL2 were significantly increased in AMI, and expression levels of hsa-miR-21–5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p were obviously decreased in AMI. Conclusion: A total of 41 DEGs, such as SOCS3, VAPA, and COL5A2, are speculated to have roles in the pathogenesis of AMI; 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p may be involved in the regulation of the expression of these DEGs. PMID:29049183

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Susannah M; Spertus, John A; Reid, Kimberly J; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Desai, Rani A; Peterson, Eric D; Rathore, Saif S; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Jones, Philip G; Rahimi, Ali; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2007-02-01

    Patients of low socioeconomic status (SES) have higher mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Little is known about the underlying mechanisms or the relationship between SES and rehospitalization after AMI. We analyzed data from the PREMIER observational study, which included 2142 patients hospitalized with AMI from 18 US hospitals. Socioeconomic status was measured by self-reported household income and education level. Sequential multivariable modeling assessed the relationship of socioeconomic factors with 1-year all-cause mortality and all-cause rehospitalization after adjustment for demographics, clinical factors, and quality-of-care measures. Both household income and education level were associated with higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.80, 95% CI 1.37-5.72, lowest to highest income group) and rehospitalization after AMI (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.17-2.05). Patients with low SES had worse clinical status at admission and received poorer quality of care. In multivariable modeling, the relationship between household income and mortality was attenuated by adjustment for demographic and clinical factors (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.54-2.62), with a further small decrement in the hazard ratio after adjustment for quality of care. The relationship between income and rehospitalization was only partly attenuated by demographic and clinical factors (hazard ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.89) and was not influenced by adjustment for quality of care. Patients' baseline clinical status largely explained the relationship between SES and mortality, but not rehospitalization, among patients with AMI.

  14. The Association Between Divorce and Risks for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dupre, Matthew E.; George, Linda K.; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in U.S. adults. Methods and Results We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one-third of the cohort had at least one divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1,211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced relative to those who were continuously married (P<.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who had 1 divorce (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55), 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.30; 95%CI, 1.02-1.66) relative to continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Conclusions Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. PMID:25872508

  15. Handheld echocardiography during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Michael W; Geske, Jeffrey B; Anavekar, Nandan S; Askew, J Wells; Lewis, Bradley R; Oh, Jae K

    2017-11-01

    Handheld echocardiography (HHE) is concordant with standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a variety of settings but has not been thoroughly compared to traditional TTE in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Completed by experienced operators, HHE provides accurate diagnostic capabilities compared with standard TTE in AMI patients. This study prospectively enrolled patients admitted to the coronary care unit with AMI. Experienced sonographers performed HHE with a V-scan. All patients underwent clinical TTE. Each HHE was interpreted by 2 experts blinded to standard TTE. Agreement was assessed with κ statistics and concordance correlation coefficients. Analysis included 82 patients (mean age, 66 years; 74% male). On standard TTE, mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was 46%. Correlation coefficients between HHE and TTE were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.82) for LV ejection fraction and 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.58 to 0.77) for wall motion score index. The κ statistics ranged from 0.47 to 0.56 for LV enlargement, 0.55 to 0.79 for mitral regurgitation, and 0.44 to 0.57 for inferior vena cava dilatation. The κ statistics were highest for the anterior (0.81) and septal (0.71) apex and lowest for the mid inferolateral (0.36) and basal inferoseptal (0.36) walls. In patients with AMI, HHE and standard TTE demonstrate good correlation for LV function and wall motion. Agreement was less robust for structural abnormalities and specific wall segments. In experienced hands, HHE can provide a focused assessment of LV function in patients hospitalized with AMI; however, HHE should not substitute for comprehensive TTE. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Utility of salivary biomarkers for demonstrating acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miller, C S; Foley, J D; Floriano, P N; Christodoulides, N; Ebersole, J L; Campbell, C L; Bailey, A L; Rose, B G; Kinane, D F; Novak, M J; McDevitt, J T; Ding, X; Kryscio, R J

    2014-07-01

    The comparative utility of serum and saliva as diagnostic fluids for identifying biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was investigated. The goal was to determine if salivary biomarkers could facilitate a screening diagnosis of AMI, especially in cases of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), since these cases are not readily identified by electrocardiogram (ECG). Serum and unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) collected from 92 AMI patients within 48 hours of chest pain onset and 105 asymptomatic healthy control individuals were assayed for 13 proteins relevant to cardiovascular disease, by Beadlyte technology (Luminex(®)) and enzyme immunoassays. Data were analyzed with concentration cut-points, ECG findings, logistic regression (LR) (adjusted for matching for age, gender, race, smoking, number of teeth, and oral health status), and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by repetition of the CART analysis in 58 cases and 58 controls, each matched by age and gender. Serum biomarkers demonstrated AMI sensitivity and specificity superior to that of saliva, as determined by LR and CART. The predominant discriminators in serum by LR were troponin I (TnI), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and TnI and BNP by CART. In saliva, LR identified C-reactive protein (CRP) as the biomarker most predictive of AMI. A combination of smoking tobacco, UWS CRP, CK-MB, sCD40 ligand, gender, and number of teeth identified AMI in the CART decision trees. When ECG findings, salivary biomarkers, and confounders were included, AMI was predicted with 80.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These analyses support the potential utility of salivary biomarker measurements used with ECG for the identification of AMI. Thus, saliva-based tests may provide additional diagnostic screening information in the clinical course for patients suspected of having an AMI. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  17. Air Pollution and Hospitalization for Acute Myocardial Infarction in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Sun, Kexin; Juan, Juan; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Xu, Beibei; Hu, Yonghua

    2017-09-01

    There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to explore the association in 14 Chinese cities using a time-stratified case-crossover design. We identified 80,787 hospital admissions for AMI between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015 from electronic hospitalization summary reports. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the percent changes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in AMI admissions in relation to an interquartile range increase in ambient air pollutant concentrations. All analyzed air pollutants, with the exception of ozone, were positively associated with daily AMI admissions on lag2 and lag3 days. An interquartile range increase in particulate matter <10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide concentrations on lag2 day was significantly associated with a 0.8% (95% CI 0.1%, 1.6%), 2.0% (95% CI 1.2%, 2.9%), 2.2% (95% CI 1.4%, 3.1%), and 1.1% (95% CI 0.4%, 1.8%) increase in AMI admissions, respectively. We also observed a significant association in relation to ozone on lag4 day (percent change: 1.3%; 95% CI 0.2%, 2.4%). Subgroup analyses indicated no effect modification of risk by age (≥65 years and <65 years) or gender. In conclusion, this is the first multicity study in China, or even in other developing countries, to report the short-term effects of air pollution on AMI morbidity. Our findings contribute to the limited scientific data on the effects of ambient air pollution on AMI in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recognition of incident diabetes mellitus during an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Stolker, Joshua M; Lipska, Kasia J; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A; McGuire, Darren K; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Goyal, Abhinav; Maddox, Thomas M; Lind, Marcus; Gumber, Divya; Shore, Supriya; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in patients hospitalized with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), representing in some cases the first opportunity to recognize and treat DM. We report the incidence of new DM and its recognition among patients with AMI. Patients in a 24-site US AMI registry (2005-08) had glycosylated hemoglobin assessed at a core laboratory, with results blinded to clinicians and local clinical measurements left to the discretion of the treating providers. Among 2854 AMI patients without known DM on admission, 287 patients (10%) met criteria for previously unknown DM, defined by a core laboratory glycosylated hemoglobin of ≥6.5%. Among these, 186 (65%) were unrecognized by treating clinicians, receiving neither DM education, glucose-lowering medications at discharge, nor documentation of DM in the chart (median glycosylated hemoglobin of unrecognized patients, 6.7%; range, 6.5-12.3%). Six months after discharge, only 5% of those not recognized as having DM during hospitalization had been initiated on glucose-lowering medications versus 66% of those recognized (P<0.001). Underlying DM that has not been previously diagnosed is common among AMI patients, affecting 1 in 10 patients, yet is recognized by the care team only one third of the time. Given its frequency and therapeutic implications, including but extending beyond the initiation of glucose-lowering treatment, consideration should be given to screening all AMI patients for DM during hospitalization. Inexpensive, ubiquitous, and endorsed as an acceptable screen for DM, glycosylated hemoglobin testing should be considered for this purpose. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Pressure injuries in elderly with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Komici, Klara; Vitale, Dino F; Leosco, Dario; Mancini, Angela; Corbi, Graziamaria; Bencivenga, Leonardo; Mezzani, Alessandro; Trimarco, Bruno; Morisco, Carmine; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To assess pressure injury (PI) incidence among patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in an intensive coronary care unit (ICCU) and to detect the impact of specific risk factors on the development of PI in this clinical setting. Prospective cohort study in ICCU setting. Patients admitted for AMI: patients mean age 67.5±11.5 years (n=165). Norton Scale, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), demographic, clinical and biochemical data collected at the time of ICCU admission have been tested in a logistic model to assess the odds ratios (ORs) of PI risk development. The jackknifed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the decision curve analysis have been employed to assess the additive predictive value of a factor. Twenty-seven (16.3%) patients developed PIs. An increased PI risk was associated with advanced age (OR =2.5 every 10-year increase; 95% CI =1.1-5.7), while probability of PI development was reduced in patients with higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR =0.4 every 5% increase; 95% CI =0.24-0.66), MNA score (OR =0.65 every unit change; 95% CI =0.44-0.95) and Norton Scale score (OR =0.7 every unit change; 95% CI =0.57-0.88). The AUC and the decision curve analysis showed that LVEF inclusion improved the discrimination power and the clinical net benefit of the final model. Age, LVEF, Norton Scale and MNA scores have a strong and independent clinical value as predictors of in-hospital PI development in patients with AMI. This finding has the potential to improve the clinical management of patients admitted in ICCU.

  20. Association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Matthew E; George, Linda K; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in US adults. We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 years (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one third of the cohort had ≥1 divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced compared with those who were continuously married (P<0.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who had 1 divorce (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.55), ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.66) compared with continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Effects of increasing left ventricular filling pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Richard O.; Rackley, Charles E.; Pombo, Jaoquin; Hunt, David; Potanin, Constantine; Dodge, Harold T.

    1970-01-01

    Left ventricular performance in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction has been evaluated by measuring left ventricular response in terms of cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power to progressive elevation of filling pressure accomplished by progressive expansion of blood volume with rapid infusion of low molecular weight dextran. Such infusion can elevate the cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power and thus delineate the function of the left ventricle by Frank-Starling function curves. Left ventricular filling pressure in the range of 20-24 mm Hg was associated with the peak of the curves and when the filling pressure exceeded this range, the curves became flattened or decreased. An increase in cardiac output could be maintained for 4 or more hr. Patients with a flattened function curve had a high mortality in the ensuing 8 wk. The function curve showed improvement in myocardial function during the early convalescence. When left ventricular filling pressure is monitored directly or as pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure, low molecular weight dextran provides a method for assessment of left ventricular function. Images PMID:5431663

  2. Decision making processes in people with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, Jill; Watt, Ian; Lewin, Robert J P; Stanford, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify the themes that influence decision making processes used by patients with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting Two district hospitals in North Yorkshire. Participants 22 patients admitted to hospital with confirmed second, third, or fourth acute myocardial infarction. Main outcome measure Patients' perceptions of their experience between the onset of symptoms and the decision to seek medical help. Results Six main themes that influence the decision making process were identified: appraisal of symptoms, perceived risk, previous experience, psychological and emotional factors, use of the NHS, and context of the event. Conclusions Knowledge of symptoms may not be enough to promote prompt action in the event of an acute myocardial infarction. Cognitive and emotional processes, individual beliefs and values, and the influence of the context of the event should also be considered in individual interventions designed to reduce delay in the event of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. What is already known on this topicIndividual sociodemographic and clinical characteristics affect the time to seeking medical care in patients with symptoms of acute myocardial infarctionAppraisal of symptoms is difficult; people with classic and severe symptoms are more likely to take prompt actionWhat this study addsThe decision to seek medical help in patients who have had one or more previous myocardial infarctions is a complex processSimply providing patients with information on symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, and what to do in the event of these symptoms, may not be sufficient to promote prompt action PMID:11976241

  3. Reduction in Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Krumholz, Harlan M.; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jersey; Drye, Elizabeth E.; Spertus, John A.; Ross, Joseph S.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Havranek, Edward P.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Radford, Martha J.; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Straube, Barry M.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.

    2012-01-01

    Context During the last 2 decades, health care professional, consumer, and payer organizations have sought to improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, little has been reported about improvements in hospital short-term mortality rates or reductions in between-hospital variation in short-term mortality rates. Objective To estimate hospital-level 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) for patients discharged with AMI. Design, Setting, and Patients Observational study using administrative data and a validated risk model to evaluate 3 195 672 discharges in 2 755 370 patients discharged from nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2006. Patients were 65 years or older (mean, 78 years) and had at least a 12-month history of fee-for-service enrollment prior to the index hospitalization. Patients discharged alive within 1 day of an admission not against medical advice were excluded, because it is unlikely that these patients had sustained an AMI. Main Outcome Measure Hospital-specific 30-day all-cause RSMR. Results At the patient level, the odds of dying within 30 days of admission if treated at a hospital 1 SD above the national average relative to that if treated at a hospital 1 SD below the national average were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.60-1.65) in 1995 and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.53-1.60) in 2006. In terms of hospital-specific RSMRs, a decrease from 18.8% in 1995 to 15.8% in 2006 was observed (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.75-0.77). A reduction in between-hospital heterogeneity in the RSMRs was also observed: the coefficient of variation decreased from 11.2% in 1995 to 10.8%, the interquartile range from 2.8% to 2.1%, and the between-hospital variance from 4.4% to 2.9%. Conclusion Between 1995 and 2006, the risk-standardized hospital mortality rate for Medicare patients discharged with AMI showed a significant decrease, as did between-hospital variation. PMID:19690309

  4. Percutaneous assist devices in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock: Review, meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Francesco; Acconcia, Maria Cristina; Sergi, Domenico; Romeo, Alessia; Francioni, Simona; Chiarotti, Flavia; Caretta, Quintilio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of percutaneous cardiac support in cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We selected all of the studies published from January 1st, 1997 to May 15st, 2015 that compared the following percutaneous mechanical support in patients with CS due to AMI undergoing myocardial revascularization: (1) intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) vs Medical therapy; (2) percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (PLVADs) vs IABP; (3) complete extracorporeal life support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) plus IABP vs IABP alone; and (4) ECMO plus IABP vs ECMO alone, in patients with AMI and CS undergoing myocardial revascularization. We evaluated the impact of the support devices on primary and secondary endpoints. Primary endpoint was the inhospital mortality due to any cause during the same hospital stay and secondary endpoint late mortality at 6-12 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and seventy-two studies met the initial screening criteria. After detailed review, only 30 were selected. There were 6 eligible randomized controlled trials and 24 eligible observational studies totaling 15799 patients. We found that the inhospital mortality was: (1) significantly higher with IABP support vs medical therapy (RR = +15%, P = 0.0002); (2) was higher, although not significantly, with PLVADs compared to IABP (RR = +14%, P = 0.21); and (3) significantly lower in patients treated with ECMO plus IABP vs IABP (RR = -44%, P = 0.0008) or ECMO (RR = -20%, P = 0.006) alone. In addition, Trial Sequential Analysis showed that in the comparison of IABP vs medical therapy, the sample size was adequate to demonstrate a significant increase in risk due to IABP. CONCLUSION: Inhospital mortality was significantly higher with IABP vs medical therapy. PLVADs did not reduce early mortality. ECMO plus IABP significantly reduced inhospital mortality compared to IABP. PMID

  5. PCI Strategies in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Holger; Akin, Ibrahim; Sandri, Marcus; Fuernau, Georg; de Waha, Suzanne; Meyer-Saraei, Roza; Nordbeck, Peter; Geisler, Tobias; Landmesser, Ulf; Skurk, Carsten; Fach, Andreas; Lapp, Harald; Piek, Jan J; Noc, Marko; Goslar, Tomaž; Felix, Stephan B; Maier, Lars S; Stepinska, Janina; Oldroyd, Keith; Serpytis, Pranas; Montalescot, Gilles; Barthelemy, Olivier; Huber, Kurt; Windecker, Stephan; Savonitto, Stefano; Torremante, Patrizia; Vrints, Christiaan; Schneider, Steffen; Desch, Steffen; Zeymer, Uwe

    2017-12-21

    In patients who have acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, early revascularization of the culprit artery by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes. However, the majority of patients with cardiogenic shock have multivessel disease, and whether PCI should be performed immediately for stenoses in nonculprit arteries is controversial. In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 706 patients who had multivessel disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock to one of two initial revascularization strategies: either PCI of the culprit lesion only, with the option of staged revascularization of nonculprit lesions, or immediate multivessel PCI. The primary end point was a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy within 30 days after randomization. Safety end points included bleeding and stroke. At 30 days, the composite primary end point of death or renal-replacement therapy had occurred in 158 of the 344 patients (45.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group and in 189 of the 341 patients (55.4%) in the multivessel PCI group (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01). The relative risk of death in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group as compared with the multivessel PCI group was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98; P=0.03), and the relative risk of renal-replacement therapy was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.03; P=0.07). The time to hemodynamic stabilization, the risk of catecholamine therapy and the duration of such therapy, the levels of troponin T and creatine kinase, and the rates of bleeding and stroke did not differ significantly between the two groups. Among patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, the 30-day risk of a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy was lower among those who initially underwent PCI of the culprit lesion only than among those

  6. Hospital-Confirmed Acute Myocardial Infarction: Prehospital Identification Using the Medical Priority Dispatch System.

    PubMed

    Clawson, Jeff J; Gardett, Isabel; Scott, Greg; Fivaz, Conrad; Barron, Tracey; Broadbent, Meghan; Olola, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Early recognition of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can increase the patient's likelihood of survival. As the first point of contact for patients accessing medical care through emergency services, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) represent the earliest potential identification point for AMIs. The objective of the study was to determine how AMI cases were coded and prioritized at the dispatch point, and also to describe the distribution of these cases by patient age and gender. Hypothesis/Problem No studies currently exist that describe the EMD's ability to correctly triage AMIs into Advanced Life Support (ALS) response tiers. The retrospective descriptive study utilized data from three sources: emergency medical dispatch, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency departments (EDs)/hospitals. The primary outcome measure was the distributions of AMI cases, as categorized by Chief Complaint Protocol, dispatch priority code and level, and patient age and gender. The EMS and ED/hospital data came from the Utah Department of Health (UDoH), Salt Lake City, Utah. Dispatch data came from two emergency communication centers covering the entirety of Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County, Utah. Overall, 89.9% of all the AMIs (n=606) were coded in one of the three highest dispatch priority levels, all of which call for ALS response (called CHARLIE, DELTA, and ECHO in the studied system). The percentage of AMIs significantly increased for patients aged 35 years and older, and varied significantly by gender, dispatch level, and chief complaint. A total of 85.7% of all deaths occurred among patients aged 55 years and older, and 88.9% of the deaths were handled in the ALS-recommended priority levels. Acute myocardial infarctions may present as a variety of clinical symptoms, and the study findings demonstrated that more than one-half were identified as having chief complaints of Chest Pain or Breathing Problems at the dispatch point, followed by Sick

  7. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Robert P; White, Jennifer A; Bode, Christoph; Armstrong, Paul W; Montalescot, Gilles; Lewis, Basil S; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Berdan, Lisa G; Lee, Kerry L; Strony, John T; Hildemann, Steven; Veltri, Enrico; Van de Werf, Frans; Braunwald, Eugene; Harrington, Robert A; Califf, Robert M; Newby, L Kristin

    2009-05-21

    Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are indicated in patients with acute coronary syndromes who are undergoing an invasive procedure. The optimal timing of the initiation of such therapy is unknown. We compared a strategy of early, routine administration of eptifibatide with delayed, provisional administration in 9492 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and who were assigned to an invasive strategy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either early eptifibatide (two boluses, each containing 180 microg per kilogram of body weight, administered 10 minutes apart, and a standard infusion > or = 12 hours before angiography) or a matching placebo infusion with provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography (delayed eptifibatide). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization, or the occurrence of a thrombotic complication during percutaneous coronary intervention that required bolus therapy opposite to the initial study-group assignment ("thrombotic bailout") at 96 hours. The key secondary end point was a composite of death or myocardial infarction within the first 30 days. Key safety end points were bleeding and the need for transfusion within the first 120 hours after randomization. The primary end point occurred in 9.3% of patients in the early-eptifibatide group and in 10.0% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P=0.23). At 30 days, the rate of death or myocardial infarction was 11.2% in the early-eptifibatide group, as compared with 12.3% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.01; P=0.08). Patients in the early-eptifibatide group had significantly higher rates of bleeding and red-cell transfusion. There was no significant difference between the two groups in rates of severe bleeding or nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events. In patients who had acute

  8. Highly automatic quantification of myocardial oedema in patients with acute myocardial infarction using bright blood T2-weighted CMR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is clinically-useful for imaging the ischemic area-at-risk and amount of salvageable myocardium in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, to date, quantification of oedema is user-defined and potentially subjective. Methods We describe a highly automatic framework for quantifying myocardial oedema from bright blood T2-weighted CMR in patients with acute MI. Our approach retains user input (i.e. clinical judgment) to confirm the presence of oedema on an image which is then subjected to an automatic analysis. The new method was tested on 25 consecutive acute MI patients who had a CMR within 48 hours of hospital admission. Left ventricular wall boundaries were delineated automatically by variational level set methods followed by automatic detection of myocardial oedema by fitting a Rayleigh-Gaussian mixture statistical model. These data were compared with results from manual segmentation of the left ventricular wall and oedema, the current standard approach. Results The mean perpendicular distances between automatically detected left ventricular boundaries and corresponding manual delineated boundaries were in the range of 1-2 mm. Dice similarity coefficients for agreement (0=no agreement, 1=perfect agreement) between manual delineation and automatic segmentation of the left ventricular wall boundaries and oedema regions were 0.86 and 0.74, respectively. Conclusion Compared to standard manual approaches, the new highly automatic method for estimating myocardial oedema is accurate and straightforward. It has potential as a generic software tool for physicians to use in clinical practice. PMID:23548176

  9. Role of leukocytes and platelets in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia initiates an inflammatory-like response in which invading neutrophils exacerbate the degree of injury. The effects of nafazatrom, a new antithrombotic agent, on leukocyte function in vitro and in vivo were related to its ability to salvage ischemic myocardium in an occulsion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury in the anesthetized dogs. Measurements of the neutrophil-specific myeloperoxidase enzyme in ischemic myocardium indicate that the smaller infarct size in dogs treated with nafazatrom is accompanied by a diminished leukocyte infiltration. The results obtained with nafazatrom emphasize the important role of the neutrophil in ischemia-induced myocardial damage. The possibility that myocardial ischemia-induced plateletmore » deposition was secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event was assessed by the injection of PGI{sub 2}-washed autologous {sup 111}indium-labeled platelets and measuring the amount of radioactivity in different regions of the heart following a 90 min. occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for periods up to 5 hrs. Neutropenia, induced with specific sheep anti-dog neutrophil antiserum, significantly reduced platelet accumulation in the ischemic myocardium following 5 hrs. reperfusion and abolished the transmural platelet distribution. These results suggest that myocardial platelet deposition is secondary to a neutrophil-mediated event in this occlusion-reperfusion model of myocardial injury.« less

  10. [Myocardial ultrastructural changes in rats following different levels of acute +Gz exposure].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Cheng-gang; Ren, Li; Xiao, Xiao-guang; Xu, Shu-xuan; Wang, Ping; Ji, Gui-ying

    2004-06-01

    To observe the effects of different levels of acute +Gz exposure on myocardial ultrastructure of rats and provide experimental basis for further development of anti-G measures. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5): normal control group, +20 Gz group, +10 Gz group and +5 Gz group. Profile of the centrifuge +Gz exposure was trapezoidal, in which +20 Gz lasted for 30 s, +10 Gz for 1.5 min. +5 Gz exposure was repeated for 3 times with 30 min interval and each for 1.5 min. Myocardial tissue of left ventricle was sampled for transmission electron microscopy 5 h after exposure. +20 Gz and +10 Gz exposure caused obvious edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, myofibril disorder and injuries of mitochondria and nucleus. Breaks of myocardial fiber, formation of contraction bands and rupture of mitochondria were also observed in +20 Gz group. In +5 Gz group, there was still slight edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, while organic changes of myocardial ultrastructure were not observed. High +Gz exposure can cause myocardial ultrastructural injury in rats. Slight reversible injured response can also be observed in myocardial cell after repeated moderate level of +Gz exposure. This indicates that attention should be paid to the study of the effect of high +Gz on heart in pilots.

  11. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  12. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Eric D; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions.

  14. Creatine kinase radioimmunoassay and isoenzyme electrophoresis compared in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Homburger, H.A.; Jacob, G.L.

    1980-07-01

    We compared, in 116 patients, the relative usefulness of results of tests for creatine kinase B-isoenzymes, as measured by radioimmunoassay, and the MB isoenzyme, as measured by electrophoresis, in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The radioimmunoassay was specific for isoenzymes of creatine kinase containing the B subunit. All patients with acute transmural infarcts had positive test results by both techniques, but concentrations of B-isoenzymes were more frequently above normal than were MB bands in the case of patients with acute subendocardial infarcts and in the case of all patients with acute myocardial infarcts from whom sera were collected more thanmore » 24 h after onset of chest pain. Concentrations of B-isoenzymes also were increased, even when MB bands were not electrophoretically detectable in specimens from several patients without documented acute myocardial infarcts. These abnormal results presumably were caused by increased concentrations of the BB isoenzyme in serum. Accordingly, an increased concentration of B-isoenzymes had less diagnostic specificity and predictive value for acute myocardial infarction than did a detectable MB band. Results of isoenzyme electrophoresis were more reliable for establishing this diagnosis, but the results of radioimmunoassay were more reliable for excluding it in patients with chest pain as the primary symptom.« less

  15. 123I-BMIPP fatty acid analogue imaging is a novel diagnostic and prognostic approach following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S K; Sarai, M; Hishida, H; Ozaki, Y

    2009-10-01

    Fatty acid oxidation is the most efficient mode of myocardial energy production which requires a large amount of oxygen. Thus, alteration of fatty acid oxidation is considered to be a sensitive marker of ischaemia and myocardial damage. (123)I-BMIPP ([123]I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid) is a newly-investigated single-photon branching free fatty acid radiopharmaceutical with slow metabolism; thus, it is well-suited for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Assessment of fatty acid metabolism by radionuclide techniques has a potential role for the early detection of myocardial ischaemia and the assessment of the severity of ischaemic heart disease. Although stable patients with a healed myocardial infarction may have a relatively good prognosis, risk stratification in the predischarge period should be valuable for deciding upon appropriate management. In this respect, the presence of discordant BMIPP uptake relative to (201)Tl perfusion appears to be the best predictor of future cardiac events among all other cardiovascular imaging modalities. Since discordant BMIPP uptake correlates well with redistribution on stress (201)Tl imaging and perfusion-metabolism mismatch on positron emission tomography, it is considered that such BMIPP and (201)Tl discordance may identify a high-risk subgroup among patients with acute myocardial infarction. A BMIPP scan may reflect prior severe ischaemia after recovery of perfusion, the so-called "ischaemic memory". Gated BMIPP SPECT has been recently introduced for simultaneous assessment of myocardial metabolism and ventricular function. Such a new technique seems to be valuable for a better understanding of the pathophysiological state of heart failure and cardiomyopathy.

  16. Quality of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke in the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Ana; Paiva, Dagmara; Azevedo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The quality of health information in the Internet may be low. This is a concerning issue in cardiovascular diseases which warrant patient self-management. We aimed to assess the quality of Portuguese websites as a source of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke. We used the search terms 'enfarte miocardio' and 'acidente vascular cerebral' (Portuguese terms for myocardial infarction and stroke) on Google(®), on April 5th and 7th 2011, respectively, using Internet Explorer(®). The first 200 URL retrieved in each search were independently visited and Portuguese websites in Portuguese language were selected. We analysed and classified 121 websites for structural characteristics, information coverage and accuracy of the web pages with items defined a priori, trustworthiness in general according to the Health on the Net Foundation and regarding treatments using the DISCERN instrument (48 websites). Websites were most frequently commercial (49.5%), not exclusively dedicated to acute myocardial infarction/ stroke (94.2%), and with information on medical facts (59.5%), using images, video or animation (60.3%). Websites' trustworthiness was low. None of the websites displayed the Health on the Net Foundation seal. Acute myocardial infarction/ stroke websites differed in information coverage but the accuracy of the information was acceptable, although often incomplete. The quality of information on acute myocardial infarction/ stroke in Portuguese websites was acceptable. Trustworthiness was low, impairing users' capability of identifying potentially more reliable content.

  17. Cytochrome c release in acute myocardial infarction predicts poor prognosis and myocardial reperfusion on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Bing; Fu, Xiang-Hua; Wei, Geng; Gao, Jun-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can trigger no-flow, resulting in myocardial necrosis and apoptosis, even a poor prognosis. Cytochrome c can induce an apoptotic process. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between systemic cytochrome c levels and the occurrence of no-reflow in STEMI. One hundred and sixty patients with STEMI undergoing a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were randomly chosen. Patients were divided into two groups defined by the mean cytochrome c peak level after PPCI. No-reflow was assessed using three different methods after PPCI: myocardial blush grade, electrocardiographic ST-resolution, and microvascular obstruction (MO) assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The primary clinical end points were major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as cardiac death, reinfarction, or new congestive heart failure). Clinical follow-up was carried out for 1 year. Patients with a cytochrome c level of at least the mean peak level had a greater creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme peak level (P=0.044), a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.029), a significantly higher occurrence of early MO (P=0.008), and a significantly larger extent of early MO (P=0.020). The cytochrome c peak level was elevated in patients with early MO (P=0.025), myocardial blush grade 0-1 (P=0.002), and ST-resolution less than 30% (P=0.003) after PPCI. A higher incidence of cardiac death at the 1-year follow-up was found in the patients with cytochrome c levels of at least the mean peak level (log rank, P=0.029). Cytochrome c levels above the mean peak level were related to no-reflow and mortality in patients with STEMI.

  18. Temporal deformation pattern in acute and late phases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: incremental value of longitudinal post-systolic strain to assess myocardial viability.

    PubMed

    Huttin, Olivier; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Benichou, Maxime; Bozec, Erwan; Lemoine, Simon; Mandry, Damien; Juillière, Yves; Sadoul, Nicolas; Micard, Emilien; Duarte, Kevin; Beaumont, Marine; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas; Selton-Suty, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Identification of transmural extent and degree of non-viability after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is clinically important. The objective of the present study was to assess the regional mechanics and temporal deformation patterns using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in acute and later phases of STEMI to predict myocardial damage in these patients. Ninety-eight patients with first STEMI underwent both echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in acute phase and at 6 months follow-up with 2D STE-derived measurements of peak longitudinal strain (PLS), Pre-STretch index (PST) and post-systolic deformation index (PSI). For each segment, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was defined as transmural (LGE >66 %) or non-transmural (<66 %). Global deformation values were significantly correlated with LVEFCMR and infarct size at both visits. A significantly lower value of segmental PLS and higher PSI and PST in necrotic segments were observed comparatively to control, adjacent and remote segments. The best parameters to predict transmural extent in acute phase were PSI with a cutoff value of 8 % (AUC: 0.84) and PLS with a cutoff value of -13 % (AUC: 0.86). PST showed high specificity, but poor sensitivity in predicting transmural extent. More importantly, the addition of PSI and PST to PLS in acute phase was associated with improved prediction of viability at 6 months (integrated discrimination improvement 2.5 % p < 0.01; net reclassification improvement 27 %; p < 0.01). All systolic deformation values separated transmural from non-transmural scarring. PLS combined with additional information relative to post-systolic deformation appears to be the most informative parameters to predict the transmural extent of MI in the early and late phases of MI. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01109225 ; NCT01109225.

  19. Urocortin Treatment Improves Acute Hemodynamic Instability and Reduces Myocardial Damage in Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Wang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Min-Shan; Hsu, Nai-Tan; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2016-01-01

    Aims Hemodynamic instability occurs following cardiac arrest and is associated with high mortality during the post-cardiac period. Urocortin is a novel peptide and a member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family. Urocortin has the potential to improve acute cardiac dysfunction, as well as to reduce the myocardial damage sustained after ischemia reperfusion injury. The effects of urocortin in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction remain unclear. Methods and Results We developed a preclinical cardiac arrest model and investigated the effects of urocortin. After cardiac arrest induced by 6.5 min asphyxia, male Wistar rats were resuscitated and randomized to either the urocortin treatment group or the control group. Urocortin (10 μg/kg) was administrated intravenously upon onset of resuscitation in the experimental group. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was similar between the urocortin group (76%) and the control group (72%) after resuscitation. The left ventricular systolic (dP/dt40) and diastolic (maximal negative dP/dt) functions, and cardiac output, were ameliorated within 4 h after ROSC in the urocortin-treated group compared to the control group (P<0.01). The neurological function of surviving animals was better at 6 h after ROSC in the urocortin-treated group (p = 0.023). The 72-h survival rate was greater in the urocortin-treated group compared to the control group (p = 0.044 by log-rank test). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was lower in the urocortin-treated group (39.9±8.6 vs. 17.5±4.6% of TUNEL positive nuclei, P<0.05) with significantly increased Akt, ERK and STAT-3 activation and phosphorylation in the myocardium (P<0.05). Conclusions Urocortin treatment can improve acute hemodynamic instability as well as reducing myocardial damage in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction. PMID:27832152

  20. Differential expression of myocardial heat shock proteins in rats acutely exposed to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-09-01

    Acute fluoride (F - ) toxicity is known to cause severe cardiac complications and leads to sudden heart failure. Previously, we reported that increased myocardial oxidative damage, apoptosis, altered cytoskeleton and AMPK signaling proteins associated with energy deprivation in acute F - induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study was aimed to decipher the status of myocardial heat shock proteins (Hsps-Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) in acute F - -intoxicated rats. In order to study the expression of myocardial Hsps, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90 mg/kg F - for 24 h. The expression levels of myocardial Hsps were determined using RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical studies. Acute F - -intoxicated rats showed elevated levels of both the transcripts and protein expression of Hsf1, Hsp27, Hsp32, Hsp60, and Hsp70 when compared to control. In addition, the expression levels of Hsp40 and Hsp90 were significantly declined in a dose-dependent fashion in F - -treated animals. Our result suggests that differential expression of Hsps in the rat myocardium could serve as a balance between pro-survival and death signal during acute F - -induced heart failure.

  1. Abrupt opium discontinuation has no significant triggering effect on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Zare, Jahangir; Nasri, Hamidreza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2011-04-01

    A deleterious effect of withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of opium on the cardiovascular system is one of the recent interesting topics in the cardiovascular field. The current study hypothesized that the withdrawal syndrome due to discontinuing opium might be an important trigger for the appearance of acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-one opium-addicted individuals who were candidates for cardiovascular clinical evaluation and consecutively hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) ward of Shafa Hospital in Kerman between January and July 2009 were included in the study and categorized in the case group, including patients experiencing withdrawal symptoms within 6-12 h after the reduced or discontinued use of opium according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-revised IV version (DSM-IV-R) criteria for opium dependence and withdrawal, and the control group, without opium withdrawal symptoms. The appearance of acute myocardial infarction was compared between the two groups using multivariable regression models. Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 50.0% of those with withdrawal symptoms and in 45.1% of patients without evidence of opium withdrawal (P = 0.669). Multivariable analysis showed that opium withdrawal symptoms were not a trigger for acute myocardial infarction adjusting for demographic characteristics, marital status, education level and common coronary artery disease risk profiles [odds ratio (OR) = 0.920, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.350-2.419, P = 0.866]. Also, daily dose of opium before reducing or discontinuing use did not predict the appearance of myocardial infarction in the presence of confounder variables (OR = 0.975, 95% CI = 0.832-1.143, P = 0.755). Withdrawal syndrome due to abrupt discontinuation of opium does not have a triggering role for appearance of acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Differences in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Compared with Western Registries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) is the first nationwide registry that reflects current therapeutic approaches and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) management in Korea. The results of the KAMIR demonstrated different risk factors and responses to medical and interventional treatments. The results indicated that the incidence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was relatively high, and that the prevalence of dyslipidemia was relatively low with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) rates were high for both STEMI and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with higher use of drug-eluting stents (DESs). DES were effective and safe without increased risk of stent thrombosis in Korean AMI patients. Triple antiplatelet therapy, consisting of aspirin, clopidogrel, and cilostazol, was effective in preventing adverse clinical outcomes after PCI. Statin therapy was effective in Korean AMI patients, including those with very low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and those with cardiogenic shock. The KAMIR score had a greater predictive value than Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scores for long-term mortality in AMI patients. Based on these results, the KAMIR will be instrumental for establishing new therapeutic strategies and effective methods for secondary prevention of AMI and guidelines for Asian patients. PMID:29035427

  3. [Effect of puerarin in myocardial protection in rats with acute and chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Cui, Shu-qin

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the protective effect of puerarin on the myocardium of rats with acute and chronic alcoholism. In acute alcoholism experiment, normal male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group, alcoholism group and puerarin group (n=8), and high- and low-dose puerarin was administered. In chronic alcoholism experiment, increasing puerarin doses were given. Serum and myocardial levels of spartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined using enzymatic methed, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the myocardium were assayed with colorimetric method. HE staining was used to observe the microscopic changes of the myocardium. Compared with alcoholism group, puerarin-treated groups showed significantly lowered myocardial contents of MDA, CPK and AST and serum levels of AST and CPK (P<0.05, P<0.01) and increased myocardial SOD (P<0.05, P<0.01), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity (P<0.05, P<0.01), but Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). HE staining of the myocardium showed cell swelling and obscure cell boundaries in alcoholism group, especially in chronic alcoholism group. The myocardial structure in puerarin group remained clear and regular. Puerarin can protect from myocardial injuries induced by acute and chronic alcoholism in rats.

  4. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (<30 days) troponin elevation greater than 2 times the upper limit of normal as the reference standard for acute myocardial injury. Of the 65 patients, there were 21 (32%) with acute myocardial injury. Image quality and artifact scores were significantly better with FSE-SPAIR compared with FSE-STIR (2.15 vs 2.68, P < 0.01; 2.62 vs 3.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for acute myocardial injury were as follows: 29%, 93%, 67%, and 73% for FSE-SPAIR; 38%, 91%, 67%, and 75% for FSE-STIR; 71%, 98%, 94%, and 88% for clinical interpretation including LGE, T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence

  5. The Role of Echocardiography in Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Maleki, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which provides information regarding cardiac function and hemodynamics. It is the most frequently used cardiovascular diagnostic test after electrocardiography and chest X-ray. However, in a patient with acute chest pain, Transthoracic Echocardiography is essential both for diagnosing acute coronary syndrome, zeroing on the evaluation of ventricular function and the presence of regional wall motion abnormalities, and for ruling out other etiologies of acute chest pain or dyspnea, including aortic dissection and pericardial effusion. Echocardiography is a versatile imaging modality for the management of patients with chest pain and assessment of left ventricular systolic function, diastolic function, and even myocardial and coronary perfusion and is, therefore, useful in the diagnosis and triage of patients with acute chest pain or dyspnea. This review has focused on the current applications of echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. PMID:23646042

  6. In vivo determination of acute myocardial ischemia based on photoacoustic imaging with a focused transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Chen, Haiyu; Xie, Wengming

    2011-07-01

    The location and ischemia extent are two important parameters for evaluating the acute myocardial ischemia (AMI). A focused-transducer-based photoacoustic imaging method was employed to assess time-dependent AMI. Our preliminary results show that the photoacoustic signal could identify the myocardium. The intensity and area of photoacoustic images of myocardium could be used for characterizing the ischemia extent and scope of myocardial ischemia. The results also imply that the intensity and area of photoacoustic images are the rapid fall of an exponential model with an increase of delaying time after the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion. These experimental results were consistent with the clinical characteristics. The findings suggest that the photoacoustic imaging be a potential tool for the real-time assessment of acute myocardial ischemia during surgical operation.

  7. Thrombus aspiration in acute myocardial infarction: concepts, clinical trials, and current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vandermolen, Sebastian; Marciniak, Maciej; Byrne, Jonathan; De Silva, Kalpa

    2016-05-01

    The pathogenesis that underlies acute myocardial infarction is complex and multifactorial. One of the most important components, however, is the role of thrombus formation following atherosclerotic plaque rupture, leading to sudden coronary occlusion and subsequent ischemia and infarction. Thrombus aspiration provides the opportunity of intracoronary clot extraction with the aim to improve coronary and myocardial perfusion, by reducing the risk of no-reflow secondary to distal embolization of thrombus. The utility of thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention has been assessed in an increasing number of observational and randomized studies. This article reviews the contemporary data and provides insights into the validity of thrombus aspiration in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

  8. [Takotsubo cardiomiopathy. A rare cause of cardiogenic shock simulating acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Jayro Thadeu Paiva de; Martins, Sebastião; Sousa, João Francisco de; Portela, Antenor

    2005-08-01

    Takotsubo Cardiomiopathy is a rare cause of acute left ventricular aneurysm, in the absence of coronariopathy, only recently described in world literature. Symptoms may be similar to those from acute myocardial infarction with typical thoracic pain. The image of dumbbell or Takotsubo (a device used in Japan to capture octopus) suggestive ventricular ballooning is characteristic of that new syndrome and there is usually the disappearing of dyskinetic movement up to the 18th day from the beginning of the symptoms, in average.

  9. Electrocardiographic evaluation of reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, P

    1996-02-01

    The present thesis is based on 6 previously published clinical studies in patients with AMI. Thrombolytic therapy for patients with AMI improves early infarct coronary artery patency, limits AMI size, improves left ventricular function and survival, as demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. With the advent of interventions aimed at limiting AMI size it became important to assess the amount of ischemic myocardium in the early phase of AMI, and to develop noninvasive methods for evaluation of these therapies. The aims of the present studies were to develop such methods. The studies have included 267 patients with AMI admitted up to 12 hours after onset of symptoms. All included patients had acute ECG ST-segment changes indicating subepicardial ischemia, and patients with bundle branch block were excluded. Serial ECG's were analyzed with quantitative ST-segment measurements in the acute phase and compared to the Selvester QRS score estimated final AMI size. These ECG indices were compared to and validated through comparisons with other independent noninvasive and invasive methods, used for the purpose of evaluating patients with AMI treated with thrombolytic therapy. It was found that in patients with first AMI not treated with reperfusion therapies the QRS score estimated final AMI size can be predicted from the acute ST-segment elevation. Based on the number of ECG leads with ST-segment elevation and its summated magnitude, formulas were developed to provide an "ST score" for estimating the amount of myocardium in jeopardy during the early phase of AMI. The ST-segment deviation present in the ECG in patients with documented occlusion of the infarct related coronary artery, was subsequently shown to correlate with the degree of regional and global left ventricular dysfunction. Because serial changes in ST-segment elevation, during the acute phase of AMI were believed to reflect changes is myocardial ischemia and thus possibly infarct artery patency

  10. Comparison of anxiety between smokers and nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Rayens, Mary K; An, Kyungeh; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn; Garvin, Bonnie J; Moser, Debra K

    2006-11-01

    Increased anxiety correlates with increased complications after acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety levels and use of anxiolytic agents have not been compared between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized because of acute myocardial infarction. To compare anxiety level, sociodemographic factors, and clinical variables between smokers and nonsmokers hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction and to examine predictors of use of beta-blockers and anxiolytic agents among smokers and nonsmokers. Secondary data analysis of a prospective multisite study on anxiety in 181 smokers and 351 nonsmokers with acute myocardial infarction. Anxiety was measured by using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the anxiety subscale of the Basic Symptom Inventory within 72 hours of admission. Smokers reported higher anxiety levels than nonsmokers reported on both anxiety scales. Female smokers reported the highest anxiety and peak pain levels of all, yet women were the least likely to receive anxiolytic agents. Smoking status was not a predictor for anxiety level when sex, peak pain, use of beta-blockers in the hospital, and age were controlled for. However, smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent and 60% more likely to receive a beta-blocker in the emergency department, and smokers were 80% more likely than nonsmokers to receive an anxiolytic agent during hospitalization when these variables were controlled. Older female smokers are at risk for complications because they are older than their male counterparts and less likely to receive beta-blockers and antianxiety medications in the emergency department.

  11. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  12. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  13. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  14. Detection of periodontal bacteria in thrombi of patients with acute myocardial infarction by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Takahiro; Itabashi, Yuji; Kohno, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Akihiro; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Watanabe, Shinya; Yamane, Genyuki; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-02-01

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that periodontal bacteria are present in plaques from atherosclerotic arteries. Although periodontitis has recently been recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease, the direct relationship between periodontal bacteria and coronary artery disease has not yet been clarified. It has been suggested that these bacteria might contribute to inflammation and plaque instability. We assumed that if periodontal bacteria induce inflammation of plaque, the bacteria would be released into the bloodstream when vulnerable plaque ruptures. To determine whether periodontal bacteria are present in thrombi at the site of acute myocardial infarction, we tried to detect periodontal bacteria in thrombi of patients with acute myocardial infarction by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We studied 81 consecutive adults with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). All patients underwent removal of thrombus with aspiration catheters at the beginning of percutaneous coronary intervention, and a small sample of thrombus was obtained for PCR. The detection rates of periodontal bacteria by PCR were 19.7% for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, 3.4% for Porphyromonas gingivalis, and 2.3% for Treponema denticola. Three species of periodontal bacteria were detected in the thrombi of patients with acute myocardial infarction. This raises the possibility that such bacteria are latently present in plaque and also suggests that these bacteria might have a role in plaque inflammation and instability. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban US Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton

    2004-01-01

    Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…

  16. Organization of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals in Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Perpich, Denise

    2004-01-01

    One in 4 Americans lives in a rural community and relies on rural hospitals and medical systems for emergent care of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). The infrastructure and organization of AMI care in rural and urban Kansas hospitals was examined. Using a nominal group process, key elements within hospitals that might influence quality of AMI…

  17. Cortistatin Improves Cardiac Function After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats by Suppressing Myocardial Apoptosis and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Yue; Dong, Li; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Meng; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Xin; Yin, Xin-Hua

    2016-04-18

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptotic pathway is associated with the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cortistatin (CST) is a novel bioactive peptide that inhibits apoptosis-related injury. Therefore, we investigated the cardioprotective effects and potential mechanisms of CST in a rat model of AMI. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, AMI, and AMI + CST groups. Cardiac function and the degree of infarction were evaluated by echocardiography, cardiac troponin I activity, and 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride staining after 7 days. The expression of CST, ER stress markers, and apoptotic markers was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Compared to the AMI group, the AMI + CST group exhibited markedly better cardiac function and a lower degree of infarction. Electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling confirmed that myocardial apoptosis occurred after AMI. Cortistatin treatment reduced the expression of caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, and Bax (proapoptotic proteins) and promoted the expression of Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic protein). In addition, the reduced expression of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins homologous protein, and caspase 12 indicated that ER stress and the apoptotic pathway associated with ER stress were suppressed. Exogenous CST has a notable cardioprotective effect after AMI in a rat model in that it improves cardiac function by suppressing ER stress and myocardial apoptosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Galectin-3: A Link between Myocardial and Arterial Stiffening in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure?

    PubMed

    Lala, Radu Ioan; Darabantiu, Dan; Pilat, Luminita; Puschita, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Heart failure is accompanied by abnormalities in ventricular-vascular interaction due to increased myocardial and arterial stiffness. Galectin-3 is a recently discovered biomarker that plays an important role in myocardial and vascular fibrosis and heart failure progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether galectin-3 is correlated with arterial stiffening markers and impaired ventricular-arterial coupling in decompensated heart failure patients. A total of 79 inpatients with acute decompensated heart failure were evaluated. Serum galectin-3 was determined at baseline, and during admission, transthoracic echocardiography and measurements of vascular indices by Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Elevated pulse wave velocity and low arterial carotid distensibility are associated with heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction (p = 0.04, p = 0.009). Pulse wave velocity, carotid distensibility and Young's modulus did not correlate with serum galectin-3 levels. Conversely, raised galectin-3 levels correlated with an increased ventricular-arterial coupling ratio (Ea/Elv) p = 0.047, OR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.0‑3.6). Increased galectin-3 levels were associated with lower rates of left ventricular pressure rise in early systole (dp/dt) (p=0.018) and raised pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.046). High galectin-3 levels (p = 0.038, HR = 3.07) and arterial pulmonary pressure (p = 0.007, HR = 1.06) were found to be independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and readmissions. This study showed no significant correlation between serum galectin-3 levels and arterial stiffening markers. Instead, high galectin-3 levels predicted impaired ventricular-arterial coupling. Galectin-3 may be predictive of raised pulmonary artery pressures. Elevated galectin-3 levels correlate with severe systolic dysfunction and together with pulmonary hypertension are independent markers of outcome.

  19. [Telecardiology in the management of acute myocardial infarction: the experience of the provincial network of Mantova].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Roberto; Romano, Michele; Buffoli, Francesca; Lettieri, Corrado; Baccaglioni, Nicola; Schiavone, Giorgio; Aroldi, Marco; Tomasi, Luca; Kuwornu, Helène; Izzo, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    Since June 2001 we activated a program for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, based on the early assessment of the patient's risk profile, on telematic connection among care centers and optimization of critical pathways for access to care. The aim of this work was to assess the effectiveness of telemedicine in the reduction of time to treatment. Mantova, a province of eastern Lombardy (northern Italy) is provided with one single sanitary district with one (tertiary hospital) referring hospital equipped with a cath lab on call 24/24 hours for primary coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and cardiac surgery and 6 community hospitals: 2 with coronary care units, 2 with a cardiology section, and 2 rehabilitation hospitals. The emergency medical system transport, activated 24/24 hours, consists of 6 advanced life support (ALS) ambulances and 11 basic life support (BLS) ambulances (2 with trained nurse staff). Each ALS ambulance is equipped with a semiautomatic defibrillator LIFEPACK 12 coupled with cellular telephone GSM transmission of the 12-lead ECG. In the first 3-year activity of the project 340 patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent primary PTCA: 248 (73%) referred to first aid of the nearest hospital reached either by BLS ambulance or by their own means of transport and were hence transferred to the referring hospital for primary PTCA (group A), while 92 patients (27%) were aided at their own house by ALS ambulances and, after transmission of the 12-lead ECG to the referring coronary care unit, were directly transferred to the cath lab (group B). Decisional delay was 144 +/- 65 min in group A while 74 +/- 37 min in group B. Mean door-to-balloon time was 76 +/- 26 min in group A and 47 +/- 21 min in group B. High incidence of post-procedural TIMI 3 flow was achieved in both groups. In-hospital mortality was 6.8% in group A e 5.4% in group B. Our data show that patients referring directly to ALS ambulances had a lower decisional delay. Transmission

  20. Elevated troponin I levels in acute liver failure: is myocardial injury an integral part of acute liver failure?

    PubMed

    Parekh, Nimisha K; Hynan, Linda S; De Lemos, James; Lee, William M

    2007-06-01

    Although rare instances of cardiac injury or arrhythmias have been reported in acute liver failure (ALF), overall, the heart is considered to be spared in this condition. Troponin I, a sensitive and specific marker of myocardial injury, may be elevated in patients with sepsis and acute stroke without underlying acute coronary syndrome, indicating unrecognized cardiac injury in these settings. We sought to determine whether subclinical cardiac injury might also occur in acute liver failure. Serum troponin I levels were measured in 187 patients enrolled in the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry, and correlated with clinical variables and outcomes. Diagnoses were representative of the larger group of >1000 patients thus far enrolled and included 80 with acetaminophen-related injury, 26 with viral hepatitis, 19 with ischemic injury, and 62 others. Overall, 74% of patients had elevated troponin I levels (>0.1 ng/ml). Patients with elevated troponin I levels were more likely to have advanced hepatic coma (grades III or IV) or to die (for troponin I levels >0.1 ng/ml, odds ratio 3.88 and 4.69 for advanced coma or death, respectively). In acute liver failure, subclinical myocardial injury appears to occur more commonly than has been recognized, and its pathogenesis in the context of acute liver failure is unclear. Elevated troponin levels are associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Measurement of troponin I levels may be helpful in patients with acute liver failure, to detect unrecognized myocardial damage and as a marker of unfavorable outcome.

  1. Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Grodzinsky, Anna; Goyal, Abhinav; Gosch, Kensey; McCullough, Peter A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Palmer, Biff F.; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance following acute myocardial infarction are not well described. Methods In 38,689 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients from the Cerner Health Facts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels (max K) and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status, and grouped by max K as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5–<5.5 mEq/L, 5.5–<6.0 mEq/L, 6.0–<6.5 mEq/L, and ≥ 6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between number of hyperkalemic values and in-hospital mortality was also evaluated. Results Of 38,689 acute myocardial infarction patients, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in non-dialysis and 66.8% in dialysis patients. Moderate-severe hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher max K levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once max K ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher max K and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs. a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality. Conclusions Hyperkalemia is common in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher max K levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase; with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in acute myocardial infarction patients merits further study. PMID:27060233

  2. Temporal trends in revascularization and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction among the very elderly

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Maude; Doucet, Michel; Eisenberg, Mark J.; Behlouli, Hassan; Pilote, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background Few data are available on time-related changes in use and outcomes of invasive procedures after acute myocardial infarction in very elderly patients. Our objective was to describe trends in revascularization procedures and outcomes in a provincial cohort of very elderly patients who had experienced acute myocardial infarction. Methods We used a database of hospital discharge summaries to identify all patients aged 80 years or older admitted for acute myocardial infarction in Quebec. We used the provincial database of physicians’ services and medication claims to assess treatment and obtain data on survival. Results Between March 1996 and March 2007, 29 750 patients aged 80 years or older were admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction. During this period, use of percutaneous coronary interventions increased from 2.2% to 24.9%, and use of coronary artery bypass graft surgery increased from 0.8% to 3.1%. Evidence-based prescriptions of medication increased over time (p < 0.001). The prevalence of reported comorbidities was higher during the period of 2003–2006 than during the 1996–1999 period. One-year mortality improved over time (46.5% for 1996–1999 v. 40.9% for 2003–2006, p < 0.001) but remained unchanged in the subgroup of patients who did not undergo revascularization. Interpretation The use of revascularization, especially percutaneous coronary interventions, in the very elderly after acute myocardial infarction has been growing at a rapid pace, while the prevalence of reported comorbidities has been increasing in this population. Revascularization procedures are no longer restricted to younger patients. In the context of an aging population, it is imperative to determine whether these changes in practice are cost-effective. PMID:20682731

  3. Acute Myocardial Infarction following Naltrexone Consumption; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dadpour, Bita; Gholoobi, Arash; Tajoddini, Shahrad; Habibi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of opioid withdrawal have long been studied. It was reported that patients with underlying ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic vessels may be complicated by a sudden physical and emotional stress due to withdrawal syndrome. But some other believes sudden increase in catecholamine level as a sympathetic overflow might effect on heart with and without underlying ischemia. In the current study, a patient on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) who experienced myocardial infarction (MI) after taking naltrexone was described.

  4. Acute myocardial infarction during l-thyroxine therapy in a patient with intermittent changing axis deviation, permanent atrial fibrillation and without significant coronary stenoses.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-01-07

    It has been rarely reported intermittent changing axis deviation also occurs during atrial fibrillation. Intermittent changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction and changing axis deviation associated with atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction too have been also rarely reported. It has also been reported acute myocardial infarction during l-thyroxine substitution therapy in a patient with elevated levels of free triiodothyronine and without significant coronary artery stenoses. An acute myocardial infarction due to coronary spasm associated with l-thyroxine therapy has also been reported too. We present a case of changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction in a 56-year-old Italian woman with permanent atrial fibrillation and l-thyroxine therapy and without significant coronary stenoses. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation in the presence of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction and on the possible development of acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with l-thyroxine therapy.

  5. Effects of Chronic and Acute Zinc Supplementation on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ozyıldırım, Serhan; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sahna, Engin; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of chronic and acute zinc sulfate supplementation on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The study registered 50 adult male rats which were divided into five groups in equal numbers as follows: group 1, normal control; group 2, sham; group 3, myocardial ischemia reperfusion (My/IR): the group which was fed on a normal diet and in which myocardial I/R was induced; group 4, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + chronic zinc: (5 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate for 15 days); and group 5, myocardial ischemia reperfusion + acute zinc: the group which was administered 15 mg/kg i.p. zinc sulfate an hour before the operation and in which myocardial I/R was induced. The collected blood and cardiac tissue samples were analyzed using spectrophotometric method to determine levels of MDA, as an indicator of tissue injury, and GSH, as an indicator of antioxidant activity. The highest plasma and heart tissue MDA levels were measured in group 3 (p < 0.05). Group 5 had lower MDA values than group 3, while group 4 had significantly lower MDA values than groups 3 and 5 (p < 0.05). The highest erythrocyte GSH values were found in group 4 (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte GSH values in group 5 were higher than those in group 3 (p < 0.05). The highest GSH values in heart tissue were measured in group 4 (p < 0.05). The results of the study reveal that the antioxidant activity inhibited by elevated oxidative stress in heart ischemia reperfusion in rats is restored partially by acute zinc administration and markedly by chronic zinc supplementation.

  6. Use of orbital atherectomy in acute myocardial infarction via the transradial approach

    PubMed Central

    Mowakeaa, Samer; Snyder, Branden; Kakouros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Severe coronary artery calcifications pose an ongoing challenge when performing percutaneous coronary interventions, resulting in an increased likelihood of procedural complications. Orbital atherectomy (OA) has emerged as a promising technology that helps improve outcomes in this complex patient population. Its safety and efficacy are yet to be demonstrated in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of a patient with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) evaluated with emergent transradial coronary angiography. The culprit lesion was a severely stenotic, heavily calcified, segment of the right coronary artery. The use of OA facilitated lesion expansion and implantation of a drug-eluting stent. Although OA should be considered as contraindicated for the management of soft-ruptured plaque, which accounts for the majority of STEMI presentations, it may be well applied to the small subset of patients with calcified nodule pathology, even in the acute setting. PMID:28180008

  7. Impact of redefining acute myocardial infarction on incidence, management and reimbursement rate of acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Polanczyk, Carísi A; Schneid, Samir; Imhof, Betina V; Furtado, Mariana; Pithan, Carolina; Rohde, Luis E; Ribeiro, Jorge P

    2006-02-15

    Although redefinition for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been proposed few years ago, to date it has not been universally adopted by many institutions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic, prognostic and economical impact of the new diagnostic criteria for AMI. Patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndromes were enrolled in this study. Troponin T (cTnT) was measured in samples collected for routine CK-MB analyses and results were not available to physicians. Patients without AMI by traditional criteria and cTnT > or = 0.035 ng/mL were coded as redefined AMI. Clinical outcomes were hospital death, major cardiac events and revascularization procedures. In-hospital management and reimbursement rates were also analyzed. Among 363 patients, 59 (16%) patients had AMI by conventional criteria, whereas additional 75 (21%) had redefined AMI, an increase of 127% in the incidence. Patients with redefined AMI were significantly older, more frequently male, with atypical chest pain and more risk factors. In multivariate analysis, redefined AMI was associated with 3.1 fold higher hospital death (95% CI: 0.6-14) and a 5.6 fold more cardiac events (95% CI: 2.1-15) compared to those without AMI. From hospital perspective, based on DRGs payment system, adoption of AMI redefinition would increase 12% the reimbursement rate [3552 Int dollars per 100 patients evaluated]. The redefined criteria result in a substantial increase in AMI cases, and allow identification of high-risk patients. Efforts should be made to reinforce the adoption of AMI redefinition, which may result in more qualified and efficient management of ACS.

  8. Atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-11-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that sub-clinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with CHD or mortality from cardiovascular causes but is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Moreover increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries associated with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism and with a myocardial bridge too. It has been also reported an acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Furthermore it has been reported that at highly increased hematocrit levels patients may experience hyperviscosity symptoms. We present a case of atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome).

    PubMed

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Italo Bruno Dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations were increased. Acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation was suspected, and coronary angiography was immediately performed, which showed severe diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, medial-apical systolic ballooning, and a lack of significant coronary injury. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit and was successfully treated with supportive therapy. As this case shows, Takotsubo syndrome might simulate the clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography is necessary to distinguish between both myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction in the acute stage. The present patient progressed with spontaneous resolution of the ventricular dysfunction without any sequelae.

  10. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Ítalo Bruno dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations were increased. Acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation was suspected, and coronary angiography was immediately performed, which showed severe diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, medial-apical systolic ballooning, and a lack of significant coronary injury. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit and was successfully treated with supportive therapy. As this case shows, Takotsubo syndrome might simulate the clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography is necessary to distinguish between both myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction in the acute stage. The present patient progressed with spontaneous resolution of the ventricular dysfunction without any sequelae. PMID:23887762

  11. Correlation of platelet count and acute ST-elevation in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Paul, G K; Sen, B; Bari, M A; Rahman, Z; Jamal, F; Bari, M S; Sazidur, S R

    2010-07-01

    The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been substantiated by studies that demonstrated significant clinical benefits associated with antiplatelet therapy. Initial platelet counts in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) may be a useful adjunct for identifying those patients who may or may not respond to fibrinolytic agents. Patient with acute STEMI has variable level of platelet count and with higher platelet count have poor in hospital outcome. There are many predictors of poor outcome in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) like cardiac biomarkers (Troponin I, Troponin T and CK-MB), C-Reactive Protien (CRP) and WBC (White Blood Cell) counts. Platelet count on presentation of STEMI is one of them. Higher platelet count is associated with higher rate of adverse clinical outcome in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), like heart failure, arrhythmia, re-infarction & death. So, categorization of patient with STEMI on the basis of platelet counts may be helpful for risk stratification and management of these patients.

  12. Emotions delay care-seeking in patients with an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nymark, Carolin; Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine; Henriksson, Peter; Kiessling, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In acute myocardial infarction the risk of death and loss of myocardial tissue is at its highest during the first few hours. However, the process from symptom onset to the decision to seek medical care can take time. To comprehend patients' pre-hospital delay, attention must be focused on the circumstances preceding the decision to seek medical care. To add a deeper understanding of patients' thoughts, feelings and actions that preceded the decision to seek medical care when afflicted by an acute myocardial infarction. Fourteen men and women with a first or second acute myocardial infarction were interviewed individually in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Four themes were conceptualized: 'being incapacitated by fear, anguish and powerlessness', 'being ashamed of oneself', 'fear of losing a healthy identity' and 'striving to avoid fear by not interacting with others'. Patients were torn between feelings such as anguish, fear, shame and powerlessness. They made an effort to uphold their self-image as being a healthy person thus affected by an unrecognized discomfort. This combined with a struggle to protect others from involvement, strengthened the barriers to seeking care. The present study indicates that emotional reactions are important and influence patients' pre-hospital behaviour. Being ashamed of oneself stood out as a novel finding. Emotions might be an important explanation of undesired and persisting patient delays. However, our findings have to and should be evaluated quantitatively. Such a study is in progress.

  13. Neural mechanisms and delayed gastric emptying of liquid induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-02-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1 mA/10 s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  14. Prospective evaluation of eligibility for thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    French, J. K.; Williams, B. F.; Hart, H. H.; Wyatt, S.; Poole, J. E.; Ingram, C.; Ellis, C. J.; Williams, M. G.; White, H. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the proportion of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction who are eligible for thrombolytic therapy. DESIGN--Cohort follow up study. SETTING--The four coronary care units in Auckland, New Zealand. SUBJECTS--All 3014 patients presenting to the units with suspected myocardial infarction in 1993. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Eligibility for reperfusion with thrombolytic therapy (presentation within 12 hours of the onset of ischaemic chest pain with ST elevation > or = 2 mm in leads V1-V3, ST elevation > or = 1 mm in any other two contiguous leads, or new left bundle branch block); proportions of (a) patients eligible for reperfusion and (b) patients with contraindications to thrombolysis; death (including causes); definite myocardial infarction. RESULTS--948 patients had definite myocardial infarction, 124 probable myocardial infarction, and nine ST elevation but no infarction; 1274 patients had unstable angina and 659 chest pain of other causes. Of patients with definite or probable myocardial infarction, 576 (53.3%) were eligible for reperfusion, 39 had definite contraindications to thrombolysis (risk of bleeding). Hence 49.7% of patients (537/1081) were eligible for thrombolysis and 43.5% (470) received this treatment. Hospital mortality among patients eligible for reperfusion was 11.7% (55/470 cases) among those who received thrombolysis and 17.0% (18/106) among those who did not. CONCLUSIONS--On current criteria about half of patients admitted to coronary care units with definite or probable myocardial infarction are eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Few eligible patients have definite contraindications to thrombolytic therapy. Mortality for all community admissions for myocardial infarction remains high. PMID:8664716

  15. [Surgical cryoablation and left ventriculoplasty for electrical storm after acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Tobe, Satoshi; Yoshida, K; Adachi, K; Fukase, K; Tanimura, N; Yamaguchi, M

    2008-03-01

    A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital to treat recent anterior myocardial infarction. Coronary artery angiography showed acute occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and chronic occlusion of right coronary artery. After emergent percutaneous coronary intervention for LAD, drug-refractory electrical storm necessitating frequent electrical defibrillating cardioversion occurred. This patient successfully underwent surgical cryoablation, left ventriculoplasty and coronary revascularization. At 2 years and 10th month after the operation, he is well without limitation of daily activities and any evidence of myocardial ischemia and ventricular tachycardia.

  16. [Myocardial bridge as the only cause of acute coronary syndrome among the young patients].

    PubMed

    Miakinkova, Liudmila O; Teslenko, Yurii V; Tsyhanenko, Irina V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Myocardial bridge is an inborn anomaly of coronary artery development, when a part of it is submerged in a myocard, which is pressing the coronary artery to a systola and restrains coronary blood circulation. Generally this feature of coronary blood circulation does not cause any clinical symptoms because the 85% of coronary blood stream of the left ventricle is provided by diastolic filling. Hemodynamic changes in atherosclerosis, tahicardie, hypertrophie of myocard are leading to the manifestation of clinical symptoms of ischemia. The aim: The purpose of the investigation was to discover the features of clinical development of acute coronary syndrome caused by myocardial bridge of young patients without the features of atherosclerotical harm of coronary arteries. Materials and methods: Eight causes of acute coronary syndrome among patients of 28±8,5 years with myocardial bridge which was revealed during coronary angiography, were investigated. Standardized examination and conservative treatment of patients was held, except for three who have got interventional therapy. Results: According to our investigation, myocardial bridge of all investigated patients was located in the middle of the third front interventricular branch of the left coronary artery. Causes of acute coronary syndrome manifestation were tahicardia, spasms of coronary artery, inducted by iatrogenic factors hypertrophie of myocard, hypertrophic cardiomyopatie. Connection between the manifestation of clinical symptoms and length of tunneled segment which did not depend on the level of systolic compres was discovered. The results of conservative and interventional treatment were analyzed. Conclusions: Myocardial bridge can be the cause of myocardial ischemia among patients without signs of coronary atherosclerosis with additional hemodynamic risk facts such as tahicardia, spasms of coronary artery, hypertrophie of myocard. Clinical symptomatology of the acute coronary syndrome is more

  17. Twenty-Five-Year (1986-2011) Trends in the Incidence and Death Rates of Stroke Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Essa; Tisminetzky, Mayra; Lessard, Darleen; Yarzebski, Jorge; Gore, Joel; Goldberg, Robert

    2018-05-04

    The occurrence of a stroke after an acute myocardial infarction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. However, limited data are available, particularly from a population-based perspective, about recent trends in the incidence and mortality rates associated with stroke complicating an acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to examine 25-year trends (1986-2011) in the incidence and in-hospital mortality rates of initial episodes of stroke complicating acute myocardial infarction. The study population consisted of 11,436 adults hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction at all 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 1986 and 2011. In this study cohort, 159 patients (1.4%) experienced an acute first-ever stroke during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. The proportion of patients with acute myocardial infarction who developed a stroke increased through the 1990s but decreased slightly thereafter. Compared with patients who did not experience a stroke, those who experienced a stroke were significantly older, were more likely to be female, had a previous acute myocardial infarction, had a significant burden of comorbidities, and were more likely to have died (32.1% vs 10.8%) during their index hospitalization. Patients who developed a first stroke in the most recent study years (2003-2011) were more likely to have died during hospitalization than those hospitalized during earlier study years. Although the incidence rates of acute stroke complicating acute myocardial infarction remained relatively stable during the years under study, the in-hospital mortality rates of those experiencing a stroke have not decreased. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Emergency Medical Care of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Martin; Maier, Birga; Fröhlich, Georg; Rutsch, Wolfgang; Behrens, Steffen; Schoeller, Ralph; Theres, Heinz; Poloczek, Stefan; Plock, Gerd; Schühlen, Helmut

    2016-07-25

    Optimizing the emergency medical care chain might shorten the time to treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The initial care by a physician, and, in particular, correct ECG interpretation, are critically important factors. From 1999 onward, data on the care of patients with myocardial infarction have been recorded and analyzed in the Berlin Myocardial Infarction Registry. In the First Medical Contact Study, data on initial emergency medical care were obtained on 1038 patients who had been initially treated by emergency physicians in 2012. Their pre-hospital ECGs were re-evaluated in a blinded fashion according to the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology. The retrospective re-evaluation of pre-hospital ECGs revealed that 756 of the 1038 patients had sustained a STEMI. The emergency physicians had correctly diagnosed STEMI in 472 patients (62.4%), and they had correctly diagnosed ventricular fibrillation in 85 patients (11.2%); in 199 patients (26.3%), the ECG interpretation was unclear. The pre-hospital ECG interpretation was significantly associated with the site of initial hospitalization and the ensuing times to treatment. In particular, the time from hospital admission to cardiac catheterization was longer in patients with an unclear initial ECG interpretation than in those with correctly diagnosed STEMI (121 [54; 705] vs. 36 [19; 60] minutes, p <0.001). After multivariate adjustment, this corresponded to a hazard ratio* of 2.67 [2.21; 3.24]. Pre-hospital ECG interpretation in patients with STEMI was a trigger factor with a major influence on the time to treatment in the hospital. The considerable percentage of pre-hospital ECGs whose interpretation was unclear implies that there is much room for improvement.

  19. Prehospital thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: the Belgian eminase prehospital study (BEPS). BEPS Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    Interest in early thrombolysis has prompted a study on the feasibility and time course of prehospital thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in six centres in Belgium. Patients with clinically suspected AMI and with typical ECG changes presenting within 4 h after onset of pain were treated with 30 units of Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex (APSAC, eminase) intravenously by a mobile intensive care unit (MICU). Sixty-two patients were included in the study and an AMI was confirmed in 60. The mean time (+/- 1 SD) from onset of pain to injection of APSAC was 95 +/- 47 min and the mean estimated time gain, calculated as the time difference between the arrival of the MICU at home and the arrival of the MICU at the emergency department, was 50 +/- 17 min. In the prehospital period four patients developed ventricular fibrillation and one cardiogenic shock. During hospital stay severe complications were observed in four patients. Two events were fatal, one diffuse haemorrhage and one septal rupture; two events were non fatal, one feasible and that an estimated time gain of 50 min can be obtained. Potential risks and benefits remain to be demonstrated in a large controlled clinical trial.

  20. Interpretation of symptoms as a cause of delays in patients with acute myocardial infarction, Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, Sema; Durna, Zehra; Akin, Semiha

    2017-06-14

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess interpretation of symptoms as a cause of delays in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It was conducted at a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The sample included 93 patients: 73 male, mean age 57.89 (12.13) years. Prehospital delay time ranged from 15 minutes to 10 days, with a median of 2 hours (interquartile range: 9.50). Patients waited for pain to go away (48.4%) and tried to calm down (39.8%). Most patients attributed AMI-related symptoms to a reason other than heart disease. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the type of AMI was classified based on electrocardiography findings (odds ratio 5.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.69-15.91, P=0.004) and was independently associated with a long prehospital delay time, indicating that patients with ST segment elevation MI would seek early medical care. Misinterpretation of symptoms and misconceptions about emergency treatment during AMI cause delays in admission and may affect treatment.

  1. C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) as a novel and prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction: Leicester Acute Myocardial Infarction Peptide (LAMP) study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sohail Q; Dhillon, Onkar S; O'Brien, Russell J; Struck, Joachim; Quinn, Paulene A; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Squire, Iain B; Davies, Joan E; Bergmann, Andreas; Ng, Leong L

    2007-04-24

    The role of the vasopressin system after acute myocardial infarction is unclear. Copeptin, the C-terminal part of the vasopressin prohormone, is secreted stoichiometrically with vasopressin. We compared the prognostic value of copeptin and an established marker, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), after acute myocardial infarction. In this prospective single-hospital study, we recruited 980 consecutive post-acute myocardial infarction patients (718 men, median [range] age 66 [24 to 95] years), with follow-up over 342 (range 0 to 764) days. Plasma copeptin was highest on admission (n=132, P<0.001, day 1 versus days 2 to 5) and reached a plateau at days 3 to 5. In the 980 patients, copeptin (measured at days 3 to 5) was elevated in patients who died (n=101) or were readmitted with heart failure (n=49) compared with survivors (median [range] 18.5 [0.6 to 441.0] versus 6.5 [0.3 to 267.0] pmol/L, P<0.0005). With logistic regression analysis, copeptin (odds ratio, 4.14, P<0.0005) and NTproBNP (odds ratio, 2.26, P<0.003) were significant independent predictors of death or heart failure at 60 days. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for copeptin (0.75) and NTproBNP (0.76) were similar. The logistic model with both markers yielded a larger area under the curve (0.84) than for NTproBNP (P<0.013) or copeptin (P<0.003) alone, respectively. Cox modeling predicted death or heart failure with both biomarkers (log copeptin [hazard ratio, 2.33], log NTproBNP [hazard ratio, 2.70]). In patients stratified by NTproBNP (above the median of approximately 900 pmol/L), copeptin above the median (approximately 7 pmol/L) was associated with poorer outcome (P<0.0005). Findings were similar for death and heart failure as individual end points. The vasopressin system is activated after acute myocardial infarction. Copeptin may predict adverse outcome, especially in those with an elevated NTproBNP (more than approximately 900 pmol/L).

  2. An unusual case of infective endocarditis presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ng, Francesca; Nageh, Thuraia

    2007-06-01

    A 39-year-old Zimbabwean man presented with a 1 week history of fever, general malaise and acute-onset chest pain. He had a urethral stricture, which had been managed with an indwelling supra-pubic catheter. The electrocardiography on admission showed inferior ST-T segments elevation. His chest pain and electrocardiography changes resolved subsequent to thrombolysis, and he remained haemodynamically stable. The 12-h troponin I was increased at 10.5 microg/l (NR <0.04 microg/l). Echocardiography confirmed severe mitral regurgitation and a flail anterior mitral valve leaflet with an independently oscillating mobile vegetation. Enterococci faecalis were grown on blood cultures. A diagnosis of enterococci infective endocarditis with concomitant acute myocardial infarction due to possible septic emboli was made. Despite the successful outcome from thrombolysis in the setting of acute myocardial infarction with infective endocarditis, the case highlights the current lack of definitive data on the optimal acute management of such an unusual clinical scenario. Although there is serious concern that thrombolytic treatment for myocardial infarction in the setting of infective endocarditis may be associated with higher risk of cerebral haemorrhage, there is little documented evidence supporting the safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention with these patients.

  3. Influenza as a trigger for acute myocardial infarction or death from cardiovascular disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smeeth, Liam; Hayward, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac complications of influenza infection, such as myocarditis, are well recognised, but the role of influenza as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction is less clear. We did a systematic review of the evidence that influenza (including influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infection) triggers acute myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. We examined the effectiveness of influenza vaccines at protecting against cardiac events and did a meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials. 42 publications describing 39 studies were identified. Many observational studies in different settings with a range of methods reported consistent associations between influenza and acute myocardial infarction. There was weaker evidence of an association with cardiovascular death. Two small randomised trials assessed the protection provided by influenza vaccine against cardiac events in people with existing cardiovascular disease. Whereas one trial found that influenza vaccination gave significant protection against cardiovascular death, the other trial was inconclusive. A pooled estimate from a random-effects model suggests a protective, though non-significant, effect (relative risk 0.51, 95% CI 0.15-1.76). We believe influenza vaccination should be encouraged wherever indicated, especially in people with existing cardiovascular disease, among whom there is often suboptimum vaccine uptake. Further evidence is needed on the effectiveness of influenza vaccines to reduce the risk of cardiac events in people without established vascular disease.

  4. Comparison of case fatality in south Asian and white patients after acute myocardial infarction: observational study.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P; Sayer, J; Laji, K; Grundy, C; Marchant, B; Kopelman, P; Timmis, A D

    1996-05-25

    To compare mortality in south Asian (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and white patients in the six months after hospital admission for acute myocardial infarction. Observational study. District general hospital in east London. 149 south Asian and 313 white patients aged < 65 years admitted to the coronary care unit with acute myocardial infarction from 1 December 1988 to 31 December 1992. All cause mortality in the first six months after myocardial infarction. The admission rate in the south Asians was estimated to be 2.04 times that in the white patients. Most aspects of treatment were similar in the two groups, except that a higher proportion of the south Asians received thrombolytic drugs (81.2% v 73.8%). After adjustment for age, sex, previous myocardial infarction, and treatment with thrombolysis or aspirin, or both, the south Asians had a poorer survival over the six months from myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.02 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 3.56), P = 0.018), but a substantially higher proportion were diabetic (38% v 11%, P < 0.001), and additional adjustment for diabetes removed much of their excess risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.26 (0.68 to 2.33), P = 0.47). South Asian patients had a higher risk of admission with myocardial infarction and a higher risk of death over the ensuing six months than the white patients. The higher case fatality among the south Asians, largely attributable to diabetes, may contribute to the increased risk of death from coronary heart disease in south Asians living in Britain.

  5. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) as a biomarker for acute myocardial injury and long-term post-ischemic prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiao-Dong; He, Yi; Wang, Sheng; Wong, Gordon T; Irwin, Michael G; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2018-05-17

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-threatening event. Even with timely treatment, acute ischemic myocardial injury and ensuing ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) can still be difficult issues to tackle. Apart from radiological and other auxiliary examinations, laboratory tests of applicable cardiac biomarkers are also necessary for early diagnosis and close monitoring of this disorder. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), which mainly exists inside cardiomyocytes, has recently emerged as a potentially promising biomarker for myocardial injury. In this review we discuss the sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP in the assessment of myocardial injury and IRI, especially in the early stage, and its long-term prognostic value in comparison with other commonly used cardiac biomarkers, including myoglobin (Mb), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), C-reactive protein (CRP), glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). The potential and value of combined application of H-FABP with other biomarkers are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of H-FABP is summarized; several technical issues are discussed to facilitate wider application of H-FABP in clinical practice.

  6. Direct T2 Quantification of Myocardial Edema in Acute Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Verhaert, David; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Giri, Shivraman; Mihai, Georgeta; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Raman, Subha V.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the utility of rapid, quantitative T2 mapping compared with conventional T2-weighted imaging in patients presenting with various forms of acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) identifies myocardial edema before the onset of irreversible ischemic injury and has shown value in risk-stratifying patients with chest pain. Clinical acceptance of T2-weighted CMR has, however, been limited by well-known technical problems associated with existing techniques. T2 quantification has recently been shown to overcome these problems; we hypothesized that T2 measurement in infarcted myocardium versus remote regions versus zones of microvascular obstruction in acute myocardial infarction patients could help reduce uncertainty in interpretation of T2-weighted images. METHODS T2 values using a novel mapping technique were prospectively recorded in 16 myocardial segments in 27 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Regional T2 values were averaged in the infarct zone and remote myocardium, both defined by a reviewer blinded to the results of T2 mapping. Myocardial T2 was also measured in a group of 21 healthy volunteers. RESULTS T2 of the infarct zone was 69 ± 6 ms compared with 56 ± 3.4 ms for remote myocardium (p < 0.0001). No difference in T2 was observed between remote myocardium and myocardium of healthy volunteers (56 ± 3.4 ms and 55.5 ± 2.3 ms, respectively, p = NS). T2 mapping allowed for the detection of edematous myocardium in 26 of 27 patients; by comparison, segmented breath-hold T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery images were negative in 7 and uninterpretable in another 2 due to breathing artifacts. Within the infarct zone, areas of microvascular obstruction were characterized by a lower T2 value (59 ± 6 ms) compared with areas with no microvascular obstruction (71.6 ± 10 ms, p < 0.0001). T2 mapping provided consistent high-quality results in patients unable to breath-hold and in

  7. Increase in electrocardiographic R-waves after revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Satoshi; Takada, Yasuo; Ando, Akitada; Ohshima, Satoru; Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Nanasato, Mamoru; Unno, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Takuo; Kondo, Takahisa; Izawa, Hideo; Inden, Yasuya; Hirai, Makoto; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2006-11-01

    The physiological mechanism of the increase in the electrocardiographic (ECG) R-wave voltage after revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) needs to be elucidated. One hundred and thirty-eight MI patients (83: anterior MI, 45: inferior MI, 10: lateral MI) underwent ECG and echocardiography in both the acute and subacute phases after emergency revascularization, as well as a resting thallium-201/iodine-123 15-p-iodophenyl-3-(R,S)-methyl pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy in the acute phase. The total sum of the R-wave voltage (SigmaR) was calculated over multiple leads on ECG for each infarcted lesion. Scintigraphic defect on each tracer was expressed as the percentage (%) defect of the total left ventricular (LV) myocardium. The % defect-discordance on both images in the acute phase and the % increase in SigmaR and the absolute increase in LV ejection fraction from the acute to the subacute phase (DeltaEF) were also calculated. The SigmaR in the subacute phase was significantly greater than that in the acute phase (p<0.0001). The % increase in SigmaR significantly correlated with the DeltaEF (r=0.57, p<0.0001). The % increase in SigmaR also correlated with the % defect-discordance (r=0.68, p<0.0001). The increase in the ECG R-wave voltage reflects not only the improvement in myocardial perfusion but also the presence of salvaged myocardium after revascularization in acute MI patients.

  8. The influence of myocardial substrate on ventricular fibrillation waveform: A swine model of acute and postmyocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Indik, Julia H.; Donnerstein, Richard L.; Hilwig, Ronald W.; Zuercher, Mathias; Feigelman, Justin; Kern, Karl B.; Berg, Marc D.; Berg, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In cardiac arrest resulting from ventricular fibrillation, the ventricular fibrillation waveform may be a clue to its duration and predict the likelihood of shock success. However, ventricular fibrillation occurs in different myocardial substrates such as ischemia, heart failure, and structurally normal hearts. We hypothesized that ventricular fibrillation is altered by myocardial infarction and varies from the acute to postmyocardial infarction periods. Design An animal intervention study was conducted with comparison to a control group. Setting This study took place in a university animal laboratory. Subjects Study subjects included 37 swine. Interventions Myocardial infarction was induced by occlusion of the midleft anterior descending artery. Ventricular fibrillation was induced in control swine, acute myocardial infarction swine, and in postmyocardial infarction swine after a 2-wk recovery period. Measurements and Main Results Ventricular fibrillation was recorded in 11 swine with acute myocardial infarction, ten post-myocardial infarction, and 16 controls. Frequency (mean, median, dominant, and bandwidth) and amplitude-related content (slope, slope-amp [slope divided by amplitude], and amplitude–spectrum area) were analyzed. Frequencies at 5 mins of ventricular fibrillation were altered in both acute myocardial infarction (p < .001 for all frequency characteristics) and postmyocardial infarction swine (p = .015 for mean, .002 for median, .002 for dominant frequency, and <.001 for bandwidth). At 5 mins, median frequency was highest in controls, 10.9 ± .4 Hz; lowest in acute myocardial infarction, 8.4 ± .5 Hz; and intermediate in postmyocardial infarction, 9.7 ± .5 Hz (p < .001 for acute myocardial infarction and p = .002 for postmyocardial infarction compared with control). Slope and amplitude–spectrum area were similar among the three groups with a shallow decline after minute 2, whereas slope-amp remained significantly altered for acute

  9. Postinfarct intramyocardial injection of mesenchymal stem cells pretreated with TGF-α improves acute myocardial function

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Jeremy L.; Abarbanell, Aaron M.; Weil, Brent R.; Wang, Yue; Poynter, Jeffrey A.; Manukyan, Mariuxi C.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies offer promising potential for myocardial infarction (MI), but endogenous molecules released in response to injury likely impair posttransplantation stem cell function. Stem cell-mediated cardioprotection occurs in part via paracrine effects, and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) has been shown to enhance paracrine function. However, it is unknown whether pretreating stem cells with TGF-α increases stem cell-mediated cardioprotection after acute MI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were treated with TGF-α (250 ng/ml) for 24 h. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were isolated and perfused using the Langendorff method. MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Postligation (30 min), vehicle or 1 × 106 MSCs with or without pretreatment were injected in the infarct border zones, and the hearts were perfused for an additional 60 min. Left ventricular function was continuously measured, and infarct size was assessed with Evans blue dye and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Myocardial production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and caspase 3 activation was also measured. Left ventricular function decreased significantly following coronary artery ligation but improved following injection of untreated MSCs and to a greater extent after injection of pretreated MSCs. In addition, the infarct area, myocardial caspase 3 activation, and IL-6 production were lowest in hearts injected with pretreated cells. Intramyocardial injection of TGF-α-pretreated MSCs after acute MI is associated with increased myocardial function and decreased myocardial injury. This strategy may be useful for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells for the treatment of acute MI. PMID:20484699

  10. IL-6 signalling in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ritschel, Vibeke N.; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Arnesen, Harald; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Weiss, Thomas; Eritsland, Jan; Andersen, Geir Ø

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines of the IL-6 family have been related to infarct size and prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction. The aims of the present study were to elucidate possible associations between myocardial necrosis and left ventricular impairment and members of the IL-6 transsignalling system including soluble (s) IL-6R and (s) glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary PCI. In blood samples from 1028 STEMI patients, collected in-hosptial, we found significant correlations between peak TnT and IL-6 and CRP (p < 0.001, all) and between IL-6 and CRP and LV ejection fraction and NT-proBNP (p < 0.001, all). On the contrary, no significant associations were found between peak TnT and sgp130 or sIL-6R. Furthermore sgp130 was significantly elevated in diabetic patients and also associated with the glucometabolic state. In conclusion, circulating levels of IL-6 and CRP, but not the soluble forms of the receptor (sIL-6R) or the receptor signalling subunit (sgp130) were associated with the extent of myocardial necrosis. The biological importance of the IL-6/gp130-mediated signalling pathways in patients with acute myocardial infarction and dysglycemia should be further elucidated. PMID:24707455

  11. Manageability, vulnerability and interaction: a qualitative analysis of acute myocardial infarction patients' conceptions of the event.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingela; Swahn, Eva; Strömberg, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Delay in seeking care remains a problem for many patients with myocardial infarction. There is a great deal of knowledge available about clinical factors contributing to this delay, while studies focusing on the patients' own experiences are few. Describe variations in how individuals perceived suffering symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction. A qualitative method using phenomenographic design was applied. Interviews were conducted with 15 strategically selected patients with myocardial infarction. Eight sub-categories in the pre-hospital phase were summarised into three categories: manageability, vulnerability, and interaction. To manage their situation, patients expressed a need to understand it and to have a similar situation to compare with. They also described coping with the arising threat to their lives by self-medication or denying their symptoms. Patients expressed vulnerability, with feelings of anxiety, both as triggers and barriers to seeking medical care. In interaction with others, psychosocial support and guidance from the environment, was fundamental in helping the patients to manage the situation. There were large variations in myocardial infarction patients' conceptions of the event. To improve disease management in the pre-hospital phase, the awareness of this large variation in conceptions about suffering symptoms of an myocardial infarction could be used in the dialogue between patients and health care professionals, in cardiac prevention programmes, as well as in health care education.

  12. Sequential evaluation of coronary flow patterns after primary angioplasty in acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction predicts recovery of left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Dawod; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Makhoul, Nabeel; Shefer, Arie; Hassan, Amin; Rosenschein, Uri

    2014-05-01

    Function of the microcirculation after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is dynamic and contributes to unpredictability of recovery of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. This study was conducted to evaluate sequential Doppler velocity parameters of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in predicting recovery of global and regional LV systolic function. Thirty-five consecutive patients, 24 males, age 59 ± 12 years, with acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who had primary PCI were studied. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and myocardial blush grades were evaluated. Transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) studies, evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LAD territory wall-motion score index (WMSI), and sampling of LAD Doppler velocities up to 6 hours post-PCI, 48 hours postprocedure, and predischarge were performed. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grade before PCI averaged 0.86 ± 1.19 and post-PCI 2.89 ± 0.32, P < 0.05. Myocardial blush grade before PCI was 0.41 ± 0.98 and after PCI 2.22 ± 0.93, P < 0.05. Diastolic velocity deceleration time (DDT) in the LAD early after PCI was less than 600 ms in 16 subjects. Immediately after PCI, in subjects with DDT > 600 ms, LVEF was 38.5 ± 6% and predischarge 49.2 ± 8.7%, P = 9.77 × 10−5 and LAD-WMSI decreased from 2 ± 0.38 to 1.4 ± 0.48, P = 0.000163. In subjects with DDT < 600 ms LAD-WMSI did not change significantly. Early and minimal LAD-DDT correlated with improvement in LV systolic function, r = 0.6, whereas post-PCI blush grade had lower correlation with LVEF, r = 0.39. Global and regional LV systolic function after PCI in acute anterior MI can be predicted by LAD-DDT better than by post-PCI myocardial blush.

  13. Potential cost effectiveness of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator versus streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goel, V; Naylor, C D

    1992-01-01

    An economic evaluation of the potential incremental benefits of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) versus streptokinase (SK) for treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Cost effectiveness analysis from a third-party payer perspective (Ontario Ministry of Health). ECONOMIC INPUTS: Fully allocated costs for cardiovascular procedures and hospitalization for myocardial infarction were obtained anonymously for four Ontario teaching hospitals and converted to 1988 Canadian dollars. Professional charges were taken from the provincial health insurance fee schedule and drug costs obtained from the manufacturers. CLINICAL INPUTS: The baseline analysis was for nonelderly patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarctions; sensitivity analyses allowed extrapolation to higher risk subgroups. Short and longer term mortality and short term invasive procedure rates were estimated using data from clinical trials. If tPA achieves a 1% short term mortality advantage over SK with no advantages for other survivors, cost per life-year gained can be comparable to other cardiovascular interventions at $58,600. In the absence of immediate survival advantages, but assuming greater left ventricular preservation, the constant annual hazard rate advantage must be about 0.5% per year for competitive cost effectiveness ratios. A full range of projections is presented to help guide the policy decisions that will arise in the wake of the Global Utilization of SK and tPA for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) trial. The analysis also illustrates the general importance of considering longer term effects of in-hospital therapies for acute myocardial infarction.

  14. [An analysis of the prognostic factors of acute myocardial infarction in different gender].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Wu, Xue-Si; Han, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Qian

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the prognostic factors of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction men and women. The data of 904 in-hospital patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were collected from the database of our hospital during 2003 - 2004 and 728 of them were followed-up. The patients were divided into groups of male and female. Women had more accompanying diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension than men; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower in female. The rate of successful reperfusion was lower in women than men (P < 0.05). Mortality rate was higher in women. 728 (202 female) patients were followed up. The use of beta-blockers were statistically different between two groups during follow-up. In the female group, LVEF was lower significantly and the rate of readmission for heart failure and myocardial infarction as well as that of mortality was higher (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that sex difference was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.130, 95% CI 0.954 - 4.754, P = 0.045), but not for mortality in the followed-up period and readmission. There are many factors leading to the poor prognosis of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in women. It is essential to pay more attention to its clinical characteristics and begin intervention of the risk factors earlier so as to improve the prognosis.

  15. Baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaguo; Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin belongs to glucuronic acid glycosides and after hydrolysisbaicalein and glucuronic acid come into being. It has such effects as clearing heat and removing toxicity, anti-inflammation, choleresis, bringing high blood pressure down, diuresis, anti-allergic reaction and so on. In this study, we investigated whether baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and its mechanism. Rat model of acute myocardial infarction was induced by isoproterenol. Casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size measurement were used to measure the protective effect of baicalin on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction. iNOS protein expression in rat was analyzed using western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activation levels were explored using commercial ELISA kits. In the acute myocardial infarction experiment, baicalin effectively ameliorates the level of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT, reduced infarct size in acute myocardial infarction rat model. Meanwhile, treatment with baicalin effectively decreased the iNOS protein expression, inflammatory factors and oxidative stresses in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. However, baicalin emerged that anti-apoptosis activity and suppressed the activation of caspase-3 in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The data suggest that the protective effect of baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat. PMID:26617721

  16. Lipid paradox in acute myocardial infarction-the association with 30-day in-hospital mortality.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Hung; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Kun-Tai; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2015-06-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. However, fatty acids from triglycerides are a major energy source, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is critical for cell membrane synthesis, and both are critical for cell survival. This study was designed to clarify the relationship between lipid profile, morbidity as assessed by Killip classification, and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. A noninterventional observational study. Coronary care unit in a university hospital. Seven hundred twenty-four patients with acute myocardial infarction in the coronary care program of the Bureau of Health Promotion were analyzed. None. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in high-Killip (III+IV) patients compared with low-Killip (I+II) patients and in those who died compared with those who survived beyond 30 days (both p<0.001). After adjustment for risk factors, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 62.5 mg/dL and triglycerides less than 110 mg/dL were identified as optimal threshold values for predicting 30-day mortality and were associated with hazard ratios of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.18-2.30) and 5.05 (95% CI, 1.75-14.54), and the actual mortality rates were 23% in low low-density lipoprotein, 6% in high low-density lipoprotein, 14% in low triglycerides, and 3% in high triglycerides groups, respectively. To test the synergistic effect, high-Killip patients with triglycerides less than 62.5 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 110 mg/dL had a 10.9-fold higher adjusted risk of mortality than low-Killip patients with triglycerides greater than or equal to 62.5 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol greater than or equal to 110 mg/dL (p<0.001). The lipid paradox also improved acute myocardial infarction short-term outcomes prediction on original Killip and thrombolytic in myocardial infarction scores. Low low

  17. Release kinetics of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in a clinical model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Christoph; Gaede, Luise; Dörr, Oliver; Troidl, Christian; Voss, Sandra; Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Paszko, Agata; Weber, Michael; Rolf, Andreas; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger; Möllmann, Helge

    2014-02-15

    N-terminal segment of B-type natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-proBNP) is elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) thus providing both diagnostic information and prognostic information. The aim of the present study was to determine the time course of NT-proBNP release in patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH) a procedure mimicking AMI. We analyzed the release kinetics of NT-proBNP in 18 consecutive patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy undergoing TASH. Serum samples were collected prior to and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 min, and 2, 4, 8, and 24h after TASH. NT-proBNP concentrations showed a continuous increase during the first 75 min with a significant percent change compared to baseline value already 15 min after TASH (105.6% [IQR 102.2-112.7]; P<0.001). All patients had a significant increase of NT-proBNP at 45 min (range of percent increase [min-max]: 103.5-137.2%; range of absolute increase [min-max]: 23.5-304.0 ng/L). NT-proBNP concentrations decreased below the baseline value until the 8th h after initiation of myocardial infarction. NT-proBNP concentration increases immediately after induction of myocardial infarction proving early evidence of myocardial injury despite the decrease of the left ventricular wall stress due to the TASH related reduction of the left ventricular outflow gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute impairment of regional myocardial glucose uptake in the apical ballooning (takotsubo) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Kevin A; Murphy, Joseph; Prasad, Abhiram; Wright, R Scott; Lerman, Amir; Rihal, Charanjit S; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya

    2006-01-01

    Apical ballooning syndrome (ABS) is a poorly understood clinical entity characterized by acute, transient systolic dysfunction of the left ventricular (LV) apex in the absence of epicardial coronary artery disease and commonly associated with acute emotional stress. We report abnormal regional myocardial perfusion and glucose uptake in 4 consecutive ABS patients studied using positron emission tomography with 13N-ammonia and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose within 72 hours of presentation with ABS. All patients were postmenopausal females, 3 of whom had a major recent life stress event. Coronary angiography revealed no or minimal obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. All patients exhibited reduced glucose uptake in the mid-LV and apical myocardial segments, which was out of proportion to perfusion abnormalities in half of the cases. In all 4 patients, affected regions subsequently recovered regional LV systolic function within 6 weeks.

  19. Lingual Haematoma due to Tenecteplase in a Patient with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Muhlis; Salturk, Ziya; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Yağcı, Serkan; Coşkun Bal, Gökçen

    2013-01-01

    The use of intravenous thrombolytic agents has revolutionised the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, the improvement in mortality rate achieved with these drugs is tempered by the risk of serious bleeding complications, including intracranial haemorrhage. Tenecteplase is a genetically engineered mutant tissue plasminogen activator. Haemorrhagic complications of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are well known. Compared to other tPAs, tenecteplase use leads to lower rates of bleeding complications. Here, we report a case of unusual site of spontaneous bleeding, intralingual haematoma during tenecteplase therapy following acute myocardial infarction, which caused significant upper airway obstruction and required tracheotomy to maintain the patient's airway. Clinical dilemmas related to securing the airway or reversing the effects of tissue plasminogen activator are discussed. PMID:23862086

  20. Feasibility of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Myocardial Revascularization Therapy for Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients and Refractory Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Myojo, Masahiro; Ando, Jiro; Uehara, Masae; Daimon, Masao; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-06

    Extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization (ESMR) is one of the new treatment options for refractory angina pectoris (RAP), and some studies have indicated its effectiveness. A single-arm prospective trial to assess the feasibility of ESMR using Cardiospec for patients with post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and RAP was designed and performed. The patients were treated with 9 sessions of ESMR to the ischemic areas for 9 weeks. The feasibility measures included echocardiography; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; troponin T, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and brain natriuretic peptide testing; and a Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) survey. Three post-AMI patients and 3 RAP patients were enrolled. The post-AMI patients had already undergone revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the acute phase. In two patients, adverse events requiring admission occurred: one a lumbar disc hernia in a post-AMI patient and the other congestive heart failure resulting in death in an RAP patient. No apparent elevations in CK-MB and troponin T levels during the trial were observed. Echocardiography revealed no remarkable changes of ejection fraction; however, septal E/E' tended to decrease after treatments (11.6 ± 4.8 versus 9.2 ± 2.8, P = 0.08). Concerning the available SAQ scores for two RAP patients, one patient reported improvements in angina frequency and treatment satisfaction and the other reported improvements in physical limitations and angina stability. In this feasibility study, ESMR seems to be a safe treatment for both post-AMI patients and RAP patients. The efficacy of ESMR for post-AMI patients remains to be evaluated with additional studies.

  1. Growth-differentiation factor 15 and osteoprotegerin in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: a biomarker substudy of the IABP-SHOCK II-trial.

    PubMed

    Fuernau, Georg; Poenisch, Christian; Eitel, Ingo; de Waha, Suzanne; Desch, Steffen; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker; Werdan, Karl; Zeymer, Uwe; Thiele, Holger

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) as predictors of outcome in cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction. The novel biomarkers OPG and GDF-15 have shown prognostic impact in various cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction. In acute myocardial infarction complicated by CS, the diagnostic and prognostic impact of these biomarkers has not been investigated yet. OPG and GDF-15 may have additional prognostic impact on early prognosis assessment, being potentially useful for decision-making in CS. In the randomized Intra-aortic Balloon Pump in cardiogenic Shock II (IABP-SHOCK II)-trial, 600 patients with CS complicating acute myocardial infarction undergoing early revascularization were assigned to therapy with or without IABP. Within a pre-defined substudy, blood samples were collected from 190 patients during PCI. GDF-15 and OPG serum levels were measured with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Patients with GDF-15 and OPG levels greater than the median showed higher rates of death at 30 days by χ(2) testing (OPG, 51% vs. 32%, P = 0.01; GDF-15, 52% vs. 31%, P = 0.005) and log rank testing [GDF-15, hazard ratio (HR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.94; P = 0.005; OPG, HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.11-2.71; P = 0.01]. Both markers were significantly predictive of 30-day mortality in univariable logistic regression analysis. In a multivariable logistic stepwise regression model, GDF-15, TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) flow grade <3 after PCI, age, LVEF, and serum lactate remained significant predictors of 30-day mortality. GDF-15 on admission is a significant independent predictor of short-term mortality in infarct-related CS. Trail registration: NCT00491036. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Educational Level and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Melgarejo-Moreno, Antonio; Galcerá-Tomás, José; Alonso-Fernández, Nuria; Díaz-Pastor, Ángela; Escudero-García, Germán; Jaulent-Huertas, Leticia; Vicente-Gilabert, Marta

    2015-11-01

    The value of socioeconomic status as a prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of educational level, as a marker of socioeconomic status, on the prognosis of long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. We conducted a prospective, observational study of 5797 patients admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction. We studied long-term all-cause mortality (median 8.5 years) using adjusted regression models. We found that 73.1% of patients had primary school education (n=4240), 14.5% had secondary school education (including high school) (n=843), 7.0% was illiterate (n=407), and 5.3% had higher education (n=307). Patients with secondary school or higher education were significantly younger, more were male, and they had fewer risk factors and comorbidity. These patients arrived sooner at hospital and had less severe heart failure. During admission they received more reperfusion therapy and their crude mortality was lower. Their drug treatment in hospital and at discharge followed guideline recommendations more closely. On multivariate analysis, secondary school or higher education was an independent predictor and protective factor for long-term mortality (hazard ratio=0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.98). Our study shows an inverse and independent relationship between educational level and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of the effects of intravenous magnesium sulphate on cardiac rhythm in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Roffe, C.; Fletcher, S.; Woods, K. L.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect of doubling serum magnesium concentration on the incidence of arrhythmias in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Randomised double blind clinical trial. SETTING--Coronary care unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Clinical data were collected on 2316 randomised patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Holter monitoring was performed in a subgroup of 70 patients and analysed in 48 patients in whom acute myocardial infarction was confirmed. INTERVENTIONS--By random allocation, patients received either an intravenous loading dose of 8 mmol magnesium sulphate over five minutes plus 65 mmol over the next 24 hours, or equal volumes of saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--(a) Clinically documented arrhythmias; (b) use of antiarrhythmic treatments, cardioversion, and insertion of a pacemaker; (c) incidence of all abnormal rhythms during Holter monitoring. RESULTS--In the main trial the incidence of rhythm disturbance while in the coronary care unit (expressed as the odds ratio (OR) for magnesium: placebo and its 95% confidence interval) was not significantly different between treatment groups for ventricular fibrillation (OR 0.74; 0.46 to 1.20), ventricular tachycardia (OR 0.87; 0.63 to 1.20), supraventricular tachycardia (OR 0.69; 0.38 to 1.26), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.92; 0.69 to 1.23), or heart block of any degree (OR 1.17; 0.83 to 1.65). Sinus bradycardia was significantly more common in the magnesium group (OR 1.38; 1.03 to 1.85; p = 0.02). These findings were corroborated by the use of treatments for rhythm disturbance and the data from Holter monitoring. CONCLUSION--The regimen of intravenous magnesium sulphate used here had no significant effect on arrhythmia in acute myocardial infarction. The reduction in mortality that has been shown with this form of treatment is not attributable to suppression of life threatening rhythm disturbances. PMID:8130021

  4. Reductions in Cigarette Smoking and Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Jefferson County, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Philip; Ramirez, Amelie G.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Fonseca, Vincent P.

    2010-01-01

    After litigation against the tobacco industry ended in a settlement, the Texas legislature funded pilot projects to reduce tobacco use in selected areas of the state. Subsequent telephone surveys showed that well-funded activities were successful in reducing population rates of self-reported cigarette smoking. We present evidence that the reduction in smoking promptly led to lower rates of death from acute myocardial infarctions. PMID:20966365

  5. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Risk After Rehospitalization for Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, or Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Rachel P; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Hsieh, Angela F; Welsh, John; Qin, Li; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-05-01

    Women have an increased risk of rehospitalization in the immediate postdischarge period; however, few studies have determined how readmission risk dynamically changes on a day-to-day basis over the full year after hospitalization by sex and how these differences compare with the risk for mortality. We identified >3 000 000 hospitalizations of patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia and estimated sex differences in the daily risk of rehospitalization/death 1 year after discharge from a population of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. We calculated the (1) time required for adjusted rehospitalization/mortality risks to decline 50% from maximum values after discharge, (2) time required for the adjusted readmission risk to approach plateau periods of minimal day-to-day change, and (3) extent to which adjusted risks are greater among recently hospitalized patients versus Medicare patients. We identified 1 392 289, 530 771, and 1 125 231 hospitalizations for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia, respectively. The adjusted daily risk of rehospitalization varied by admitting condition (hazard rate ratio for women versus men, 1.10 for acute myocardial infarction; hazard rate ratio, 1.04 for heart failure; and hazard rate ratio, 0.98 for pneumonia). However, for all conditions, the adjusted daily risk of death was higher among men versus women (hazard rate ratio women versus with men, <1). For both sexes, there was a similar timing of peak daily risk, half daily risk, and reaching plateau. Although the association of sex with daily risk of rehospitalization varies across conditions, women are at highest risk after discharge for acute myocardial infarction. Future studies should focus on understanding the determinants of sex differences in rehospitalization risk among conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A case of acute myocardial infarction due to the use of cayenne pepper pills.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Karabag, Turgut; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Akpinar, Ibrahim; Aydin, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    The use of weight loss pills containing cayenne pepper has ever been increasing. The main component of cayenne pepper pills is capsaicin. There are conflicting data about the effects of capsaicin on the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we present the case of a 41 year old male patient with no cardiovascular risk factors who took cayenne pepper pills to lose weight and developed acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Koushik; Khaliq, Asma; Henning, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) requires cardiac myocyte necrosis with an increase and/or a decrease in a patient’s plasma of cardiac troponin (cTn) with at least one cTn measurement greater than the 99th percentile of the upper normal reference limit during: (1) symptoms of myocardial ischemia; (2) new significant electrocardiogram (ECG) ST-segment/T-wave changes or left bundle branch block; (3) the development of pathological ECG Q waves; (4) new loss of viable myocardium or regional wall motion abnormality identified by an imaging procedure; or (5) identification of intracoronary thrombus by angiography or autopsy. Myocardial infarction, when diagnosed, is now classified into five types. Detection of a rise and a fall of troponin are essential to the diagnosis of acute MI. However, high sensitivity troponin assays can increase the sensitivity but decrease the specificity of MI diagnosis. The ECG remains a cornerstone in the diagnosis of MI and should be frequently repeated, especially if the initial ECG is not diagnostic of MI. There have been significant advances in adjunctive pharmacotherapy, procedural techniques and stent technology in the treatment of patients with MIs. The routine use of antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor, in addition to aspirin, reduces patient morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a timely manner is the primary treatment of patients with acute ST segment elevation MI. Drug eluting coronary stents are safe and beneficial with primary coronary intervention. Treatment with direct thrombin inhibitors during PCI is non-inferior to unfractionated heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists and is associated with a significant reduction in bleeding. The intra-coronary use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist can reduce infarct size. Pre- and post-conditioning techniques can provide additional cardioprotection. However, the incidence and

  8. The History of Primary Angioplasty and Stenting for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Feit, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of the crowning achievements of modern medicine. At the turn of the twentieth century, MI was an often-fatal condition. Prolonged bed rest served as the principal treatment modality. Over the past century, insights into the pathophysiology of MI revolutionized approaches to management, with the sequential use of surgical coronary artery revascularization, thrombolytic therapy, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with primary coronary angioplasty, and placement of intracoronary stents. The benefits of prompt revascularization inspired systems of care to provide rapid access to PCI. This review provides a historical context for our current approach to primary PCI for acute MI.

  9. Acute Myocardial Infarction from Coronary Vasospasm Precipitated by Pseudoephedrine and Metoprolol Use.

    PubMed

    Meoli, Elise M; Goldsweig, Andrew M; Malm, Brian J

    2017-05-01

    Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonist that causes vasoconstriction and reduction in edema throughout the nasal passages. Coronary vasospasm associated with pseudoephedrine has been reported in the literature. We discuss the case of a patient with new-onset atrial fibrillation receiving metoprolol for rate control on a background of pseudoephedrine use for allergic rhinitis leading to acute myocardial infarction from multivessel coronary vasospasm. This case illustrates the importance of understanding the pharmacology of potential drug-drug interactions when managing patients with acute cardiovascular syndromes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. CHANGES IN SERUM HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL FOLLOW TWO DIFFERENT TRENDS IN PATIENTS DURING EARLY POST MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Valjevac, Amina; Džubur, Alen; Nakaš-Ićindić, Emina; Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Zaćiragić, Asija; Lepara, Orhan; Arslanagić, Amila

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of homocysteine (Hcy) changes after acute myocardial infarction is still not elucidated. Serum Hcy concentration has been shown to increase between acute and convalescent period after myocardial infarction and stroke, Also a decrease in serum Hcy during acute phase was observed, It is still not clear whether the Hcy is a culprit or an innocent bystander in cardiovascular diseases, Addressing the discrepancies in Hcy changes in patients with acute myocardial infarction might give insight in Hcy role in cardiovascular diseases and offer implications both for the clinical interpretation and patients risk stratification, The aim of the study was to evaluate serum Hcy concentration changes during early post myocardial infarction, The study included 55 patients with AMI from the Clinics for Heart Diseases and Rheumatism at University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, For Hcy analysis blood was collected on day 2 and 5 after the AMI onset, Serum Hcy concentration was determined quantitatively with fluorescent polarisation immunoassay on AxSYM system, Cluster analysis revealed two groups ofAMI patients with different trends of serum Hcy changes, Increase in serum Hcy concentration was observed in 33 (60,0%) patients (AMI 1 group), while in 22 (40,0%) patients a decrease was observed (AMI 2 group), On day 2, patients in AMI 2 group had significantly higher mean Hcy concentration compared to AMI 1 group of patients (15,27±0,96 and 11,59±0,61 μmol/L p<0,05), On day 5, no significant difference in mean Hcy level between AMI 1 and AMI 2 group of patients was observed (14,86±1,1 vs, 12,75±0,74 μmol/L respectively), Significant differences between AMI 1 and AMI 2 patients were observed in VLDLC levels and CK-MB activity on day 2, Patients in AMI 1 group had significant increase in platelets count from day 2 to day 5 (230,1±11,6 vs. 244,2±11,0; p<0,05). Our study of serial Hcy changes in patients with AMI revealed two different patterns of Hcy changes in early post

  11. Using the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey to Predict the Occurrence of Short-Term Coronary Heart Disease Events in Women.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Jean C; Cleves, Mario A; Fischer, Ellen P; Pettey, Christina M; Beasley, Brittany

    Few instruments capture symptoms that predict cardiac events in the short-term. This study examines the ability of the McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey to predict acute cardiac events within 3 months of administration and to identify the prodromal symptoms most associated with short-term risk in women without known coronary heart disease. The McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey was administered to 1,097 women referred to a cardiologist for initial coronary heart disease evaluation. Logistic regression models were used to examine prodromal symptoms individually and in combination to identify the subset of symptoms most predictive of an event within 3 months. Fifty-one women had an early cardiac event. In bivariate analyses, 4 of 30 prodromal symptoms were significantly associated with event occurrence within 90 days. In adjusted analyses, women reporting arm pain or discomfort and unusual fatigue were more likely (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.08-10.48) to have a cardiac event than women reporting neither. The McSweeney Acute and Prodromal Myocardial Infarction Symptom Survey may assist in predicting short-term coronary heart disease events in women without known coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Diagnosis and Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jimmy; Rajpurohit, Naveen; Khan, Muhammad A; Stys, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is a life-threatening event that affects millions of people each year and accounts for a big portion of hospital visits. With an ever-growing elderly patient population, ischemic heart disease is more prevalent than ever before. It is paramount that physicians of all fields are cognizant of the various presentations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), as its prompt diagnosis and treatment profoundly decreases mortality and morbidity. Under the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, guidelines are published for the optimal management of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Guidelines are continuously evolving as more multicenter randomized trials, new medications and new technologies continue to change the way we treat acute coronary syndromes. The focus of this review is ST-elevation myocardial infarction and it provides answers to some of the fundamental questions through evidence-based guidelines.

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of pharmacoinvasive management for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in smokers versus non-smokers (from the Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Tan, Nigel S; Goodman, Shaun G; Cantor, Warren J; Tan, Mary K; Yan, Raymond T; Bagnall, Alan J; Mehta, Shamir R; Fitchett, David; Strauss, Bradley H; Yan, Andrew T

    2014-10-01

    Compared with non-smokers, cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions derive greater benefit from fibrinolytic therapy. However, it is not known whether the optimal treatment strategy after fibrinolysis differs on the basis of smoking status. The Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TRANSFER-AMI) randomized patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions to a routine early invasive (pharmacoinvasive) versus a standard (early transfer only for rescue percutaneous coronary intervention or delayed angiography) strategy after fibrinolysis. The efficacy of these strategies was compared in 1,051 patients on the basis of their smoking status. Treatment heterogeneity was assessed between smokers and non-smokers, and multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate for an interaction between smoking status and treatment strategy after adjusting for baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score. Smokers (n=448) were younger, had fewer cardiovascular risk factors, and had lower GRACE risk scores. They had a lower rate of the primary composite end point of 30-day mortality, reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, heart failure, or cardiogenic shock and fewer deaths or reinfarctions at 6 months and 1 year. Smoking status was not a significant predictor of either primary or secondary end points in multivariable analysis. Pharmacoinvasive management reduced the primary end point compared with standard therapy in smokers (7.7% vs 13.6%, p=0.04) and non-smokers (13.1% vs 19.7%, p=0.03). Smoking status did not modify treatment effect on any measured outcomes (p>0.10 for all). In conclusion, compared with non-smokers, current smokers receiving either standard or early invasive management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after fibrinolysis have more favorable outcomes, which is likely attributable to their better baseline risk profile. The

  14. Effect and Safety of Morphine Use in Acute Anterior ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Mickael; Mewton, Nathan; Roubille, Francois; Morel, Olivier; Cayla, Guillaume; Angoulvant, Denis; Elbaz, Meyer; Claeys, Marc J; Garcia-Dorado, David; Giraud, Céline; Rioufol, Gilles; Jossan, Claire; Ovize, Michel; Guerin, Patrice

    2018-02-10

    Morphine is commonly used to treat chest pain during myocardial infarction, but its effect on cardiovascular outcome has never been directly evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect and safety of morphine in patients with acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction followed up for 1 year. We used the database of the CIRCUS (Does Cyclosporine Improve Outcome in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients) trial, which included 969 patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, admitted for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Two groups were defined according to use of morphine preceding coronary angiography. The composite primary outcome was the combined incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and stroke during 1 year. A total of 554 (57.1%) patients received morphine at first medical contact. Both groups, with and without morphine treatment, were comparable with respect to demographic and periprocedural characteristics. There was no significant difference in major adverse cardiovascular events between patients who received morphine compared with those who did not (26.2% versus 22.0%, respectively; P =0.15). The all-cause mortality was 5.3% in the morphine group versus 5.8% in the no-morphine group ( P =0.89). There was no difference between groups in infarct size as assessed by the creatine kinase peak after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (4023±118 versus 3903±149 IU/L; P =0.52). In anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention, morphine was used in half of patients during initial management and was not associated with a significant increase in major adverse cardiovascular events at 1 year. © 2018 The Authors and Hospices Civils de Lyon. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Depression and prognosis following hospital admission because of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, Claude; Beck, Christine A.; Huynh, Thao; Dion, Danielle; Racine, Normand; Carignan, Suzanne; Diodati, Jean G.; Charbonneau, François; Dupuis, Robert; Pilote, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Background Whether there is an association between depression at the time of acute myocardial infarction and subsequent risk of cardiac complications and death remains controversial. Most studies of this risk factor have been limited to patients of single institutions, and this might account for the varying results. We prospectively evaluated patients admitted to 5 tertiary care and 5 community hospitals and followed them for 1 year to measure the prevalence and prognostic impact of depressive symptoms after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Patients were recruited for the study by trained nurse interviewers who had documented acute myocardial infarction within 2–3 days of admission. The nurses collected information from the medical records and asked study subjects to complete the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire during their stay in hospital and using a mailed questionnaire 30 days, 6 months and 1 year later. We obtained information on vital status for patients lost to follow-up from a central death registry. Results Of the 587 study subjects, 550 (94%) completed the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline and 191 (35%) had a score of 10 or more, indicating at least mild depression. Rates of depression did not vary over the follow-up period and were similar among patients admitted to tertiary care or community hospitals. Depressed patients were more likely to undergo catheterization (57% v. 47%, 95% confidence interval [CI] around the difference 0.1%–19.6%) and were more likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (32% v. 24%, 95% CI around the difference 0.1%–16.2%) within 30 days of first admission to hospital. Patients with depression on admission had higher rates of a composite of cardiac complications, including recurrent ischemia, infarction or congestive heart failure during their first stay in hospital or readmission for angina, recurrent acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or arrhythmia (adjusted hazard ratio 1

  16. Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Grodzinsky, Anna; Goyal, Abhinav; Gosch, Kensey; McCullough, Peter A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Palmer, Biff F; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance after acute myocardial infarction are not well described. In 38,689 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction from the Cerner Health Facts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status and grouped by maximum potassium as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5 to <5.5 mEq/L, 5.5 to <6.0 mEq/L, 6.0 to <6.5 mEq/L, and ≥6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between the number of hyperkalemic values and the in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Of 38,689 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (maximum potassium ≥5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in patients on dialysis and 66.8% in patients not on dialysis. Moderate to severe hyperkalemia (maximum potassium ≥5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher maximum potassium levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once maximum potassium was ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher maximum potassium and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with a greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality. Hyperkalemia is common in patients who are hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher maximum potassium levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase, with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction merits further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Quality Indicators for Acute Myocardial Infarction in the FAST-MI (French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) Registries.

    PubMed

    Schiele, François; Gale, Chris P; Simon, Tabassome; Fox, Keith A A; Bueno, Hector; Lettino, Maddalena; Tubaro, Marco; Puymirat, Etienne; Ferrières, Jean; Meneveau, Nicolas; Danchin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association defined quality indicators (QIs) for the management of acute myocardial infarction. The application of these QIs to existing databases is appealing. It remains to be determined what the rates of implementation are, how the QIs are related to long-term survival, and whether quality categorization is possible. The QIs were extracted from the French nationwide registries French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) 2005 (n=3670) and FAST-MI 2010 (n=4169). Implementation rates for each QI are reported for both cohorts. The composite QI was used for benchmarking, and the relationship between QIs and 3-year survival was determined using a Cox model. In FAST-MI 2010, 12 individual and 2 composite QIs could be assessed. Four QIs were not recorded in FAST-MI 2010 and 4 in 2005, either because of treatment nonavailability or because of data not recorded. The degree of implementation ranged from 12% to 89%, with higher rates in 2010 as compared with 2005. Seven individual QIs were associated with survival, and there was a significant and gradual association between survival and categories of the composite QI. Center categorization was possible in 26% to 30% of participating centers; 16 (27%) centers in 2005 and 14 (20%) in 2010 were categorized as low quality. Twelve of 17 individual QIs could be assessed from FAST-MI 2010. The composite QI was significantly associated with 3-year survival and distinguished centers with high, average, and low quality of care. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction by respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Lorcan; Buckley, Thomas; Hoo, Soon Y S; Hansen, Peter S; McCormack, Catherine; Shaw, Elizabeth; Fethney, Judith; Tofler, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory infection has been associated with an increased short-term risk of myocardial infarction (MI). However, previous studies have predominantly been conducted without angiographic confirmation of MI. The possibility can therefore not be excluded that raised troponin levels or electrocardiogram abnormalities that may be seen with respiratory infections are due to non-ischaemic causes. To investigate the association between respiratory infection and angiographically confirmed MI. Interviews were conducted within 4 days of hospitalisation in 578 patients with angiographically confirmed MI, to assess for recent exposure to respiratory infection symptoms and the usual annual frequency of these symptoms. Using case-crossover methodology, exposure to respiratory infection prior to the onset of MI was compared against the usual frequency of exposure in the past year. Symptoms of respiratory infection were reported by 100 (17%) and 123 (21%) within 7 and 35 days, respectively, prior to MI. The relative risk (RR) for MI occurring within 1-7 days after respiratory infection symptoms was 17.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.2-21.8), and declined with subsequent time periods. In a subgroup analysis, the RR tended to be lower in groups taking regular cardiac medications. For those who reported milder, upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, the RR for the 1-7-day time period was 13.5 (95% CI 10.2-17.7). These findings confirm that respiratory infection can trigger MI. Further study is indicated to identify treatment strategies to decrease this risk, particularly in individuals who may have increased susceptibility. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Italian Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Aleksova, Aneta; Belfiore, Rita; Carriere, Cosimo; Kassem, Salam; La Carrubba, Salvatore; Barbati, Giulia; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is a vitamin deficiency that has been increasing in developed countries; it was also suggested as an emerging risk factor for developing of atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction. The primary source of vitamin D is its cutaneous synthesis under exposure to sunlight. It has been suggested that 30 min of sun exposure twice weekly leads to sufficient vitamin D synthesis. The residents of Trieste (Italy) are well-known for their high exposure to sunlight in all seasons. We aimed to investigate the vitamin D status in subjects with acute myocardial infarction living in this area. Vitamin D status was identified in 478 subjects diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 14.5 [7.8 - 22.7] ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were present in 324 (68 %) and 107 (22 %) subjects, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was less frequent among subjects enrolled in the period from July to the end of September (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis vitamin D deficiency was predicted by older age (p = 0.02), female gender (p = 0.002), higher body mass index (p = 0.05), autumn/winter sampling (p < 0.001), increased parathyroid hormone (p = 0.03) and alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.003). We observed very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among subjects with myocardial infarction in all seasons of enrollment. However, it was lower in the summer when sun exposure is higher. The exposure to sunlight may be a cost-saving therapeutic strategy for the management of vitamin D deficiency.

  20. The effect of optimal medical therapy on 1-year mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bramlage, P; Messer, C; Bitterlich, N; Pohlmann, C; Cuneo, A; Stammwitz, E; Tebbenjohanns, J; Gohlke, H; Senges, J; Tebbe, U

    2010-04-01

    Five drug classes have been shown to improve the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction in clinical trials: aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and thienopyridines. We aimed to assess whether the benefits of combining these drugs (termed optimal medical therapy, OMT), will result in a reduction of mortality in clinical practice. Nationwide registry Hospitals with a cardiology unit or internal medicine department. 5353 patients with acute myocardial infarction. At hospital discharge 89% received aspirin, 90% beta-blockers, 84% statins, 81% RAS blockers, 70% a thienopyridine and 46.2% OMT. Pharmacotherapy OR with 95% CI for mortality from myocardial infarction were calculated and adjusted for patient risk at baseline. Total mortality was reduced by 74% in patients receiving OMT (adj OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.38) versus patients receiving one or no drug. This was consistent in subgroups defined by STEMI/NSTEMI, diabetes and gender. Mortality was also reduced in patients receiving 2-4 drugs (adj OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.68), diabetic patients being the only subgroup with no significant effect. Analyses on the relative importance of either component revealed that withdrawal of beta-blockers (adj OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.16) and/or a combination of aspirin/clopidogrel (adj OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17) abolished the risk reduction conferred by OMT. OMT over 1 year was associated with a significantly lower mortality of patients with acute myocardial infarction in clinical practice. However OMT is provided to less than half of eligible patients leaving room for substantial improvement.

  1. Remote ischemic preconditioning and endothelial function in patients with acute myocardial infarction and primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Manchurov, Vladimir; Ryazankina, Nadezda; Khmara, Tatyana; Skrypnik, Dmitry; Reztsov, Roman; Vasilieva, Elena; Shpektor, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning by transient limb ischemia reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of the study we report here was to assess the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on endothelial function in patients with acute myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-eight patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled. All participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. In Group I (n = 23), remote ischemic preconditioning was performed before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (intermittent arm ischemia-reperfusion through 4 cycles of 5-minute inflation and 5-minute deflation of a blood-pressure cuff to 200 mm Hg). In Group II (n = 25), standard percutaneous coronary intervention without preconditioning was performed. We assessed endothelial function using the flow-mediated dilation test on baseline, then within 1-3 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention, and again on days 2 and 7 after percutaneous coronary intervention. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation results were significantly higher on the first day after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the preconditioning group (Group I) than in the control group (Group II) (12.1% vs 0.0%, P = .03, and 11.1% vs 6.3%, P = .016, respectively), and this difference remained on the seventh day (12.3% vs 7.4%, P = .0005, respectively). We demonstrated for the first time that remote ischemic preconditioning before primary percutaneous coronary intervention significantly improves endothelial function in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and this effect remains constant for at least a week. We suppose that the improvement of endothelial function may be one of the possible explanations of the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Myocardial imaging in acute myocardial infarction using beta-methyl-p-(123I)-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid: comparison with 201Tl imaging and wall motion].

    PubMed

    Naruse, H; Itano, M; Kondo, T; Kogame, T; Yamamoto, J; Morita, M; Kawamoto, H; Fukutake, N; Ohyanagi, M; Iwasaki, T

    1992-01-01

    Myocardial imaging using beta-methyl-p-(123I)-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was performed in 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction. The left ventricular images were divided into 12 segments, and myocardial imagings with BMIPP were compared with coronary angiography (CAG), thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy (TL) and wall motion obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography (WM). When the culprit lesion was at the proximal point of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), all segments showed depressed uptake. In 3 cases with single vessel disease of the LAD, inferior wall of the basis showed reduced uptake of BMIPP despite the location of the culprit lesion. In cases with discordant uptake between the two tracers, BMIPP frequently showed more severely depressed uptake than TL in the subacute phase, although the uptake of BMIPP correlated with that of TL (tau = 0.82, p less than 0.001). In such cases, the discordance was related to the improvement in WM from the acute phase to the convalescent phase. BMIPP uptake correlated with WM in the subacute phase (tau = 0.50, p less than 0.001). BMIPP showed more severely depressed uptake while WM showed mild asynergy in most cases in which discordance was found between the BMIPP and WM findings. However, there was no correlation between the change in WM from the acute to subacute phases, or the uptakes of BMIPP and TL alone. We concluded that the myocardial condition can be evaluated in detail in acute myocardial infarction by comparing the findings of BMIPP with those of TL and WM.

  3. Impact of gender on infarct size, ST-segment resolution, myocardial blush and clinical outcomes after primary stenting for acute myocardial infarction: Substudy from the EMERALD trial.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vivian G; Mori, Ken; Costa, Ricardo A; Kish, Mitra; Mehran, Roxana; Urata, Hidenori; Saku, Keijiro; Stone, Gregg W; Lansky, Alexandra J

    2016-03-15

    Women with AMI may have worse outcomes than men. However, it is unclear if this is related to differences in treatment, treatment effect or gender specific factors. We sought to determine whether primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) has a differential impact on infarct size, myocardial perfusion and ST segment resolution in men and women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 501 AMI patients were prospectively enrolled in the EMERALD study and underwent PCI with or without distal protection. Post hoc gender subset analysis was performed. 501 patients (108 women, 393 men) with ST-segment elevation AMI presenting within 6h underwent primary (or rescue) PCI with stenting and a distal protection device. Women were older, had more hypertension, less prior AMI, smaller BSA, and smaller vessel size, but had similar rates of diabetes (30% versus 20.2%, p=0.87), LAD infarct, and time-to-reperfusion compared to men. Women more frequently had complete ST-resolution (>70%) at 30days (72.8% versus 59.8%, p=0.02), and smaller infarct size compared to males (12.2±19.6% versus 18.4±18.5%, p=0.006). At 6months, TLR (6.9% versus 5.2%) and MACE (11.4% versus 10.3%) were similar for women and men. Despite worse comorbidities, women with AMI treated with primary PCI with stenting showed similar early and midterm outcomes compared to men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Revelation of Brugada electrocardiographic pattern during a febrile state associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-09-24

    The prevalence of the Brugada-type ECG and its natural history are still unclear. The Brugada syndrome is usually identified by a characteristic Brugada-type ECG that consists of ST elevation of a coved type in the precordial leads V1 to V3 and ventricular fibrillation that can lead to sudden cardiac death, although affected individuals may have a normal ECG. Mutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the human cardiac voltage-dependent Na+ channel (Na(v)1.5), are identified in 15-30% of patients with Brugada syndrome. Most SCN5A mutations lead to a 'loss-of-function' phenotype, reducing the Na+ current during the early phases of the action potential. Several nongenetic factors have been mentioned in the literature as possible inductors of the ECG pattern resembling Brugada syndrome. As such, a Brugada-type ECG may appear in some patients during febrile states and in those who are under the influence of cocaine and pharmaceutical drugs that have a sodium channel-blocking effect. It has been also reported chest pain and ST elevation Brugada pattern during febrile states. We present a case of revelation of Brugada pattern in a 69-year-old Italian man during a febrile state associated with acute myocardial infarction. Also this report confirms that Brugada pattern should be considered as one of differential diagnoses when we examine the patients during a febrile state. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Exercise stress test and dobutamine stress echocardiography for the prognostic stratification after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Nicola; Cirillo, Raffaele; Granato, Luigi; Coppola, Vincenzo; di Palma, Francesco

    2007-05-01

    Exercise stress test and dobutamine stress echocardiography are usually performed early after an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction in the prognostic stratification of patients to define the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the association of an imaging test could increase exercise test capability to identify patients with residual ischemia and patients at high risk of events in the follow-up. Four hundred and forty-two consecutive patients underwent exercise stress testing and dobutamine stress echocardiography before discharge and subsequently coronary angiography within 30 days. In case of submaximal negative result at the exercise test, this was repeated 20 days after discharge. The follow-up lasted 26.8 +/- 9 months. The endpoints were death, reinfarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization or revascularization intervention. Both tests and their association showed a higher sensitivity in males; in females dobutamine stress echocardiography had a higher specificity. In females, the addition of dobutamine stress echocardiography increased either the negative or the positive prognostic values of exercise stress test by 31% and 5.6%, respectively. In males, the negative prognostic value increased by 15.5%, whereas the positive prognostic value decreased by 12%. A low exercise capability (<6 METs) showed an event predictive value independent of test results and any other variables. The event-free survival curves correlated with exercise capability differed shortly after the first months both in males and females. These results suggest different stratification procedures with regard to gender: in males, the exercise stress test might be sufficient at discharge, to be repeated 20 days later, if submaximal negative. In females, it seems to be useful to associate an imaging test at discharge. In any case, the exercise stress test remains the main step in the stratification procedure also for its

  6. Effects of aldosterone blockade on left ventricular function and clinical status during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Uzunhasan, Isil; Yildiz, Ahmet; Coskun, Ugur; Kalyoncuoglu, Muhsin; Baskurt, Murat; Cakar, Mehmet Akif; Kaya, Aysem; Pehlivanoglu, Seckin; Enar, Rasim; Okcun, Baris

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure is frequently a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers and aldosterone receptor blockers have been shown to improve outcomes in this setting. This study aimed to determine the effect of spironolactone on the frequency of clinical heart failure, mortality, rehospitalization and left ventricular functions determined by echocardiography. A total of 82 patients with STEMI hospitalized within 6-12 h of debut of symptoms were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned into spironolactone (group A) or placebo (group B) groups after informed consent had been obtained. All patients were followed for 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups when demographic criteria were compared. The incidence of post-MI angina pectoris, rhythm and conduction disturbance during hospitalization was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of clinical heart failure was slightly lower in Group A than in Group B (5% versus 11%). Left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were slightly lower in Group A than in Group B, although statistically this was not significant. In concordance with these findings, the ejection fraction was slightly higher in Group A than in Group B, although this was not statistically significant (47% versus 44%). This trend continued during a 6-month follow-up after randomization. Our findings suggest that early administration of aldosterone blockers provides additional benefits after AMI, reducing the incidence of post-MI angina pectoris and rhythm and conduction disturbances.

  7. Rationale and Design of a Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Intracoronary Infusion of Allogeneic Human Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction: The Randomized Multicenter Double-Blind Controlled CAREMI Trial (Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Casado Plasencia, Ana; Borlado, Luis R; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Al-Daccak, Reem; Claus, Piet; Palacios, Itziar; Sádaba, Rafael; Charron, Dominique; Bogaert, Jan; Mulet, Miguel; Yotti, Raquel; Gilaberte, Immaculada; Bernad, Antonio; Bermejo, Javier; Janssens, Stefan; Fernández-Avilés, Franciso

    2017-06-23

    Stem cell therapy has increased the therapeutic armamentarium in the fight against ischemic heart disease and heart failure. The administration of exogenous stem cells has been investigated in patients suffering an acute myocardial infarction, with the final aim of salvaging jeopardized myocardium and preventing left ventricular adverse remodeling and functional deterioration. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous and first-generation stem cells have yielded inconsistent benefits and mixed results. In the search for new and more efficient cellular regenerative products, interesting cardioprotective, immunoregulatory, and cardioregenerative properties have been demonstrated for human cardiac stem cells. On the other hand, allogeneic cells show several advantages over autologous sources: they can be produced in large quantities, easily administered off-the-shelf early after an acute myocardial infarction, comply with stringent criteria for product homogeneity, potency, and quality control, and may exhibit a distinctive immunologic behavior. With a promising preclinical background, CAREMI (Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction) has been designed as a double-blind, 2:1 randomized, controlled, and multicenter clinical trial that will evaluate the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of intracoronary delivery of allogeneic human cardiac stem cell in 55 patients with large acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction, and at high risk of developing heart failure. This phase I/II clinical trial represents a novel experience in humans with allogeneic cardiac stem cell in a rigorously imaging-based selected group of acute myocardial infarction patients, with detailed safety immunologic assessments and magnetic resonance imaging-based efficacy end points. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02439398. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Diagnostic usefulness of the oedema-infarct ratio to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial damage using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Isobe, Satoshi; Suzuki, Susumu; Kinoshita, Kousuke; Yokouchi, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Hirokazu; Ohshima, Satoru; Hirai, Makoto; Sawada, Ken; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2012-04-01

    To differentiate acute from chronic damage to the myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) using DE and T2w MR. Short-axis T2w and DE MR images were acquired twice after the onset of MI in 36 patients who successfully underwent emergency coronary revascularisation. The areas of infarct and oedema were measured. The oedema-infarct ratio (O/I) of the left ventricular area was calculated by dividing the oedema by the infarct area. The oedema size on T2w MR was significantly larger than the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase. Both the oedema size on T2w MR and the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase were significantly larger than those in the chronic phase. The O/I was significantly greater in the acute phase compared with that in the chronic phase (P < 0.05). An analysis of relative cumulative frequency distributions revealed an O/I of 1.4 as a cut-off value for differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage with the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.1%, 82.7% and 83.9%, respectively. The oedema-infarct ratio may be a useful index in differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage in patients with MI. MR can differentiate reversible from irreversible myocardial damage after myocardial infarction. MR is a useful modality to noninvasively differentiate the infarct stages. The O/I is an important index to decide therapeutic strategies.

  9. Remote ischaemic postconditioning protects the heart during acute myocardial infarction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Andreka, Gyorgy; Vertesaljai, Marton; Szantho, Gergely; Font, Gusztav; Piroth, Zsolt; Fontos, Geza; Juhasz, Eszter D; Szekely, Laszlo; Szelid, Zsolt; Turner, Mark S; Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P; Andreka, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ischaemic preconditioning results in a reduction in ischaemic-reperfusion injury to the heart. This beneficial effect is seen both with direct local preconditioning of the myocardium and with remote preconditioning of easily accessible distant non-vital limb tissue. Ischaemic postconditioning with a comparable sequence of brief periods of local ischaemia, when applied immediately after the ischaemic insult, confers benefits similar to preconditioning. To test the hypothesis that limb ischaemia induces remote postconditioning and hence reduces experimental myocardial infarct size in a validated swine model of acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in 24 pigs with 90 min balloon inflations of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Remote ischaemic postconditioning was induced in 12 of the pigs by four 5 min cycles of blood pressure cuff inflation applied to the lower limb immediately after the balloon deflation. Infarct size was assessed by measuring 72 h creatinine kinase release, MRI scan and immunohistochemical analysis. Area under the curve of creatinine kinase release was significantly reduced in the postconditioning group compared with the control group with a 26% reduction in the infarct size (p<0.05). This was confirmed by MRI scanning and immunohistochemical analysis that revealed a 22% (p<0.05) and a 47.52% (p<0.01) relative reduction in the infarct size, respectively. Remote ischaemic postconditioning is a simple technique to reduce infarct size without the hazards and logistics of multiple coronary artery balloon inflations. This type of conditioning promises clear clinical potential.

  10. Transradial primary angioplasty and stenting in Indian patients with acute myocardial infarction: acute results and 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Alok; Patel, Tejas M; Shah, Sanjay C; Malhotra, Hemant; Patel, Rajni; Vayada, Nishith; Pothiwala, Rasesh; Fonseca, Keith; Tanwar, Narendra S

    2005-01-01

    Coronary angioplasty and stent implantation is effective as primary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. Because of fewer puncture site complications and improved patient comfort, transradial access has been increasingly used as an alternative to transfemoral access for percutaneous coronary interventions. We studied 103 patients (94 men, 9 women: mean age 52.5 +/- 11.96 years) with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (<12 hours after onset), who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Transradial access was used in all patients with a normal Allen's test and transfemoral access was used additionally only if intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation was required. Follow-up duration was 6 months. Transradial access was successfully achieved in all patients. Radial artery cannulation took <2 min in more than 85% patients. During percutaneous coronary intervention, cannulation to balloon inflation times and total procedure times were 11.3 +/- 5.2 min and 19.9 +/- 10.8 min, respectively. Stents were implanted in 99 (96.1%) patients andplain balloon angioplastywas performed in 3.9%. The primary success rate was 98.1%, with no major bleeding complications. Total length of hospitalization averaged 2.4 +/- 0.8 days. In-hospital major adverse clinical events rate was 5.9%. Six-month clinical follow-up was achieved for 84 (86.6%) patients. Six (7.1%) patients died during follow-up. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed in 22 (26.2%) patients. After 6 months, 7 patients required revascularizationof the target lesion. The rate of survival without myocardial infarction, bypass surgery or repeat coronary angioplasty was 88.5% at 6 months. Transradial access may represent a safe and feasible technique for performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with good acute results and without major bleeding complications.

  11. A pilot study of cardiac troponin I in patients with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina.

    PubMed

    Selim, Najlaa A; Hmouda, Houssem T

    2002-05-01

    To assess the value of cardiac troponin I in the initial management of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina, as well as the concordance between creatine phosphokinase-cardiac isoenzyme and cardiac troponin I. We reviewed retrospectively the charts of 32 patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from the Emergency Room of King Khalid Military City Hospital, Hafar-Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 1998 to September 2000. The time of admission to the intensive care unit, which corresponds to the beginning of thrombolytic therapy, the time when cardiac enzymes (creatine phosphokinase-cardiac isoenzyme and cardiac troponin I) are available as well as number of cardiac troponin I determinations before obtaining a significant positive result (>2ng/ml) and the delay between admission and the first significant positive result of cardiac troponin I, were evaluated. Sixteen patients had confirmed acute myocardial infarction based on the association of typical chest pain, electrocardiographic findings with ST segment elevation and significant increase of the ratio creatine phosphokinase-cardiac isoenzyme/creatine phosphokinase > 10%. Sixteen patients had unstable angina and out of the 16 patients (81.25%) with acute myocardial infarction, 13 received thrombolytic therapy which was initiated on the basis of typical clinical history and electrocardiographic features, before the availability of cardiac enzymes. Troponin I was available in only 13 cases. The number of tests performed in these patients was 32. The first positive result of cardiac troponin I was available within a mean time of 16.66 20.8 hours from admission. The number of negative tests performed before obtaining a frank positive result was 9 in 12 patients. The number of positive tests after having obtained the first frank positive cardiac troponin I result was 10 in 12 patients. In all cases of cardiac troponin I, results were concordant

  12. [Papillary muscle rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction--treatment with mitral valve replacement and coronary bypass surgery in acute phase].

    PubMed

    Kyo, S; Miyamoto, N; Yokote, Y; Ueda, K; Takamoto, S; Omoto, R

    1996-06-01

    Complete rupture of a papillary muscle following acute myocardial infarction is a severe complication that is typically associated with acute left ventricular failure, pulmonary edema, and relentless clinical deterioration. The reported mortality rates without surgical intervention is almost 90%, therefore, prompt operation without prolonged attempts at medical stabilization is the key to decrease operative mortality. Although the complete coronary revascularization in conjunction with mitral valve replacement is advocated in the western medical academic society, there is only a few case of conjunct surgery has been reported in Japan. Three successful cases of conjunct surgery of mitral valve replacement and coronary complete revascularization in acute phase within one week from the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are described. There were one male and two female patients with an average age of 60-year-old (range 48-67), who developed cardiogenic shock and admitted to our hospital. The average interval between onset of AMI and the appearance of mitral regurgitation (MR) was 38 hours, and that of the appearance of MR and admission was 40 hours. Surgeries were performed within 26 hours (average 13 hours) after admission. The mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical valve (St. Jude Medical Valve) and a complete coronary revasculatization was done using saphenous vein graft. The average period of operation time and aortic cross clamping time were 6 hours 22 minutes and 109 minutes respectively. The average number of coronary grafting was 2.3 (range 1-3). Postoperative recovery from cardiogenic shock was uneventful in all three patients. The average periods of ICU stay and hospital stay were 5 days and 43 days respectively. All patients have regained their social activities with mean follow up period of 52 months. Since ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of death in such patients, it is suggested that complete coronary revascularization

  13. Moderate elevation of intracellular creatine by targeting the creatine transporter protects mice from acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lygate, Craig A.; Bohl, Steffen; ten Hove, Michiel; Faller, Kiterie M.E.; Ostrowski, Philip J.; Zervou, Sevasti; Medway, Debra J.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Wallis, Julie; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aims Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure. However, testing this hypothesis has not been possible since oral creatine supplementation is ineffectual at elevating myocardial creatine levels. We therefore used mice overexpressing creatine transporter in the heart (CrT-OE) to test for the first time whether elevated creatine is beneficial in clinically relevant disease models of heart failure and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and results CrT-OE mice were selected for left ventricular (LV) creatine 20–100% above wild-type values and subjected to acute and chronic coronary artery ligation. Increasing myocardial creatine up to 100% was not detrimental even in ageing CrT-OE. In chronic heart failure, creatine elevation was neither beneficial nor detrimental, with no effect on survival, LV remodelling or dysfunction. However, CrT-OE hearts were protected against I/R injury in vivo in a dose-dependent manner (average 27% less myocardial necrosis) and exhibited greatly improved functional recovery following ex vivo I/R (59% of baseline vs. 29%). Mechanisms contributing to ischaemic protection in CrT-OE hearts include elevated PCr and glycogen levels and improved energy reserve. Furthermore, creatine loading in HL-1 cells did not alter antioxidant defences, but delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in response to oxidative stress, suggesting an additional mechanism to prevent reperfusion injury. Conclusion Elevation of myocardial creatine by 20–100% reduced myocardial stunning and I/R injury via pleiotropic mechanisms, suggesting CrT activation as a novel, potentially translatable target for cardiac protection from ischaemia. PMID:22915766

  14. Comparison of primary coronary percutaneous coronary intervention between Diabetic Men and Women with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng-Liang; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zhen-Xuan; Geng, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Jing, Song-Bin; Ba, Ning; Guo, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the short-term efficacy and safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in female diabetic patients complicated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 169 diabetic patients with AMI who underwent primary PCI were selected and divided into group A (52 females) and group B (117 males). The clinical data, characteristics of coronary artery lesions, lengths of hospital stay, and incidences of complications were then compared between two groups. The average age, history of hyperlipidemia, double branch lesions, triple branch lesions, and left main lesions were significantly higher in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). Smoking history, PCI history, and pre-infarction angina were distinctly lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 (TIMI3) flow and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 3 (TMPG3) after PCI were markedly lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.001). Group A had a higher incidence of complications, such as severe arrhythmia, cardiac function Killip III/IV, cardiogenic shock, major, moderate and mild bleed event, as well as a 30-day mortality rate, compared with group B (P < 0.05). In summary, our study demonstrated that female diabetic patients with AMI had lower TIMI3 flow and TMPG3 following PCI than male patients, while there was higher incidence of complications and 30-day mortality rate. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the therapy of diabetic women with acute myocardial infarction as well as the control of risk factors.

  15. Illness representation after acute myocardial infarction: impact on in-hospital recovery.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Candace C; Moser, Debra K; Lennie, Terry A; Kennedy, Carol W

    2004-03-01

    Despite significant progress in the treatment of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction is still the leading cause of death in the United States. As suggested by Leventhal's Self-Regulation Model of Illness, the continued high morbidity and mortality may be due to a failure to address the role of psychosocial factors such as illness representation, depression, and anxiety in recovery. To determine the relationship between illness representation of myocardial infarction and the occurrence of in-hospital complications and if anxiety and depression mediate this relationship. A prospective correlational design was used to measure illness representation, depression, and anxiety 24 to 48 hours after admission for myocardial infarction in 49 patients and the frequency of complications during the acute event. Logistic regression was used to determine the likelihood of experiencing a complication. When demographic and clinical variables were controlled for, the more negative the representation of illness, the greater were the odds of experiencing a complication (chi2 = 16.9, df = 6, P =.01). The odds of experiencing a complication increased 5.1% for each 1 unit increase in the score on the Illness Preparation Questionnaire (B = 0.05, Wald = 4.442, Exp(B) = 1.051, 95% CI = 1.003-1.1010). Neither anxiety (chi2 = 3.0, df = 1, P =. 09) nor depression (chi2 = 2.5, df = 1, P = .11) were significant predictors of the occurrence of complications. In these patients, illness representation was predictive of the likelihood of experiencing a complication. Thus, illness representation appears to be an important psychosocial factor in acute recovery from myocardial infarction.

  16. Acute hyperglycaemia and inflammation in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Michał; Bednarek, Agnieszka; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Acute hyperglycaemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk among both diabetic and non-diabetic patients although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clearly understood. Acute hyperglycaemia in patients with ACS may be associated with increased systemic inflammation. Leukocytes are the major cellular mediators of inflammation and their elevated count is associated with higher CV event rate in ACS patients. Thus, it is possible that there is a relationship between acute hyperglycaemia and high leukocyte count and concomitant presence of these two conditions may contribute to increased CV risk among patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To investigate the relationship between acute hyperglycaemia and high leukocyte count and to evaluate its association with outcomes in patients with STEMI. Glucose level and leukocyte count on admission were measured in 246 patients with STEMI admitted in 2004- -2007 to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension at the University Hospital in Cracow who were treated with an early invasive management strategy. Patients were divided into two groups, with acute hyperglycaemia (glycaemia on admission ≥ 7.8 mmol/L) and with normoglycaemia (glycaemia on admission < 7.8 mmol/L). Leukocyte count was defined as high when it was greater than or equal to the median in the overall study group. Acute hyperglycaemia was noted in 136 (55.3%) patients. Median leukocyte count on admission in the overall study group was 10.8 × 103/mm3 (interquartile range: 8.5-13.0). Significantly higher in-hospital mortality (11.8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.0029) and higher rates of cardiogenic shock (10.3% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.0022), Killip class > 1 heart failure (HF; 44.1% vs. 20.0%, p < 0.0001), atrial fibrillation (11.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.0308), ventricular fibrillation (5.9% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.0389), repeated percutaneous coronary angioplasty (5.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0

  17. Microvascular resistance of the culprit coronary artery in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Carberry, Jaclyn; McCartney, Peter; Welsh, Paul; Ahmed, Nadeem; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Lindsay, Mitchell; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Rauhalammi, Samuli M.O.; Mordi, Ify; Ford, Ian; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Sattar, Naveed; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Failed myocardial reperfusion is common and prognostically important after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary flow reserve (CFR), a measure of vasodilator capacity, and the index of microvascular resistance (IMR; mmHg × s) in the culprit artery of STEMI survivors. METHODS. IMR (n = 288) and CFR (n = 283; mean age [SD], 60 [12] years) were measured acutely using guide wire–based thermodilution. Cardiac MRI disclosed left ventricular pathology, function, and volumes at 2 days (n = 281) and 6 months after STEMI (n = 264). All-cause death or first heart failure hospitalization was independently adjudicated (median follow-up 845 days). RESULTS. Myocardial hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction occurred in 89 (42%) and 114 (54%) patients with evaluable T2*-MRI maps. IMR and CFR were associated with microvascular pathology (none vs. microvascular obstruction only vs. microvascular obstruction and myocardial hemorrhage) (median [interquartile range], IMR: 17 [12.0–33.0] vs. 17 [13.0–39.0] vs. 37 [21.0–63.0], P < 0.001; CFR: 1.7 [1.4–2.5] vs. 1.5 [1.1–1.8] vs. 1.4 [1.0–1.8], P < 0.001), whereas thrombolysis in myocardial infarction blush grade was not. IMR was a multivariable associate of changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (regression coefficient [95% CI] 0.13 [0.01, 0.24]; P = 0.036), whereas CFR was not (P = 0.160). IMR (5 units) was a multivariable associate of all-cause death or heart failure hospitalization (n = 30 events; hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.09 [1.04, 1.14]; P < 0.001), whereas CFR (P = 0.124) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction blush grade (P = 0.613) were not. IMR had similar prognostic value for these outcomes as <50% ST-segment resolution on the ECG. CONCLUSIONS. IMR is more closely associated with microvascular pathology, left ventricular remodeling, and health outcomes than the angiogram or CFR. TRIAL REGISTRATION. NCT02072850. FUNDING. A

  18. Early myocardial revascularization for postinfarction angina: results and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Rivera, R; Cooper, G N; Karlson, K E

    1985-11-01

    Within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction, 108 consecutive patients underwent urgent surgical myocardial revascularization for postinfarction angina between July 1976 and March 1983. There were 84 men and 24 women whose mean age was 59.6 +/- 9.5 years (range 34 to 80). Group I (15 patients, 14%) underwent surgery within 48 hours, Group II (47 patients, 43%) between 3 and 7 days and Group III (46 patients, 43%) within 30 days. Fifty-nine patients (55%) had transmural infarction. The ejection fraction was less than 40% in 21 patients (19%). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 20 mm Hg or greater in 42 patients (39%). The incidence of single, double, triple vessel and 70% or greater left main coronary artery stenosis was 4, 20, 59 and 17%, respectively. There were two deaths (1.8%) within 30 days of operation. The incidence of intraaortic balloon pumping was higher in patients operated on earlier after myocardial infarction (53% of Group I versus 22% of Group III). Statistically, there were no differences in the use of inotropic agents or the occurrence of arrhythmias or postoperative myocardial infarction in the three groups. Late follow-up (mean 35 months, range 18 to 98) is complete for all patients (100%). There were four late myocardial infarctions and eight deaths. Actuarial survival was 87% at 5 years. Seventy-three percent of the 108 patients were free of angina and the condition of 14% improved. These results indicate that myocardial revascularization in the first 30 days after myocardial infarction can be accomplished with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of an elective operation for chronic angina refractory to medical management.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction associated with blood transfusion: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Velibey, Yalcin; Erbay, Aliriza; Ozkurt, Enver; Usta, Emrah; Akin, Filiz

    2014-04-01

    A 62-year old patient with a history of chronic anemia associated with malabsorption secondary to short gut syndrome, experienced acute chest pain the second hour after the transfusion of a crossmatch-compatible erythrocyte suspension. His electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed widespread ST-segment depressions and he had an elevated troponin level. Laboratory findings and physical examination did not indicate the presence of immunological or non-immunological blood transfusion reactions. Cardiac catheterization was performed and showed angiographically non-obstructive, atherosclerotic plaques and the absence of vasospasm or thrombus formation. Following antiischemic therapy his symptoms resolved completely. The ECG obtained 24 hours after the emergence of chest pain demonstrated normal sinus rhythm with no ST-T wave changes. We present a rare case of acute myocardial infarction induced following a blood transfusion. To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of acute myocardial infarction associated with blood transfusion have been formally recorded in the medical literature and the clinical experience regarding such cases is indeed quite limited. The present case is reviewed in the context of the relevant literature as a practical resource for clinical practice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate After Acute Myocardial Infarction During 6-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yuri; Han, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Sung; Park, Hyeng-Kyu

    2018-06-01

    the initial stage. We should therefore set and monitor the exercise intensity using maximal oxygen consumption in the early stage of exercise training after onset of acute myocardial infarction. IV. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anticoagulants for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction: lessons from the past decade.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan; Bode, Christoph; Stuerzenbecher, André; Verheugt, Freek W A

    2014-08-01

    The impact of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event, such as an acute myocardial infarction (MI), is not limited to the acute management phase; patients face an elevated risk of residual atherothrombotic events that commonly requires chronic management for months or even years. Significant advances have been made in both the acute and chronic management of patients with acute MI over the past decade, resulting in improved prognoses. One of the hallmarks of modern treatment strategies is more aggressive antiplatelet treatment regimens. However, the risks of further ACS events, stroke and premature death remain elevated in these patients, and addressing this residual risk is challenging owing to interpatient variability, differences in management strategies between centres and countries, incomplete understanding of the specific pathophysiology of post-ACS thrombosis and limitations of current therapeutic approaches. The recent approval in Europe of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban for use in this setting in combination with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid offers another strategy to consider in the management of these patients, and clinical strategies in this area continue to evolve. In this review, we chart the progress made over the past decade in reducing the burden of secondary thromboembolic events after acute MI and discuss the current position of and future perspectives on the inclusion of oral anticoagulants into care pathways in this setting. © 2014 The Authors. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Anticoagulants for secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction: lessons from the past decade

    PubMed Central

    Atar, Dan; Bode, Christoph; Stuerzenbecher, André; Verheugt, Freek W A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event, such as an acute myocardial infarction (MI), is not limited to the acute management phase; patients face an elevated risk of residual atherothrombotic events that commonly requires chronic management for months or even years. Significant advances have been made in both the acute and chronic management of patients with acute MI over the past decade, resulting in improved prognoses. One of the hallmarks of modern treatment strategies is more aggressive antiplatelet treatment regimens. However, the risks of further ACS events, stroke and premature death remain elevated in these patients, and addressing this residual risk is challenging owing to interpatient variability, differences in management strategies between centres and countries, incomplete understanding of the specific pathophysiology of post-ACS thrombosis and limitations of current therapeutic approaches. The recent approval in Europe of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban for use in this setting in combination with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid offers another strategy to consider in the management of these patients, and clinical strategies in this area continue to evolve. In this review, we chart the progress made over the past decade in reducing the burden of secondary thromboembolic events after acute MI and discuss the current position of and future perspectives on the inclusion of oral anticoagulants into care pathways in this setting. PMID:24494730

  3. Early mobilization of acute whiplash injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Mealy, K; Brennan, H; Fenelon, G C

    1986-01-01

    Acute whiplash injuries are a common cause of soft tissue trauma for which the standard treatment is rest and initial immobilisation with a soft cervical collar. Because the efficacy of this treatment is unknown a randomised study in 61 patients was carried out comparing the standard treatment with an alternative regimen of early active mobilisation. Results showed that eight weeks after the accident the degree of improvement seen in the actively treated group compared with the group given standard treatment was significantly greater for both cervical movement (p less than 0.05) and intensity of pain (p less than 0.0125). PMID:3081211

  4. Inequality in treatment use among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: USA, Belgium and Quebec.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Shmueli, Amir; McDonald, Kathryn M; Pilote, Louise; Saynina, Olga; Closon, Marie-Christine

    2009-07-30

    Previous research has provided evidence that socioeconomic status has an impact on invasive treatments use after acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we compare the socioeconomic inequality in the use of high-technology diagnosis and treatment after acute myocardial infarction between the US, Quebec and Belgium paying special attention to financial incentives and regulations as explanatory factors. We examined hospital-discharge abstracts for all patients older than 65 who were admitted to hospitals during the 1993-1998 period in the US, Quebec and Belgium with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Patients' income data were imputed from the median incomes of their residential area. For each country, we compared the risk-adjusted probability of undergoing each procedure between socioeconomic categories measured by the patient's area median income. Our findings indicate that income-related inequality exists in the use of high-technology treatment and diagnosis techniques that is not justified by differences in patients' health characteristics. Those inequalities are largely explained, in the US and Quebec, by inequalities in distances to hospitals with on-site cardiac facilities. However, in both Belgium and the US, inequalities persist among patients admitted to hospitals with on-site cardiac facilities, rejecting the hospital location effect as the single explanation for inequalities. Meanwhile, inequality levels diverge across countries (higher in the US and in Belgium, extremely low in Quebec). The findings support the hypothesis that income-related inequality in treatment for AMI exists and is likely to be affected by a country's system of health care.

  5. Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Santos, Thyego Mychell; Godoy, Irma; de Godoy, Ilda

    2016-01-01

    Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection), ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies. PMID:26982043

  6. Pre-discharge stress echocardiography and exercise ECG for risk stratification after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction: results of the COSTAMI-II (cost of strategies after myocardial infarction) trial

    PubMed Central

    Desideri, A; Fioretti, P M; Cortigiani, L; Trocino, G; Astarita, C; Gregori, D; Bax, J; Velasco, J; Celegon, L; Bigi, R; Pirelli, S; Picano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare in a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial the relative merits of pre-discharge exercise ECG and early pharmacological stress echocardiography concerning risk stratification and costs of treating patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Design: 262 patients from six participating centres with a recent uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to early (day 3–5) pharmacological stress echocardiography (n  =  132) or conventional pre-discharge (day 7–9) maximum symptom limited exercise ECG (n  =  130). Results: No complication occurred during either stress echocardiography or exercise ECG. At one year follow up there were 26 events (1 death, 5 non-fatal reinfarctions, 20 patients with unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in patients randomly assigned to early stress echocardiography and 18 events (2 reinfarctions, 16 unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in the group randomly assigned to exercise ECG (not significant). The negative predictive value was 92% for stress echocardiography and 88% for exercise ECG (not significant). Total costs of the two strategies were similar (not significant). Conclusion: Early pharmacological stress echocardiography and conventional pre-discharge symptom limited exercise ECG have similar clinical outcome and costs after uncomplicated infarction. Early pharmacological stress echocardiography should be considered a valid alternative even for patients with interpretable baseline ECG who can exercise. PMID:15657220

  7. Pre-discharge stress echocardiography and exercise ECG for risk stratification after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction: results of the COSTAMI-II (cost of strategies after myocardial infarction) trial.

    PubMed

    Desideri, A; Fioretti, P M; Cortigiani, L; Trocino, G; Astarita, C; Gregori, D; Bax, J; Velasco, J; Celegon, L; Bigi, R; Pirelli, S; Picano, E

    2005-02-01

    To compare in a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial the relative merits of pre-discharge exercise ECG and early pharmacological stress echocardiography concerning risk stratification and costs of treating patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. 262 patients from six participating centres with a recent uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to early (day 3-5) pharmacological stress echocardiography (n = 132) or conventional pre-discharge (day 7-9) maximum symptom limited exercise ECG (n = 130). No complication occurred during either stress echocardiography or exercise ECG. At one year follow up there were 26 events (1 death, 5 non-fatal reinfarctions, 20 patients with unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in patients randomly assigned to early stress echocardiography and 18 events (2 reinfarctions, 16 unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in the group randomly assigned to exercise ECG (not significant). The negative predictive value was 92% for stress echocardiography and 88% for exercise ECG (not significant). Total costs of the two strategies were similar (not significant). Early pharmacological stress echocardiography and conventional pre-discharge symptom limited exercise ECG have similar clinical outcome and costs after uncomplicated infarction. Early pharmacological stress echocardiography should be considered a valid alternative even for patients with interpretable baseline ECG who can exercise.

  8. [Acute myocardial infarction as Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg Strauss syndrome) initial presentation].

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Seung, Ong Ping; Noor, Sabariah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare primary vasculitic disease characterized by hypereosinophilia, late onset asthma and extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We report a case presented initially with acute myocardial infarction which later only proceed with asthma, skin manifestations and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory parameters showed hypereosinohpilia with negative perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA). Skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration while coronary angiography was normal. The patient's symptoms improved with IV methylprednisolone, pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Technological Change in Medicine Always Worth It? The Case of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, Douglas; Fisher, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    We examine Medicare costs and survival gains for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) during 1986–2002. Like Cutler and McClellan, we find overall gains in post-AMI survival more than justified the increases in costs during this period. Since 1996, however, survival gains have stagnated, while expenditures have continued to increase. We also consider changes in expenditures and outcomes at the regional level. Regions experiencing the largest expenditure gains were not those realizing the greatest improvements in survival. Factors yielding the greatest benefits to health (aspirin, beta blockers, and reperfusion) were not the factors that drove up costs (multiple physicians), and conversely. PMID:16464904

  10. Informed consent during the clinical emergency of acute myocardial infarction (HERO-2 consent substudy): a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Barbara F; French, John K; White, Harvey D

    2003-03-15

    Anxiety, fear, pain, and treatment with morphine might compromise the ability of patients to comprehend information about, and give informed consent for, participation in clinical trials. We aimed to assess whether patients with acute myocardial infarction could understand written and verbal information and whether they were competent to give autonomous informed consent to participate in a clinical trial. We prospectively studied 399 patients with acute myocardial infarction in 16 hospitals in New Zealand and Australia who were eligible for participation in the Hirulog and Early Reperfusion or Occlusion (HERO)-2 trial. We assessed readability of patient information sheets, patients' educational status, their views of the consent process, comprehension of verbal and written information, and competence to give consent. The patient information sheet needed a year 13 (age 18) educational level for comprehension, although only 75 of 345 patients (22%) had been educated beyond secondary school. Only 63 of 346 (18%) read the patient information sheet before giving or refusing consent to participate. Patients who gave consent were more likely to report good or partial comprehension of the information provided than were those who refused consent (272 [89%] vs 14 [70%], respectively; p=0.009). In an assessment of competence to make an autonomous decision, 75 of 145 (52%) were ranked at the lowest grade and 26 (18%) were not competent to consent. Although the consent process for HERO-2 met regulatory requirements for clinical trials, it was inappropriate for the needs of most patients. The patients' comprehension of the information provided and their competence to autonomously give consent was less than optimum.

  11. Intracoronary Administration of Allogeneic Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Myocardial Perfusion But Not Left Ventricle Function, in a Translational Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bobi, Joaquim; Solanes, Núria; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Galán-Arriola, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Rigol-Monzó, Elisabet; Agüero, Jaume; Ramírez, José; Roqué, Mercè; Bayés-Genís, Antoni; Sánchez-González, Javier; García-Álvarez, Ana; Sabaté, Manel; Roura, Santiago; Ibáñez, Borja; Rigol, Montserrat

    2017-05-03

    Autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSCs) therapy is a promising strategy to improve post-myocardial infarction outcomes. In a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction, we studied the long-term effects and the mechanisms involved in allogeneic ATMSCs administration on myocardial performance. Thirty-eight pigs underwent 50 minutes of coronary occlusion; the study was completed in 33 pigs. After reperfusion, allogeneic ATMSCs or culture medium (vehicle) were intracoronarily administered. Follow-ups were performed at short (2 days after acute myocardial infarction vehicle-treated, n=10; ATMSCs-treated, n=9) or long term (60 days after acute myocardial infarction vehicle-treated, n=7; ATMSCs-treated, n=7). At short term, infarcted myocardium analysis showed reduced apoptosis in the ATMSCs-treated animals (48.6±6% versus 55.9±5.7% in vehicle; P =0.017); enhancement of the reparative process with up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and stromal-derived factor-1α gene expression; and increased M2 macrophages (67.2±10% versus 54.7±10.2% in vehicle; P =0.016). In long-term groups, increase in myocardial perfusion at the anterior infarct border was observed both on day-7 and day-60 cardiac magnetic resonance studies in ATMSCs-treated animals, compared to vehicle (87.9±28.7 versus 57.4±17.7 mL/min per gram at 7 days; P =0.034 and 99±22.6 versus 43.3±14.7 22.6 mL/min per gram at 60 days; P =0.0001, respectively). At day 60, higher vascular density was detected at the border zone in the ATMSCs-treated animals (118±18 versus 92.4±24.3 vessels/mm 2 in vehicle; P =0.045). Cardiac magnetic resonance-measured left ventricular ejection fraction of left ventricular volumes was not different between groups at any time point. In this porcine acute myocardial infarction model, allogeneic ATMSCs-based therapy was associated with increased cardioprotective and reparative

  12. Cardioprotective effects of traditional Chinese medicine Guanmaitong on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Hua; Li, Guang-Ping; Yang, Wan-Song; Jiao, Zhan-Quan; Liu, Hong-Mei; Ni, Yan-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Guanmaitong (GMT) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound that has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the efficacy of GMT in treating cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the targeted proteins and signaling networks associated with the physiological activity of GMT in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: Control group (sham-operated), the model group, and small, medium, and large dosage GMT groups. The rat model of AMI was established via ligation of the coronary artery. The results indicate that GMT was able to reduce myocardial infarction size and improve the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-1. Furthermore, the reduced apoptotic index of the GMT-treated cardiocytes (P<0.05 vs. model group) was in accordance with the downregulated expression of Bax and the upregulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, GMT may exert a protective potential against myocardial infarction injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation of cardiomyocytes, and may offer a promising adjunct treatment for CHD.

  13. Cardioprotective effects of traditional Chinese medicine Guanmaitong on acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing-Hua; Li, Guang-Ping; Yang, Wan-Song; Jiao, Zhan-Quan; Liu, Hong-Mei; Ni, Yan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Guanmaitong (GMT) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound that has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the efficacy of GMT in treating cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the targeted proteins and signaling networks associated with the physiological activity of GMT in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: Control group (sham-operated), the model group, and small, medium, and large dosage GMT groups. The rat model of AMI was established via ligation of the coronary artery. The results indicate that GMT was able to reduce myocardial infarction size and improve the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-1. Furthermore, the reduced apoptotic index of the GMT-treated cardiocytes (P<0.05 vs. model group) was in accordance with the downregulated expression of Bax and the upregulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, GMT may exert a protective potential against myocardial infarction injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation of cardiomyocytes, and may offer a promising adjunct treatment for CHD. PMID:28105124

  14. Protection by Ethanolic Extract from Ulva lactuca L. against Acute Myocardial Infarction: Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic Activities.

    PubMed

    Widyaningsih, Wahyu; Pramono, Suwidjiyo; Zulaela; Sugiyanto; Widyarini, Sitarina

    2017-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in myocardial damage during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to determine the antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of an ethanolic extract from Ulva lactuca L. (EEUL) against AMI. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: one control group and five treatment groups. Treatment group II was given 85 mg/kg body weight (BW) of isoproterenol (ISO). Group III, IV and V were given ISO and EEUL at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg BW, respectively. Group VI were given 10 mg/kg BW of ISO and melatonin. EEUL and melatonin were orally administered for 28 days. ISO was injected subcutaneously on day 29 and 30 to chemically induce AMI. On day 31, blood was collected for antioxidant assay and heart tissues were collected for histological examination. The activity of catalase (CAT), an endogenous antioxidant, in the EEUL-treatment groups was significantly increased compared to the ISO-treatment group ( P < 0.001). The EEUL-treatment groups showed significantly decreased expression of caspase-3 ( P < 0.001) and better myocardial tissue morphology. EEUL possibly protects against AMI because of its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.

  15. CD8+CD28+ T cells might mediate injury of cardiomyocytes in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Wang, Zhiyan; Wang, Di; Zhu, Jumo; Wang, Yi

    2018-06-07

    CD8 + T cells accumulate in the necrotic myocardium of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is unclear whether CD8 + CD28 + T cells, a specific subset of CD8 + T cells, contribute to myocardial injury. In this study, 92 consecutive patients with AMI and 28 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The frequency of CD8 + CD28 + T cells in peripheral blood samples was assayed by flow cytometry. Plasma cardiac troponin I (TNI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined. Long-term prognosis of the patients was evaluated by major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) over a 12-month follow-up period. Our findings indicated that patients with AMI who presented with high numbers of CD8 + CD28 + T cells had an increased infarction size and aggravated ventricular function. We proposed that cytotoxic CD8 + CD28 + T cell-mediated myocardial necrosis may act as a novel and alternative pathway of AMI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of compound danshen dripping pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yi; Chunju, Yuan; Qi, Ai; Liuxia, Deng; Guolong, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The low frequency of survival of stem cells implanted in the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction may be caused by inflammation and oxidative stress in the myocardial microenvironment. We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, on the cardiac microenvironment and cardiac function when used alone or in combination with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant after acute myocardial infarction. After surgically induced acute myocardial infarction, rabbits were treated with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills alone or in combination with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant. Evaluation included histology, measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, leukocyte count, count of green fluorescent protein positive cells, superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde content. Combination treatment with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant significantly increased the survival of implanted cells, inhibited cardiac cell apoptosis, decreased oxidative stress, decreased the inflammatory response, and improved cardiac function. Rabbits treated with either Compound Danshen Dripping Pills or human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells alone had improvement in these effects compared with untreated control rabbits. Combination therapy with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells may improve cardiac function and morphology after acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Spontaneous Retro-Orbital Subperiosteal Hemorrhage with Complete Resolution Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsu-Ping; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Jui-Peng; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin

    2013-03-01

    Among the several treatment strategies available for acute myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention concomitant with antithrombotic agents is the primary treatment used to facilitate coronary reperfusion. However, bleeding can create major complications. Here we have presented a case of acute myocardial infarction treated with reperfusion therapy, after which developed a sudden onset of proptosis, with high intraocular pressure, blurred vision, and ecchymosis of the left eye. Spontaneous retro-orbital subperiosteal hemorrhage, a rare complication, was diagnosed based on those symptoms as noted above, as well as other orbital signs and imaging evaluation. Multiple antithrombotic agents, including antiplatelets, low molecular weight heparin, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor were thought to be the main precipitating factors of this complication. Thereafter, conservative medical treatment was applied. In the following 2 weeks, all the patient's orbital signs resolved gradually without visual impairment. In conclusion, our experience with a rare case of complications arising from reperfusion therapy used to treat myocardial infarction suggests that clinicians should remain vigilant for any hemorrhagic events during acute myocardial infarction treatment. Acute myocardial infarction; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Retro-orbital subperiosteal hemorrhage.

  18. Risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in middle-aged and adolescent people (< 45 years) in Yantai.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong; Dong, Chang-Yan; Lin, Qiao-Yan

    2015-09-29

    Yantai is a developed medium-sized coastal city in Eastern China, having a population of 1.6845 million. With the development of economy, some middle-aged and adolescent people (< 45 years) devote themselves to work and suffer from greater stress, which makes them ignore their own health. Moreover, they have unhealthy lifestyles and lack the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors. To identify the risk factors for first acute myocardial infarction in middle-aged and adolescent people in Yantai, a developed medium-sized coastal city in Eastern China. A total of 154 consecutive patients with first acute myocardial infarction (< 45 years), were enrolled in case group, and 462 patients without myocardial infarction were enrolled in control group. Three controls with the same sex and age were matched to each case. The risk factors were identified with univariate and multivariate analysis. Unhealthy food habit (eating seafood and meanwhile drinking beer), hypertension, current smokers, self-perceived stress, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sleep insufficience, hypercholesterolaemia and fatigue were independent risk factors for first acute myocardial infarction (P < 0.05). Besides those recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking), eating seafood and meanwhile drinking beer, self-perceived stress, sleep insufficience, obesity and fatigue were also the risk factors for first acute myocardial infarction in middle-aged and adolescent people in Yantai.

  19. Assessment of dyssynchronous wall motion during acute myocardial ischemia using velocity vector imaging.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kasumi; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Asuka; Uranishi, Ayumi; Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) for detecting acute myocardial ischemia and whether VVI can accurately demonstrate the spatial extent of ischemic risk area. Using a tracking algorithm, VVI can display velocity vectors of regional wall motion overlaid onto the B-mode image and allows the quantitative assessment of myocardial mechanics. However, its efficacy for diagnosing myocardial ischemia has not been evaluated. In 18 dogs with flow-limiting stenosis and/or total occlusion of the coronary artery, peak systolic radial velocity (V(SYS)), radial velocity at mitral valve opening (V(MVO)), peak systolic radial strain, and the percent change in wall thickening (%WT) were measured in the normal and risk areas and compared to those at baseline. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting the stenosis and occlusion were analyzed in each parameter. The area of inward velocity vectors at mitral valve opening (MVO) detected by VVI was compared to the risk area derived from real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). Twelve image clips were randomly selected from the baseline, stenosis, and occlusions to determine the intra- and inter-observer agreement for the VVI parameters. The left circumflex coronary flow was reduced by 44.3 +/- 9.0% during stenosis and completely interrupted during occlusion. During coronary artery occlusion, inward motion at MVO was observed in the risk area. Percent WT, peak systolic radial strain, V(SYS), and V(MVO) changed significantly from values at baseline. During stenosis, %WT, peak systolic radial strain, and V(SYS) did not differ from those at baseline; however, V(MVO) was significantly increased (-0.12 +/- 0.60 cm/s vs. -0.96 +/- 0.55 cm/s, p = 0.015). Sensitivity and specificity of V(MVO) for detecting ischemia were superior to those of other parameters. The spatial extent of inward velocity vectors at MVO correlated well with that of the risk area derived from MCE

  20. Hospital collaboration with emergency medical services in the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction: perspectives from key hospital staff.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam B; Spatz, Erica S; Cherlin, Emily J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence suggests that active collaboration between hospitals and emergency medical services (EMS) is significantly associated with lower acute myocardial infarction mortality rates; however, the nature of such collaborations is not well understood. We seek to characterize views of key hospital staff about collaboration with EMS in the care of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. We performed an exploratory analysis of qualitative data previously collected from site visits and detailed interviews with 11 US hospitals that ranked in the top or bottom 5% of performance on 30-day risk-standardized acute myocardial infarction mortality rates, using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data from 2005 to 2007. We selected all codes from the previous analysis in which EMS was most likely to have been discussed. A multidisciplinary team analyzed the data with the constant comparative method to generate recurrent themes. Both higher- and lower-performing hospitals reported that EMS is critical to the provision of timely care for patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, close collaborative relationships with EMS were more apparent in the higher-performing hospitals, which demonstrated specific investment in and attention to EMS through respect for EMS as valued professionals and colleagues, strong communication and coordination with EMS and active engagement of EMS in hospital acute myocardial infarction quality improvement efforts. Hospital staff from higher-performing hospitals described broad, multifaceted strategies to support collaboration with EMS in providing acute myocardial infarction care. The association of these strategies with hospital performance should be tested quantitatively in a larger representative study. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. [Comparison of initial and delayed myocardial imaging with beta-methyl-p-[123I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Naruse, H; Yoshimura, N; Yamamoto, J; Morita, M; Fukutake, N; Ohyanagi, M; Iwasaki, T; Fukuchi, M

    1994-01-01

    Myocardial imaging using beta-methyl-p-[123I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) of 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction was performed to assess "fill-in" and "washout" defects in the delayed myocardial image. The initial and delayed images were evaluated by a visual and quantitative washout rate method. Visual judgement found 8/180 (4%) segments showed "fill-in" defects, and 24/180 segments (13%) showed "washout" defects. There was no relationship between days from onset to the study and the frequency of fill-in and washout defects. The mean washout rate in the segments with "fill-in" defects was 9.0 +/- 16.6%, and that of "washout" defects was 24.9 +/- 18.1% which was significantly higher than in controls (8.7 +/- 15.4%, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between mean washout rate and total blood lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, neither time from onset nor blood lipids level was related to changes from the initial image to the delayed image. These changes may be due to relative (false) findings due to changes in circumference, and may be based on myocardial characteristics after myocardial infarction and/or reperfusion.

  2. Thrombolytic therapy use for acute myocardial infarction and outcome in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Hadi A R; Al Suwaidi, J; Bener, A; Khinji, A; Al Binali, H A

    2005-07-10

    Data on the outcome of patients treated with thrombolytic therapy in the Arab world is scarce. The main objective of this study is to study the 7-day morbidity and mortality rate and the rate of use of thrombolytic therapy in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy in the Middle East. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for all patients who were admitted to Coronary Care Unit in Cardiology Department in Hamad Medical during the period (1991-2001). Patients were divided into two groups in relation to ethnicity whether they received thrombolysis or not. In each group, the number of patients, age at the time of admission, gender, cardiovascular risk profile, therapy and outcome in regard of in-hospital complication and 7-day death as primary end point were analyzed. Of the total 5388 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction during the 10-year period, 66.3% (3567) with STE MI were found, 61.4% (2190) of them received thrombolytic therapy while 38.6% (1377) were not eligible for thrombolytic therapy. The remaining 33.7% (1821) were admitted with non-STE MI. In consideration of ethnic variation, patients with STE MI eligible for thrombolytic therapy, 29.6% (1598) were Qataris and 70.4% (3792) were non-Qataris. Thrombolytic therapy was administered to 25.9% (414) of Qatari patients and 51.3% (1947) of non-Qataris. The mortality rate of Qatari patients who received thrombolytic therapy was 9.2% (38) vs. 19.5% (231) who did not receive thrombolytic therapy (p<0.001). In non-Qatari patients, the mortality rate was 5.2% (102) for those who received thrombolytic therapy, while it was 8.6% (159) for those with no thrombolytic therapy (p<0.001). When compared to male patients, female patients with thrombolytic therapy had higher mortality rates (in both Qataris and non-Qataris) (20.5% vs. 6.1%; p value<0.001 and 16.1% vs. 9.4%; p<0.001, respectively), there were no significant differences

  3. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates associated with off-pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious in maintaining myocardial perfusion and alleviating

  4. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, James T; Bankstahl, Jens P; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid (11)C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher (11)C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial (11)C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased (11)C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased (11)C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and (11)C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated (11)C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. (11)C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies.

  5. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Thackeray, James T.; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid 11C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher 11C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial 11C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased 11C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased 11C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and 11C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated 11C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. 11C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  6. Rapidly rule out acute myocardial infarction by combining copeptin and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein with cardiac troponin.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leo H J; van Borren, Marcel; Gemen, Eugenie; van Eck, Martijn; van Son, Bas; Glatz, Jan F C; Daniels, Marcel; Kusters, Ron

    2015-09-01

    The rapid exclusion of acute myocardial infarction in patients with chest pain can reduce the length of hospital admission, prevent unnecessary diagnostic work-up and reduce the burden on our health-care systems. The combined use of biomarkers that are associated with different pathophysiological aspects of acute myocardial infarction could improve the early diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with chest pain. We measured cardiac troponin I, copeptin and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein concentrations in 584 patients who presented to the emergency department with acute chest pain. The diagnostic performances for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and NSTEMI were calculated for the individual markers and their combinations. Separate calculations were made for patients presenting to the emergency department <3 h, 3-6 h and 6-12 h after chest pain onset. For ruling out acute myocardial infarction, the net predictive values (95% CI) of cardiac troponin I, copeptin and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein were 90.4% (87.3-92.9), 84% (79.8-87.6) and 87% (83.5-90), respectively. Combining the three biomarkers resulted in a net predictive value of 95.8% (92.8-97.8). The improvement was most pronounced in the early presenters (<3 h) where the combined net predictive value was 92.9% (87.3-96.5) compared to 84.6% (79.4-88.9) for cardiac troponin I alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic for the triple biomarker combination increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of cardiac troponin I alone (0.880 [0.833-0.928] vs. 0.840 [0.781-0.898], respectively). Combining copeptin, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and cardiac troponin I measurements improves the diagnostic performance in patients presenting with chest pain. Importantly, in patients who present early (<3 h) after chest pain onset, the combination improves the diagnostic performance compared to the standard cardiac troponin I measurement alone.

  7. Remote ischaemic postconditioning protects the heart during acute myocardial infarction in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Andreka, Gyorgy; Vertesaljai, Marton; Szantho, Gergely; Font, Gusztav; Piroth, Zsolt; Fontos, Geza; Juhasz, Eszter D; Szekely, Laszlo; Szelid, Zsolt; Turner, Mark S; Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Background Ischaemic preconditioning results in a reduction in ischaemic‐reperfusion injury to the heart. This beneficial effect is seen both with direct local preconditioning of the myocardium and with remote preconditioning of easily accessible distant non‐vital limb tissue. Ischaemic postconditioning with a comparable sequence of brief periods of local ischaemia, when applied immediately after the ischaemic insult, confers benefits similar to preconditioning. Objective To test the hypothesis that limb ischaemia induces remote postconditioning and hence reduces experimental myocardial infarct size in a validated swine model of acute myocardial infarction. Methods Acute myocardial infarction was induced in 24 pigs with 90 min balloon inflations of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Remote ischaemic postconditioning was induced in 12 of the pigs by four 5 min cycles of blood pressure cuff inflation applied to the lower limb immediately after the balloon deflation. Infarct size was assessed by measuring 72 h creatinine kinase release, MRI scan and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Area under the curve of creatinine kinase release was significantly reduced in the postconditioning group compared with the control group with a 26% reduction in the infarct size (p<0.05). This was confirmed by MRI scanning and immunohistochemical analysis that revealed a 22% (p<0.05) and a 47.52% (p<0.01) relative reduction in the infarct size, respectively. Conclusion Remote ischaemic postconditioning is a simple technique to reduce infarct size without the hazards and logistics of multiple coronary artery balloon inflations. This type of conditioning promises clear clinical potential. PMID:17449499

  8. Antimyosin imaging in acute transmural myocardial infarctions: results of a multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L L; Seldin, D W; Becker, L C; LaFrance, N D; Liberman, H A; James, C; Mattis, J A; Dean, R T; Brown, J; Reiter, A

    1989-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antimyosin antibody has been shown experimentally to bind selectively to irreversibly damaged myocytes. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of monoclonal antimyosin for identifying acute transmural infarction, 50 patients with acute Q wave myocardial infarction were entered into a phase I/II multicenter trial involving three clinical sites. Indium-111 antimyosin was prepared from an instant kit formulation containing 0.5 mg of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-coupled Fab fragment (R11D10) and 1.2 to 2.4 mCi of indium-111. Average labeling efficiency was 92%. Antimyosin was injected 27 +/- 16 h after the onset of chest pain. Planar or tomographic imaging was performed 27 +/- 9 h after injection in all patients, and repeat imaging was done 24 h later in 39 patients. Of the 50 patients entered, 46 showed myocardial uptake of antimyosin (sensitivity 92%). Thirty-one of 39 planar scans performed at 24 h were diagnostic; 8 showed persistent blood pool activity that cleared by 48 h. Focal myocardial uptake of antimyosin corresponded to electrocardiographic infarct localization. No patient had an adverse reaction to antimyosin. In addition, 125 serum samples, including 21 collected greater than 42 days after injection, were tested for human antimouse antibodies, and all samples were assessed as having undetectable titers. Intensity of antimyosin uptake was correlated with infarct location and the presence or absence of collateral vessels. There was a significant correlation between faint uptake and inferoposterior infarct location. In 21 patients who had coronary angiography close to the time of antimyosin injection, there was a significant correlation between faint tracer uptake and closed infarct-related vessel with absent collateral flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Association Between ACE Gene Polymorphism and QT Dispersion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Zulkuf; Ugurlu, Murat; Ucaman, Berzal; Veysel Ulug, Ali; Kaya, Ilyas; Cevik, Kemal; Sahin Adiyaman, Mehmet; Oztürk, Onder; Iyem, Hikmet; Ozdemir, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is associated with high renin-angiotensin system causing myocardial fibrosis and ventricular repolarization abnormality. Based on these findings, this study was designed to determine the association between ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and QT dispersion after acute myocardial infarction (MI). The study included 108 patients with acute MI. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients for genomic DNA analysis. ECGs were recorded at baseline and at the end of a 6-month follow up. The OT dispersion was manually calculated. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 ±9.9 years (ranging from 36 to 70). The patients with DD genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with II or DI genotype at the baseline, while at the end of the six-month follow up the patients with DI genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with DD or II genotypes. However, the magnitude of the QT dispersion prolongation was higher in patients carrying the ACE D allele than patients who were not carrying it, at baseline and at the end of six-month follow up (52.5 ±2.6 msn vs. 47.5±2.1 msn at baseline, 57±3.2 msn vs. 53±2.6 msn in months, P: 0.428 and P: 0.613, respectively). Carriers of the D allele of ACE gene I/D polymorphism may be associated with QT dispersion prolongation in patients with MI.An interaction of QT dispersion and ACE gene polymorphism may be associated with an elevation of serum type I-C terminal pro-collagen concentration, possibly leading to myocardial fibrosis, and increased action potential duration.

  10. [The Brazilian Hospital Information System and the acute myocardial infarction hospital care].

    PubMed

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2002-08-01

    To analyze the applicability of the Brazilian Unified Health System's national hospital database to evaluate the quality of acute myocardial infarction hospital care. It was evaluated 1,936 hospital admission forms having acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as primary diagnosis in the municipal district of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1997. Data was collected from the national hospital database. A stratified random sampling of 391 medical records was also evaluated. AMI diagnosis agreement followed the literature criteria. Variable accuracy analysis was performed using kappa index agreement. The quality of AMI diagnosis registered in hospital admission forms was satisfactory according to the gold standard of the literature. In general, the accuracy of the variables demographics (sex, age group), process (medical procedures and interventions), and outcome (hospital death) was satisfactory. The accuracy of demographics and outcome variables was higher than the one of process variables. Under registration of secondary diagnosis was high in the forms and it was the main limiting factor. Given the study findings and the widespread availability of the national hospital database, it is pertinent its use as an instrument in the evaluation of the quality of AMI medical care.

  11. Unexpected severe calcification after transplantation of bone marrow cells in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Sup; Park, Jong-Seon; Tkebuchava, Tengiz; Luedeman, Corinne; Losordo, Douglas W

    2004-06-29

    There has been a rapid increase in the number of clinical trials using unselected bone marrow (BM) cells or the mononuclear fraction of BM cells for treating ischemic heart diseases. Thus far, no significant deleterious effects or complications have been reported in any studies using BM-derived cells for treatment of various cardiac diseases. Seven-week-old female Fisher-344 rats underwent surgery to induce acute myocardial infarction and were randomized into 3 groups of 16 rats, each receiving intramyocardial injection of either 7x10(5) DiI-labeled total BM cells (TBMCs), the same number of DiI-labeled, clonally expanded BM multipotent stem cells, or the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline in the peri-infarct area. Echocardiography 2 weeks after cell transplantation indicated intramyocardial calcification in 4 of 14 surviving rats (28.5%) in the TBMC group. Histological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining and von Kossa staining confirmed the presence of extensive intramyocardial calcification. Alkaline phosphatase staining revealed strong positivity surrounding the calcified area suggestive of ongoing osteogenic activity. Fluorescent microscopic examination revealed that acellular calcific areas were surrounded by DiI-labeled TBMCs, suggesting the direct involvement of transplanted TBMCs in myocardial calcification. In contrast, in hearts receiving equal volumes of saline or BM multipotent stem cells delivered in the same manner, there was no evidence of calcification. These results demonstrate that direct transplantation of unselected BM cells into the acutely infarcted myocardium may induce significant intramyocardial calcification.

  12. Oxygen in the Setting of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Is It Really a Breath of Fresh Air?

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-03-01

    Supplemental oxygen has been used in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Once an official recommendation in the guidelines for the management of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, it is now mentioned as an intervention to be considered. Data for the use of supplemental oxygen or AMI are limited, and some data have suggested associated harm. We performed a systematic review of the literature and a subsequent meta-analysis of the data to determine the effect of high concentration oxygen versus titrated oxygen or room air in the setting of AMI. The following end points were studied: in-hospital mortality, opiate use, percentage of infarcted myocardium by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and mass of infarcted myocardium by MRI. No significant difference was noted with end points when comparing those randomized to high-concentration oxygen versus those randomized to titrated oxygen or room air in the setting of AMI. No significant publication bias was identified although this could not be assessed for all end points. High-concentration oxygen may not offer any benefit when compared to titrated oxygen or room air. A large, randomized trial is warranted to further delineate these differences with respect to multiple end points. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effects of intravenous magnesium in suspected acute myocardial infarction: overview of randomised trials.

    PubMed Central

    Teo, K K; Yusuf, S; Collins, R; Held, P H; Peto, R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effect of intravenous magnesium on mortality in suspected acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Systematic overview of all available randomised trials in which patients were allocated to receive either intravenous magnesium or otherwise similar treatment without magnesium. SETTING--Coronary care units of several hospitals. PATIENTS--1301 patients in seven randomised trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Short term mortality. RESULTS--Considering the seven trials collectively there were 25 (3.8%) deaths among 657 patients allocated to receive magnesium and 53 (8.2%) deaths among 644 patients allocated control, generally during hospital follow up. This represents a 55% reduction in the odds of death (p less than 0.001) with 95% confidence intervals ranging from about one third to about two thirds. 70 of 648 patients allocated magnesium compared with 109 of 641 controls had serious ventricular arrhythmias, suggesting that magnesium reduces the incidence, though the definition varied among trials. Other adverse effects were rare in the limited number of patients for whom this data were available. CONCLUSION--Despite the limited number of patients randomised this overview suggests that intravenous magnesium therapy may reduce mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Further large scale trials to confirm (or refute) these findings are desirable. PMID:1838289

  14. Initiation of Beta-Blocker Therapy and Depression After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranchord, Anil M.; Spertus, John A.; Buchanan, Donna M.; Gosch, Kensey L.; Chan, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although beta (β)-blockers reduce mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), early reports linking β-blocker use with subsequent depression have potentially limited their use in vulnerable patients. We sought to provide empirical evidence to support or refute this concern by examining the association between β-blocker initiation and change in depressive symptoms in AMI patients. Methods Using data from 2 US multi-center, prospective registries of AMI patients, we examined 1-, 6-, and 12-month changes in depressive symptoms after the index hospitalization among patients who were β-blocker naïve on admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the validated 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), which rates depressive symptoms from 0 to 24, with higher scores indicating more depressive symptoms. A propensity-matched repeated measures linear regression model was used to compare change in depressive symptoms among patients who were and were not initiated on a β-blocker after AMI. Results Of 3470 AMI patients who were β-blocker naïve on admission, 3190 (91.9%) were initiated on a β-blocker and 280 (8.1%) were not. Baseline PHQ-8 scores were higher in patients not initiated on a β-blocker (mean 5.78 ± 5.45 vs. 4.88 ± 5.11, P=0.005). PHQ-8 scores were progressively lower at 1, 6 and 12 months in both the β-blocker (mean decrease at 12 months, 1.16; p<0.0001) and no β-blocker groups (mean decrease, 1.71; p<0.0001). After propensity matching 201 untreated patients with 567 treated patients, initiation of β-blocker therapy was not associated with a difference in mean change in PHQ-8 scores at 1, 6 or 12 months after AMI (absolute mean difference with β-blocker initiation at 12 months of 0.08, 95% CI: −0.81 to 0.96, P=0.86). Conclusions Initiation of β-blocker therapy after AMI was not associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. Restricting β-blocker use because of concerns about depression appears unwarranted and

  15. Myocardial Extracellular Volume Estimation by CMR Predicts Functional Recovery Following Acute MI.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, Ananth; Motwani, Manish; Uddin, Akhlaque; Ripley, David P; McDiarmid, Adam K; Swoboda, Peter P; Broadbent, David A; Musa, Tarique Al; Erhayiem, Bara; Leader, Joshua; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven

    2017-09-01

    In the setting of reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the authors sought to compare prediction of contractile recovery by infarct extracellular volume (ECV), as measured by T1-mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) transmural extent. The transmural extent of myocardial infarction as assessed by LGE CMR is a strong predictor of functional recovery, but accuracy of the technique may be reduced in AMI. ECV mapping by CMR can provide a continuous measure associated with the severity of tissue damage within infarcted myocardium. Thirty-nine patients underwent acute (day 2) and convalescent (3 months) CMR scans following AMI. Cine imaging, tissue tagging, T2-weighted imaging, modified Look-Locker inversion T1 mapping natively and 15 min post-gadolinium-contrast administration, and LGE imaging were performed. The ability of acute infarct ECV and acute transmural extent of LGE to predict convalescent wall motion, ejection fraction (EF), and strain were compared per-segment and per-patient. Per-segment, acute ECV and LGE transmural extent were associated with convalescent wall motion score (p < 0.01; p < 0.01, respectively). ECV had higher accuracy than LGE extent to predict improved wall motion (area under receiver-operating characteristics curve 0.77 vs. 0.66; p = 0.02). Infarct ECV ≤0.5 had sensitivity 81% and specificity 65% for prediction of improvement in segmental function; LGE transmural extent ≤0.5 had sensitivity 61% and specificity 71%. Per-patient, ECV and LGE correlated with convalescent wall motion score (r = 0.45; p < 0.01; r = 0.41; p = 0.02, respectively) and convalescent EF (p < 0.01; p = 0.04). ECV and LGE extent were not significantly correlated (r = 0.34; p = 0.07). In multivariable linear regression analysis, acute infarct ECV was independently associated with convalescent infarct strain and EF (p = 0.03; p = 0.04), whereas LGE was not (p = 0.29; p = 0.24). Acute infarct ECV

  16. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Gitte; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Dirks, Christina G; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the diagnostic ability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart perfusion in acute heart patients, a fast, multislice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence was applied to patients with acute myocardial infarction. Seven patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five slices, each having 60 sectors, provided an estimation of the severity and extent of the perfusion deficiency. Reperfusion was assessed both by noninvasive criteria and by coronary angiography (CAG). The Ki maps clearly delineated the infarction in all patients. Thrombolytic treatment was clearly beneficial in one case, but had no effect in the two other cases. Over the time-course of the study, normal perfusion values were not reestablished following thrombolytic treatment in all cases investigated. This study shows that quantitative MRI perfusion values can be obtained from acutely ill patients following acute myocardial infarction. The technique provides information on both the volume and severity of affected myocardial tissue, enabling the power of treatment regimes to be assessed objectively, and this approach should aid individual patient stratification and prognosis. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Early diagnosis of interferon-induced myocardial disorder in patients with chronic hepatitis C: evaluation by myocardial imaging with 123I-BMIPP.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Yukinaka, M; Nomura, M; Nakaya, Y; Ito, S

    2000-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C is sometimes associated with cardiac complications. In the present study, we performed myocardial imaging with 123I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) in order to evaluate myocardial disorders caused by IFN. We studied 40 healthy subjects (H group) and 25 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had been treated with IFN (IFN group). A Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed and the autonomic nervous function was assessed by analyzing the spectral variability and 1/f fluctuation of heart rate. Myocardial planner imaging with 123I-BMIPP was performed to obtain the time activity curve for 20min immediately after administration of 123I-BMIPP (dynamic study). Early and delayed myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were expressed as Bull's eyes and the myocardium was divided into four segments to calculate the washout rate for each segment on early and late SPECT images (early and late SPECT study). No significant differences in autonomic nervous function were observed between the two groups in heart rate variability. In a dynamic study, the reduction rate from the time activity curve was significantly higher in the IFN group compared with the H group (reduction rate, IFN group, 5.3 +/- 3.7% vs H group, 1.2 +/- 3.3%; P < 0.05). In the early and delayed myocardial SPECT study, the washout rate for the IFN group was significantly increased in all myocardial areas compared to that in the H group. However, the metabolic disorder of fatty acids caused by IFN was reversed on the second 123I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy examination several months after IFN therapy. These results indicate that metabolic disorders of fatty acids caused by IFN therapy can be detected before abnormalities are observed by Holter-ECG or echocardiography.

  18. Risk of acute myocardial infarction after the death of a significant person in one's life: the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study.

    PubMed

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Maclure, Malcolm; Sherwood, Jane B; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Mittleman, Murray A

    2012-01-24

    Acute psychological stress is associated with an abrupt increase in the risk of cardiovascular events. Intense grief in the days after the death of a significant person may trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but this relationship has not been systematically studied. We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 1985 participants from the multicenter Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study interviewed during index hospitalization for an acute MI between 1989 and 1994. We compared the observed number of deaths in the days preceding MI symptom onset with its expected frequency based on each patient's control information, defined as the occurrence of deaths in the period from 1 to 6 months before infarction. Among the 1985 subjects, 270 (13.6%) experienced the loss of a significant person in the prior 6 months, including 19 within 1 day of their MI. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 21.1-fold (95% confidence interval, 13.1-34.1) within 24 hours of the death of a significant person and declined steadily on each subsequent day. The absolute risk of MI within 1 week of the death of a significant person is 1 excess MI per 1394 exposed individuals at low (5%) 10-year MI risk and 1 per 320 among individuals at high (20%) 10-year risk. Grief over the death of a significant person was associated with an acutely increased risk of MI in the subsequent days. The impact may be greatest among individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

  19. The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction in-hospital mortality: findings from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Mary; Welch, Robert D; Parsons, Lori; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Chen, Edmond; Zalenski, Robert; Barron, Hal V

    2004-10-01

    Although cross-sectional and prospective studies have shown that the white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with long-term mortality for patients with ischemic heart disease, the role of the WBC count as an independent predictor of short-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been examined as extensively. The objective of this study was to determine whether the WBC count is associated with in-hospital mortality for patients with ischemic heart disease after controlling for potential confounders. From July 31, 2000, to July 31, 2001, the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4 enrolled 186,727 AMI patients. A total of 115,273 patients were included in the analysis. WBC counts were subdivided into intervals of 1,000/mL, and in-hospital mortality rates were determined for each interval. The distribution revealed a J-shaped curve. Patients with WBC counts >5,000/mL were subdivided into quartiles, whereas patients with WBC counts <5,000/mL were assigned to a separate category labeled "subquartile" and were analyzed separately. A linear increase in in-hospital mortality by WBC count quartile was found. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the fourth versus the first quartile showed strong associations with in-hospital mortality among the entire population and by gender: 4.09 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.83 to 4.73) for all patients, 4.31 (95% CI = 3.93 to 4.73) for men, and 3.65 (95% CI = 3.32 to 4.01) for women. Following adjustment for covariates, the magnitude of the ORs attenuated, but the ORs remained highly significant (OR, 2.71 [95% CI = 2.53 to 2.90] for all patients; OR, 2.87 [95% CI = 2.59 to 3.19] for men; OR, 2.61 [95% CI = 2.36 to 2.99] for women). Reperfused patients had consistently lower in-hospital mortality rates for all patients and by gender (p < 0.0001). The WBC count is an independent predictor of in-hospital AMI mortality and may be useful in assessing the prognosis of AMI in conjunction with other

  20. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  1. Confluence of depression and acute psychological stress among patients with stable coronary heart disease: effects on myocardial perfusion.

    PubMed

    Burg, Matthew M; Meadows, Judith; Shimbo, Daichi; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E; Soufer, Robert

    2014-10-30

    Depression is prevalent in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and increases risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) recurrence and mortality despite optimal medical care. The pathways underlying this risk remain elusive. Psychological stress (PS) can provoke impairment in myocardial perfusion and trigger ACS. A confluence of acute PS with depression might reveal coronary vascular mechanisms of risk. We tested whether depression increased risk for impaired myocardial perfusion during acute PS among patients with stable CHD. Patients (N=146) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-I (BDI-I), a measure of depression linked to recurrent ACS and post-ACS mortality, and underwent single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and during acute PS. The likelihood of new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion from baseline to PS as a function of depression severity was tested. On the BDI-I, 41 patients scored in the normal range, 48 in the high normal range, and 57 in the depressed range previously linked to CHD prognosis. A BDI-I score in the depressed range was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion from baseline to PS (odds ratio =2.89, 95% CI: 1.26 to 6.63, P=0.012). This remained significant in models controlling ACS recurrence/mortality risk factors and medications. There was no effect for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications. Depressed patients with CHD are particularly susceptible to impairment in myocardial perfusion during PS. The confluence of PS with depression may contribute to a better understanding of the depression-associated risk for ACS recurrence and mortality. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  3. History of erectile dysfunction as a predictor of poor physical performance after an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Compostella, Leonida; Compostella, Caterina; Truong, Li Van Stella; Russo, Nicola; Setzu, Tiziana; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction may predict future cardiovascular events and indicate the severity of coronary artery disease in middle-aged men. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether erectile dysfunction (expression of generalized macro- and micro-vascular pathology) could predict reduced effort tolerance in patients after an acute myocardial infarction. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-nine male patients (60 ± 12 years old), admitted to intensive cardiac rehabilitation 13 days after a complicated acute myocardial infarction, were evaluated for history of erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Their physical performance was assessed by means of two six-minute walk tests (performed two weeks apart) and by a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Results Patients with erectile dysfunction (57% of cases) demonstrated poorer physical performance, significantly correlated to the degree of erectile dysfunction. After cardiac rehabilitation, they walked shorter distances at the final six-minute walk test (490 ± 119 vs. 564 ± 94 m; p < 0.001); at CPET they sustained lower workload (79 ± 28 vs. 109 ± 34 W; p < 0.001) and reached lower oxygen uptake at peak effort (18 ± 5 vs. 21 ± 5 ml/kg per min; p = 0.003) and at anaerobic threshold (13 ± 3 vs.16 ± 4 ml/kg per min; p = 0.001). The positive predictive value of presence of erectile dysfunction was 0.71 for low peak oxygen uptake (<20 ml/kg per min) and 0.69 for reduced effort capacity (W-max <100 W). Conclusions As indicators of generalized underlying vascular pathology, presence and degree of erectile dysfunction may predict the severity of deterioration of effort tolerance in post-acute myocardial infarction patients. In the attempt to reduce the possibly associated long-term risk, an optimization of type, intensity and duration of cardiac rehabilitation should be

  4. Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun

    2014-06-01

    To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This

  5. Rapid Rule-Out of Acute Myocardial Injury Using a Single High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Measurement.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Yader; Smith, Stephen W; Shah, Anoop S V; Anand, Atul; Chapman, Andrew R; Love, Sara A; Schulz, Karen; Cao, Jing; Mills, Nicholas L; Apple, Fred S

    2017-01-01

    Rapid rule-out strategies using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays are largely supported by studies performed outside the US in selected cohorts of patients with chest pain that are atypical of US practice, and focused exclusively on ruling out acute myocardial infarction (AMI), rather than acute myocardial injury, which is more common and associated with a poor prognosis. Prospective, observational study of consecutive patients presenting to emergency departments [derivation (n = 1647) and validation (n = 2198) cohorts], where high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) was measured on clinical indication. The negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic sensitivity of an hs-cTnI concentration acute myocardial injury and for AMI or cardiac death at 30 days. In patients with hs-cTnI concentrations <99th percentile at presentation, acute myocardial injury occurred in 8.3% and 11.0% in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. In the derivation cohort, 27% had hs-cTnI < LoD, with NPV and diagnostic sensitivity for acute myocardial injury of 99.1% (95% CI, 97.7-99.8) and 99.0% (97.5-99.7) and an NPV for AMI or cardiac death at 30 days of 99.6% (98.4-100). In the validation cohort, 22% had hs-cTnI acute myocardial injury of 98.8% (97.9-99.7) and 99.3% (98.7-99.8) and an NPV for AMI or cardiac death at 30 days of 99.1% (98.2-99.8). A single hs-cTnI concentration acute myocardial injury, regardless of etiology, with an excellent NPV and diagnostic sensitivity, and identifies patients at minimal risk of AMI or cardiac death at 30 days. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02060760. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Performance of the high-sensitivity troponin assay in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleh, Ayman; Alazzoni, Ashraf; Al Shalash, Saleh; Ye, Chenglin; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Jolly, Sanjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Background High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays have been adopted by many clinical centres worldwide; however, clinicians are uncertain how to interpret the results. We sought to assess the utility of these assays in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing high-sensitivity with conventional assays of cardiac troponin levels among adults with suspected acute MI in the emergency department. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases up to April 2013 and used bivariable random-effects modelling to obtain summary parameters for diagnostic accuracy. Results We identified 9 studies that assessed the use of high-sensitivity troponin T assays (n = 9186 patients). The summary sensitivity of these tests in diagnosing acute MI at presentation to the emergency department was estimated to be 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–0.97); for conventional tests, it was 0.72 (95% CI 0.63–0.79). The summary specificity was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64–0.81) for the high-sensitivity assay compared with 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for the conventional assay. The differences in estimates of the summary sensitivity and specificity between the high-sensitivity and conventional assays were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The area under the curve was similar for both tests carried out 3–6 hours after presentation. Three studies assessed the use of high-sensitivity troponin I assays and showed similar results. Interpretation Used at presentation to the emergency department, the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay has improved sensitivity, but reduced specificity, compared with the conventional troponin assay. With repeated measurements over 6 hours, the area under the curve is similar for both tests, indicating that the major advantage of the high-sensitivity test is early diagnosis. PMID:25295240

  7. Prognostic value of serum resistin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erer, Hatice Betul; Sayar, Nurten; Guvenc, Tolga Sinan; Aksaray, Sebahat; Yilmaz, Hale; Altay, Servet; Turer, Ayca; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Karadeniz, Fatma Ozpamuk; Oz, Dilaver; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Zencirci, Aycan Esen; Eren, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is a novel adipokine that is suggested to be involved in inflammatory conditions and atherosclerosis. To investigate the prognostic importance of resistin in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Resistin levels were measured in a population of 132 patients with AMI, of whom 72 (54%) had a diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and 60 (46%) had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Thirty-three consecutive subjects who were referred to elective coronary angiography due to chest pain evaluation with normal coronary angiograms served as controls. All patients were followed-up for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). There was a significant increase in serum resistin levels in patients with AMI compared to controls (3.71 ± 4.20 vs. 2.00 ± 1.05, p = 0.001, respectively). However, serum resistin levels were similar in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. (4.26 ± 5.11 vs. 3.06 ± 2.64, p = 0.49, respectively). The patients with MACE had significantly higher levels of serum resistin levels compared to either the AMI or the control group (6.35 ± 5.47, p = 0.005, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that resistin, left ventricular ejection fraction, and coronary artery bypass graft were independent predictors of MACE in AMI patients (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.22, p = 0.03 and OR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.26-11.71, p = 0.018, respectively). Serum resistin level was increased in patients with AMI and constituted a risk factor for MACE in this group.

  8. Relation of Outbursts of Anger And Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Muller, James E; Mittleman, Murray A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between outbursts of anger and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) risk. Outbursts of anger are associated with an abrupt increase in cardiovascular events, but it remains unknown whether higher levels of anger intensity are associated with higher levels of AMI risk or whether potentially modifiable factors mitigate the short-term risk of AMI. We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3886 participants from the multicenter Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study interviewed during index hospitalization for an AMI between 1989 and 1996. We compared the observed number and intensity of anger outbursts in the 2 hours preceding AMI symptom onset with its expected frequency based on each patient’s control information, defined as the number of anger outbursts in the past year. Among the 3886 participants in the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study, 1484 (38%) reported outbursts of anger in the past year. The incidence rate of AMI onset was elevated 2.43-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.01–2.90) within 2 hours of an outburst of anger. The association was consistently stronger with increasing intensities of anger (p-trend <0.001). In conclusion, the risk of having an AMI is >2-fold higher following outbursts of anger compared to other times, and higher intensities of anger were associated with higher relative risks. Compared to non-users, regular beta-blocker users had a lower susceptibility to heart attacks triggered by anger, suggesting that some drugs may lower the risk from each episode of anger. PMID:23642509

  9. [Effect of educational level on the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Nazzal, Carolina; Corbalán, Ramón; Díaz, Claudia; Sepúlveda, Pablo; Schacht, Eliana

    2015-07-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with cardiovascular mortality. To evaluate the effect of educational level, on the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction in Chile. Cohort study of 3,636 patients aged 63.1 ± 13.2 years, 27% women, hospitalized in 16 centers participating in the Chilean Myocardial Infarction Registry (GEMI) between 2009 and 2012. Vital status was obtained from the National Mortality Database. Patients were divided, according to educational level, in four groups, namely none (no formal education), basic (< 8 years), secondary (8-12 years) and tertiary (> 12 years). Crude and adjusted (age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and treatments) hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression models. The distribution by educational level was 3.2% none, 31.8% basic, 43.0% secondary and 22.0% tertiary. During a median follow-up period of 22 months (interquartile range 11-37 years), 631 patients died (17.3%), of whom 198 died during hospitalization (5.5%). The 30 day case-fatality rate according to educational level was 3.4% in tertiary, 4.7% in secondary, 11.9% in basic, 19.1% in none (p < 0.0001). Among patients surviving the first 30 days, the case-fatality rate was 4.4%, 8.6%, 14.6% and 27.0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The increased risk of death for groups with lower education compared with individuals with tertiary education, persisted in the multivariate analysis with a hazard ratio for secondary education 1.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.18-2.10); for basic education 1.90 (95% CI, 1.41-2.47) and for none 3.50 (95% CI, 2.35-5.21). A lower educational level was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction, even after controlling for potential confounding factors.

  10. Impact of double counting and transfer bias on estimated rates and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Westfall, J M; McGloin, J

    2001-05-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Recent studies report inconsistent findings on the changes in the incidence of hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease. These reports have relied primarily on hospital discharge data. Preliminary data suggest that a significant percentage of patients suffering acute myocardial infarction (MI) in rural communities are transferred to urban centers for care. Patients transferred to a second hospital may be counted twice for one episode of ischemic heart disease. To describe the impact of double counting and transfer bias on the estimation of incidence rates and outcomes of ischemic heart disease, specifically acute MI, in the United States. Analysis of state hospital discharge data from Kansas, Colorado (State Inpatient Database [SID]), Nebraska, Arizona, New Jersey, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Illinois (SID) for the years 1995 to 1997. A matching algorithm was developed for hospital discharges to determine patients counted twice for one episode of ischemic heart disease. Validation of our matching algorithm. Patients reported to have suffered ischemic heart disease (ICD9 codes 410-414, 786.5). Number of patients counted twice for one episode of acute MI. It is estimated that double count rates range from 10% to 15% for all states and increased over the 3 years. Moderate sized rural counties had the highest estimated double count rates at 15% to 20% with a few counties having estimated double count rates a high as 35% to 50%. Older patients and females were less likely to be double counted (P <0.05). Double counting patients has resulted in a significant overestimation in the incidence rate for hospitalization for acute MI. Correction of this double counting reveals a significantly lower incidence rate and a higher in-hospital mortality rate for acute MI. Transferred patients differ significantly from nontransferred patients, introducing significant bias into MI outcome studies. Double

  11. High-Risk Carotid Plaques Identified by CT-Angiogram can Predict Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. Methods We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign (NRS). Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Results Patients with speckled (<3mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within one year compared to patients without [adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26 to 73.42, P= 0.001]. Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within one year than patients without [adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19 to 8.50, P= 0.021]. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100% and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Conclusions Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events. PMID:27866279

  12. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  13. Periodic variation and its effect on management and prognosis of Korean patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Eun; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Lee, Wonjae; Cho, Youngjin; Park, Jin Sik; Choi, Ji-Yong; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Nam, Chang-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Hong, Taek Jong; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jae Young; Kim, Kee Sik; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young Bae

    2010-05-01

    The characteristics of the periodic variation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the subsequent effect on management and prognosis have not been fully investigated in a large number of Asian populations. From a prospective, observational multicenter online registry, 4,573 patients diagnosed as AMI in Korea from January to December 2006 were included. The highest incidence of AMI was between 8 a.m. and noon. The number of cases was highest in the winter and lowest in the autumn (13.6 vs 11.4 patients per day, P<0.001). Patients with symptom onset during working hours had a shorter time to first medical contact (203+/-288 min) compared with out-of-hours onset (230+/-288 min, P=0.003). In patients who underwent primary angioplasty, out-of hours symptom onset was associated with a greater time delay in both the patient's and the medical facility's response (door-to-balloon time out-of hours vs working hours: 101+/-54 min vs 84+/-44 min, P<0.001). In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, symptoms to first medical contact showed a significant relationship to in-hospital mortality (for every 10 min of symptoms to first medical contact, odds ratio 1.006, 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.012, P=0.018) Circadian and periodic variation in AMI exists in Korean patients, which resulted in different patient behavior, hospital management and outcomes.

  14. Correlation of ABO blood groups with spontaneous recanalization in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Liang; Zhou, Bing-Yang; Li, Sha; Li, Xiao-Lin; Luo, Zhu-Rong; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between ABO blood groups and cardiovascular disease, the association of ABO blood type with spontaneous recanalization (SR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been previously investigated. We performed an initial exploratory study on the association of ABO blood groups with the presence of SR in 1209 patients with AMI. They were divided into two groups according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grades: no-SR group (TIMI 0-1, n = 442) and SR group (TIMI 2-3, n = 767). To confirm our primary findings, data from a second AMI population (n = 200) was analyzed. In the initial data, SR group had a significantly higher percentage of blood type O and a lower percentage of blood type A compared to the no-SR group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that blood type O was positively associated with SR (odds ratio: 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.87, p = .02), and this finding was confirmed in our second population. The present study demonstrates that blood type O was independently and positively associated with an open culprit artery in patients with AMI, suggesting that the ABO blood type is not only associated with the susceptibility to coronary artery disease but also to spontaneous reperfusion in AMI patients.

  15. Cardioprotective effect of sulphonated formononetin on acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumin; Tang, Xuexi; Tian, Jingwei; Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Guanbo; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhang, Zunting

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F), a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, on acute myocardial infarction in rats. The results showed that treatment with Sul-F significantly prevented the elevation of ST-segment level, decreased the contents of creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and cardiac troponin T in serum and reduced the myocardium necrosis scores. The number of apoptosis cardiocytes is well accordance with the up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and the down-regulated expression of Bax. Meanwhile, Sul-F significantly increased the cardiac mitochondrial ATP content, improved ATP synthase activity, decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content and attenuated the decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. These findings indicate that Sul-F has a protective potential against myocardial infarction injury. A possible mechanism for the protective effect is the elevated expression of endogenous antioxidant defence enzymes degraded lipid peroxidation products and improved energy metholism of cardiac mitochondrial, thus attenuating cardiocyte apoptosis. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  16. Physiologic bases for anterior ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, D M

    1988-11-01

    Patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction commonly have ST segment depression in the anterior precordial leads. This may reflect either reciprocal changes from the inferior ST elevation or primary ST depression from additional anterior subendocardial ischemia. From a biophysical perspective reciprocal changes should be uniformly anticipated from basic dipole theory. Detection will vary with the size, location, orientation, and electrical intensity of the lesion and with the ECG lead system deployed to register the anterior changes. Alternatively, acute occlusion of the right coronary artery may produce ischemia in the anterior left ventricular wall supplied by a stenotic anterior descending coronary artery. Anterior ischemia may result from the abnormal hemodynamics or the reduced collateral flow produced by acute right coronary artery occlusion. Thus both mechanisms are based on sound physiologic principles. A review of the clinical literature suggests that such patients represent a heterogeneous group. In some instances coexistent anterior ischemia is present, whereas in others the anterior ST depression is the passive reflection of inferior ST elevation augmented in many cases by a large infarct size or more extensive posterobasal or septal involvement.

  17. Increasing trends of acute myocardial infarction in Spain: the MONICA-Catalonia Study.

    PubMed

    Sans, Susana; Puigdefábregas, Ana; Paluzie, Guillermo; Monterde, David; Balaguer-Vintró, Ignacio

    2005-03-01

    To assess coronary mortality and morbidity secular trends in Spain. Acute coronary events occurring in both sexes at ages 35-74 years between 1985 and 1997, were monitored in a geographical area of Catalonia, through a population-based registry. Information was collected from annual discharge lists of 78 hospitals and from death certificates, and validated following the methods and quality control of the World Health Organization MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease Project (MONICA). Registration included 19 119 valid events (14 221 in men, 4898 in women) of which 30% were fatal and 41% were definite acute myocardial infarctions. Average attack rates were 315 per 100 000 (95% CI 300-329) and 80 (75-86) in men and women, respectively. Incidence (first-ever event) rates were 209 (194-224) and 56 (52-60) per 100 000. Attack rates increased annually by 2.1% (0.3-4.1) and 1.8% (-0.9 to +4.6). Average 28-day case fatality was 46% (44-47) in men decreasing significantly by 1.4 and 53% (51-55) in women with no change. Fatal trends remained stable. Nationwide morbidity statistics showed similar trends. Acute coronary syndromes are rising in Spanish men.

  18. Acute myocardial infarction and COPD attributed to ambient SO2 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khaniabadi, Yusef Omidi; Daryanoosh, Seyed Mohammad; Hopke, Philip K; Ferrante, Margherita; De Marco, Alessandra; Sicard, Pierre; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Basiri, Hassan; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Keishams, Fariba

    2017-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important diseases worldwide. Inhalation is the major route of short-term exposure to air sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) that negatively affect human health. The objective of this study was to estimate the health effects of short-term exposure to SO 2 in Khorramabad, Iran using the AirQ software developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Daily mean SO 2 concentrations were used as the estimates of human short-term exposure and allow calculation of the attributable excess relative risk of an acute MI and hospital admissions due to COPD (HACOPD). The annual mean SO 2 concentration in Khorramabad was 51.33µg/m 3 . Based on the relative risk (RR) and baseline incidence (BI) approach of WHO, an increased risk of 2.7% (95% CI: 1.1-4.2%) of acute MI and 2.0% (95% CI: 0-4.6%) of HACOPD, respectively, were attributed to a 10µg/m 3 SO 2 increase. Since the geographic, demographic, and climatic characteristics are different from the areas in which the risk relationships were developed and not evaluated here, further investigations will be needed to fully quantify other health impacts of SO 2 . A decreased risk for MIs and COPD attributable to SO 2 could be achieved if mitigation strategies and measures are implemented to reduce the exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Rescue pulmonary vein isolation for hemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation storm in a patient with an acute extensive myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Itsuro; Sone, Takahito; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Mukawa, Hiroaki

    2012-11-26

    New-onset atrial fibrillation in patients hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction often leads to hemodynamic deterioration and has serious adverse prognostic implications; mortality is particularly high in patients with congestive heart failure and/or a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The mechanism of atrial fibrillation in the context of an acute myocardial infarction has not been well characterized and an effective treatment other than optimal medical therapy and mechanical hemodynamic support are expected. A 71 year-old male with an acute myocardial infarction due to an occlusion of the left main coronary artery was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. He had developed severe congestive heart failure with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 34%. The systemic circulation was maintained with an intraaortic balloon pump, continuous hemodiafiltration, and mechanical ventilation until atrial fibrillation occurred on day 3 which immediately led to cardiogenic shock. Because atrial fibrillation was refractory to intravenous amiodarone, beta-blockers, and a total of 15 electrical cardioversions, the patient underwent emergent radiofrequency catheter ablation on day 4. Soon after electrical cardioversion, ectopies from the right superior pulmonary vein triggered the initiation of atrial fibrillation. The right pulmonary veins were isolated during atrial fibrillation. Again, atrial fibrillation was electrically cardioverted, then, sinus rhythm was restored. Subsequently, the left pulmonary veins were isolated. The stabilization of the hemodynamics was successfully achieved with an increase in the blood pressure and urine volume. Hemodiafiltration and amiodarone were discontinued. The patient had been free from atrial fibrillation recurrence until he suddenly died due to ventricular fibrillation on day 9. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary vein isolation for a rescue purpose applied in a patient with

  20. Addressing the link between paraoxonase-1 gene variants and the incidence of early onset myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hashad, Ingy M.; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M.; Gad, Mohamed Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1) represents an endogenous defense mechanism against vascular oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Several polymorphisms have been reported in the PON1 gene, including Q192R. PON1 phenotype is commonly expressed as the paraoxonase/arylesterase ratio (PON/ARE). The major aim of this study was to investigate the association between PON1 Q192R polymorphism, PON1 phenotypes and the incidence of early-onset acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Egyptians. Material and methods The study subjects consisted of 102 AMI patients and 72 age-matched healthy controls. Genotyping and enzyme activities were determined using PCR-RFLP and kinetic spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Results The genotype distribution for the PON1 gene was significantly different between AMI patients (QQ = 38.24%, QR = 49.02%, RR = 12.75%) and controls (QQ = 66.67%, QR = 25%, RR = 8.33%). Allele frequencies were also significantly different between patients (Q = 62.75%, R = 37.25%) and controls (Q = 79.17%, R = 20.83%). The genotypes QR and RR showed higher risk for AMI compared to the homozygous QQ (odds ratio (OR) = 3.231, p < 0.001). The average PON/ARE ratio in MI patients (1.187 ±0.1) did not differ significantly from controls (1.118 ±0.26). However, it showed a significant difference among different genotypes in both AMI patients (QQ = 0.91 ±0.11, QR = 1.09 ±0.11 and RR = 2.65 ±0.4) (p = 0.0002) and controls (QQ = 0.68 ±0.1, QR = 1.07 ±0.11 and RR = 4.89 ±2.84) (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PON1 192R allele represents an independent risk factor for early-onset AMI in Egyptians, and PON1 Q192R polymorphism modulates the paraoxonase phenotype. PMID:26170843

  1. The HEART Pathway randomized trial: identifying emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Simon A; Riley, Robert F; Hiestand, Brian C; Russell, Gregory B; Hoekstra, James W; Lefebvre, Cedric W; Nicks, Bret A; Cline, David M; Askew, Kim L; Elliott, Stephanie B; Herrington, David M; Burke, Gregory L; Miller, Chadwick D

    2015-03-01

    The HEART Pathway is a decision aid designed to identify emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge. No randomized trials have compared the HEART Pathway with usual care. Adult emergency department patients with symptoms related to acute coronary syndrome without ST-elevation on ECG (n=282) were randomized to the HEART Pathway or usual care. In the HEART Pathway arm, emergency department providers used the HEART score, a validated decision aid, and troponin measures at 0 and 3 hours to identify patients for early discharge. Usual care was based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The primary outcome, objective cardiac testing (stress testing or angiography), and secondary outcomes, index length of stay, early discharge, and major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization), were assessed at 30 days by phone interview and record review. Participants had a mean age of 53 years, 16% had previous myocardial infarction, and 6% (95% confidence interval, 3.6%-9.5%) had major adverse cardiac events within 30 days of randomization. Compared with usual care, use of the HEART Pathway decreased objective cardiac testing at 30 days by 12.1% (68.8% versus 56.7%; P=0.048) and length of stay by 12 hours (9.9 versus 21.9 hours; P=0.013) and increased early discharges by 21.3% (39.7% versus 18.4%; P<0.001). No patients identified for early discharge had major adverse cardiac events within 30 days. The HEART Pathway reduces objective cardiac testing during 30 days, shortens length of stay, and increases early discharges. These important efficiency gains occurred without any patients identified for early discharge suffering MACE at 30 days. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01665521. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Effect of supersaturated oxygen delivery on infarct size after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Martin, Jack L; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Margheri, Massimo; Bramucci, Ezio; Blankenship, James C; Metzger, D Christopher; Gibbons, Raymond J; Lindsay, Barbara S; Weiner, Bonnie H; Lansky, Alexandra J; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Fahy, Martin; Boscardin, W John

    2009-10-01

    Myocardial salvage is often suboptimal after percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Posthoc subgroup analysis from a previous trial (AMIHOT I) suggested that intracoronary delivery of supersaturated oxygen (SSO(2)) may reduce infarct size in patients with large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated early. A prospective, multicenter trial was performed in which 301 patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset were randomized to a 90-minute intracoronary SSO(2) infusion in the left anterior descending artery infarct territory (n=222) or control (n=79). The primary efficacy measure was infarct size in the intention-to-treat population (powered for superiority), and the primary safety measure was composite major adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations (powered for noninferiority), with Bayesian hierarchical modeling used to allow partial pooling of evidence from AMIHOT I. Among 281 randomized patients with tc-99m-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography data in AMIHOT II, median (interquartile range) infarct size was 26.5% (8.5%, 44%) with control compared with 20% (6%, 37%) after SSO(2). The pooled adjusted infarct size was 25% (7%, 42%) with control compared with 18.5% (3.5%, 34.5%) after SSO(2) (P(Wilcoxon)=0.02; Bayesian posterior probability of superiority, 96.9%). The Bayesian pooled 30-day mean (+/-SE) rates of major adverse cardiovascular events were 5.0+/-1.4% for control and 5.9+/-1.4% for SSO(2) by intention-to-treat, and 5.1+/-1.5% for control and 4.7+/-1.5% for SSO(2) by per-protocol analysis (posterior probability of noninferiority, 99.5% and 99.9%, respectively). Among patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset, infusion of SSO(2) into

  3. [Effectiveness of various dopamine doses in acute myocardial ischemia complicated by cardiogenic shock (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Kipshidze, N N; Korotkov, A A; Marsagishvili, L A; Prigolashvili, T Sh; Bokhua, M R

    1981-06-01

    The effect of various doses of dopamine on the values of cardiac contractile and hemodynamic function under conditions of acute two-hour ischemia complicated by cardiogenic shock was studied in 27 experiments on dogs. In a dose of 5 microgram/kg/min dopamine caused an optimum increase in cardiac productive capacity, reduction of peripheral resistance, adequate increase in coronary circulation and decrease in ST segment depression on the ECG. Infusion of 10 microgram/kg/min dopamine usually caused myocardial hyperfunction with an increase in total peripheral resistance and cardiac performance. Maximum dopamine doses (10 microgram/kg/min and more) were effective in the areactive form of cardiogenic shock. In longterm dopamine infusion it is necessary to establish continuous control over the hemodynamic parameters and the ECG to prevent aggravation of ischemia and for stage-by-stage reduction of the drug concentration and determination of the minimum maintenance dose.

  4. Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, a Unique Complication of Recreational Nitrous Oxide Use.

    PubMed

    Indraratna, Praveen; Alexopoulos, Chris; Celermajer, David; Alford, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This was in the context of recreational abuse of nitrous oxide. The prevalence of nitrous oxide use in Australia has not been formally quantified, however it is the second most commonly used recreational drug in the United Kingdom. Nitrous oxide has previously been shown to increase serum homocysteine levels. This patient was discovered to have an elevated homocysteine level at baseline, which was further increased after nitrous oxide consumption. Homocysteine has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and coronary atherosclerosis and this case report highlights one of the dangers of recreational abuse of nitrous oxide. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced admissions for acute myocardial infarction associated with a public smoking ban: matched controlled study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was implemented in Monroe County compared with Delaware County, Indiana without such a ban. Poisson analysis was conducted for 44 months of hospital admissions. A significant drop occurred in the number of admissions among nonsmoking patients in Monroe County after the ban whereas a nonsignificant decrease in the number of admissions occurred in Delaware County. The changes in the number of smoking-patient admissions before and after the ban were not significant.

  6. Acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2012-04-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Nowadays, there is growing interest regarding endogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses in a 75-year-old Italian woman with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dunye Guanxinning Improves Acute Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Neutrophil Infiltration and Caspase-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q. G.; Wang, S. R.; Chen, X. M.; Guo, H. N.

    2018-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the most serious manifestation of cardiovascular disease, and it is a life-threatening condition. Dunye Guanxinning (DG) is a protective traditional Chinese patent herbal medicine with high clinical efficacy and suitable for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, the mechanism through which it is beneficial is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that DG improves acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and caspase-1 activity. We found that DG administration decreased infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improved left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening, end-systolic volume index, end-systolic diameter, and carotid arterial blood flow output in rats. DG administration also improved hemorheological parameters, myocardial damage biomarkers, and oxidative stress indexes. The findings showed that DG administration inhibited neutrophil infiltration and reduced the serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level and myocardial IL-1β maturation. Moreover, DG administration inhibited caspase-1 activity and activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in rat hearts. These results suggested that DG administration inhibits inflammasome activity and IL-1β release through the AMPK pathway. Our findings support the clinical efficacy of DG and partially reveal its mechanism, which is beneficial for understanding the therapeutic effects of this protective traditional Chinese patent drug. PMID:29674944

  8. Effects of β-blockers and anxiety on complication rates after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Abu Ruz, Mohannad E; Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is common after acute myocardial infarction and increases the number of complications and the length of stay in the hospital. Anxiety-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system is hypothesized to be an underlying cause of increased complication rates. Little is known about whether use of β-blockers eliminates the effects of anxiety on complication rate and length of stay. To compare number of complications and length of stay among nonanxious and anxious patients receiving β-blockers during hospitalization. A total of 322 patients with acute myocardial infarction participated in this study within 48 hours of hospital admission. Patients completed the Brief Symptom Inventory to assess anxiety level. After discharge, medical records were reviewed to determine use of β-blockers, type and number of complications, and length of stay. Most patients (96%) were treated with less than 200 mg daily of metoprolol. Anxious patients had more complications (mean [SD], 1.43 [0.15] vs 0.73 [.09], P ≤ .01) and longer stays (7.0 [0.49] vs 5.7 [0.36] days, P < .05) than did nonanxious patients. To test whether the dose of β-blocker made a difference, the interaction between daily dose and anxiety score was tested. No interaction was found between metoprolol dose and anxiety score, and no main effect was found for metoprolol dose. Anxious patients had more complications and longer stays than did nonanxious patients. The administration of metoprolol did not eliminate this relationship, perhaps because patients did not receive a sufficient dose of metoprolol to counter the effect of anxiety.

  9. Gender differences in recovery goals in patients after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Grande, Gesine; Romppel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    : While cardiac rehabilitation has been established as an essential part of comprehensive cardiac care, participation rates for female patients are substantially lower than for male patients. Lower referral rates and higher ages of female patients partly explain this underutilization. Gender differences in recovery goals of cardiac patients have not been examined. : Five hundred ninety patients (22.2% women) admitted to the hospital because of an acute myocardial infarction answered a questionnaire regarding 24 goals in 5 domains of recovery (physical functioning, risk-factor modification, psychological well-being, independence in daily life, and return to work). In addition, psychological symptoms and medical data were assessed. Gender differences were tested by using χ and Student t tests, as well as multivariate logistic and linear regression models. : Gender differences were found in 7 of the 24 recovery goals. After adjustment for psychosocial and clinical characteristics, women still reported a higher importance of "performance of household duties" (odds ratio [OR] = 8.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.43-13.66), "independence in activities of daily living" (OR = 2.38; CI, 1.58-3.59), and "emotional equilibrium" (OR = 1.58, CI, 1.01-2.46). Men rated "physical endurance" and "reducing strain at workplace" as more important goals (OR = 0.64; CI, 0.42-0.97 and OR = 0.39; CI, 0.17-0.93). Except for psychological distress, gender differences in health status were not related to differences in goals. : Gender roles and differences in social-life conditions may have an important influence on the recovery goals of patients after an acute myocardial infarction. Recovery goals should be explored when planning intervention programs for individual patients.

  10. Smoking Cessation After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Relation to Depression and Personality Factors.

    PubMed

    Schlyter, Mona; Leosdottir, Margrét; Engström, Gunnar; André-Petersson, Lena; Tydén, Patrik; Östman, Margareta

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is an important cardiovascular risk factor and smoking cessation should be a primary target in secondary prevention after a myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality, coping and depression were related to smoking cessation after an MI. MI patients ≤70 years (n = 323, 73 % men, 58.7 ± 8.3 years), participating in the Secondary Prevention and Compliance following Acute Myocardial Infarction study in Malmö, Sweden, between 2002 and 2005, were interviewed by a psychologist to assess coping strategies and completed Beck Depression and NEO Personality Inventories, in close proximity to the acute event. Correlation between smoking status (current, former and never), personality factors, coping and depression was assessed at baseline and 24 months after the MI using logistic regression and in a multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and sex. Of the participating patients, 46 % were current smokers. Two years after the event, 44 % of these were still smoking. At baseline, current smokers scored higher on the depression and neuroticism scales and had lower agreeableness scores. Patients who continued to smoke after 2 years had higher scores on being confrontational (i.e. confrontative coping style) compared to those who had managed to quit. Patients who continued to smoke had significantly lower agreeableness and were more often living alone. Personality, coping strategies and psychosocial circumstances are associated with smoking cessation rates in patients with MI. Considering personality factors and coping strategies to better individualise smoking cessation programs in MI patients might be of importance.

  11. Recommended drug use after acute myocardial infarction by migration status and education level.

    PubMed

    Dzayee, Dashti Ali Mustafa; Moradi, Tahereh; Beiki, Omid; Alfredsson, Lars; Ljung, Rickard

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between migration status and education level and the use of recommended drugs after first acute myocardial infarction (MI). A nationwide cohort study performed in Sweden from January 1, 2006 to August 1, 2008. The cohort consisted of 49,037 incident cases of first acute MI. In total, 37,570 individuals survived 180 days after MI, of whom 4782 (12.7%) were foreign-born. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association between migration status and education level and prescribed drugs after MI. One third of the patients who were not on any recommended cardiovascular drugs before MI continued to be without recommended cardiovascular drugs after MI. Among those with no cardiovascular drugs before MI, we found no difference in recommended drug use after MI by migration status (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.12). Among those with some but not all recommended cardiovascular drugs before MI, foreign-born cases had a slightly non-significant lower use of recommended drugs (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.83-1.03). Foreign-born patients with low education had a slightly lower use of recommended drug compared to Sweden-born. Women with low education had a lower use of drugs after MI (Sweden born, OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.96 and foreign born OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.34-0.77). There is no apparent difference between foreign-born and Sweden-born in recommended drug use after MI. However, our study reveals an inequity in secondary prevention therapy after myocardial infarction by education level.

  12. Prostate-specific antigen kallikrein and acute myocardial infarction: where we are. Where are we going?

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-01-07

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an established marker for the detection of prostate cancer. Both elevated and diminished PSA have been reported during acute myocardial infarction. It seems that when elevation of PSA occurs during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary lesions are frequent and often more severe than when a diminution of PSA occurs. PSA has been identified as a member of the human kallikrein family of serine proteases. In recent years, numerous observations have suggested that the activity of the kallikrein-kinin system is related to inflammation and to cardiovascular diseases. PSA kallikrein, however, does not seem to have kinin-generating activity. The inactive precursor form of PSA, proPSA, is converted rapidly to active PSA by Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), suggesting an important in vivo regulatory function byhK2 on PSA activity. However, it has been reported that hK2 might not alone be able to activate proPSA in vivo, but there are also other protease/proteases involved in this event. Moreover, it seems that when elevation of prostate-specific antigen occurs during AMI, it seems to relate to a higher occurrence of major adverse cardiac events in the first 8 days after AMI than when a diminution of PSA occurs. It confirms a possible new intriguing scenario of the role of the PSA in AMI. Although these preliminary observations are suggestive, large studies need to be done to confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Annexin V and anti-Annexin V antibodies: two interesting aspects in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shojaie, Mohammad; Sotoodah, Abdoreza; Roozmeh, Shohre; Kholoosi, Ensieh; Dana, Samira

    2009-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction is the combined result of environmental factors and personal predispositions. Prothrombotic factors might play an important role in this phenomenon. Annexin V (ANV) is a calcium-dependent glycoprotein widely present in various tissues exerting a potent anticoagulant effect in vitro by reducing plaque adhesion and aggregation. Anti-annexin V antibodies (aANVAs) are detected in various diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. The study of ANV in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) might shed light on hypercoagulability mechanisms in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. This study was conducted to investigate the association of plasma ANV, aANVAs and anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLAs) with AMI. Methods This study recruited 45 patients with the diagnosis of AMI according to WHO criteria in their first 24 hours of admission. 36 matched individuals were studied as the control group with normal coronary artery angiography. Plasma levels of ANV, aANVAs and aCLAs were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the results were compared. Results Plasma ANV levels in the patients with AMI on admission were significantly lower than those in the control group (p = 0.002). Positive test for aANVAs were found to be present in a significant number of our patients (p = 0.004). The studied groups were similar in their rate of patients with positive aCLAs tests. ANV, aANVAs and aCLAs were not correlated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, sex, age and smoking. Conclusion Our findings suggest that low plasma ANV levels along with positive aANVAs tests in patients with AMI are indicative of hypercoagulable state that is not related to the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:19622170

  14. Obesity and its Association with Food Consumption, Diabetes Mellitus, and Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida da; Vieira, Liana Lima; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Souza, Jacqueline Danesio de

    2016-12-01

    Obesity affects a large part of elderly individuals worldwide and is considered a risk predictor for the development of chronic diseases such as cardiac diseases, the leading causes of death in the elderly population. To investigate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors, with emphasis on the occurrence of other diseases and on food consumption in elderly individuals treated at the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). Cross-sectional sampling study performed in the city of Goiânia (Brazil) including elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) receiving primary care. During home visits, we performed anthropometric measurements and applied a structured, standardized, and pre-tested questionnaire assessing socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle conditions, occurrence of diseases, and food consumption. We performed multiple Poisson regression analysis using a hierarchical model and adopting a significance level of 5%. We evaluated 418 elderly patients with a mean age of 70.7 ± 7 years. Their body mass indices had a mean value of 27.0 kg/m2 and were higher in women than in men (27.4 kg/m2 versus 26.1 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.017). Obesity had a prevalence of 49.0%, a risk 1.87 times higher between the ages of 60-69 years and 70-79 years, and a rate 1.4 times higher among individuals with more than four morbidities. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with obesity were age 60-69 and 70-79 years, inadequate consumption of whole-wheat grains and adequate consumption of fruit, musculoskeletal diseases, diabetes mellitus, and acute myocardial infarction. Obesity had a high prevalence in the evaluated elderly population and was associated with food consumption, musculoskeletal disease, diabetes mellitus, and acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Prognostic implications of stress hyperglycemia in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Núñez, Julio; Blasco, M Luisa; Miñana, Gema; Martínez-Maicas, Helena; Carbonell, Nieves; Palau, Patricia; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan

    2011-03-01

    In patients with acute myocardial infarction, elevation of plasma glucose levels is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between stress hyperglycemia and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). We analyzed 834 consecutive patients admitted for STEMI to the Coronary Care Unit of our center. Association between admission glucose and mortality was assessed with Cox regression analysis. Discriminative accuracy of the multivariate model was assessed by Harrell's C statistic. Eighty-nine (10.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Optimal threshold glycemia level of 140mg/dl on admission to predict mortality was obtained by ROC curves. Those who presented glucose ≥140mg/dl showed higher rates of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (28% vs. 18%, P=.001), complicative bundle branch block (5% vs. 2%, P=.005), new atrioventricular block (9% vs. 5%, P=.05) and in-hospital mortality (15% vs. 5%, P<.001). Multivariate analysis showed that those with glycemia ≥140mg/dl exhibited a 2-fold increase of in-hospital mortality risk (95% CI: 1.2-3.5, P=.008) irrespective of diabetes mellitus status (P-value for interaction=0.487 and 0.653, respectively). Stress hyperglycemia on admission is a predictor of mortality and arrhythmias in patients with STEMI and could be used in the stratification of risk in these patients. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventricular fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction in Spanish patients: Results of the ARIAM database.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Aguayo de Hoyos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Navarro, Silvia; Issa-Khozouz, Ziad; Reina-Toral, Antonio; Díaz-Castellanos, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-García, Juan-José; Torres-Ruiz, Juan Miguel; Cárdenas-Cruz, Antonio; Camacho-Víctor, Angel

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the factors predisposing to primary or secondary ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the prognosis in Spanish patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during their admission to the intensive care unit or the coronary care unit. A retrospective, observational study. The intensive care units and coronary care units of 119 Spanish hospitals. A retrospective cohort study including all the AMI patients listed in the ARIAM registry (Analysis of Delay in Acute Myocardial Infarction), a Spanish multicenter study. The study period was January 1995 to January 2001. Factors associated with the onset of VF were studied by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the independent factors for the onset of VF and for mortality. A total of 17,761 patients with AMI were included in the study; 964 (5.4%) developed VF (primary in 735 patients, secondary in 229). In multivariate analysis, the variables that continued to show an association with the development of VF were the Killip and Kimball class, peak creatine kinase, APACHE II score, age, and time from the onset of symptoms to the initiation of thrombolysis. The mortality in the patients with any VF was 31.8% (27.8% in patients with primary VF and 49.1% in patients with secondary VF). The development of VF is an independent predictive factor for mortality in patients with AMI, with a crude odds ratio of 5.12 (95% confidence interval, 4.41-5.95) and an adjusted odds ratio of 2.73 (95% confidence interval, 2.12-3.51). Despite the considerable improvement in the treatment of AMI in recent years, the onset of either primary or secondary VF is associated with a poor prognosis. It is usually accompanied by extensive necrosis.

  17. Differential loss of natural killer cell activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction and stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenwen; Zhou, Lin; Wen, Siwan; Duan, Qianglin; Huang, Feifei; Tang, Yu; Liu, Xiaohong; Chai, Yongyan; Wang, Lemin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the activity of natural killer cells through their inhibitory and activating receptors and quantity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells extracted from patients with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris and the controls. 100 patients with myocardial infarction, 100 with stable angina, and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. 20 randomly chosen people per group were examined for the whole human genome microarray analysis to detect the gene expressions of all 40 inhibitory and activating natural killer cell receptors. Flow cytometry analysis was applied to all 200 patients to measure the quantity of natural killer cells. In myocardial infarction group, the mRNA expressions of six inhibitory receptors KIR2DL2, KIR3DL3, CD94, NKG2A, KLRB1, KLRG1, and eight activating receptors KIR2DS3, KIR2DS5, NKp30, NTB-A, CRACC, CD2, CD7 and CD96 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.05) compared with both angina patients and the controls. There was no statistical difference in receptor expressions between angina patients and control group. The quantity of natural killer cells was significantly decreased in both infarction and angina patients compared with normal range (P<0.001). The significant mRNAs down-regulation of several receptors in myocardial infarction group and reduction in the quantity of natural killer cells in both myocardial infarction and angina patients showed a quantitative loss and dysfunction of natural killer cells in myocardial infarction patients.

  18. Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (PREMIAR).

    PubMed

    Cura, Fernando A; Escudero, Alejandro Garcia; Berrocal, Daniel; Mendiz, Oscar; Trivi, Marcelo S; Fernandez, Juan; Palacios, Alejandro; Albertal, Mariano; Piraino, Ruben; Riccitelli, Miguel Angel; Gruberg, Luis; Ballarino, Miguel; Milei, Jose; Baeza, Ricardo; Thierer, Jorge; Grinfeld, Liliana; Krucoff, Mitchell; O'Neill, William; Belardi, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Distal embolization may decrease myocardial reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Nonetheless, results of previous trials assessing the role of distal protection during primary PCI have been controversial. The Protection of Distal Embolization in High-Risk Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Trial (PREMIAR) was a prospective, randomized, controlled study designed to evaluate the role of filter-based distal protection during PCI in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at high risk of embolic events (including only baseline Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 0 to 2 flow). The primary end point was continuous monitoring of ST-segment resolution. Secondary end points included core laboratory analysis of angiographic myocardial blush, ejection fraction measured by cardiac ultrasound, and adverse cardiac events at 6 months. From a total of 194 enrolled patients, 140 subjects were randomized to PCI with or without embolic protection, and 54 were included in a registry arm due to the presence of angiographic exclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics were comparable between arms. The rate of complete ST-segment resolution (>or=70%) at 60 minutes was similar in patients treated with or without distal protection (61.2% vs 60.3%, respectively, p = 0.85). Angiographic myocardial blush (67% vs 70.7%, p = 0.73), in-hospital ejection fraction (47.4 +/- 9.9% vs 45.3 +/- 7.3%, p = 0.29), and combined end point of death, heart failure, or reinfarction at 6 months (14.3% vs 15.7%, p = 0.81) were consistently achieved in a similar proportion in the 2 groups. In conclusion, the use of filter-based distal protection is safe and effectively retrieves debris; however, such use does not translate into an improvement of myocardial reperfusion, left ventricular performance, or clinical outcomes.

  19. Vasospasm of atherosclerotic coronary arteries precipitates acute ischemic myocardial damage in myocardial infarction-prone strain of the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi; Ishida, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Nitta, Norihisa; Sonoda, Akinaga; Yamada, Satoshi; Koike, Tomonari; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Murata, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Ito, Takashi; Libby, Peter

    2013-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that vasospasm can trigger coronary plaque injury and acute ischemic myocardial damage. Myocardial infarction-prone strain of the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits received an intravenous bolus of ergonovine maleate (0.45 µmol/kg) during intravenous infusion of norepinephrine (12 nmol/kg per minute) to provoke coronary spasm in vivo. After this treatment, coronary angiography demonstrated vasospasm, and the ECG showed ischemic abnormalities (ST depression/elevation and T-wave inversion) in 77% of animals (23/30). These changes normalized after nitroglycerin injection. In rabbits that demonstrated these ECG findings for >20 minutes, echocardiograms showed left ventricular wall motion abnormality. Serum levels of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, cardiac troponin-I, and myoglobin increased markedly 4 hours after spasm provocation. In coronary lesions of myocardial infarction-prone strain of the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with provoked coronary spasm, we observed intimal injury in 60.9% in the form of endothelial cell protrusions (39.1%), denudation (30.4%), and macrophage extravasation (56.5%). Plaque disruption with luminal thrombus, however, was only seen in 2 of 23 animals (8.7%), and mural microthrombus was rarely observed (4.3%). These observations show that provocation of vasospasm in myocardial infarction-prone strain of the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits associates with subsequent ischemic myocardial damage. Although treatment with spasmogens altered aspects of plaque morphology, for example, endothelial protrusion and macrophage emigration, thrombosis was rare in these animals with chronic atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of a New High-Sensitivity Troponin I Assay and Five Accelerated Diagnostic Pathways for Ruling Out Acute Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Jaimi H; Carlton, Edward W; Van Hise, Christopher; Cho, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Tracey; Parsonage, William A; Tate, Jillian; Ungerer, Jacobus; Cullen, Louise

    2018-04-01

    This diagnostic accuracy study describes the performance of 5 accelerated chest pain pathways, calculated with the new Beckman's Access high-sensitivity troponin I assay. High-sensitivity troponin I was measured with presentation and 2-hour blood samples in 1,811 patients who presented to an emergency department (ED) in Australia. Patients were classified as being at low risk according to 5 rules: modified accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms using troponin as the only biomarker (m-ADAPT), the Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (EDACS) pathway, the History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) pathway, the No Objective Testing Rule, and the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule. Endpoints were 30-day acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for each rule were calculated. Data included 96 patients (5.3%) with acute myocardial infarction and 139 (7.7%) with acute coronary syndrome. The new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule and No Objective Testing Rule had high sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.2% to 100% for both) and acute coronary syndrome (98.6% [95% CI 94.9% to 99.8%] and 99.3% [95% CI 96.1% to 100%]). The m-ADAPT, EDACS, and HEART pathways also yielded high sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction (96.9% [95% CI 91.1% to 99.4%] for m-ADAPT and 97.9% [95% CI 92.7% to 99.7%] for EDACS and HEART), but lower sensitivity for acute coronary syndrome (≤95.0% for all). The m-ADAPT, EDACS, and HEART rules classified more patients as being at low risk (64.3%, 62.5%, and 49.8%, respectively) than the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule and No Objective Testing Rule (28.2% and 34.5%, respectively). In this cohort with a low prevalence of acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome, using the Beckman's Access high-sensitivity troponin I assay with the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule or No Objective Testing Rule enabled

  1. Methamphetamine-associated acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock with normal coronary arteries: refractory global coronary microvascular spasm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jack P

    2007-04-01

    Methamphetamine (MET) is a growing public health concern and is prevalent in, although not limited to, the youth. The drug's association with myocardial infarction is well described and is attributed to accelerated atherosclerosis, hypercoagulable state, and macrovascular epicardial coronary spasm. However, global slow-flow of all coronary systems in the absence of significant stenoses has not been previously reported. We hereby present a young patient who likely experienced severe, global microvascular coronary spasm unrelieved by intracoronary vasodilator therapy, resulting in acute myocardial infarction. The pharmacology of MET, its postulated mechanism in acute coronary syndromes, as well as the pathophysiology and treatments of microvascular coronary spasm are briefly reviewed. Readers are recommended to be vigilant of potential illicit drug use in patients with atypical presentations of acute coronary syndromes.

  2. Puerarin attenuates severe burn-induced acute myocardial injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Ren, Hong-Bo; Chen, Xu-Lin; Wang, Fei; Wang, Ren-Su; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chao; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside extracted from the root of Pueraria lobata, is widely prescribed for patients with cardiovascular disorders in China. This study investigates the effect of puerarin on severe burn-induced acute myocardial injury in rats and its underlying mechanisms. Healthy adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, sham burn treatment; (2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% of the total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; and (3) burn plus puerarin group, third-degree burns over 30% of TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing puerarin for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after burn injury. Myocardial injury was evaluated by analyzing serum creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) activity and cardiac troponin T (cTNT) level. Changes in cardiomyocyte ultrastructure were also determined using a transmission electron microscope. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to determine neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the heart, respectively. The expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the heart was determined by Western blot analysis. After the 30% TBSA full-thickness burn injury, serum CK-MB activities and cTnT levels increased markedly, both of which were significantly decreased by the puerarin treatment. The level of serum TNF-α concentration in burn group at each time-point was obviously higher than those in sham group (1.09±0.09 ng/ml), and it reached the peak value at 12 h post burn. Burn trauma also resulted in worsen ultrastructural condition, elevated MPO activity and MDA content in heart tissue, and a significant activation of cardiac p38 MAP kinase. Administration of puerarin improved the ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes, decreased TNF

  3. Socioeconomic status, service patterns, and perceptions of care among survivors of acute myocardial infarction in Canada.

    PubMed

    Alter, David A; Iron, Karey; Austin, Peter C; Naylor, C David

    2004-03-03

    Some have argued that Canada's uniquely restrictive approach to private health insurance keeps the socioeconomic elite inside the public system so that their demands and influence elevate the standard of service for all Canadian citizens. The extent to which this theory is a valid representation of Canadian health care is unknown. To explore how patients with acute myocardial infarction from different socioeconomic backgrounds perceive their care in Canada's universal health care system and to correlate patients' backgrounds and perceptions with actual care received. Prospective observational cohort study with follow-up telephone interviews of 2256 patients 30 days following acute myocardial infarction discharged from 53 hospitals across Ontario, Canada, between December 1999 and June 2002. Postdischarge use of cardiac specialty services; satisfaction with care; willingness to pay directly for faster service or more choice; and mortality according to income and education, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, clinical factors, onsite angiography capacity at the admitting hospital, and rural-urban residence. Compared with patients in lower socioeconomic strata, more affluent or better educated patients were more likely to undergo coronary angiography (67.8% vs 52.8%; P<.001), receive cardiac rehabilitation (43.9% vs 25.6%; P<.001), or be followed up by a cardiologist (56.7% vs 47.8%; P<.001). Socioeconomic differences in cardiac care persisted after adjustment for confounders. Despite receiving more specialized services, patients with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to be dissatisfied with their access to specialty care (adjusted RR, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.32) and to favor out-of-pocket payments for quicker access to a wider selection of treatment options (30% vs 15% for patients with household incomes of Can 60 000 dollars or higher vs less than Can 30 000 dollars, respectively; P<.001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics

  4. The Incidence and the Prognostic Impact of Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients: Current Preventive Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kaltsas, Evangelos; Chalikias, George; Tziakas, Dimitrios

    2018-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications during hospitalization in various clinical settings. The goal of this review was to assess the incidence of AKI in acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), how this incidence is affected by the diverse definitions, and if there is variability in the reported rates over recent years. Additionally, we sought to appraise the impact of AKI on short- and long-term prognosis of these patients. Finally, we report on the current preventive measures as they are suggested in the current guidelines of various societies, we comment on the evidence that support them, and we review the literature for other proposed therapeutic strategies, which either failed to prove their efficacy or they are not adequately confirmed yet. Due to the heterogeneity in AKI definition and in the population studied of the published data, the incidence of AKI ranged from 5.2 to 59%. A recent meta-analysis reported a median value of 15.8%. All studies assessing AKI-related prognosis in AMI patients suggested that presence of AKI has detrimental effect on patients prognosis, raising mortality two- to threefold not only during the 30 first days but also during the first year after the acute event. Various treatment modalities have been proposed for prevention of AKI in AMI patients; however, the majority of them failed to prove their efficacy in the clinical trial arena. Hydration, use of iso- or low-osmolar agents at the lowest possible dose during coronary interventions, and use of statins have been proposed among others. Nonetheless, the prevalence of AKI after an AMI still remains high today and therefore it is crucial for the practicing physician to be aware of its presence and for the scientific community to identify novel measures for a more efficacious prevention.

  5. Acute insulin resistance in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients is associated with incomplete myocardial reperfusion and impaired coronary microcirculatory function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) assessed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients was recently established as an independent predictor of intrahospital mortality. In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and fixed perfusion defect on single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) determined six weeks after pPCI were analyzed according to HOMA indices. Results IR was present in 55 % and 58 % of patients on day 2 and day 7, respectively. Incomplete post-procedural ST-E resolution was more frequent in patients with IR compared to patients without IR, both on day 2 (p = 0.001) and day 7 (p < 0.001). The HOMA index on day 7 correlated with SPECT-MPI perfusion defect (r = 0.331), whereas both HOMA indices correlated well with CFR (r = -0.331 to -0.386) (p < 0.01 for all). In multivariable backward logistic regression analysis adjusted for significant univariate predictors and potential confounding variables, IR on day 2 was an independent predictor of residual ST-E ≥ 2 mm (OR 11.70, 95% CI 2.46-55.51, p = 0.002) and CFR < 2 (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.88-19.03, p = 0.002), whereas IR on day 7 was an independent predictor of SPECT-MPI perfusion defect > 20% (OR 11.37, 95% CI 1.34-96.21, p = 0.026). Conclusion IR assessed by the HOMA index during the

  6. Income inequality and 30 day outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lindenauer, Peter K; Lagu, Tara; Rothberg, Michael B; Avrunin, Jill; Pekow, Penelope S; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2013-02-14

    To examine the association between income inequality and the risk of mortality and readmission within 30 days of hospitalization. Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. Hierarchical, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the association between income inequality (measured at the US state level) and a patient's risk of mortality and readmission, while sequentially controlling for patient, hospital, other state, and patient socioeconomic characteristics. We considered a 0.05 unit increase in the Gini coefficient as a measure of income inequality. US acute care hospitals. Patients aged 65 years and older, and hospitalized in 2006-08 with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. Risk of death within 30 days of admission or rehospitalization for any cause within 30 days of discharge. The potential number of excess deaths and readmissions associated with higher levels of inequality in US states in the three highest quarters of income inequality were compared with corresponding data in US states in the lowest quarter. Mortality analyses included 555,962 admissions (4348 hospitals) for acute myocardial infarction, 1,092,285 (4484) for heart failure, and 1,146,414 (4520); readmission analyses included 553,037 (4262), 1,345,909 (4494), and 1,345,909 (4524) admissions, respectively. In 2006-08, income inequality in US states (as measured by the average Gini coefficient over three years) varied from 0.41 in Utah to 0.50 in New York. Multilevel models showed no significant association between income inequality and mortality within 30 days of admission for patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. By contrast, income inequality was associated with rehospitalization (acute myocardial infarction, risk ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.15), heart failure 1.07 (1.01 to 1.12), pneumonia 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15)). Further adjustment for individual income

  7. Effect of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic statin on cardiac salvage after ST-elevated acute myocardial infarction - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chitose, Tadasuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sakamoto, Kenji; Shimomura, Hideki; Yamashita, Takuro; Hokamaki, Jun; Tsunoda, Ryusuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-11-01

    Early statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome reduces atherothrombotic vascular events. This study aimed to compare the effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic statins on myocardial salvage and left ventricular (LV) function in patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). Seventy-five STEMI patients who had received emergency reperfusion therapy were enrolled and randomized into the hydrophilic statin group (rosuvastatin; 5 mg/day, n = 38) and hydrophobic statin group (atorvastatin; 10 mg/day, n = 37) for 6 months. LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels were measured at baseline and the end of treatment. The myocardial salvage index was assessed by single photon emission computed tomography with (123-)I-β-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (ischemic area-at-risk at onset of STEMI: AAR) and (201-)thallium scintigraphy (area-at-infarction at 6 months: AAI) [myocardial salvage index = (AAR-AAI) × 100/AAR (%)]. Onset-to-balloon time and maximum creatine phosphokinase levels were comparable between the groups. After 6 months, rosuvastatin (-37.6% ± 17.2%) and atorvastatin (-32.4% ± 22.4%) equally reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (p = 0.28). However, rosuvastatin (+3.1% ± 5.9%, p < 0.05), but not atorvastatin (+1.6% ± 5.7%, p = 0.15), improved LVEF. Rosuvastatin reduced BNP levels compared with atorvastatin (-53.3% ± 48.8% versus -13.8% ± 82.9%, p < 0.05). The myocardial salvage index was significantly higher in the rosuvastatin group than the atorvastatin group (78.6% ± 29.1% versus 52.5% ± 38.0%, p < 0.05). CoQ10/LDL-C levels at 6 months were increased in the rosuvastatin group (+23.5%, p < 0.01) and percent changes in CoQ10/LDL-C were correlated with the myocardial salvage index (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Rosuvastatin shows better beneficial effects on myocardial salvage than atorvastatin in STEMI patients, including long-term cardiac function, associated with

  8. Characterization of the platelet transcriptome by RNA sequencing in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, John D.; Wakabayashi, Yoshiyuki; Vitseva, Olga; Esa, Nada; Yang, Yanqin; Zhu, Jun; Freedman, Jane E.; McManus, David D.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcripts in platelets are largely produced in precursor megakaryocytes but remain physiologically-active as platelets translate RNAs and regulate protein/RNA levels. Recent studies using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) characterized the platelet transcriptome in limited numbers of non-diseased individuals. Here, we expand upon these RNA-seq studies by completing RNA-seq in platelets from 32 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Our goals were to characterize the platelet transcriptome using a population of patients with acute MI and relate gene expression to platelet aggregation measures and ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) (n=16) versus non-STEMI (NSTEMI) (n=16) subtypes. Similar to other studies, we detected 9,565 expressed transcripts, including several known platelet-enriched markers (e.g., PPBP, OST4). Our RNA-seq data strongly correlated with independently ascertained platelet expression data and showed enrichment for platelet-related pathways (e.g., wound response, hemostasis, and platelet activation), as well as actin-related and post-transcriptional processes. Several transcripts displayed suggestively higher (FBXL4, ECHDC3, KCNE1, TAOK2, AURKB, ERG, and FKBP5) and lower (MIAT, PVRL3and PZP) expression in STEMI platelets compared to NSTEMI. We also identified transcripts correlated with platelet aggregation to TRAP (ATP6V1G2, SLC2A3), collagen (CEACAM1, ITGA2), and ADP (PDGFB, PDGFC, ST3GAL6). Our study adds to current platelet gene expression resources by providing transcriptome-wide analyses in platelets isolated from patients with acute MI. In concert with prior studies, we identify various genes for further study in regards to platelet function and acute MI. Future platelet RNA-seq studies examining more diverse sets of healthy and diseased samples will add to our understanding of platelet thrombotic and non-thrombotic functions. PMID:26367242

  9. Is delayed surgical revascularization in acute myocardial infarction useful or dangerous? New insights into an old problem.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Philippe; Roth, Peter; Oster, Lukas; Schneider, Tobias M; Görlach, Gerold; Nieman, Bernd; Böning, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Haemodynamically stable patients admitted for coronary artery bypass grafting in acute myocardial infarction often undergo delayed surgery in order to avoid the risks of emergency surgery. However, initially stable patients undergoing delayed surgery may develop low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) during the waiting period, which might be a major drawback of this strategy. We aim to define risk factors and clinical consequences of LCOS during the waiting period. A total of 530 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (33% non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 67% ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between 2008 and 2013. Outcomes after either immediate (<48 h after onset of symptoms) or delayed (>48 h after onset of symptoms) therapy were compared. Predictors of preoperative development of LCOS were identified using multivariate regression analysis. Of the 327 patients undergoing delayed therapy, 39 (12%) developed preoperative LCOS, resulting in increased mortality compared with patients who remained stable (21 vs 7.6%, P < 0.001). Immediate therapy resulted in similar mortality compared with delayed therapy (6.4 vs 7.6%; P = 0.68) and better 7-year survival (70 vs 55%; P < 0.001). Predictors of developing LCOS were reduced left ventricular function (odds ratio 4.4), renal impairment (odds ratio 3.0), acute pulmonary infection (odds ratio 3.4) and the extent of troponin elevation at admission (odds ratio 1.01 per increase by 1 µg/l). In patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing delayed coronary artery bypass grafting, preoperative LCOS is a relevant and dangerous condition that can be avoided by operating immediately or by carefully selecting patients to be delayed according to the risk parameters identified preoperatively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All

  10. Personality factors and depression as predictors of hospital-based health care utilization following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schlyter, Mona; Östman, Margareta; Engström, Gunnar; André-Petersson, Lena; Tydén, Patrik; Leosdottir, Margrét

    2017-04-01

    Whether personality factors and depressive traits affect patients' utilization of health care following an acute myocardial infarction is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether hospital-based health care utilization after a myocardial infarction was correlated with patients' personality factors and depressive symptoms. We studied 366 myocardial infarction patients admitted to Malmö University Hospital between 2002 and 2005 who subsequently participated in a cardiac rehabilitation programme. The patients were followed for two years after their index event. We investigated whether personality factors and depressive traits were correlated with the participants' health care utilization, defined as a) out-patient Cardiology visits and phone calls to a physician, nurse or a social worker, and b) acute visits or admissions to the Emergency or Cardiology Departments, using negative binominal regression analysis. In unadjusted comparisons neuroticism predicted more out-patient contacts. This significance remained after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption and size of the myocardial infarction (measured as max level on troponin-I and left ventricular ejection fraction). There were no significant correlations between other personality factors or depression and out-patient contacts. None of the personality factors or depression predicted acute admissions. Apart from neuroticism, personality factors did not explain utilization of health care in terms of Cardiology out-patient contacts or acute admissions in myocardial infarction patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Neither did depressive symptoms predict more health care utilization. This might indicate a robust cardiac rehabilitation programme offered to the study subjects, minimizing the need for additional health care contacts.

  11. The fundamental importance of smoking cessation in those with premature ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rallidis, Loukianos S; Pavlakis, George

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is the most prevalent risk factor among young patients suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this review, we will present data on the detrimental consequences of continued smoking with regard to the recurrence of coronary events after an AMI at an early age. A prospective study with long-term follow-up of young survivors of AMI showed that continuation of smoking after a first episode of AMI was the strongest independent predictor of further cardiac events. In particular, persistent smokers had ∼2.5 times higher risk of a new coronary event when compared with nonsmokers. This emphasizes the fundamental importance of initiating smoking cessation treatment in all smokers with AMI during hospitalization. Extrapolating the results of previous studies showing the benefits of smoking cessation in middle-aged or elderly coronary patients, an even greater benefit should be expected in young patients because of their specific characteristics, which are presented in the current review. Young persistent smokers after a premature AMI constitute a high-risk subgroup for a recurrence of cardiac events. Therefore, smoking cessation is a key issue for improving their prognosis and all smokers should be offered effective antismoking treatment at the time of initial hospitalization.

  12. Patient-specific assessment of left ventricular thrombogenesis risk after acute myocardial infarction: a pilot clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, L.; Khan, A.; Del Alamo, J. C.; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Pérez Del Villar, C.; Benito, Y.; Yotti, R.; Barrio, A.; Delgado-Montero, A.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Fernandez-Avilés, F.; Bermejo, J.

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular thrombosis (LVT) is a major complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In these patients, the benefits of chronic anticoagulation therapy need to be balanced with its pro-hemorrhagic effects. Blood stasis in the cardiac chambers, a risk factor for LVT, is not addressed in current clinical practice. We recently developed a method to quantitatively assess the blood residence time (RT) inside the left ventricle (LV) based on 2D color-Doppler velocimetry (echo-CDV). Using time-resolved blood velocity fields acquired non-invasively, we integrate a modified advection equation to map intraventricular stasis regions. Here, we present how this tool can be used to estimate the risk of LVT in patients with AMI. 73 patients with a first anterior-AMI were studied by echo-CDV and RT analysis within 72h from admission and at a 5-month follow-up. Patients who eventually develop LVT showed early abnormalities of intraventricular RT: the apical region with RT>2s was significantly larger, had a higher RT and a longer wall contact length. Thus, quantitative analysis of intraventricular flow based on echocardiography may provide subclinical markers of LV thrombosis risk to guide clinical decision making.

  13. Is early rehabilitation a myth? Physical inactivity in the first week after myocardial infarction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Lay, Sarah; Bernhardt, Julie; West, Tanya; Churilov, Leonid; Dart, Anthony; Hayes, Kate; Cumming, Toby B

    2015-12-18

    To compare physical activity levels of patients in the first week after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted an observational study using behavioural mapping. MI patients were consecutively recruited from Alfred Hospital, Melbourne. Data for stroke patients (Royal Perth Hospital or Austin Hospital, Melbourne) were retrieved from an existing database. Patients were observed for 1 min every 10 min from 8 am to 5 pm. At each observation, the patient's highest level of physical activity, location and people present were recorded. Details of physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were recorded by the therapists. Proportion of the day spent physically inactive was lower in MI (n = 32, median 48%) than stroke (n = 125, median 59%) patients, but this difference was not significant in univariate or multivariate (adjusting for age, walking ability and days post-event) regression. Time spent physically active was higher in MI (median 23%) than stroke (median 10%) patients (p = 0.009), but this difference did not survive multivariate adjustment (p = 0.67). More stroke patients (78%) than MI patients (19%) participated in therapy. This study provides the first objective data on physical activity levels of acute MI patients. While they were more active than acute stroke patients, the difference was largely attributable to walking ability. Implications for rehabilitation In the first week after myocardial infarction, patients spent about half the day physically inactive (even though 81% were able to walk independently). Similar levels of inactivity were seen in a comparable cohort of acute stroke patients, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role. There appears to be wide scope for increasing levels of physical rehabilitation after acute cardiovascular events, though optimal timing and dose remain unclear.

  14. Missed diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department: variation by patient and facility characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moy, Ernest; Barrett, Marguerite; Coffey, Rosanna; Hines, Anika L; Newman-Toker, David E

    2015-02-01

    An estimated 1.2 million people in the US have an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) each year. An estimated 7% of AMI hospitalizations result in death. Most patients experiencing acute coronary symptoms, such as unstable angina, visit an emergency department (ED). Some patients hospitalized with AMI after a treat-and-release ED visit likely represent missed opportunities for correct diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the frequency of missed AMI or its precursors in the ED by examining use of EDs prior to hospitalization for AMI. We estimated the rate of probable missed diagnoses in EDs in the week before hospitalization for AMI and examined associated factors. We used Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases and State Emergency Department Databases for 2007 to evaluate missed diagnoses in 111,973 admitted patients aged 18 years and older. We identified missed diagnoses in the ED for 993 of 112,000 patients (0.9% of all AMI admissions). These patients had visited an ED with chest pain or cardiac conditions, were released, and were subsequently admitted for AMI within 7 days. Higher odds of having missed diagnoses were associated with being younger and of Black race. Hospital teaching status, availability of cardiac catheterization, high ED admission rates, high inpatient occupancy rates, and urban location were associated with lower odds of missed diagnoses. Administrative data provide robust information that may help EDs identify populations at risk of experiencing a missed diagnosis, address disparities, and reduce diagnostic errors.

  15. Occupational and leisure time physical activity and the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Italy.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrea; Tavani, Alessandra; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2004-08-01

    Physical activity has long been related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the quantitative estimates of the possible protective role of physical activity appear to vary across studies and populations. A case-control study conducted in Italy between 1995 and 1999, including 507 incident cases below 79 years (378 men, 129 women) with a first episode of AMI, and 478 controls (297 men, 181 women) admitted to hospitals for acute conditions. Compared with the lowest level of occupational physical activity, the multivariate odds ratios (OR) of AMI for the highest level were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.97) at age 15 to 19 years, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.34-0.95) at age 30 to 39 years, and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29-0.90) at age 50 to 59 years. The corresponding values for leisure time activity were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.57-1.30), and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.57-1.74), respectively. The association was consistent across strata of age, sex, education, smoking, and other selected covariates. The attributable risk for low occupational exercise at age 30 to 39 years was over 10%, indicating the scope for further intervention on this modifiable risk factor in this Italian population, particularly in consideration of the public health importance of CHD.

  16. Recognition of Atypical Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Development and Validation of a Risk Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Li, Polly W C; Yu, Doris S F

    Atypical symptom presentation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with longer delay in care seeking and poorer prognosis. Symptom recognition in these patients is a challenging task. Our purpose in this risk prediction model development study was to develop and validate a risk scoring system for estimating cumulative risk for atypical AMI presentation. A consecutive sample was recruited for the developmental (n = 300) and validation (n = 97) cohorts. Symptom experience was measured with the validated Chinese version of the Symptoms of Acute Coronary Syndromes Inventory. Potential predictors were identified from the literature. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant predictors. A risk scoring system was then constructed by assigning weights to each significant predictor according to their b coefficients. Five independent predictors for atypical symptom presentation were older age (≥75 years), female gender, diabetes mellitus, history of AMI, and absence of hyperlipidemia. The Hosmer and Lemeshow test (χ6 = 4.47, P = .62) indicated that this predictive model was adequate to predict the outcome. Acceptable discrimination was demonstrated, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.82) (P < .001). The predictive power of this risk scoring system was confirmed in the validation cohort. Atypical AMI presentation is common. A simple risk scoring system developed on the basis of the 5 identified predictors can raise awareness of atypical AMI presentation and promote symptom recognition by estimating the cumulative risk for an individual to present with atypical AMI symptoms.

  17. Ivabradine vs metoprolol in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction-"Expanding arena for ivabradine".

    PubMed

    Priti, Kumari; Ranwa, Bhanwar L; Gokhroo, Rajendra K; Kishore, Kamal; Bisht, Devendra Singh; Gupta, Sajal

    2017-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) blocks are of concern with the use of beta blockers in inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Ivabradine lowers heart rate with a lesser risk of AV blocks. To compare ivabradine with metoprolol in acute inferior wall MI in terms of feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy. It was a prospective double-blind single-center randomized controlled study. Of 1032 patients with acute inferior wall MI, 468 eligible patients were randomized in 1:1 manner to ivabradine (group A) and metoprolol (group B). Intention to treat analysis of 426 patients (group A-232 and group B-232) was performed. The primary endpoint was 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events including death, reinfarction, complete heart block (CHB), and heart failure. Secondary endpoints included 30 days incidence of recurrent angina, readmission, first- or second-degree AV block, and tachyarrhythmias. Both the drugs decreased the mean heart rate to 62.22±2.95 (group A) vs 62.53±3.59 (group B) beats per minute (P=0.33). Ejection fraction improved in both the groups (5.15±1.93% in group A vs 5.52±2.18% in group B, P=0.065). The two groups did not differ significantly in their primary endpoints in terms of death (group A=1.72% vs group B=1.72%, OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.25-4.05, P=1.00), reinfarction (group A=0.86% vs group B=0.86%, OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.14-7.16, P=1.00), heart failure (group A=4.31% vs group B=2.59%, OR=1.70, 95% CI=0.61-4.75, P=0.31), or CHB (0% vs 2.59%, OR=0.07, 95% CI=0.00-1.34, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in the secondary endpoints of recurrent angina, readmission, and tachyarrhythmias except for more first- and second-degree AV blocks with metoprolol (12.93% vs 2.59%, OR=5.59, 95% CI=2.28-13.72, P=0.0002). Ivabradine is well tolerated and equally effective as metoprolol in acute inferior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction patients for lowering the heart rate with lesser risk of AV blocks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ruling out acute myocardial infarction. A prospective multicenter validation of a 12-hour strategy for patients at low risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Juarez, G; Cook, E F; Weisberg, M C; Rouan, G W; Brand, D A; Goldman, L

    1991-05-02

    Although previous investigations have suggested that 24 hours is required to exclude acute myocardial infarction in patients who are admitted to a coronary care unit for the evaluation of acute chest pain, we hypothesized that a 12-hour period might be adequate for patients with a low probability of infarction at the time of admission. Using a Bayesian model, we developed a strategy to identify candidates for a shorter period of observation from an analysis of a derivation set of 976 patients with acute chest pain who were admitted to three teaching and four community hospitals. In the derivation set, patients whose clinical characteristics in the emergency room predicted a low (less than or equal to 7 percent) probability of myocardial infarction had only a 0.4 percent risk of infarction if they had neither abnormal levels of cardiac enzymes nor recurrent ischemic pain during the first 12 hours of hospitalization. In an independent testing set of 2684 patients from the seven hospitals, 957 admitted patients (36 percent) were classified as candidates for this 12-hour period of observation according to a previously published multivariate algorithm. Few of these patients were actually transferred from a monitored setting at 12 hours. Of the 771 candidates for a 12-hour period of observation who did not have enzyme abnormalities or recurrent pain during the first 12 hours, 4 (0.5 percent) were subsequently found to have acute myocardial infarction, and only 3 (0.4 percent) died after primary cardiac arrests, all of which occurred three to five days after admission. Rates of other major cardiovascular complications were low in the patients who might have been transferred from the coronary care unit after 12 hours with this strategy. In patients with a higher initial risk of infarction, the standard strategy of 24-hour observation identified all but 11 of 739 acute myocardial infarctions (1 percent). Emergency room clinical data can be used to identify a large subgroup

  19. Glycogen phosphorylase BB in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dobric, Milan; Ostojic, Miodrag; Giga, Vojislav; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Stepanovic, Jelena; Radovanovic, Nebojsa; Beleslin, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Early experimental and clinical reports on glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) kinetics following myocardial ischemic injury suggested that it could be a useful diagnostic marker for early detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After more than two decades of investigation, there is now overwhelming body of evidence that do not support the use of GPBB measurement in diagnosis of acute AMI in patients presenting with acute chest pain. Currently, GPBB cannot be recommended as a diagnostic marker of AMI either as a stand-alone test or as an addition to (high-sensitive) troponin testing. It should be noted that these considerations apply to the early diagnosis of AMI, not to the prognostic stratification, which is also suggested but it warrants further investigation. The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence of GPBB measurement in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. When heart goes “BOOM” to fast. Heart rate greater than 80 as mortality predictor in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan; Dimitijevic, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Janicijevic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Many prospective studies established association between high heart rate and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors. Heart rate over 80 beats per minute more often leads to atherosclerotic plaque disruption, the main step in developing acute coronary syndrome. Purpose was to investigate the incidence of higher heart rate levels in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation and the influence of heart rate on mortality. Research included 140 patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac in the period from January 2001-June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission. Other risk factors were also followed to determine their connection with elevated heart rate. Results showed that the majority of patients survived (over 70%). In a total number of patients, more than 75% had a heart rate levels greater than 80 beats per minute. There was a significant difference in heart rate on addmision between survivors and patients who died, with a greater levels in patients with fatal outcome. Both, univariate and multivariate regression analysis singled out heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute as independent mortality predictor in these patients. Heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute is a major, independent risk factor for morbidity and important predictor of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23991346

  1. Pharmacological prevention of reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction. A potential role for adenosine as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Miguel; Kahan, Thomas; Hjemdahl, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The concept of reperfusion injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Although the pathophysiology of reperfusion injury is complex, the major role that neutrophils play in this process is well known. Neutrophils generate free radicals, degranulation products, arachidonic acid metabolites and platelet-activating factors that interact with endothelial cells, inducing endothelial injury and neutralization of nitrous oxide vasodilator capacity. Adenosine, through its multi-targeted pharmacological actions, is able to inhibit some of the above-mentioned detrimental effects. The net protective of adenosine in in vivo models of reperfusion injury is the reduction of the infarct size, the improvement of the regional myocardial blood flow and of the regional function of the ischemic area. Additionally, adenosine preserves the post-ischemic coronary flow reserve, coronary blood flow and the post-ischemic regional contractility. In small-scale studies in patients with acute MI, treatment with adenosine has been associated with smaller infarcts, less no-reflow phenomenon and improved LV function. During elective PCI adenosine reduced ST segment shifts, lactate production and ischemic symptoms. During the

  2. [Impacts of early metoprolol intervention on connexin 43 and phosphorylated connexin 43 expression in rabbits with experimental myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Lu, Q; Jiang, J Q; Chen, Z N; Gong, Z G; Li, Z G; Fu, W W; Ding, S F

    2017-04-24

    Objective: To investigate the early intervention effects of metoprolol on connexin 43(Cx43) and phosphorylated Cx43 (p-Cx43) expression in rabbits with post myocardial infarction. Methods: A total of 24 adult male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into sham group ( n =6), early treatment group( n =6), routine treatment group( n =6), and myocardial infarction group( n =6) with a randomized block design blocked by weight. Myocardial infarction was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation. Rabbits in sham group received similar surgical procedure without LAD ligation. Metoprolol (12.5 mg/kg dissolved in 2 ml distilled water) was applied to rabbits in early treatment group and routine treatment group per gavage immediately after recovery from anesthesia and at 24 hours after myocardial infarction, respectively, then treated daily for 40 days. Rabbits in sham group and myocardial infarction group received 2 ml distilled water per gavage daily for 40 days. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) level were detected by automatic biochemistry analyzer after 6 hours in all rabbits. Ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was measured in vivo by bipolar pacing electrodes at 40 days. Cx43 and p-Cx43 distribution in ventricular tissue was detected by immunofluorescence analyses. Cx43 and p-Cx43 protein level in ventricular tissue was determined by Western blot. Results: (1) Plasma LDH ((851.7±85.9)U/L vs. (332.3±39.6)U/L, P <0.01) and CK ((1 192.7±105.3)U/L vs. (462.3±65.6)U/L, P <0.01) were significantly higher in myocardial infarction group than in sham group (both P <0.01). (2) VFT was significantly lower in myocardial infarction group than that in sham group ((470.0±91.0) beats per minute vs. (683.3±60.9) beats per minute, P <0.05), and VFT was significantly higher in early treatment group ((633.3±43.2) beats per minute) and routine treatment group ((645.0±30.8) beats per minute) than in the myocardial infarction

  3. A Framework for Image-Based Modeling of Acute Myocardial Ischemia Using Intramurally Recorded Extracellular Potentials.

    PubMed

    Burton, Brett M; Aras, Kedar K; Good, Wilson W; Tate, Jess D; Zenger, Brian; MacLeod, Rob S

    2018-05-21

    The biophysical basis for electrocardiographic evaluation of myocardial ischemia stems from the notion that ischemic tissues develop, with relative uniformity, along the endocardial aspects of the heart. These injured regions of subendocardial tissue give rise to intramural currents that lead to ST segment deflections within electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. The concept of subendocardial ischemic regions is often used in clinical practice, providing a simple and intuitive description of ischemic injury; however, such a model grossly oversimplifies the presentation of ischemic disease-inadvertently leading to errors in ECG-based diagnoses. Furthermore, recent experimental studies have brought into question the subendocardial ischemia paradigm suggesting instead a more distributed pattern of tissue injury. These findings come from experiments and so have both the impact and the limitations of measurements from living organisms. Computer models have often been employed to overcome the constraints of experimental approaches and have a robust history in cardiac simulation. To this end, we have developed a computational simulation framework aimed at elucidating the effects of ischemia on measurable cardiac potentials. To validate our framework, we simulated, visualized, and analyzed 226 experimentally derived acute myocardial ischemic events. Simulation outcomes agreed both qualitatively (feature comparison) and quantitatively (correlation, average error, and significance) with experimentally obtained epicardial measurements, particularly under conditions of elevated ischemic stress. Our simulation framework introduces a novel approach to incorporating subject-specific, geometric models and experimental results that are highly resolved in space and time into computational models. We propose this framework as a means to advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ischemic disease while simultaneously putting in place the computational infrastructure

  4. Identifying acute myocardial infarction: effects on treatment and mortality, and implications for National Service Framework audit.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, R J; Lawrance, R A; Dorsch, M F; Das, R; Jackson, B M; Morrell, C; Robinson, M B; Hall, A S

    2003-03-01

    The National Service Framework (NSF) for Coronary Heart Disease requires annual clinical audit of the care of patients with myocardial infarction, with little guidance on how to achieve these standards and monitor practice. To assess which method of identification of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases is most suitable for NSF audit, and to determine the effect of the definition of AMI on the assessment of quality of care. Observational study. Over a 3-month period, 2153 consecutive patients from 20 hospitals across the Yorkshire region, with confirmed AMI, were identified from coronary care registers, biochemistry records and hospital coding systems. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of AMI patient identification using clinical coding, biochemistry and coronary care registers were compared to a 'gold standard' (the combination of all three methods). Of 3685 possible cases of AMI singled out by one or more methods, 2153 patients were identified as having a final diagnosis of AMI. Hospital coding revealed 1668 (77.5%) cases, with a demographic profile similar to that of the total cohort. Secondary preventative measures required for inclusion in NSF were also of broadly similar distribution. The sensitivities and positive predictive values for patient identification were substantially less in the cohorts identified through biochemistry and coronary care unit register. Patients fulfilling WHO criteria (n=1391) had a 30-day mortality of 15.9%, vs. 24.2% for the total cohort. Hospital coding misses a substantial proportion (22.5%) of AMI cases, but without any apparent systematic bias, and thus provides a suitably representative and robust basis for NSF-related audit. Better still would be the routine use of multiple methods of case identification.

  5. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography prognostic parameters in patients after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Haberka, Maciej; Liszka, Jerzy; Kozyra, Andrzej; Finik, Maciej; Gąsior, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the left ventricle (LV) function with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and to assess its relation to prognosis in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixty-three patients (F/M = 16/47 pts; 62.33 ± 11.85 years old) with AMI (NSTEMI/STEMI 24/39 pts) and successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction; TIMI 3 flow) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent baseline two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and STE 3 days (baseline) and 30 days after PCI. All patients were followed up for cardiovascular clinical endpoints, major adverse cardiovascular endpoint (MACE), and functional status (Canadian Cardiovascular Society and New York Heart Association). During the follow-up (31.9 ± 5.1 months), there were 3 cardiovascular deaths, 15 patients had AMI, 2 patients had cerebral infarction, 24 patients reached the MACE. Baseline LV torsion (P = 0.035), but none of the other strain parameters were associated with the time to first unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization. Univariate analysis showed that baseline longitudinal two-chamber and four-chamber strain (sLa2 0 and sLa4 0) and the same parameters obtained 30 days after the AMI together with transverse four-chamber strain (sLa2 30, sLa4 30, and sTa4 30) were significantly associated with combined endpoint (MACE). The strongest association in the univariate analysis was found for the baseline sLa2. However, in multivariable analysis only a left ventricular remodeling (LVR - 27% pts) was significantly associated with MACE and strain parameters were not associated with the combined endpoint. The assessment of LV function with STE may improve cardiovascular risk prediction in postmyocardial infarction patients. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Patient satisfaction with treatment after acute myocardial infarction: role of psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Barry, Lisa C; Lichtman, Judith H; Spertus, John A; Rumsfeld, John S; Vaccarino, Viola; Jones, Philip G; Plomondon, Mary E; Parashar, Susmita; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2007-01-01

    To determine if psychosocial status influences treatment satisfaction, a quality-of-care indicator, of patients who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Psychosocial variables (social support, dispositional optimism, and depression) were assessed in 1847 AMI patients who completed a 1-month assessment in Prospective Registry Evaluating Myocardial Infarction: Events and Recovery (PREMIER), a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Patients' treatment satisfaction was determined using the Treatment Satisfaction scale of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The association between psychosocial variables and treatment satisfaction-adjusted for site, sociodemographics, medical history, clinical presentation, and treatment procedures-was evaluated using a censored normal model. Study participants were primarily white (77.6%) and male (68.8%), with a mean age of 60.6 +/- 12.7 (SD) years. Satisfaction with posthospitalization treatment following AMI increased as social support (Wald chi(2) = 35.02, p < .001) and dispositional optimism (beta = 1.42; 95% CI 0.24, 2.60) increased. Participants with mild (-3.10, 95% CI -5.77, -0.44), moderate (-4.77, 95% CI -8.16, -1.38), moderately severe (-8.49, 95% CI -13.47, -3.52), and severe (-11.65, 95% CI -18.77, -4.53) depression had significantly worse treatment satisfaction compared with the nondepressed participants. Assessing psychosocial variables, such as social support, dispositional optimism, and depression severity before hospital discharge, may indicate who is likely to be more satisfied with posthospitalization cardiac care 1 month following AMI. Without controlling for psychosocial status, treatment satisfaction may be a biased indicator of quality. Future studies should evaluate whether psychosocial intervention after AMI can improve satisfaction.

  7. Patients' views of consent in clinical trials for acute myocardial infarction: impact of trial design.

    PubMed

    Dickert, Neal W; Hendershot, Kristopher A; Speight, Candace D; Fehr, Alexandra E

    2017-08-01

    Seeking prospective informed consent is difficult in clinical trials for emergent conditions such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Prior data suggest that enrolment decisions of patients are often poorly informed in AMI trials but that patients prefer to be asked permission before enrolment. It is unknown whether this is true across trial designs or in comparative effectiveness research (CER) with approved treatments. Structured interviews were conducted with 30 patients with AMI. Participants considered three scenarios: (1) a CER trial of approved antiplatelet drugs; (2) a placebo-controlled trial of a novel drug to reduce myocardial injury and (3) a CER trial of an intra-aortic balloon pump versus medication. Participants were asked their desired involvement in enrolment decisions and willingness to participate. Descriptive analysis was performed of Likert scale data, and qualitative descriptive analysis was performed of textual data. Across scenarios, most participants (73%-80%) preferred to be asked permission prior to trial enrolment. Reasons for involvement included wanting to be the decision maker and a desire for transparency. Willingness to enrol was affected by trial type. Fewer participants stated they would likely enrol in a CER procedural trial than in a CER trial of approved medications (p=0.012). These findings suggest that patients prefer prospective involvement in enrolment decisions to enrolment without consent across trial types. However, their desire to participate was affected by trial type. There is a need to develop and evaluate context-sensitive approaches to consent in AMI trials that account for both the acuity of the situation and trial characteristics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Electrocardiographic infarct size assessment after thrombolysis: insights from the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial.

    PubMed

    Barbagelata, Alejandro; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Califf, Robert M; Garg, Jyotsna; Birnbaum, Yochai; Grinfeld, Liliana; Gibbons, Raymond J; Granger, Christopher B; Goodman, Shaun G; Wagner, Galen S; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2005-10-01

    Noninvasive methods are needed to evaluate reperfusion success in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The AMISTAD trial was analyzed to compare MI size and myocardial salvage determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) with technetium Tc 99m sestamibi single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging. Of 236 patients enrolled in AMISTAD, 166 (70 %) with no ECG confounding factors and no prior MI were included in this analysis. Of these, group 1 (126 patients, 53%) had final infarct size (FIS) available by both ECG and SPECT. Group 2 (56 patients, 24%) had myocardium at risk, FIS, and salvage index (SI) assessed by both SPECT and ECG techniques. Aldrich/Clemmensen scores for myocardium at risk and the Selvester QRS score for final MI size were used. Salvage index was calculated as follows: SI = (myocardium at risk-FIS)/(myocardium at risk). In group 1, FIS was 15% (6, 24) as measured by ECG and 11% (2, 27) as measured by SPECT. In the adenosine group, FIS was 12% (6, 21) and 11% (2, 22). In the placebo group, FIS was 16.5% (7.5, 24) and 11.5% (3.0, 38.5) by ECG and SPECT, respectively. The overall correlation between SPECT and ECG for FIS was 0.58 (P = .0001): 0.60 in the placebo group (P = .0001) and 0.54 (P = .0001) in the adenosine group. In group 2, myocardium at risk was 23% (17, 30) and 26% (10, 50) with ECG and SPECT, respectively (P = .0066). Final infarct size was 17% (6, 21) and 12% (1, 24) (P < .0001). The SI was 29% (-7, 57) and 46% (15, 79) with ECG and SPECT, respectively (P = .0510). The ECG measurement of infarct size has a moderate relationship with SPECT infarct size measurements in the population with available assessments. This ECG algorithm must further be validated on clinical outcomes.

  9. Allogenic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has a therapeutic effect in acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Yukiko; Saito, Atsuhiro; Komoda, Hiroshi; Kitagawa-Sakakida, Satoru; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Kondoh, Haruhiko; Ichikawa, Hajime; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2008-04-01

    The goal of the study was to examine if allogenic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a useful therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Buffer (control; group C, n=41), MSCs of male ACI rats (allogenic; group A, n=38, 5 x 10(6)), or MSCs of male LEW rats (syngenic; group S, n=40, 5 x 10(6)) were injected into the scar 15 min after myocardial infarction in female LEW rats. After 28 days, fractional left ventricular shortening significantly increased in groups A (21.3+/-1.7%, P=0.0467) and S (23.2+/-1.9%, P=0.0140), compared to group C (17.1+/-0.9%). Fibrosis in groups A and S was significantly lower. Quantitative PCR of the male-specific sry gene showed disappearance of donor cells within 28 days (5195+/-1975 cells). Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by MSCs was enhanced under hypoxic conditions in vitro. In groups A and S, the plasma VEGF concentration, VEGF level, and capillary density in recipient hearts increased after 28 days. Flow cytometry revealed the absence of B7 signal molecules on MSCs. A mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that ACI MSCs failed to stimulate proliferation of LEW lymphocytes. After 1 day after cell transplantation, transient increases in interleukin-1 beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in recipient hearts were enhanced in group A, with macrophage infiltration at the injection site. T cells remained at the level of normal tissue in all groups. We conclude that allogenic MSC transplantation therapy is useful for AMI. The donor MSCs disappear rapidly, but become a trigger of VEGF paracrine effect, without induction of immune rejection.

  10. Prehospital delay and independent/interdependent construal of self among Japanese patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Dracup, Kathleen; Rankin, Sally H; Froelicher, Erika Sivarajan; Kobayashi, Fumio; Hirayama, Haro; Ohno, Miyoshi; Matsumoto, David

    2005-05-01

    Reducing the time from symptom onset to reperfusion therapy is an important approach to minimizing myocardial damage and to preventing death from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous studies suggest that certain ethnic or national groups, such as the Japanese, are more likely to delay in accessing care than other groups. The aims of this paper were the following; (1) to examine whether culture (defined as independent and int