Glover, Elbert D.; And Others
Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)
Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A
Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sheftall, Arielle H.; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Campo, John V.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide in elementary school–aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school–aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. METHODS: We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5–11 years and 12–14 years) were conducted by using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school–aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. PMID:27647716
Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.
Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…
Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai
Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may
Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael
Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077
Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.
A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…
James, Michael A.
Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)
Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine
Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.
Campbell, Ian G; Burright, Christopher S; Kraus, Amanda M; Grimm, Kevin J; Feinberg, Irwin
Daytime sleepiness increases across adolescence. This increase is commonly attributed to insufficient sleep durations resulting from increasingly limited time in bed. We tested the effects of 3 sleep schedules on daytime sleepiness and whether these effects changed with age in early adolescence. In 77 children ranging in age from 9.9 to 14 years, objective (multiple sleep latency test [MSLT]) and subjective (Karolinska sleepiness scale [KSS]) sleepiness was measured following 4 consecutive nights of either 7, 8.5, or 10 hours in bed. All participants completed all 3 sleep schedules. The order in which they completed the schedules was not randomized but was accounted for in all statistical analyses. Time in bed restriction decreased sleep duration and increased objective and subjective daytime sleepiness. Although the sleep durations did not change with age, the likelihood of falling asleep during the MSLT increased with age. Nevertheless, sleep restriction produced a greater increase in MSLT-measured sleepiness in younger participants. Subjective sleepiness measured with the KSS increased with shorter sleep duration, but this effect did not change with age. Increasing objective daytime sleepiness in early adolescence cannot simply be attributed to reduced sleep due to restricted sleep schedules. We propose that some of the increased daytime sleepiness of adolescents is a consequence of adolescent brain reorganization driven by synaptic pruning which decreases the intensity of waking brain activity. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J
The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.
Harris, Mathew A.; Cox, Simon R.; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.
Abstract The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood – as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability – upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies. PMID:28140738
Lucky, A W; Biro, F M; Huster, G A; Morrison, J A; Elder, N
To assess the prevalence and severity of acne vulgaris in young adolescent boys, we studied 219 black and 249 white boys in fifth through ninth grades in Cincinnati, Ohio. The mean age was 12.2 +/- 1.4 years, with a range of 9 to 15 years. Pubertal maturation was scored as Tanner pubic hair stages (PH I to V) and pubertal stages (PS I to IV) that included testicular volume assessment. Acne was scored by number of comedonal (open plus closed comedones) and inflammatory (papules plus pustules) lesions. Comedonal and inflammatory lesions were analyzed separately and evaluated both as numerical scores and as grades (1, less than or equal to 10 lesions; 2, 11 to 25 lesions; and 3, greater than or equal to 26 lesions). Grades 2 and 3 were considered clinically significant acne. Acne became progressively more severe with advancing maturity. Mean acne scores correlated better with PS and pubic hair than with age. Black subjects were more mature than white subjects. Black boys in PSI and II had significantly more comedones than white boys; white boys had significantly more inflammatory lesions at PS I and III. Clinically significant comedonal acne was already present in PS I and occurred in 100% of boys in PS IV. In contrast, no boys at PS I and only 50% at PS IV had significant inflammatory acne. Midfacial acne dominated. We concluded that acne prevalence and severity correlate well with advancing pubertal maturation in young adolescent boys. Comedonal acne was more frequent and severe than inflammatory disease. Awareness of the extent and severity of acne in preadolescents and young adolescents may ultimately provide rationale for early intervention and thus prevention of severe acne vulgaris.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle
To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Nationally representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/2007 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n = 33,092) and the 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n = 27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16 years) self-reported age at sexual initiation, which we defined as early (<15 years) or not early (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR .60, 95% CI .45-.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65 years) norms (AOR .37, 95% CI .23-.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20 years) norms (AOR .60, 95% CI .49-.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR .68, 95% CI .46-.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR .66, 95% CI .45-.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys' ESI. Macrolevel cultural norms may impact adolescents' sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and…
Young, Maria-Elena D; Deardorff, Julianna; Ozer, Emily; Lahiff, Maureen
This clinic- and community-based study of young women investigated the relationship between previous sexual abuse and early pregnancy, examining the effect of the developmental period in which sexual abuse occurred and type of sexual abuse, while also providing methodological advances in the assessment of distinctive sexual abuse and its sequelae. Secondary data analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was conducted to determine the association between sexual abuse in childhood, in adolescence, or both, and risk of early pregnancy among 1,790 young women. In addition, this study examined the type of sexual abuse that occurred during each period. As compared with women with no history of sexual abuse, women who experienced sexual abuse only in childhood had a 20% greater hazard of pregnancy; women who experienced sexual abuse only in adolescence had a 30% greater hazard of pregnancy; and women who experienced sexual abuse in both childhood and adolescence had an 80% greater hazard of pregnancy. Across these periods, attempted rape and rape were associated with an increased hazard of pregnancy. The association between sexual abuse and pregnancy was mediated by age at first intercourse and moderated by a woman's education level. This study provides evidence that both the developmental timing and the type of sexual abuse contributes to an increased risk for early pregnancy. The study findings indicate that sexual abuse leads to an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, which in turn increases the likelihood of an early pregnancy. Women with higher educational attainment are less likely to experience early pregnancy as a result of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…
Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C
This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.
Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin
Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847
Patalay, Praveetha; Belsky, Jay; Fonagy, Peter; Vostanis, Panos; Humphrey, Neil; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
Although extensive evidence indicates that being younger within a school cohort is associated with poorer academic functioning, much less is known about such relative age effects (RAEs) for mental health--the focus of the current investigation. Data from 23,379 11- to 13-year-olds attending state-maintained secondary schools in England were analyzed to investigate RAEs on mental health measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Participants were grouped into oldest, middle, and youngest thirds of their academic year based on their month of birth relative to their cohort. Hierarchical linear regression analysis evaluated RAEs and gender- or deprivation-related moderation of such effects. Relatively younger adolescents had significantly more emotional symptoms and peer problems compared with relatively older individuals in a year group, although effect sizes were small. These effects were not moderated by gender or deprivation. Impact of mental health difficulties on other aspects of functioning was also greater among relatively younger children. Larger RAEs are observed in the younger cohort (11-12 years) compared with those in the 12- to 13-year-olds, thereby indicating that RAEs might attenuate with age. Being relatively younger than classmates is associated with increased internalizing symptoms, poorer peer relationships, and higher impact of mental health difficulties on functioning at school and home. The findings support wider inclusion of relative age in understanding mental health difficulties and its inclusion as a potential risk factor in studies investigating the development of psychopathology, especially for internalizing symptoms. Possible mechanisms of the effects detected are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael
Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…
Woon, Fui Chee; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
This paper investigates the association between behavioural factors and BMI-for-age among early adolescents (10-11 years old) in Hulu Langat district, Selangor. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 333 primary school students. Body weight and height of the students were measured and their BMI-for-age was calculated. Eating behaviours, energy intake, energy expenditure, physical activity, and screen time were assessed using the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire and a 2-day dietary and physical activity recall, respectively. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (28.2%) was about twice the prevalence of thinness (11.1%). The mean energy intake and energy expenditure of the students was 1772±441kcal/day and 1705±331kcal/day, respectively. Three in five of the students (60.1%) skipped at least one meal and 98.2% snacked between meals daily. A majority of them (55.3%) were sedentary. Low energy intake (p<0.05) and low energy expenditure (p<0.05) were associated with high BMI-for-age. Energy expenditure (β=-0.033) and energy intake (β=-0.090) significantly explained 65.1% of the variances in BMI-for-age (F=119.170, p<0.05). These findings suggested that promoting healthy eating and active lifestyle should be targeted in the prevention and management of obesity among early adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Papini, Dennis R.; And Others
This study explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends. An additional purpose was to describe how familial and individual developmental characteristics influence patterns of adolescent emotional disclosure. The sample consisted of 174 junior high school students between 12 and 15…
Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included…
Poulsen, Catherine; Picton, Terence W.; Paus, Tomas
Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize…
Kaplan, Deborah L.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina B.
Background: Early sex is associated with high-risk behaviors and outcomes, including sexual risk behaviors, forced sex, physical dating violence, and becoming pregnant or impregnating someone. Methods: Using 2005 and 2007 data from the New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 17,220), this study examined the prevalence of early sex among…
Luby, Joan L.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; April, Laura M.; Belden, Andy C.
Background Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form of depression arising between the ages of 3–6, has demonstrated numerous features of validity including characteristic alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. Notably, this validated syndrome with multiple clinical markers is characterized by sub-threshold DSM Major Depressive Disorder criteria, raising questions about its clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public health significance of the preschool-onset depression construct, diagnostic outcomes of this group at school age and adolescence were investigated. Methods We investigated the likelihood of meeting full DSM Major Depressive Disorder criteria in later childhood (i.e., ≥ age 6) as a function of preschool depression, other preschool Axis I disorders, maternal depression, parenting non-support and traumatic life events in a longitudinal prospective study of preschool children. Results Preschool-onset depression emerged as a robust predictor of DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal depression and other risk factors. Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood, but this association was partially mediated by maternal non-support, reducing the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting DSM depression by 21%. Discussion Study findings provide evidence that this preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for meeting full DSM criteria for Major Depressive Disorder in later childhood over and above other established risk factors. Preschool conduct disorder also predicted Major Depressive Disorder but was mediated by maternal non-support. Findings suggest that attention to preschool depression and conduct disorder in addition to maternal depression and exposure to trauma should now become an important factor for identification of young children at highest risk for later MDD who should
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.
Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838
Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene
Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…
Demetriou, A; Efklides, A
According to experiential structuralism, thought abilities have six capacity spheres: experimental, propositional, quantitative, imaginal, qualitative, and metacognitive. The first five are applied to the environment. The metacognitive capacity is applied to the others, serving as the interface between reality and the cognitive system or between any of the other capacities. To test this postulate, 648 subjects aged 12 to 40 years, solved eight tasks that were addressed, in pairs, to the first four capacity spheres. One of the tasks in each pair tapped the first and the other the third formal level of the sphere. Having solved the tasks, the subjects were required to rate each pair of tasks in terms of similarity of operations, difficulty, and success of solution. Factor analysis of difficulty and success evaluation scores revealed the same capacity-specific factors as the analysis of performance scores. Factor analysis of similarity scores differentiated between same- and different-sphere pairs. Analysis of variance showed that difficulty and success evaluation scores preserved performance differences between the first and the third formal tasks. Cognitive level, age, socioeconomic status, and sex were related to the metacognitive measures in ways similar to their relations to performance measures. These findings were integrated into a model aimed at capturing real-time metacognitive functioning.
Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke
This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248
Morokuma, Yoko; Endo, Kaori; Nishida, Atushi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Morimoto, Yuko; Nakanishi, Miharu; Okazaki, Yuji; Furukawa, Toshi A; Morinobu, Shigeru; Shimodera, Shinji
Women have higher rates of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) than men; however, less is known about sex differences in the prevalence of AVH in early, middle and late adolescence. We sought to elucidate the differences in the prevalence of AVH and to examine the degree to which these differences could be explained by differences in levels of depressive symptoms. We used a cross-sectional design and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were recruited from public junior and senior high schools in Tsu, Mie Prefecture and Kochi Prefecture, Japan. In total, 19 436 students were contacted and 18 250 participated. Responses from 17 451 students with no missing data were analysed (aged 12-18 years, M age =15.2 years (SD=1.7), 50.6% girls). AVH were assessed through one of four items adopted from the schizophrenia section of the Japanese version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The prevalence of AVH was 7.0% among early adolescents (aged 12-13 years), 6.2% among middle adolescents (aged 14-15 years) and 4.8% among late adolescents (aged 16-18 years). Being female was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of AVH through adolescence (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.23 in early adolescence; OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76 in middle adolescence; OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.87 in late adolescence); however, these differences became non-significant after adjusting for depressive symptoms (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.60; OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.25; OR=1.16, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.44, respectively). Sex differences in auditory hallucinations are seen in both adult and youth populations. The higher rates of auditory verbal hallucinations seen in girls may be secondary to the differences in the rate of depressive symptoms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is
Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.
Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…
Mok, Pearl L H; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny; Webb, Roger T
Psychiatric illness, substance misuse, suicidality, criminality and premature death represent major public health challenges that afflict a sizeable proportion of young people. However, studies of multiple adverse outcomes in the same cohort at risk are rare. In a national Danish cohort we estimated sex- and age-specific incidence rates and absolute risks of these outcomes between adolescence and early middle age. Using interlinked registers, persons born in Denmark 1966-1996 were followed from their 15(th) until 40(th) birthday or December 2011 (N = 2,070,904). We estimated sex- and age-specific incidence rates of nine adverse outcomes, in three main categories: Premature mortality (all-causes, suicide, accident); Psychiatric morbidity (any mental illness diagnosis, suicide attempt, alcohol or drug misuse disorder); Criminality (violent offending, receiving custodial sentence, driving under influence of alcohol or drugs). Cumulative incidences were also calculated using competing risk survival analyses. For cohort members alive on their 15(th) birthday, the absolute risks of dying by age 40 were 1.99 % for males [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.95-2.03 %] and 0.85 % for females (95 % CI 0.83-0.88 %). The risks of substance misuse and criminality were also much higher for males, especially younger males, than for females. Specifically, the risk of a first conviction for a violent offence was highest amongst males aged below 20. Females, however, were more likely than males to have a hospital-treated psychiatric disorder. By age 40, 13.25 % of females (95 % CI 13.16-13.33 %) and 9.98 % of males (95 % CI 9.91-10.06 %) had been treated. Women aged below 25 were also more likely than men to first attempt suicide, but this pattern was reversed beyond this age. The greatest gender differentials in incidence rates were in criminality outcomes. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the incidence rates and absolute risks of these multiple adverse outcomes
Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Díaz, Marta; Marcos, Maria Victoria; de Zegher, Francis
Girls with a combined history of low(-normal) birth weight (LBW) and precocious pubarche (PP) are at high risk to develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to compare the capacity of early vs. late metformin treatment to prevent adolescent PCOS. This was a randomized, open-label study over 7 yr. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Thirty-eight LBW-PP girls were followed up from the mean age 8 until age 15 yr. Early metformin (study yr 1-4; age 8-12 yr) vs. late metformin (yr 6; age 13-14 yr). Measures included height; weight; hirsutism score; menstrual cycle; endocrine-metabolic screening (fasting; follicular phase); C-reactive protein; body composition (absorptiometry); abdominal fat partitioning (magnetic resonance imaging); ovarian morphology (ultrasound); PCOS (National Institutes of Health and Androgen Excess Society definitions) after yr 7 (all girls thus untreated for at least 1 yr). None of the girls dropped out of the study. At age 15 yr, early-metformin girls were taller (4 cm), were in a less proinflammatory state, and had less central fat due to reductions in visceral and hepatic fat. Hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS were between 2- and 8-fold more prevalent in late- than early-treated girls. Abdominal adiposity was the first variable to diverge (at age 8-10 yr) between girls without vs. with PCOS at age 15 yr. In LBW-PP girls, early metformin therapy was found to prevent or delay the development of hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS more effectively than late metformin. The time window of late childhood and early puberty may be more critical for the development, and thus for the prevention, of adolescent PCOS than the first years beyond menarche.
Shoemaker, Kylea K.
Early adolescence includes youth approximately 11-14 years of age. This age group represents a population open to learning more information about sexuality and signifies a developmental period where effective sexuality interventions may begin (Ott & Pfieffer, 2009; Grossman et al., 2014). Early adolescence is a critical period when…
Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette
Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.
Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L
Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…
Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny
Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wen-Xiu; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Fu-Gong; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia; Chou, Yu-Ching
The present study aims to investigate the onset of dementia conditions using the Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID) scale and to identify the possible factors associated with DSQIID scores in people with Down syndrome (DS). The study population was recruited from the voluntary registry members of the Republic of China Foundation for Persons with Down syndrome; primary caregivers provided DSQIID information on 196 adolescents and adults with DS (aged 15-48 years) who were entered into the database and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software. The results described the distribution of early-onset dementia conditions in 53 adolescents and adults with DS, and 2.6% of the subjects with DS had possible dementia (DSQIID score ≧ 20). Univariate analyses found that older age (p=0.001) and comorbid conditions (p=0.003) were significantly associated with DSQIID scores. Older subjects were more likely to have higher DSQIID scores than were younger age groups after ANOVA and Scheffe's tests. Lastly, a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (p<0.01), severe disability level (p<0.05) and comorbid condition (p<0.01) significantly explained 13% of the variation in DSQIID scores after adjusting for the factors of gender, education level and multiple disabilities in adolescents and adults with DS. The study highlights that future research should focus on the occurrence of dementia in people with DS and on identifying its influencing factors based on sound measurements, to initiate appropriate healthy aging policies for this group of people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Addresses the crisis associated with adolescent affective disorders and probes potential genetics, environmental, and physiological factors. Reviews case examples of depression, eating disorders, and suicide among youths. States clinical implications and advocates early diagnosis and treatment. (ML)
Lange, Linda; Bickel, Robert
This paper examines pregnancy in early adolescence, among West Virginia females aged 10-14, as it relates to local economic and social contexts. Although research on adolescent pregnancy is substantial, it is generally limited to the experiences of older adolescents and premised on assumptions of methodological individualism--that the correlates…
Keith, Joanne; And Others
This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…
Increased availability of cell-phones has provided new avenues through which adolescents can bully their peers. Text-bullying is an emerging form of bullying which may threaten the emotional well-being of early adolescents. In this study 565 early adolescents (10-13 years old) completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with bullying…
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…
The need for guidelines for early intervention of children experiencing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) was identified by the Australian Early Intervention Network (AusEinet). This document attempts to guide appropriate practice in the care of children and adolescents with ADHD. The guidelines are designed to provide information…
Russell, Stefanie L; Psoter, Walter J; Jean-Charles, Germain; Prophte, Samuel; Gebrian, Bette
The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to examine whether exposure to early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (ECPEM) is related to worsened periodontal status in the permanent dentition during adolescence. A trained clinician/researcher examined the periodontal status of 96 persons aged 12-19 living in rural Haiti using WHO diagnostic criteria (Community Periodontal Index, WHO 1997). Malnutrition data of the study participants had been collected during the years 1988-1993 by a nongovernmental organization. We compared those who had been malnourished in early childhood, based on z-scores for anthropomorphic data collected during the first 5 years of life, with those who had not been malnourished, regarding mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score, controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking. Overall, 57.3% of the participants demonstrated a CPI score of 3 or greater in at least one sextant. ECPEM was independently and positively related to mean CPI score, when controlling for sex and smoking. More than half of these young Haitians demonstrated CPI scores of 3 or greater, and ECPEM was related to poorer periodontal status, as measured by CPI, in the permanent dentition.
RUSSELL, STEFANIE L.; PSOTER, WALTER J.; JEAN-CHARLES, GERMAIN; PROPHTE, SAMUEL; GEBRIAN, BETTE
Objectives The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to examine whether exposure to early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (ECPEM) is related to worsened periodontal status in the permanent dentition during adolescence. Design A trained clinician/researcher examined the periodontal status of 96 persons aged 12–19 living in rural Haiti using WHO diagnostic criteria (Community Periodontal Index, WHO 1997). Malnutrition data of the study participants had been collected during the years 1988–1993 by a nongovernmental organization. We compared those who had been malnourished in early childhood, based on z-scores for anthropomorphic data collected during the first 5 years of life, with those who had not been malnourished, regarding mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score, controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking. Results Overall, 57.3% of the participants demonstrated a CPI score of 3 or greater in at least one sextant. ECPEM was independently and positively related to mean CPI score, when controlling for sex and smoking. Conclusions More than half of these young Haitians demonstrated CPI scores of 3 or greater, and ECPEM was related to poorer periodontal status, as measured by CPI, in the permanent dentition. PMID:20409204
Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary
Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…
Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.
The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…
Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael
Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…
Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi
The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…
Koppenhave, David; Jacoby, Monica, Ed.
The extent and impact of adolescent illiteracy, brief descriptions of several successful programs designed to combat adolescent illiteracy, and a more detailed description of one of those programs are included in this collection of articles. The first article argues that while experts may disagree about the numbers of illiterate adolescents and…
Baba, Sachiko; Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R
The paper examines recent time trends, explores potentially influential background factors and discusses prevention strategies of pregnancy among girls under 15 years of age in Japan. Using Japanese government data, we first analyzed time trends of early adolescence (<15 years of age) abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse from 2003 to 2010. Second, we analyzed ecological correlations of early adolescent pregnancy (abortion, live birth and stillbirth) with pregnancy in other age groups, child sexual abuse, and indicators of juvenile victimization and juvenile delinquency, using prefectural data. We found that rates of both abortion and live birth in early adolescents have increased since 2005 (annual percent change 5.3% and 2.3%, respectively), despite declining rates in older age groups. The abortion ratio in early adolescence remained the highest among all age groups in Japan. The early adolescent pregnancy rate showed significant correlation with the rates of juvenile victimization of welfare crimes (obscenity, alcohol drinking, smoking and drug use) (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.42, P = 0.00) and juvenile delinquency among junior high school students (12-14 years of age) (rs = 0.69, P = 0.00). The observed rise in rates of abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse among early adolescents along with strong ecological correlations of their pregnancy rate with juvenile victimization and delinquency indicators suggests that epidemiological investigation and public health programs at the individual and community levels are needed to address the complex social roots of these trends and to produce effective improvements in early adolescent reproductive health. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Marsh, Penny; Allen, Joseph P.; Ho, Martin; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, F. Christy
Although success in managing evolving peer relationships is linked to critical adolescent outcomes, little is known about the specific factors that lead to success or failure in peer relationship development across adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the role of adolescents’ level of ego development as a predictor of the future course of several facets of friendship development in early adolescence. Ego development was assessed in a community sample of adolescents at age 13. Several facets of adolescent friendship were also assessed at 13 and then reassessed 1 year later, including adolescent intimate behavior during a supportive interaction with their best friends, adolescent reports of psychological security in their friendships, and peer-rated popularity. As predicted, ego development not only explained concurrent levels of peer functioning but also predicted markers of change over time in each of the assessed domains of peer functioning. Implications for ego development in increasing our understanding of individual differences in adolescent friendship development are discussed. PMID:18548124
What are the common types of social goals endorsed by early adolescents and how are they related to their school adjustment? This article discusses the importance of assessing students' social goals during the early adolescent developmental period when peers become increasingly important and youth experience tremendous changes to the school…
Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L.; Gale, Catharine R.; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus
We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13–15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60–64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control (p < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother’s neuroticism and study member’s personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother–child and father–child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being. PMID:27019664
Borrás Santiesteban, Tania
Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…
Lawford, Heather L; Doyle, Anna-Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy
Generativity, defined as concern for future generations, is theorized to become a priority in midlife, preceded by a stage in which intimacy is the central issue. Recent research, however, has found evidence of generativity even in adolescence. This longitudinal study explored the associations between caregiving in friendships, closely related to intimacy, and early generative concern in a young adolescent sample. Given the importance of close friendships in adolescence, it was hypothesized that responsive caregiving in early adolescent friendships would predict later generative concern. Approximately 140 adolescents (56 % female, aged 14 at Time 1) completed questionnaires regarding generative concern and responsive caregiving with friends yearly across 2 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that caregiving predicted generative concern 1 year later but generative concern did not predict later caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving in close friendships plays an important role in the development of adolescents' motivation to contribute to future generations.
Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura
The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.
Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.
This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…
Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie
Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.
Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.
The "Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale" (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents…
Anderman, Eric M.; And Others
Why do some adolescents cheat and others do not? To answer this question, the relationship between motivational factors and self-reported cheating beliefs and behaviors was examined in a sample of early adolescents. It was hypothesized that cheating and beliefs in the acceptability of cheating would be more likely to occur when students perceived…
Manning, M. Lee
Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…
Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis
This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…
Steitz, Jean A.; Verner, Betty S.
Increasing the amount of contact with older persons is often proposed as a way to inform young people about aging. This study compared adolescents' knowledge of aging with the amount and quality of contact they had with an older person and compared knowledge of aging in a 1978 sample of adolescents with knowledge in a 1985 sample. For the 1985…
Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p < .01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES = -.30, p < .01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES = -.17, p < .05), and simple phobia (ES = -.17, p < .05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p < .05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wartberg, L; Kriston, L; Kramer, M; Schwedler, A; Lincoln, T M; Kammerl, R
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Currently, associations between IGD in early adolescence and mental health are largely unexplained. In the present study, the relation of IGD with adolescent and parental mental health was investigated for the first time. We surveyed 1095 family dyads (an adolescent aged 12-14 years and a related parent) with a standardized questionnaire for IGD as well as for adolescent and parental mental health. We conducted linear (dimensional approach) and logistic (categorical approach) regression analyses. Both with dimensional and categorical approaches, we observed statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher degree of adolescent antisocial behavior, anger control problems, emotional distress, self-esteem problems, hyperactivity/inattention and parental anxiety (linear regression model: corrected R 2 =0.41, logistic regression model: Nagelkerke's R 2 =0.41). IGD appears to be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Moreover, the findings of the present study provide first evidence that not only adolescent but also parental mental health is relevant to IGD in early adolescence. Adolescent and parental mental health should be considered in prevention and intervention programs for IGD in adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. In the current study, we examine the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported dieting at age 14. Participants were 130 firstborn European American adolescents (40% girls). Adolescents who were less satisfied with their appearance at age 10 reported declines in self-esteem from age 10 to age 14. Adolescents with lower global self-esteem at age 10 did not decline in appearance satisfaction. Girls, adolescents with higher BMI scores at age 10, and adolescents who were less satisfied with their appearance at age 14 all reported more frequent dieting at age 14. Implications for etiological and intervention models of eating problems in adolescence are considered. PMID:23155302
Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N
The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, p<0.01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES=−0.30, p<0.01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES=−0.17, p<0.05), and simple phobia (ES=−0.17, p<0.05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, p<0.05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133
McGuire, Sandra L.
Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899
Leszczynski, Jennifer Pickard; Strough, JoNell
Using a social constructionist perspective, we investigated the flexibility of early adolescents' (N = 80, 40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 13.14; SD = 0.65) masculinity and femininity as a function of the interpersonal context (same- or other-sex partner) and situational demands (co-operation or competition). Participants played a block-building game…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang
Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko
The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…
Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.
Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136
Rapee, Ronald M.
Background: There are few evaluations of very early intervention for the prevention of internalising disorders and those that exist generally evaluate outcomes to a maximum of 12 months. The current study evaluated the very long term effects (11 years) of a brief internalising prevention program presented to parents of preschool aged children.…
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed
Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed
Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545
Radmacher, Kimberley; Azmitia, Margarita
Two studies addressed age- and gender-related patterns in early adolescents' and emerging adults' conceptions of intimacy in friendships. Forty-one early adolescents and 96 emerging adults in Study 1 and 174 emerging adults in Study 2 described a time when they felt especially close to a friend. Narratives were coded for intimate behaviors and…
Lemola, Sakari; Schwarz, Beate; Siffert, Andrea
We investigated whether (a) short and irregular sleep are related to aggressive behavior in early adolescence and (b) whether they moderate the relation between interparental conflict and aggressive behavior. 176 early adolescents (mean age 11.6 years, 89 girls) reported their bed and wake times on weekdays and on weekends and their aggressive…
Godinho, José; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Ramos, Elisabete
This study aimed to identify socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence. The sample was comprised of 1,680 adolescents (884 girls and 796 boys) aged 13, attending private and public schools in Porto, Portugal, during 2003/2004. Adolescents completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic, social and behavioral characteristics, including the time spent watching television and playing computer games on week and weekend days. Logistic and proportional ordinal regressions showed that attending public schools, sleeping less time, using tobacco and presenting low levels of physical activity were factors associated with high media use. In boys living with one of their parents as well as living with younger and older parents were also associated with high media use. Besides the association with less healthier behaviours, we also found higher media use among adolescents from lower social classes and less structured families, which may increase their exposure to negative influence of the media.
Ralph, Alan; Toumbourou, John Winston; Grigg, Morgen; Mulcahy, Rhiannon; Carr-Gregg, Michael; Sanders, Matthew R.
Parents of 468 children aged between 12 and 14 participated in a survey of early adolescent behavior. Major undesirable behaviors experienced by parents were fighting with siblings, talking back to adults, moodiness, and school difficulties. Findings are discussed in the context of the challenge of designing and delivering effective early…
Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Rutter, Michael
The current study examined the persistence and phenotypic presentation of inattention/overactivity (I/O) into early adolescence, in a sample of institution reared (IR) children adopted from Romania before the age of 43 months. Total sample comprised 144 IR and 21 non-IR Romanian adoptees, and a comparison group of 52 within-UK adoptees, assessed…
Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J
Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franić, Tomislav; Kralj, Zana; Marčinko, Darko; Knez, Rajna; Kardum, Goran
Suicidal ideation and sleep-related problems are associated with many common psychopathological entities in early adolescence. This study examined possible association between suicidal ideation and sleep-related problems. A cross-sectional study was performed in classroom settings at 840 early adolescents 11-13 years of age. Of those, 791 adolescents fully completed the data and thus represent an actual sample. Suicidal ideations were assessed with three dichotomous (yes/no) items: 'I often think about death'; 'I wish I was dead'; 'I often think about suicide.' A composite measure of perceived sleep-related problems was formed by combining items from the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Do you find it hard to sleep at night because you are worrying about things?), Children Depression Inventory (It is hard for me to fall asleep at night), and two additional dichotomous questions (I often was not able to fall asleep because of worrying; At times I was not able to stay asleep because of worrying). This score mainly assessed difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep. A total of 7.1% adolescents reported suicidal ideation and 86.7% of them had sleep problems. Sleep-related problems were associated with any suicidal ideation and each type of ideation separately. This study suggests association of sleep problems and suicidal ideations in early adolescence. Therefore, clinicians should evaluate this population for sleep disturbances, as they might be a marker of increased risk for suicidality. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Stange, Jonathan P.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858
Udry, J. Richard; Billy, John O. G.
White males' initiation of coitus in early adolescence is dominated by motivational hormone effects and social attractiveness. White females' initiation of coitus is dominated by the effects of social controls. Black females' initiation of coitus is dominated by their level of pubertal development, an attractiveness variable. (Author/BJV)
MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.
The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…
Early adolescence can be a challenging time for both children and parents. This booklet is intended to provide parents with the latest research and practical information that can help them support their young teen children at home and in school. Selected subject headings include: (1) Changes; (2) Being an Effective Parent; (3) Communication; (4)…
Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.
This guide is intended to assist teachers in using a life skills approach to introducing early adolescents to the five basic areas of home economics. The following topics are covered in the individual units: life skills in family communication (hearing and listening, speaking, writing, obtaining and responding to feedback, holding a sustained…
Larson, Reed, Ed.; Richards, Maryse, H., Ed.
Eight papers are presented that describe the daily experience of White American children in grades 5 through 9. Each paper examines a segment of daily activity (e.g., schoolwork, talking, sports) and the associated affective states for 401 participants to provide a picture of the life space of early adolescence. (SLD)
This paper highlights the impact of laws and policies on reproductive rights in adolescents and young girls in Mali. The Center for Reproductive Law and the Association of Women Lawyers in the country uncovered several areas of concern on the adolescents in Mali. It was noted that 94% of the women in reproductive age have undergone female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision. According to the report, 34% of the female adolescents have experienced pregnancy despite their knowledge that early pregnancies are critical risk factors in maternal and infant mortality. The adolescent pregnancy is attributed to their law, which permits girls to marry at an early age. Moreover, the low level of knowledge on contraceptives contributed to the increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS infection in the country. Also documented was the outlawing of abortion in Mali and is permitted only when the life of the woman is at risk. Because of this, adolescents flood to illegal abortions, putting themselves at risk of infection and complications. In response to this report, the UN recommended that Mali government should establish strategies against maternal mortality.
de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
The present study was designed to examine early adolescents' stereotypical descriptions of two types of youth who are seen as popular by their peers. Participants were 13- to 14-year-old early adolescents (N = 287). The results indicated that early adolescents distinguished two types of popular peers: a "populistic" (popular but not…
Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William
While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all p<0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3 to 28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all p<0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6 to 13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904
Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William
While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all P < 0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3-28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all P < 0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6-13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gleason, Tracy R.; Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.
Parasocial interactions and relationships, one-sided connections imagined with celebrities and media figures, are common in adolescence and might play a role in adolescent identity formation and autonomy development. We asked 151 early adolescents (Mage = 14.8 years) to identify a famous individual of whom they are fond; we examined the type of celebrities chosen and why they admired them, and the relationships imagined with these figures across the entire sample and by gender. Adolescents emphasized highly salient media figures, such as actors, for parasocial attention. While different categories of celebrities were appreciated equally for their talent and personality, actors/singers were endorsed for their attractiveness more so than other celebrity types. Most adolescents (61.1%) thought of their favorite media figures as relationship partners, and those who did reported more parasocial involvement and emotional intensity than those who did not. Gender differences emerged in that boys chose more athletes than girls and were more likely to imagine celebrities as authority figures or mentors than friends. Celebrities afforded friendship for girls, who overwhelmingly focused on actresses. Hierarchical parasocial relationships may be linked to processes of identity formation as adolescents, particularly boys, imagine media figures as role models. In contrast, egalitarian parasocial relationships might be associated with autonomy development via an imagined affiliation with an attractive and admirable media figure. PMID:28280479
Leopold, Daniel R; Christopher, Micaela E; Olson, Richard K; Petrill, Stephen A; Willcutt, Erik G
A population-based longitudinal sample of 489 twin pairs was assessed at six time points over ten years to examine the measurement invariance and stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the developmental relations between inattention (IN), hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI), and multiple aspects of functional impairment. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and functional impairment were obtained in preschool and after the completion of kindergarten, first, second, fourth, and ninth grades. Results of the temporal and sex invariance models indicated that parent ratings of the 18 ADHD symptoms function in the same manner for females and males from early childhood into adolescence. In addition to establishing this prerequisite condition for the interpretation of longitudinal and between-sex differences in the IN and HI symptom dimensions, cross-lagged models indicated that both IN and HI were associated with increased risk for both concurrent and future overall, social, and recreational impairment, whereas only IN was uniquely associated with later academic impairment. Taken together, the current results demonstrate that IN and HI are highly stable from preschool through ninth grade, invariant between females and males, and indicative of risk for impairment in multiple areas, thereby providing strong support for the validity of the symptom dimensions among both sexes.
Galán, Chardée A; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S
Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood. Controlling for child ethnicity, family income, and child antisocial behavior at age 12, empathy inversely predicted moral disengagement and juvenile petitions for violent crimes, while RHR was unrelated to all measures of violent behavior. Interactive effects were also evident such that among men with lower but not higher levels of RHR, lower empathy predicted increased violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile arrests for violent offenses, peer-reported violent behavior at age 17, self-reported moral disengagement at age 17, and self-reported violent behavior at age 20. Implications for prevention and intervention are considered. Specifically, targeting empathic skills among individuals at risk for violent behavior because of specific psychophysiological profiles may lead to more impactful interventions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth.
Bann, D; Wills, A; Cooper, R; Hardy, R; Aihie Sayer, A; Adams, J; Kuh, D
High birth weight and greater weight gain in infancy have been associated with increased risk of obesity as assessed using body mass index, but few studies have examined associations with direct measures of fat and lean mass. This study examined associations of birth weight and weight and height gain in infancy, childhood and adolescence with fat and lean mass in early old age. A total of 746 men and 812 women in England, Scotland and Wales from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development whose heights and weights had been prospectively ascertained across childhood and adolescence and who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures at age 60-64 years. Associations of birth weight and standardised weight and height (0-2 (weight only), 2-4, 4-7, 7-11, 11-15, 15-20 years) gain velocities with outcome measures were examined. Higher birth weight was associated with higher lean mass and lower android/gynoid ratio at age 60-64 years. For example, the mean difference in lean mass per 1 standard deviation increase in birth weight was 1.54 kg in males (95% confidence interval=1.04, 2.03) and 0.78 kg in females (0.41, 1.14). Greater weight gain in infancy was associated with higher lean mass, whereas greater gains in weight in later childhood and adolescence were associated with higher fat and lean mass, and fat/lean and android/gynoid ratios. Across growth intervals greater height gain was associated with higher lean but not fat mass, and with lower fat/lean and android/gynoid ratios. Findings suggest that growth in early life may have lasting effects on fat and lean mass. Greater weight gain before birth and in infancy may be beneficial by leading to higher lean mass, whereas greater weight gain in later childhood and adolescence may be detrimental by leading to higher fat/lean and android/gynoid ratios.
Background Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Results Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in
Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M
Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention
Veeranki, Sreenivas P; John, Rijo M; Ibrahim, Abdallah; Pillendla, Divya; Thrasher, James F; Owusu, Daniel; Ouma, Ahmed E O; Mamudu, Hadii M
To estimate prevalence and identify correlates of age of smoking initiation among adolescents in Africa. Data (n = 16,519) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in nine West African countries. Study outcome was adolescents' age of smoking initiation categorized into six groups: ≤7, 8 or 9, 10 or 11, 12 or 13, 14 or 15 and never-smoker. Explanatory variables included sex, parental or peer smoking behavior, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and knowledge about smoking harm. Weighted multinomial logit models were conducted to determine correlates associated with adolescents' age of smoking initiation. Age of smoking initiation was as early as ≤7 years; prevalence estimates ranged from 0.7 % in Ghana at 10 or 11 years age to 9.6 % in Cote d'Ivoire at 12 or 13 years age. Males, exposures to parental or peer smoking, and industry promotions were identified as significant correlates. West African policymakers should adopt a preventive approach consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to prevent an adolescent from initiating smoking and developing into future regular smokers.
Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J
Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.
Guyon-Harris, Katherine L; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H
Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) is poorly understood beyond early childhood. The course of DSED signs in a sample of children who experienced severe, early deprivation from early childhood to early adolescence was examined using variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. The study included 124 children with a history of institutional care from a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care and 69 community comparison children matched by age and sex. DSED signs were assessed at baseline (mean age 22 months), 30, 42, and 54 months of age, and 8 and 12 years of age using a validated caregiver report of disturbed attachment behavior. Variable-centered analyses based on intent-to-treat groups indicated that signs of DSED decreased sharply for children randomized to foster care and decreased slightly but remained high for children randomized to care as usual. Person-centered analyses showed 4 profiles (i.e., elevated, persistent modest, early decreasing, and minimal). Elevated and persistent modest courses were associated with greater placement disruptions (F 3,99 = 4.29, p = .007, partial eta-squared [η 2 ] = 0.12), older age at placement into foster care (F 3,56 = 3.41, p < .05, partial η 2 = 0.16), and more time in institutional care (F 3,115 = 11.91, p < .001, partial η 2 = 0.24) compared with decreasing and minimal courses. Early and sustained placement into families after deprivation is associated with minimal or decreasing signs of DSED across development. Shortening the amount of time children spend in institutions and preserving placements could help decrease signs of DSED into early adolescence in previously institutionalized children. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J
To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.
Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François
The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.
Piehler, Timothy F.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.
In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22-23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent…
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.
Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…
Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij
This is a short summary of research on how different stress factors in the work environment (climate, light, noise) affect work performance of early adolescents. Due to the complexity of the measurements, the research consisted of a small sample of male adolescents (N = 20); average age 13.5 years (SD = 0.25). Tasks were used which demanded…
Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam
Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[subscript baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart,…
Yarcheski, Thomas J.; Mahon, Noreen E.; Yarcheski, Adela; Hanks, Michele M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress and wellness in early adolescents and to test primary appraisal as a mediator of this relationship using the Neuman Systems Model as the primary framework. The sample consisted of 144 adolescents, ages 12-14, who responded to instruments measuring perceived stress,…
Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Weeda, Wouter D.; van der Heijden, Lisa L.; Huizinga, Mariëtte
The increasing prevalence of media multitasking among adolescents is concerning because it may be negatively related to goal-directed behavior. This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 523 early adolescents (aged 11-15; 48% girls). The three central components of executive functions (i.e.,…
Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas
This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…
Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven
Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…
Koning, Ina M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
The present study examined the associations of alcohol-specific socialization practices and heavy parental drinking with alcohol use in early adolescents. Cross-sectional nationwide survey data from 2599 parent-adolescent (mean age = 12.16) dyads were used to conduct logistic regression analyses. Onset of alcohol use as well as infrequent and…
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.
In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…
Pedersen, Sara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.
This study used a sample of 551 children surveyed yearly from ages 6 to 13 to examine the longitudinal associations among early behavior, middle-childhood peer rejection and friendedness, and early-adolescent depressive symptoms, loneliness, and delinquency. The study tested a sequential mediation hypothesis in which (a) behavior problems in the…
Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N
Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.
Ma, Cecilia M S; Shek, Daniel T L
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in pornography consumption and related psychosocial correlates (ie, positive youth development qualities and family function) among Hong Kong early adolescents. In this study, adolescent consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3 waves of longitudinal data. A total of 3,325 Secondary 1 students (Grade 7) from 28 schools participated in the study at Wave 1. The mean age of the participants was 12.6 years old (SD = .74). Results showed that the internet was the most common medium for consuming pornography materials. Boys consumed more pornographic materials than did girls. Findings showed that family functioning and positive youth development were negatively associated with consumption of pornographic materials over time. This study highlights the importance of developing adolescents' competencies and establishing an atmosphere that reduces the use of pornographic materials among adolescents. It sheds light on designing early prevention programs on pornography consumption for young people in Hong Kong. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin
Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…
Uçanok, Zehra; Güre, Ays?en
This study primarily aims to explore the association between perceived economic strain, parent-adolescent relational qualities and psychological well-being and to investigate the dyadic parental relationships during early adolescence. A total of 414 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (M= 12.58, SD = 0.90) from three different socioeconomic…
Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, Rene; Mills, Melinda
This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). The results suggest that adolescents…
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan
The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.
Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J
Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahman, M M; Kabir, M
Adolescence is a critical period for female adolescents as they have to make decisions regarding their marriage, education and work which would influence and determine their future course of life. Although, early marriage has negative consequences, still a proportion of female adolescents favour early marriage because of prevailing cultural norms. This paper attempts to investigate the factors influencing the adolescents' attitude towards early marriage among the married and unmarried female adolescents. This is a quantitative and qualitative study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. For quantitative results, data on 3362 female adolescents from rural and urban areas irrespective of their marital status were analyzed. To supplement the results found in quantitative analysis, a series of focus group discussions were conducted among the adolescents. Analysis revealed that one fourth (25.9%) of the adolescents were in favour of early marriage. A number of societal factors influenced them towards early marriage, despite the fact that adolescents are aware of the consequences of maternal and child health. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that current marital status, years of schooling, work status and parental marital decision are important predictors of early marriage (p < 0.05). The study concluded that female education would be an important determinant of adolescent marriage. Therefore, opportunities and scope of education beyond secondary would helps to bring change in the attitude towards early marriage.
Low, K. S. Douglas; Yoon, Mijung; Roberts, Brent W.; Rounds, James
The present meta-analysis examined the stability of vocational interests from early adolescence (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 40). Stability was represented by rank-order and profile correlations. Interest stability remained unchanged during much of adolescence and increased dramatically during the college years (age 18-21.9), where it…
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars
The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.
The focus of this study was social (i.e., family and peer) influences on substance use from early adolescence to early adulthood. A large, ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 998) was followed from age 12 to age 23. We tested direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring, family relationship quality, and association with deviant peers on change in substance use across time. Outcomes for tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were analyzed as separate pathways within the same overall model. The results suggest that a significant shift in the nature of family influence occurred across adolescence and into early adulthood, but deviant peer influence was relatively consistent across this period. Specifically, parental monitoring and deviant peer association were predictive of substance use in early adolescence, but family relationship quality was a significant predictor across the transition to high school and generally continued to predict use into later adolescence, as did association with deviant peers. Deviant peers were the only significant predictor in early adulthood. Our results also suggested that parental monitoring and family relationship quality indirectly predicted later substance use by way of deviant peers, implying that an important aspect of the family context is its influence on choice of friends and peer group composition. Implications for family-based prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:22958864
Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M
INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total
Mason, W Alex; Chmelka, Mary B; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard L
Factors that might exacerbate or mitigate the transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to adolescents and the continuity of depressive symptoms into early adulthood are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission and stability of depressive symptoms would be stronger for girls than boys over adolescence and into early adulthood, while considering the possibility that the pattern of gender moderation might vary depending on parent gender and developmental timing. The participants were 667 rural Midwestern adolescents (52 % female) and their parents. Survey data on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms (at youth age 11) and on adolescent and young adult depressive symptoms (at youth ages 11, 18, and 21) were analyzed via multiple group structural equation modeling. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for girls but not boys, and adolescent depressive symptoms were more stable in girls. Paternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for all youth. The findings suggest the need for early, tailored interventions.
Chmelka, Mary B.; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard L.
Factors that might exacerbate or mitigate the transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to adolescents and the continuity of depressive symptoms into early adulthood are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission and stability of depressive symptoms would be stronger for girls than boys over adolescence and into early adulthood, while considering the possibility that the pattern of gender moderation might vary depending on parent gender and developmental timing. The participants were 667 rural Midwestern adolescents (52 % female) and their parents. Survey data on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms (at youth age 11) and on adolescent and young adult depressive symptoms (at youth ages 11, 18, and 21) were analyzed via multiple group structural equation modeling. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for girls but not boys, and adolescent depressive symptoms were more stable in girls. Paternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for all youth. The findings suggest the need for early, tailored interventions. PMID:27055682
Trekels, Jolien; Eggermont, Steven
Early adolescents (N = 1,591; M age = 11.698; SD = 0.892) participated in a two-wave panel study (6-month interval) to examine the longitudinal association between appearance-focused magazine exposure and social appearance anxiety. We revealed that magazine exposure positively correlated with the internalization of appearance ideals and the attribution of social rewards to attractiveness which, in turn, related to social appearance anxiety. Internalization and attribution of social rewards formed a reinforcing spiral; once internalized, early adolescents associate positive things with appearance ideals (e.g., peer acceptance) and the perception of rewards increases early adolescents' inclination to internalize ideals. Given the adverse consequences of social appearance anxiety, the findings warrant research on the role of media in the occurrence of social appearance anxiety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Pacheco, Lorena Sonia; Blanco, Estela; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy
Introduction Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicators have increased globally among the pediatric population. MetS indicators in the young elevate their risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders later in life. This study examined early onset obesity as a risk factor for MetS risk in adolescence. Methods A cohort of Chilean participants (N = 673) followed from infancy was assessed at age 5 years and in adolescence (mean age, 16.8 y). Adiposity was measured at both time points; blood pressure and fasting blood samples were assessed in adolescence only. Early onset obesity was defined as a World Health Organization z score of 2 standard deviations (SDs) or more for body mass index (BMI) at age 5 years. We used linear regression to examine the association between early onset obesity and adolescent MetS risk z score, adjusting for covariates. Results Eighteen percent of participants had early onset obesity, and 50% of these remained obese in adolescence. Mean MetS risk z score in adolescence was significantly higher among those with early onset obesity than among those without (1.0; SD, 0.8 vs 0.2; SD, 0.8 [P < .001]). In the multivariable model, early onset obesity independently contributed to a higher MetS risk score in adolescence (β = 0.27, P < .001), controlling for obesity status at adolescence and sex, and explained 39% of the variance in MetS risk. Conclusion Early onset obesity as young as age 5 years relates to higher MetS risk. PMID:29023232
Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra
Despite the growing research on emotion regulation, the empirical evidence for normative age-related emotion regulation patterns is rather divergent. From a life-span perspective, normative age changes in emotion regulation may be more salient applying the same methodological approach on a broad age range examining both growth and decline during…
Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan
This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…
Lavallee, Kristen L.; Parker, Jeffrey G.
Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more…
Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene
The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…
Jovanovic, Jasna; And Others
Used data from Pennsylvania Early Adolescent Transitions Study to assess how objective physical attractiveness (PA), indexed by appraisals from others, and subjective PA, indexed by self-appraisals, related to each other and to early adolescent adjustment. Findings indicated low relationship between objective and subjective PA; only subjective PA…
Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit
This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…
Fung, Annis L. C.
Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …
Caissy, Gail A.
Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This fifth chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" looks at the issue of sexual maturation in early adolescence via four articles. "The Counselor's Impact on Middle-Grade Students," by Hershel Thornburg, examines physical, intellectual, and social developmental tasks of early adolescence. "Contraceptive and Sexuality Knowledge…
Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard
Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…
Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Vinelli, Angela; Lazzarin, Gianna; Terraneo, Alberto; Scafato, Emauele; Baldo, Vincenzo
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of energy drink consumption in children and very young adolescents and to study the sociodemographic and environmental-behavioral factors associated with regular, at least once a week, energy drink consumption in early adolescence. This survey was conducted during the 2011-2012 school year in the Province of Rovigo, in the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy), and involved a sample of 916 students. The usage of energy drinks increased significantly with age, from 17.8 % among sixth graders to 56.2 % among eighth graders. Among the male student population, 16.5 % of those in the eighth grade and 6.21 % of those in the sixth grade, respectively, drank them at least once a week. The independent variables conferring a higher likelihood of being at least once-a-week energy drink consumers were smoking and alcohol consumption. Awareness of the damage caused by energy drinks emerged as a protective factor that reduced the likelihood of young students consuming such drinks. This study showed that energy drink consumption is rising steadily in children and early adolescents. Energy drink consumption was found associated with the abuse of other substances, such as tobacco and alcohol.
Chen, Frances R; Stroud, Catherine B; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A
The present study aimed to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and early adversity on trait-like levels of cortisol. A community sample of 117 early adolescent girls (M age=12.39years) provided DNA samples for 5-HTTLPR genotyping, and saliva samples for assessing cortisol 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking, and bedtime) over a three-day period. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) was modeled using the first 2 samples of each day. Early adversity was assessed with objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers. A significant 5-HTTLPR×early adversity interaction indicated that greater early adversity was associated with lower LTC levels, but only among individuals with either L/L or S/L genotype. Findings suggest that serotonergic genetic variation may influence the impact of early adversity on individual differences in HPA-axis regulation. Future research should explore whether this interaction contributes to the development of psychopathology through HPA axis functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.
Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114
Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J. H.; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.
Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent…
Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L
Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Thomas, Katelyn K.; Bowker, Julie C.
This study of 384 young adolescents (45% girls, "M" age = 12.94 years) and their desired friendships (friendships that adolescents indicate they would like to form in the future) examined whether (a) adolescents desire to be friends with peers who are well-liked, popular, aggressive, and prosocial; (b) having desired friendships is…
Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust H; Gale, Catharine R; Shipley, Martin J; Roberts, Beverly A; Deary, Ian J
(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation. Cohort study of 14, 491 male, Vietnam-era, former US army personnel with IQ test scores at around 20 years of age (1965-71), who participated in a risk factor survey at around age 38 years of age (1985-6), who were then followed up for mortality experience for 15 years. There were 176 cancer deaths during mortality surveillance. We found an inverse association of IQ with later mortality from all cancers combined (age-adjusted HR(per one SD decrease in IQ); 95% confidence interval: 1.27; 1.10, 1.46) and smoking-related malignancies (1.37; 1.14, 1.64). There was some attenuation following control for mediating variables, particularly smoking and income, but the gradients generally held at conventional levels of statistical significance. Higher scores on pre-morbid IQ tests are associated with lower risk of later cancer morality. The strength of the relation was partially mediated by established risk factors.
Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill
The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.
MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W
The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.
Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.
Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896
Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B; Youngstrom, Eric A; Thomas, Kathleen M
Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.
King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa
Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p < .001) in birth rates were observed across demographic characteristics, maltreatment history, and foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whalen, Diana J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L
The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence; explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period; and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning 10 years. Semistructured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children's psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3 and 6 years. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child's physical health problems (ages 3-13) and reported on the family's income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Growth mixture modeling revealed 2 trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3 to 13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Estimate [Est] = 0.05, p < .001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est = -0.01, p = .012), and psychosocial adversity (Est = 0.02, p = .015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ = 0.31, p = .050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ = -0.29, p < .021). These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems.
Whalen, Diana J.; Belden, Andy C.; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence, explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period, and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Methods Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning ten years. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children’s psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3–6. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child’s physical health problems (ages 3–13), as well as reported on the family’s income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Results Growth mixture modeling revealed two trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3–13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Est= 0.05, p<.001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est= −0.01, p=.012), and psychosocial adversity (Est=0.02, p=.015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ= 0.31, p=.050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ= −0.29, p<.021). Conclusions These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems
Laird, Robert D.; Jordan, Kristi Y.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 through 14 years were available for 400 adolescents. Results indicate that experiencing peer rejection in elementary school and greater involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence are correlated but that these peer relationship experiences may represent two different pathways to adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Peer rejection experiences, but not involvement with antisocial peers, predict later externalizing behavior problems when controlling for stability in externalizing behavior. Externalizing problems were most common when rejection was experienced repeatedly. Early externalizing problems did not appear to moderate the relation between peer rejection and later problem behavior. Discussion highlights multiple pathways connecting externalizing behavior problems from early childhood through adolescence with peer relationship experiences in middle childhood and early adolescence. PMID:11393650
Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay
A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.
Similarity in close friends' beliefs about personal jurisdiction was examined using questionnaires and interviews with 162 early (M[subscript age] = 11.82) and middle (M[subscript age] = 15.68) adolescents who were matched with reciprocally nominated close friends. Using the framework of social domain theory, beliefs about personal jurisdiction…
Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus
In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised…
Fleming, Charles B; White, Helene R; Haggerty, Kevin P; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F
This study examined how substance use trajectories from ages 15 to 23 in a community sample (N=921) were related to educational pathways. Rates of heavy drinking converged across different paths, but starting college at a 2-year college before transferring to a 4-year college was related to later increase in drinking after high school. Higher future educational attainment was negatively associated with high school marijuana use, but marijuana use increased after high school for individuals who went to 4-year colleges compared to those who did not. Noncollege youth had the highest rates of daily cigarette smoking throughout adolescence and early adulthood, while college dropouts had higher rates of smoking than college students who did not drop out. The findings support the need for universal prevention for early adult heavy drinking, addressing increases in drinking and marijuana use in 4-year colleges, and targeting marijuana use and cigarette smoking interventions at noncollege youth and college dropouts.
Fleming, Charles B.; White, Helene R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined how substance use trajectories from ages 15 to 23 in a community sample (N=921) were related to educational pathways. Rates of heavy drinking converged across different paths, but starting college at a 2-year college before transferring to a 4-year college was related to later increase in drinking after high school. Higher future educational attainment was negatively associated with high school marijuana use, but marijuana use increased after high school for individuals who went to 4-year colleges compared to those who did not. Noncollege youth had the highest rates of daily cigarette smoking throughout adolescence and early adulthood, while college dropouts had higher rates of smoking than college students who did not drop out. The findings support the need for universal prevention for early adult heavy drinking, addressing increases in drinking and marijuana use in 4-year colleges, and targeting marijuana use and cigarette smoking interventions at noncollege youth and college dropouts. PMID:24403645
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle
Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Rimpela, Arja
The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression,…
Besharat Pour, M; Bergström, A; Bottai, M; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Moradi, T
This paper aims to assess association between breastfeeding and maternal immigration background and body mass index development trajectories from age 2 to 16 years. A cohort of children born in Stockholm during 1994 to 1996 was followed from age 2 to 16 years with repeated measurement of height and weight at eight time points (n = 2278). Children were categorized into groups by breastfeeding status during the first 6 months of life and maternal immigration background. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories and age at adiposity rebound were estimated using mixed-effects linear models. Body mass index trajectories were different by breastfeeding and maternal immigration status (P-value < 0.0001). Compared with exclusively breastfed counterparts, never/short breastfed children of Swedish mothers had a higher BMI trajectory, whereas never/short breastfed children of immigrant mothers followed a lower BMI trajectory. Ages at adiposity rebound were earlier for higher BMI trajectories regardless of maternal immigration background. Differences in BMI trajectories between offspring of immigrant and of Swedish mothers suggest a lack of beneficial association between breastfeeding and long-term BMI development among children of immigrant mothers. Given the relation between long-term BMI development and risk of overweight/obesity, these differences challenge the notion that exclusive breastfeeding is always beneficial for children's BMI development and subsequent risk of overweight/obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Hotton, Tina; Haans, Dave
This analysis presents the prevalence of substance use among young adolescents. The extent to which factors such as peer behaviour, parenting practices and school commitment and achievement are associated with drinking to intoxication and other drug use is investigated. The data are from the 1998/99 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Analysis is based on a cross-sectional file from 4,296 respondents aged 12 to 15. Prevalence estimates for alcohol and drug use were calculated by sex. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, peer and parent substance use, parenting practices, school commitment/attachment, emotional health and religious attendance. In general, drinking to intoxication and drug use were more common among 14- and 15-year-olds than among 12- and 13-year-olds. The odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use were highest among adolescents whose friends used alcohol or drugs or were often in trouble, who reported low commitment to school, or whose parents had a hostile and ineffective parenting style.
Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine
Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Rimpelä, Arja
The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression, especially at age 10, but only among boys. The moderating role of social intelligence was substantiated among older boys: game violence was associated with indirect aggression among those with high level of social intelligence. Further, as hypothesized, digital game playing was associated with direct aggression especially when parent-child communication was poor, but only among boys. Our findings emphasize the importance of individual and situational factors as moderators of the link between game violence and aggression.
Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Castellani, Valeria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
The goal of this study was to identify heterogenic longitudinal patterns of change in prosocial behavior from adolescence to early adulthood and their association with change in Big Five Factor (BFF) personality traits from adolescence until early adulthood. Participants were 573 Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 at the first assessment and 21 at the last assessment. Using growth mixture modeling, low increasing (LI; 18%), medium quadratic (MQ; 26%), and high quadratic (HQ; 54%) trajectories of prosocial behavior were distinguished. Generally, the LI trajectory group predicted an increase in Conscientiousness over time, whereas the HQ trajectory group predicted greater change in Agreeableness and Openness. In addition, positive changes in Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness between ages 13 and 21 predicted a higher probability of belonging to the HQ prosocial group. Findings support a malleable perspective on personality and identify longterm positive pathways for youths' prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel
Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…
O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J
Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albor, Yesica C; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Medina-Mora, María Elena
Specific phobia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population, begins at a younger age, and has high comorbidity. However, it receives less treatment than other disorders, perhaps because it is circumscribed to a specific object or situation that can be avoided or is difficult to differentiate from developmentally adaptive fear. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify its clinical significance, risk factors, and course. This study was designed to determine the persistence of specific phobia in participants during an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood and its predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1,071 respondents from a representative 2-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. DSM-IV disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Of adolescents with specific phobia at baseline, 17.46% persisted into adulthood. Persistence of specific phobia was predicted by an age of onset of disorder in adolescence (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95% CI, 1.30-6.13), parental neglect (RR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.35-5.65), a first-degree relative with specific phobia (RR = 2.69, 95% CI, 1.34-5.39) and economic adversities (RR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.21-3.53). Noncomorbid specific phobia in adolescence predicted incidence of other anxiety and substance use disorders in early adulthood (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.11-3.54 and RR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.69, respectively). While many adolescents with specific phobia remit in adulthood, there are early adult consequences of adolescent phobia and identifiable risk factors for persistence that suggest a group of adolescents that might benefit from early intervention. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Montgomery, Marilyn J.
Age and gender differences in patterns of behavior and experience, cognitive beliefs, affective involvement, and psychosocial functioning in romantic relationships were observed in 473 adolescents and emerging adults (ages 12-24). Older adolescents indicated more dating experiences, times in love, passion, identity, and intimacy. They also…
Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…
Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Raja, B. William Dharma
Early adolescence a period of transition between childhood and late adolescence, is where one experiences dramatic changes physically, and psychologically. These transitions cause cognitive, emotional, and social changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degrees of disturbance in them. The period of transition…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Stepp, Laura Sessions
Noting that amid the enormous change inherent in early adolescence, many parents fail to distinguish between behaviors signaling healthy growth and those indicating troubled development, this book uses the stories of 12 representative adolescents from various locations in the United States and existing research literature to provide guidance on…
Mrug, Sylvie; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A
To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend's deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls' race/ethnicity. Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend's deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend's deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the "other" racial/ethnic minority group only. Early puberty and friends' deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences.
Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.
Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle school in a Southeastern state. The parents of a subset of these adolescents (i.e., 487 mother-father pairs) participated in this study as well. Correlational analyses indicate that authoritative and authoritarian parenting, family cohesion and adaptability, and conflict are significant predictors of early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that fathers' parenting may not predict directly externalizing problems in male and female adolescents but instead may act through conflict. More direct relationships exist when examining mothers' parenting. The impact of parenting, family environment, and conflict on early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems and the importance of both gender and cross-informant ratings are emphasized.
Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D
Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.
Horvath, Steve; Phillips, Nicole; Heany, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S; Lin, David Ts; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J; Stein, Dan J; Levine, Andrew J; Hoare, Jacqueline
Recent studies demonstrate that infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is associated with accelerated aging effects in adults according to a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as epigenetic clock. However, it not yet known whether epigenetic age acceleration occurs as early as adolescence in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth. Observational study of PHIV and HIV-uninfected adolescents enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC) Study. The Illumina EPIC array was used to generate blood DNA methylation data from 204 PHIV and 44 age-matched, uninfected (HIV-) adolescents aged 9 to 12 years old. The epigenetic clock software and method was used to estimate two measures of epigenetic age acceleration. Each participant completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery upon enrolment to CTAAC. HIV is associated with biologically older blood in PHIV+ adolescents according to both measures of epigenetic age acceleration. One of the measures, extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, is negatively correlated with measures of cognitive functioning (executive functioning, working memory, processing speed). Overall, our results indicate that epigenetic age acceleration in blood can be observed in PHIV+ adolescents and that these epigenetic changes accompany poorer cognitive functioning.
LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.
Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803
Feinstein, C B
In this chapter I have reviewed observations from clinical consultation and group-therapy work with early adolescent deaf boys in a special day school for the deaf. I have stressed how problems in communication exert a profound effect on the lives of these youngsters, both by virtue of their past and present influence on family life and by their ongoing effect on peer-group processes and academic adjustment. Primary consideration was given to certain "here and now" aspects of these boys' lives: ongoing problems in the social fabric of their home and school; narcissistic vulnerabilities and defenses against shame; and language-processing difficulties. The ways in which these problems undermine the supportive effect of the peer group at a time when it plays a particularly important role in development were reviewed. By emphasizing current sources of difficulty, using a biopsychosocial approach, I hope to point out fruitful opportunities for significant psychiatric intervention in a psychiatrically vulnerable population whose needs for professional service have never been met.
Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955
Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell
Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E
Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.
Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0–5, ages 6–9, age 10+). Cox proportional-hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. PMID:27322803
Edwards, Alexis C.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Heron, Jon; Cho, Seung Bin; Hickman, Matt; Lewis, Glyn; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.
Background The relationship between childhood internalizing problems and early adolescent alcohol use has been infrequently explored and remains unclear. Methods We employed growth mixture modeling of internalizing symptoms for a large, population-based sample of UK children (the ALSPAC cohort) to identify trajectories of childhood internalizing symptoms from age 4 through age 11.5. We then examined the relationship between membership in each trajectory and alcohol use in early adolescence (reported at age 13.8). Results Overall, children experiencing elevated levels of internalizing symptoms were less likely to use alcohol in early adolescence. This finding held true across all internalizing trajectories; i.e., those exhibiting increasing levels of internalizing symptoms over time, and those whose symptoms desisted over time, were both less likely to use alcohol than their peers who did not exhibit internalizing problems. Conclusions We conclude that childhood internalizing symptoms, unlike adolescent symptoms, are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol experimentation. Additional studies are warranted to follow up on our preliminary evidence that symptoms of phobia and separation anxiety drive this effect. PMID:24848214
Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K
To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: (1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use; (2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends; or (3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which lead them to substance-using peers. The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age, 9-13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three time points including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rotenberg, Ken J.; McDougall, Patricia; Boulton, Michael J.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Fox, Claire; Hymel, Shelley
Trustworthiness was examined in children and early adolescents from two countries. In Study 1,505 children in the fifth and sixth school years in the United Kingdom (mean age = 9 years 7 months) were tested across an 8-month period. In Study 2,350 sixth- through eighth-grade Canadian children and early adolescents (mean age = 12 years 11 months)…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R.
Background Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Objective The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Method Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Results Childhood anxiety only predicted less years of completed education at age 30, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted income, unemployment, maladjustment, poor coping skills, more chronic stress and life events. Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) was the only disorder predicted by childhood anxiety, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted MDD, substance (SUD) and alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD) in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult MDD, SUD and AUD partially or completely mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. Limitations The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Conclusion Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through MDD, SUD and AUD. PMID:24456837
Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Kaasbøll, Jannike; Kjeldsen, Anne
Social skills might play an important role for the relationship between maternal psychological distress and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. The majority perspective is that social skills is adaptive and protective, but there is a need to also highlight the potential maladaptive effect of social skills in some settings or for some sub groups. The current study examined the longitudinal interplay between maternal-reported psychological distress in early childhood (age 1.5), and offspring reports on social skills and depressive symptoms in early (age 12.5) and middle adolescence (age 14.5). We used data from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families to examine direct links and interactions between early maternal distress (measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and early adolescent offspring social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and middle adolescent depressive symptoms (measured with the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire) in 370 families (in total 740 mothers and adolescents). Exposure to childhood maternal distress predicted offspring depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. Higher social skills in early adolescence predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms for girls, but not for boys, in middle adolescence. An interaction effect was found in which adolescents exposed to early maternal distress who reported high social skills in early adolescence had the highest level of depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. The findings highlight the nuances in the role of social skills for adolescent depressive symptoms - having the potential to be both adaptive as well as maladaptive for some subgroups (those experiencing maternal psychological distress). This has important implications for social skill programs.
Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A
There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described. © The Author(s) 2014.
Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon
The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…
Byrd, Amy L; Hawes, Samuel W; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A
Youth with a callous interpersonal style, consistent with features of adult psychopathy (e.g., lack of guilt, deceitful), are at risk for exhibiting severe and protracted antisocial behaviors. However, no studies have examined changes that occur in interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence, and little is known about the influence of early child, social, and contextual factors on trajectories of IC. The current study examined distinct patterns of IC across childhood and adolescence and associations with early risk factors. Participants were an at-risk sample of 503 boys (56% African American) assessed annually from around ages 7-15. Analyses examined child (anger dysregulation, fearfulness), social (peer, family, maltreatment), and contextual (psychosocial adversity) factors associated with teacher-reported IC trajectories across childhood and adolescence. Using latent class growth analysis, five trajectories of IC were identified (early-onset chronic, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, low). Approximately 10% of boys followed an early-onset chronic trajectory, and a roughly equal percent of youth followed childhood-limited trajectory (10%) or an adolescent-onset trajectory (12%) of IC across development. Specifically, half of the boys with high IC in childhood did not continue to exhibit significant levels of these features into adolescence, whereas an equal proportion of youth with low IC in childhood demonstrated increasing levels during the transition to adolescence. Boys in the early-onset chronic group were characterized by the most risk factors and were differentiated from those with childhood-limited and adolescent-onset IC only by higher conduct problems, fearlessness, and emotional abuse/neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental models of IC and several avenues for early targeted interventions.
Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne
To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.
Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…
Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi
Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age = 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related…
Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda
Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Current research on adolescent fertility indicates that illegitimacy is becoming concentrated in the teenage and even preteen years. Increasing sexual activity, lack of contraceptive information and techniques, and a desired pregnancy are possible explanations. Some of the problems faced by adolescent mothers include more complicated pregnancies,…
Wittig, Michele Andrisin
Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)
Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael
Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05), after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status). Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns) and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55,p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns), but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and
Bolognini, Monique; And Others
A longitudinal study of a general population (n=219; M age 12, 13, and 14), was carried out between 1990 and 1993 over 3 years in Lausanne (Switzerland). Sought information on global changes in self-esteem during early adolescence, ways in which young people perceive themselves, differences between boys and girls regarding self-esteem, and…
Pronk, Jeroen; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A.
This study investigated personality correlates of early adolescents' tendency to either defend victims of bullying or to avoid involvement in bullying situations. Participants were 591 Dutch fifth- and sixth-grade students (X-bar[subscript age] = 11.42 years). Hierarchical regression models were run to predict these students' peer-reported…
Barratt, Barnaby B.
This study investigated the emergence of combinatorial competence in early adolescence and the effectiveness of a programmed discovery training procedure. Significant increases in combinatorial skill with age were shown; it was found that the expression of this skill was significantly facilitated if problems involved concrete material of low…
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…
Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina
In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…
Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.
This four-wave prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of language in 324 children from early childhood to adolescence. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multiple age-appropriate multisource measures of child language on single-factor core language skills at 20 months and 4, 10, and 14 years. Large stability…
Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse
Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…
Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.
The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…
Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian
This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…
Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.
This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…
Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Yamawaki, Niwako; Sato, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Aki; Saito, Hisako
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing attitudes toward sexual activity among early adolescents in Japan. A total of 1,551 students aged 12 to 14 years at 4 junior high schools were divided into either a conservative or liberal group. Results of chi-square tests showed that the liberal group had higher percentages of students…
Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer
This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…
Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.
This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…
Jessar, Allison J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
The present study examined whether emotional abuse and neglect differentially predicted decreases in emotional clarity, and whether emotional clarity, in turn, predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Participants included 204 early adolescents (52% African American; 54% female; M age = 12.85 years) who completed four assessments with measures…
Mazzone, Angela; Camodeca, Marina; Cardone, Daniela; Merla, Arcangelo
The present study investigated the associations between bullying perpetration and victimization and physiological reactivity to social exclusion. The participants were 28 early adolescents (17 boys and 11 girls; M[subscript age] = 11.55; SD = 1.34). Bullying perpetration and victimization were assessed by peer nominations. To elicit social…
Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield
This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…
Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.
To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie
The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…
Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa
This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…
Bulgach, Valeria; Zunana, Cecilia; Califano, Paula; Rodríguez, M Susana; Mato, Roberto
Teenage pregnancy is highly prevalent. To describe several features of a group of adolescent mothers admitted along with their children in a high complexity pediatric hospital and to explore the difference between those in early-mid and late adolescence. Observational, transversal study, through a survey including socio-demographic variables, information about their pregnancy, delivery and their newborns. We included 227 mothers, 100 were aged < 17 years old and 127 were aged from 17 to 19 years and 11 months. Thirty percent of patients younger than 17 and 33% of the other group had preterm children; 12% and 2% respectively had very low weight newborns. Seventy-six (76%) and 77 (61%) mothers respectively were, in turn, daughters of teenage mothers. Prematurity was high in both groups. Younger mothers had higher rates of low weight newborns. Repeated intergenerational history of adolescence motherhood was found in two thirds of cases in both groups. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Hamilton, Jessica L.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Peer victimization is a significant risk factor for a range of negative outcomes during adolescence, including depression and anxiety. Recent research has evaluated individual characteristics that heighten the risk of experiencing peer victimization. However, the role of emotional clarity, or the ability to understand one’s emotions, in being the target of peer victimization remains unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated whether deficits in emotional clarity increased the risk of experiencing peer victimization, particularly among adolescent girls, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, 355 early adolescents (ages 12–13; 53% female; 51% African American) who were part of the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion project completed measures of emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, and measures of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Moderation analyses indicated that deficits in emotional clarity predicted greater peer victimization among adolescent girls, but not adolescent boys. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that deficits in emotional clarity contributed to relational peer victimization, which, in turn, predicted prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms among adolescent girls, but not boys. These findings indicate that deficits in emotional clarity represent a significant risk factor for adolescent girls to experience relational peer victimization, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, prevention programs should target deficits in emotional clarity to prevent peer victimization and subsequent internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls. PMID:25680559
Roane, Brandy M.; Taylor, Daniel J.
Study Objective: To evaluate the association between adolescent insomnia and mental health during adolescence and young adulthood. Design: Cross-sectional and prospective study. Settings: School and in home. Participants: Nationally based population sample of 4494 adolescents, 12 to 18 years old at baseline (mean = 15.83 years), with 3582 young adults, 18 to 25 years old (mean = 21.25 years) at 6- to 7-year follow-up. Measures: Self-report measures of mental health. Results: Insomnia symptoms were reported by 9.4% of the adolescents. Cross-sectionally, adolescent insomnia symptoms were associated with use of alcohol, cannabis, and drugs other than cannabis; depression; suicide ideation; and suicide attempts (all P values < 0.01) after controlling for sex. Prospectively, insomnia symptoms during adolescence were a significant risk factor for depression diagnosis (odds ratio = 2.3) in young adulthood after controlling for sex and baseline depression. Conclusion: This study is the first to longitudinally evaluate insomnia symptoms during adolescence as a risk factor for mental health problems in young adulthood. The findings indicate that insomnia is a prevalent problem for adolescents and argue for future treatment-outcome studies to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of various insomnia interventions in this age group. Citation: Roane BM; Taylor DJ. Adolescent insomnia as a risk factor for early adult depression and substance abuse. SLEEP 2008;31(10):1351–1356. PMID:18853932
Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng
This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…
Lee, Grace P.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.
Purpose Depression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on the combined effects of both on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, MD. Methods The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Revised (TOCA-R), and Baltimore How I Feel-Adolescent Version (BHIF-AY), were used to assess late adolescence gambling behaviors, early adolescence impulsivity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Data analyses were conducted using ANOVA and binary logistic regression models. Results Twelve percent of the sample were problem gamblers (includes at-risk and problem gamblers), 87.5% of whom were males and 12.5% were females (p<0.001). Among males, there appeared to be a slight association between early adolescence depressive symptoms and late adolescence problem gambling. Compared to nongambling (NG) and social gambling (SG), depressive symptoms increased the odds of problem gambling by four-fold (PG vs. NG: OR=4.1, 95% CI=0.73–22.47, p=0.11; PG vs. SG: OR=3.9, 95% CI=0.78–19.31, p=0.10). Among those with high depressive symptoms, increases in impulsivity decreased the odds of problem gambling while among those with high impulsivity, increases in depressive symptoms decreased the odds of problem gambling. Conclusions Early adolescence depressive symptoms appear to be more positively associated with late adolescence problem gambling than early adolescence impulsivity, there seems to be a divisive interaction between depressive symptoms and impulsivity on problem gambling. PMID:21257115
Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J.
The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N=975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations, before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:18686175
Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L
Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
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McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…
Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy
Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…
Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews
To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T
This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little
Li, Jianghong; O'Sullivan, Therese; Johnson, Sarah; Stanley, Fiona; Oddy, Wendy
Previous studies on maternal work hours and child diet quality have reported conflicting findings possibly due to differences in study design, lack of a comprehensive measure of diet quality and differing ages of the children under investigation. The present study aimed to prospectively examine the impact of parental work hours from age 1 year to age 14 years on adolescent diet quality. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine independent associations between parents' work hours at each follow-up and across 14 years and adolescent diet quality at age 14 years. A diet quality index was based on the international literature and Australian recommendations, consisting of six food groups and nine nutrients. Perth, Western Australia. Children (n 1629) participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Compared with children of mothers in full-time employment, children of mothers who were not employed in early childhood up to age 5 years had a higher average diet quality score at age 14 years, independent of maternal and family socio-economic status. Across 14 years the number of years the mother worked full time and increasing average weekly hours were associated with lower diet quality. Father's work hours had little association with adolescent diet quality. Having a mother stay at home in early to middle childhood is associated with better diet quality in adolescence. Support may be beneficial for families where the mother returns to full-time employment before the child reaches 8 years of age.
Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.
Purpose To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: 1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use, 2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends, or 3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which leads them to substance-using peers. Methods The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age: 9–13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three timepoints including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Results Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. Conclusions The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. PMID:26003577
Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G
A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.
Qualter, Pamela; Hurley, Ruth; Eccles, Alice; Abbott, Janice; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard
Adolescents who do not conform to weight ideals are vulnerable to disapproval and victimization from peers in school. But, missing from the literature is a prospective examination of weight status and feelings of loneliness that might come from those experiences. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we filled that gap by examining the prospective associations between loneliness and weight status when the sample was aged 10-13 years. At ages 10, 12, and 13 years, 1042 youth (572 females; 92% from French speaking homes) reported on their loneliness and were weighed and measured. Family income sufficiency was included in our analyses given its relationship with weight status, but also its possible link with loneliness during early adolescence. The findings showed that (1) weight status and loneliness were not associated concurrently; (2) weight status predicted increases in loneliness from ages 12 to 13 years; and (3) loneliness predicted increases in weight from ages 12 to 13 years among female adolescents, but weight loss among male adolescents. The fact that loneliness was involved in weight gain for females suggests that interventions focused on reducing loneliness and increasing connection with peers during early adolescence could help in reducing obesity.
Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin
African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.
Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie; Ledermann, Thomas
Although there is strong evidence for the effect of interparental conflict on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about the effect on the quality of adolescents' relationships. The current study investigates the link between adolescents' friendships and interparental conflict as reported by both parents and adolescents. It considers early adolescents' emotion regulation ability and attachment security as mediators. The analysis is based on a longitudinal study with two waves separated by 12 months. The participants were 180 two-parent families and their adolescent children (50.5 % girls), the average age of the latter being 10.61 years (SD = 0.41) at the outset (Time 1). Binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that perceived interparental conflict increased the risk of instability in friendship relationships across the 1-year period. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the association between perceived interparental conflict and friendship quality was mediated by emotion regulation and attachment security. The discussion focuses on mechanisms whereby interparental conflict influences early adolescents' friendship relationships.
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.
Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…
Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.
We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529
Xu, Haoming; Marchetti, Michael A; Dusza, Stephen W; Chung, Esther; Fonseca, Maira; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C
Nevi are important phenotypic risk factors for melanoma in adults. Few studies have examined the constitutional and behavioral factors associated with a mole-prone phenotype in adolescents. To identify host, behavioral, and dermoscopic factors in early adolescence (age, 14 years) that are associated with a mole-prone phenotype in late adolescence (age, 17 years). A prospective observational cohort study from the Study of Nevi in Children was conducted from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, with a 2- to 3-year follow-up. A total of 569 students from the school system in Framingham, Massachusetts, were enrolled in the 8th or 9th grade (baseline; mean [SD] age, 14.4 [0.7] years). The overall retention rate was 73.3%, and 417 students were reassessed in the 11th grade. Mole-prone phenotype in the 11th grade, defined as total nevus count of the back and 1 randomly selected leg in the top decile of the cohort or having any nevi greater than 5 mm in diameter. Of the 417 students assessed at follow-up in the 11th grade (166 females and 251 males; mean [SD] age, 17.0 [0.4] years), 111 participants (26.6%) demonstrated a mole-prone phenotype: 69 students (62.2%) with 1 nevus greater than 5 mm in diameter, 23 students (20.7%) with total nevus count in the top decile, and 19 students (17.1%) with both characteristics. On multivariate analysis, baseline total nevus count (adjusted odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 4.0-23.7; P < .001) and increased variability of nevus dermoscopic pattern (adjusted odds ratio, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.36-13.25; P = .01) were associated with a mole-prone phenotype. This study found clinically recognizable factors associated with a mole-prone phenotype that may facilitate the identification of individuals at risk for melanoma. These findings could have implications for primary prevention strategies and help target at-risk adolescents for higher-intensity counseling about sun protection and skin self-examination.
O'Neal, Colleen R; Weston, Lynsey C; He, Xin; Huang, Keng-Yen; Pine, Daniel S; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]. A videotaped parent-child interaction was coded for parental socialization of preschooler anger, and psychiatric interviews of depression were conducted three times across preadolescence and adolescence. Major depression diagnoses increased from preadolescence to adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated parent discouragement of child anger was a significant predictor of an increase in the child's later depression from preadolescence to adolescence, and child anger intensity was a significant moderator. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.
Gariepy, Genevieve; Elgar, Frank J; Sentenac, Mariane; Barrington-Leigh, Christopher
Subjective well-being (SWB) in youths positively relates to family income, however its association with income during childhood is unclear. Using longitudinal data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 2234 adolescents, age 12-19 years), we examined whether the timing and duration of low family income in childhood was associated with adolescent SWB. We categorized family income during childhood into state-specific quintiles. Adolescent SWB was assessed using a 12-item questionnaire (score range 3-18). We used marginal structural modelling to test for sensitive periods of exposure to low income and tested cumulative effects of income by modelling the number of years spent in the poorest income quintiles. A period in early childhood (age 0-2 years) was particularly sensitive to low family income. Adolescent SWB was 1.65 (95% CI 0.40, 2.91) points lower in those who grew up in the poorest income quintiles during early childhood compared with the top quintile. Further, each childhood year spent in the poorest income quintiles was associated with a 0.10 point (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) lower SWB score in adolescence. The timing and duration of low family income in childhood both predict individual differences in adolescent SWB. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these models and inform public policies.
Elgar, Frank J.; Sentenac, Mariane; Barrington-Leigh, Christopher
Purpose Subjective well-being (SWB) in youths positively relates to family income, however its association with income during childhood is unclear. Using longitudinal data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 2234 adolescents, age 12–19 years), we examined whether the timing and duration of low family income in childhood was associated with adolescent SWB. Methods We categorized family income during childhood into state-specific quintiles. Adolescent SWB was assessed using a 12-item questionnaire (score range 3–18). We used marginal structural modelling to test for sensitive periods of exposure to low income and tested cumulative effects of income by modelling the number of years spent in the poorest income quintiles. Results A period in early childhood (age 0–2 years) was particularly sensitive to low family income. Adolescent SWB was 1.65 (95% CI 0.40, 2.91) points lower in those who grew up in the poorest income quintiles during early childhood compared with the top quintile. Further, each childhood year spent in the poorest income quintiles was associated with a 0.10 point (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) lower SWB score in adolescence. Conclusions The timing and duration of low family income in childhood both predict individual differences in adolescent SWB. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these models and inform public policies. PMID:28715418
Ryan, Christopher M.; Morrow, Lisa A.
The self-esteem of 125 diabetic and 82 nondiabetic adolescents was examined with the Piers-Harris scale. Girls who developed diabetes before five years of age had poorer self-concept scores than early onset boys, whereas boys and girls in the later onset or control groups had equivalent scores. This interaction was restricted to Physical…
af Klinteberg, Britt; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Gacono, Carl; Alm, Per Olof
The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11-14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32-40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36-44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group--the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu
The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694
Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G; Morrison, John A; Khoury, Philip R; Daniels, Stephen R
To assess adolescent and young adult determinants of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) at ages 26-28 years. Prospective study (ages 9-28 years) of cardiometabolic measures, menarche age, menses irregularities, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose-type 2 diabetes mellitus, and VAT in 400 girls (248 black, 152 white). Adolescent (age 14-19) independent variables for greater VAT at ages 26-28 included larger mean waist circumference (partial R(2) = 30.8%), earlier age at menarche (0.9%), and white race (1.8%). Young adult (ages 20-28 years) independent variables for greater VAT included larger mean waist circumference (partial R(2) = 61.7%), greater triglyceride levels (3.3%), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.0%), and greater insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance; 0.4%). Independent variables for greater VAT when both adolescent and young adult variables were used included waist (tertile rank change from adolescence to young adulthood, partial R(2) = 58.3%), greater young adult triglyceride levels (4.4%), white race (1.8%), greater young adult homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (age 20-28, 2.4%), and earlier menarche age (0.7%). Menses irregularities were not independently associated with young adult VAT. Adolescent girls with early menarche and larger waist circumference should be targets for primary prevention of accretion of VAT. In young adulthood, VAT is associated with dysregulated cardiometabolic profiles, which is greater for those with waist circumference increases from adolescence to adulthood. Waist circumference during young adulthood, and to a lesser degree during adolescence, is an inexpensive surrogate for VAT at ages 26-28 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L
This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression.
Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.
This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7% female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children’s attitudes about violence and caregivers’ perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression. PMID:27230117
Murphy, Debra A; Greenwell, Lisa; Resell, Judith; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Schuster, Mark A
Progression toward autonomy is considered of central importance during the adolescent period. For young adolescents with an HIV-infected parent, there may be additional challenges. This study investigated current autonomy among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV (N = 108), as well as examined longitudinally the children's responsibility taking when they were younger (age 6-11; N = 81) in response to their mother's illness and their current autonomy as early/middle adolescents. In analyses of self-care and family autonomy, children with greater attachment to their mothers had higher autonomy, and there was a trend for children who drink or use drugs alone to have lower autonomy. In analyses of management autonomy, attachment to peers was associated with higher autonomy. Trajectory group findings indicate that those children who had taken on more responsibility for instrumental caretaking roles directly because of their mother's illness showed better autonomy development as early and middle age adolescents. Therefore, 'parentification' of young children with a mother with HIV may not negatively affect later autonomy development.
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7–9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n=112 boys; n=107 girls; n=7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers’ effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters’ conduct problems, whereas both fathers’ and mothers’ influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children’s conduct problems during early to mid adolescence. PMID:22648200
Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min
Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…
Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J
This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.
Huang, Cindy Y.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.
Early adolescence is marked by transitions for adolescents, and is also a time for identity exploration. Ethnic identity is an essential component of youths’ sense of self. In this study we examined the trajectories of ethnic identity for adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds during a 4-year period. Six latent class trajectories were identified in the study: the majority of adolescents (41.8%) displayed growth in ethnic identity over 4 years, followed by 30.1% whose high levels of ethnic identity remained stable, then by those who experienced moderate decreases in ethnic identity (10.8 percent). Another class of adolescents (7.3%) showed significant declines in ethnic identity level, followed by 5.5% of adolescents with significant increases, and finally by 4.5% of adolescents with low stable levels of ethnic identity during this developmental period. The classes differed by ethnicity, and adolescents with increasing high levels of ethnic identity reported better parent–child relationships. Findings and implications are discussed. PMID:21787058
Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Laucht, Manfred
Suicidal behaviors are prevalent among young people. Numerous risk factors have been implicated in their development. In the framework of the longitudinal Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, 311 young adults (143 males, 168 females) aged 19-23 years were investigated in order 1) to determine the significance of different risk factors during development in predicting suicidal behaviors in young adulthood, 2) to identify potential risk factors discriminating between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and 3) to examine whether the effect of early risk factors was mediated by later occurring predictors. Young adults with suicidal behaviors displayed a number of abnormalities during development, including high load of early family adversity, suicidal ideation and psychiatric problems in childhood and adolescence, as well as low self esteem, poor school functioning, higher levels of novelty seeking, and enhanced affiliations with deviant peers in adolescence. Independent contributions to predicting suicidal behaviors in young adults were provided by early family adversity, suicidal ideation during childhood and adolescence, and low self esteem (with regard to suicidal ideation) and novelty seeking (with regard to suicide attempt), respectively. The impact of early adversity was mediated by child and adolescent externalizing disorders and low self esteem in adolescence. Possible implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors are discussed.
Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus
In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. Copyright Â© 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Nowicka, Paulina
We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family CheckUp, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 yrs) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent–youth relationship quality (ages 12–15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent–youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent–youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity. PMID:23421838
Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Oudekerk, Barbara; Chango, Joanna
Pseudomature behavior—ranging from minor delinquency to precocious romantic involvement—is widely viewed as a nearly normative feature of adolescence. When such behavior occurs early in adolescence, however, it was hypothesized to reflect a misguided overemphasis upon impressing peers and was considered likely to predict long-term adjustment problems. In a multi-method, multi-reporter study following a community sample of 184 adolescents from age 13 to 23, early adolescent pseudomature behavior was linked cross-sectionally to a heightened desire for peer popularity and to short-term success with peers. Longitudinal results, however, supported the study’s central hypothesis: Early adolescent pseudomature behavior predicted long-term difficulties in close relationships, as well as significant problems with alcohol and substance use, and elevated levels of criminal behavior. PMID:24919537
Sterling, Robie; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Miranda, J Jaime
Background. Longitudinal investigations into the origins of adult essential hypertension have found elevated blood pressure in children to accurately track into adulthood, however the direct causes of essential hypertension in adolescence and adulthood remains unclear. Methods. We revisited 152 Peruvian adolescents from a birth cohort tracked from 0 to 30 months of age, and evaluated growth via monthly anthropometric measurements between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and blood pressure measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of infantile and childhood growth trends on blood pressure and central obesity in early adolescence. Results. In regression models adjusted for interim changes in weight and height, each 0.1 SD increase in weight for length from 0 to 5 months of age, and 1 SD increase from 6 to 30 months of age, was associated with decreased adolescent systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.1) and 2.5 mm Hg (95% CI -4.9 to 0.0), and decreased waist circumference by 0.6 (95% CI -1.1 to 0.0) and 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.3 to -0.1), respectively. Growth in infancy and early childhood was not significantly associated with adolescent waist-to-hip ratio. Conclusions. Rapid compensatory growth in early life has been posited to increase the risk of long-term cardiovascular morbidities such that nutritional interventions may do more harm than good. However, we found increased weight growth during infancy and early childhood to be associated with decreased systolic blood pressure and central adiposity in adolescence.
Howard, Steven J; Williams, Kate E
To evaluate the extent to which early self-regulation and early changes in self-regulation are associated with adolescents' academic, health, and mental well-being outcomes. Data were collected from 1 of the cohorts in a large dual-cohort cross-sequential study of Australian children. This cohort consisted of a nationally representative data set of 4983 Australian children assessed at 4 to 5 years of age, who were followed longitudinally to 14 to 15 years of age. Using regression within a path analysis framework, we first sought to investigate associations of early self-regulation (at 4-5 years and 6-7 years of age) with a broad range of academic, health, and mental well-being outcomes in adolescence (at 14-15 years). We next investigated the extent to which an early change in self-regulation (from 4 to 7 years of age) predicted these adolescents' outcomes. Early self-regulation predicted the full range of adolescents' outcomes considered such that a 1-SD increase in self-regulation problems was associated with a 1.5- to 2.5-times greater risk of more-negative outcomes. An early positive change in self-regulation was associated with a reduced risk of these negative outcomes for 11 of the 13 outcomes considered. These results suggest the potential of early self-regulation interventions, in particular, in influencing long-term academic, health, and well-being trajectories.
Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…
Friedrich, William; And Others
A sample of 132 junior high school students completed a biographical data sheet, short forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, a Sensation-Seeking Scale, the Family Environment Scale, a social support index, and a life stress inventory, to determine to what extent depression in young adolescents could be predicted. (Author/PN)
Kim, Jiyun; Lee, Jong-Eun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to sexual debut among adolescents, and to examine the association between subject characteristics and condom nonuse among those who experienced sexual intercourse in South Korea. Data were obtained from the 2009 Korean Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, a nationally representative sample. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors related to sexual debut, associations of condom nonuse and subject characteristics. Among male adolescents, age, early age at first emission, low academic achievement, living with a step-parent, perceived low level of household income, frequent drinking and smoking, and depressive feelings were associated with early sexual debut. Attending a coeducational school, living with a single biological parent and step-parent, risky health behaviour such as drinking and smoking, and depressive feelings were related risks factors for early sexual debut among female students. Factors associated with condom nonuse included early sexual debut (less than 16 years of age) (odds ratio (OR)=1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32-2.43) and frequent smoking behaviour (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.08-2.05) for males and early sexual debut (OR=4.37, 95% CI=1.02-18.68) and frequent drinking (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.12-3.75) for females. Appropriate interventions should be implemented for adolescents in Korea to delay sexual debut and educate them on the proper use of condoms.
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A
Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age = 12.35 years (SD = 0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group.
The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS) was developed to assess early maladaptive schemas in children between the ages of 10 and 16 in Turkey. The SQS consists of five questionnaires that represent five schema domains in Young's schema theory. Psychometric properties (n = 983) and normative values (n = 2250) of SQS were investigated in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results revealed 15 schema factors under five schema domains, with good fit indexes. A total of 14 schema factors were in line with Young's early maladaptive schemas. In addition to these factors, one new schema emerged: self-disapproval. Reliability analyses showed that SQS has high internal consistency and consistency over a 1-month interval. Correlations of SQS with the Adjective Check List (ACL), the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Symptom Assessment (SA-45) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) were investigated to assess criterion validity, and the correlations revealed encouraging results. SQS significantly differentiated between children who have clinical diagnoses (n = 78) and children who have no diagnosis (n = 100). Finally, general normative values (n = 2,250) were determined for age groups, gender and age/gender groups. In conclusion, the early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire with standard scores.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents (SQS) is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure of early maladaptive schemas for children between the ages of 10 and 16. SQS consists of five schema domains that represent Young's schema domains including 15 early maladaptive schemas and 97 items. Normative values for each schema were determined for age, gender and
Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems during childhood and adolescence. This study examined the course of anxiety symptoms in early adolescents from the general population over three phases. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred and forty-two participants (mean-age of 13.52) from a baseline sample of 1514 (mean-age of 10.23) were followed up three times. Of the 1514 children, those with emotional risk and controls without risk constituted the second-phase sample (n = 562; mean-age of 11.25). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-SCARED was administered in all three phases. Fifty-six percent and 32% of respondents showed total scores above the SCARED cutoff point at one and three years follow-up, respectively. Eight percent showed fluctuating symptoms. Fifty-five percent of respondents showed high scores for any subtype of anxiety over three years. Social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms were the most prevalent and persistent. Participants with persistent separation anxiety showed the highest co-occurrence with symptoms of other psychopathological disorders. Participants with persistent anxiety showed lower academic performance. Being male was a protective factor against persistence. The data support anxiety maintenance during early adolescence. Early adolescence is a critical period which may involve other serious academic, social, and family problems.
Tripković, Ingrid; Roje, Romilda; Krnić, Silvana; Nazor, Mirjana; Karin, Željka; Čapkun, Vesna
Depression prevalence has increased in the last few decades, affecting younger age groups. The aim of this research was to determine the range of depression and low self-esteem in elementary school children in the city of Split. Testing was carried out at school and the sample comprised 1,549 children (714 boys and 832 girls, aged 13). Two psychological instruments were used: the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) and the Children and Adolescent Depression Scale (SDD). The average value of scores obtained by SEI test was 17.8 for all tested children. No statistically significant difference was found be-tween boys and girls. It was found that 11.9% of children showed signs of clinically significant depression, and 16.2% showed signs of depression. Statistically significant association between low self-esteem and clinically significant depression was found. No statistically significant difference among boys and girls according to dimension of cognitive depression was found, whereas statistically significant level of emotional depression was higher in girls than boys. It was found that both dimensions of depression decreased proportionally with the increase of SEI test score values: cognitive and emotional dimension of depression. The results of this study show that it is necessary to provide early detection of emotional difficulties in order to prevent serious mental disorders. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Smith, Jamie Mahurin; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; Petrill, Stephen A.
Purpose We evaluated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in language skills during early adolescence, measured by both language sampling and standardized tests, and examined the extent to which these genetic and environmental effects are stable across time. Method We used structural equation modeling on latent factors to estimate additive genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on variance in standardized language skills (i.e., Formal Language) and productive language-sample measures (i.e., Productive Language) in a sample of 527 twins across 3 time points (mean ages 10–12 years). Results Individual differences in the Formal Language factor were influenced primarily by genetic factors at each age, whereas individual differences in the Productive Language factor were primarily due to nonshared environmental influences. For the Formal Language factor, the stability of genetic effects was high across all 3 time points. For the Productive Language factor, nonshared environmental effects showed low but statistically significant stability across adjacent time points. Conclusions The etiology of language outcomes may differ substantially depending on assessment context. In addition, the potential mechanisms for nonshared environmental influences on language development warrant further investigation. PMID:27732720
Dennis, Leslie K.; Kancherla, Vijaya; Snetselaar, Linda G
Adolescents seem to be obsessed with tanning. One third of both adolescents and adults report sunbathing. On average, about 20% of adolescents report ever-using of artificial UV tanning devices with 15% currently using them. Tanning attitudes appear similar for adolescents and adults. The top three reasons for tanning included beliefs that a tan makes them more comfortable socializing with friends, looks better and is attractive. The top reason for using artificial UV tanning devices is also aesthetics, followed by relaxation. Other reasons for using artificial UV tanning devices include vacation preparation and to gain a protective base. Attitudes related to appearance that result in more frequent tanning may be difficult to change. PMID:22707979
Dennis, Leslie K; Kancherla, Vijaya; Snetselaar, Linda G
Adolescents seem to be obsessed with tanning. One third of both adolescents and adults report sunbathing. On average, about 20% of adolescents report ever-using of artificial UV tanning devices with 15% currently using them. Tanning attitudes appear similar for adolescents and adults. The top three reasons for tanning included beliefs that a tan makes them more comfortable socializing with friends, looks better and is attractive. The top reason for using artificial UV tanning devices is also aesthetics, followed by relaxation. Other reasons for using artificial UV tanning devices include vacation preparation and to gain a protective base. Attitudes related to appearance that result in more frequent tanning may be difficult to change.
Robins, Richard W; Donnellan, M Brent; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations.
Kinnunen, Pirjo; Laukkanen, Eila; Kylmä, Jari
This longitudinal study explored associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood. The baseline data were collected in 1996 from 14-year-old pupils (n = 235; 116 girls, 119 boys) at schools using a structured questionnaire that included a 14-item scale of psychosomatic symptoms. The follow-up data were collected in 2006 from the same persons at the age of 24 using the Symptom Checklist-90. Follow-up questionnaires were returned by 149 (63.4%) young adults (88 women and 61 men). Young adults who had many psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence suffered more often than the others from somatization and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. In addition, women had more symptoms of depression and paranoid ideation, and men had more interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms. Psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence might be important signals of mental health and this should be taken seriously in school health and in general primary care.
Gooze, Rachel A.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Whitaker, Robert C.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity in adolescence is related to the quality of the early maternal–child relationship. Methods: We analyzed data from 977 of 1364 participants in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Child attachment security and maternal sensitivity were assessed by observing mother–child interaction at 15, 24, and 36 months of age. A maternal–child relationship quality score was constructed as the number of times across the 3 ages that the child was either insecurely attached or experienced low maternal sensitivity. Adolescent obesity was defined as a measured BMI ≥95th percentile at age 15 years. Results: Poor-quality maternal–child relationships (score: ≥3) were experienced by 24.7% of children compared with 22.0% who, at all 3 ages, were neither insecurely attached nor exposed to low maternal sensitivity (score: 0). The prevalence of adolescent obesity was 26.1%, 15.5%, 12.1%, and 13.0% for those with risk scores of ≥3, 2, 1, and 0, respectively. After adjustment for gender and birth weight, the odds (95% confidence interval) of adolescent obesity was 2.45 (1.49–4.04) times higher in those with the poorest quality early maternal–child relationships (score: ≥3) compared with those with the highest quality (score: 0). Low maternal sensitivity was more strongly associated with obesity than insecure attachment. Conclusions: Poor quality of the early maternal–child relationship was associated with a higher prevalence of adolescent obesity. Interventions aimed at improving the quality of maternal–child interactions should consider assessing effects on children’s weight and examining potential mechanisms involving stress response and emotion regulation. PMID:22201144
Anderson, Sarah E; Gooze, Rachel A; Lemeshow, Stanley; Whitaker, Robert C
The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity in adolescence is related to the quality of the early maternal-child relationship. We analyzed data from 977 of 1364 participants in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Child attachment security and maternal sensitivity were assessed by observing mother-child interaction at 15, 24, and 36 months of age. A maternal-child relationship quality score was constructed as the number of times across the 3 ages that the child was either insecurely attached or experienced low maternal sensitivity. Adolescent obesity was defined as a measured BMI ≥95th percentile at age 15 years. Poor-quality maternal-child relationships (score: ≥3) were experienced by 24.7% of children compared with 22.0% who, at all 3 ages, were neither insecurely attached nor exposed to low maternal sensitivity (score: 0). The prevalence of adolescent obesity was 26.1%, 15.5%, 12.1%, and 13.0% for those with risk scores of ≥3, 2, 1, and 0, respectively. After adjustment for gender and birth weight, the odds (95% confidence interval) of adolescent obesity was 2.45 (1.49-4.04) times higher in those with the poorest quality early maternal-child relationships (score: ≥3) compared with those with the highest quality (score: 0). Low maternal sensitivity was more strongly associated with obesity than insecure attachment. Poor quality of the early maternal-child relationship was associated with a higher prevalence of adolescent obesity. Interventions aimed at improving the quality of maternal-child interactions should consider assessing effects on children's weight and examining potential mechanisms involving stress response and emotion regulation.
Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis
African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to determine if the girls' weight categories were associated with their or their mothers demographic characteristics, eating behaviors, nutritional intake, and health problem. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in predominantly low-income AA communities in Chicago. Forty-three dyads of early adolescent AA girls and their mothers responded to food frequency and eating habits questionnaires. There was a strong and significant correlation between mother's and daughter's kilocalories consumed (r = .61). Our study suggests that interventions aimed at improving eating behaviors in early adolescent AA girls should include their mothers.
Allen, William T., Jr.
Much is written at the elementary school level concerning bullying and the socioemotional needs of gifted and talented (GT) students; however, in the last 10 years, little qualitative research exists concerning the early adolescent GT age group. In the social environment of classroom life, early and current research indicates that many of these…
Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Marschik, Peter B; Sachse, Steffi; Green, Vanessa A; Zhang, Dajie; Van Der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa
Previous studies have indicated a link between speech-language and literacy development. To add to this body of knowledge, we investigated whether lexical and grammatical skills from toddler to early school age are related to reading competence in adolescence. Twenty-three typically developing children were followed from age 1;6 to 13;6 (years;months). Parental checklists and standardized tests were used to assess the development of mental lexicon, grammatical and reading capacities of the children. Direct assessment of early speech-language functions positively correlated with later reading competence, whereas lexical skills reported by parents were not associated with this capacity. At (pre-) school age, larger vocabulary and better grammatical abilities predicted advanced reading abilities in adolescence. Our study contributes to the understanding of typical speech-language development and its relation to later reading outcome, extending the body of knowledge on these developmental domains for future early identification of children at risk for reading difficulties.
Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G
Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. The mean consumption of animal-source foods was 10.3 times/week. In multivariate analysis, socioeconomic status, education, and food security were generally positively associated with anthropometric indicators and dietary practices but not with iron or vitamin A status. Our findings confirm that there is a high burden of undernutrition among these Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy. Understanding factors related to undernutrition can help to identify adolescent pregnant women at higher risk and provide appropriate counseling and care. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.
Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Marceau, Kristine; Brick, Leslie A; Karoly, Hollis C; Todorov, Alexandre A; Palmer, Rohan H; Heath, Andrew C; Knopik, Valerie S
Given the controversy surrounding the question of whether there are direct or causal effects of exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) on offspring outcomes such as substance use during the adolescent years, we sought to test, on a preliminary basis, within- and between-family associations of SDP and initiation of substance use early in adolescence (by age 15 years) using a discordant sibling design. We used a sibling-comparison approach in a sample of 173 families drawn from the state of Missouri, wherein mothers were discordant for smoking behaviors between two different pregnancies, to test for associations of SDP and initiation of substance use in a younger adolescent cohort. The discordant sibling comparison approach allows for disentangling familial effects from direct effects of SDP through the purposeful collection of data from siblings within the same family with differential exposure. There were no between- or within-family effects of SDP on initiation of any type of substance use (alcohol, marijuana, smoking, and other drug classes), suggesting that SDP does not exert a direct effect on substance use in early adolescence. Preliminary findings did not support an association of SDP and initiation of substance use in this younger adolescent sample. Studies such as this one can help build a body of evidence to explain whether associations of SDP and adolescent outcomes reflect a direct effect of SPD or may instead be attributable to familial confounders that are controlled in the discordant sibling design.
Bowker, Julie C.
This study examined young adolescents' experiences with best friendship dissolution. Participants were 77 sixth-grade students (M age = 11.63 years, SD = 0.36; 11.00-12.69 age range) who reported on past experiences with (1) "complete dissolutions" (when friendship ties are completely severed), and (2) "downgrade dissolutions"…
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689
Bahelah, Raed; DiFranza, Joseph R; Fouad, Fouad M; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Maziak, Wasim
Although waterpipe smoking is increasingly popular among youth and can lead to nicotine dependence (ND), no studies have documented how ND develops in waterpipe smokers. We examined the emerging symptoms of ND among adolescent waterpipe smokers in Lebanon. Individual confidential interviews were used to evaluate ND in 160 waterpipe smokers and 24 cigarette smokers from a sample of 498 students enrolled in 8th and 9th grades in Lebanon. Among waterpipe smokers, 71.3% endorsed at least one Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) symptom and 38.1% developed the full syndrome of ND (≥3 criteria using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision). The early symptoms of ND among waterpipe smokers were craving (25%), feeling addicted (22.5%), and failed quit attempts (14.3%). Among those who reached the respective milestones, median tobacco use when the first HONC symptom emerged was 7.5 waterpipes/month with smoking frequency of 6 days/month; the median tobacco use for the full syndrome of ND was 15 waterpipes/month with smoking frequency of 15 days/month. Among those who had already reached these milestones, the first HONC symptom appeared 10.9 months after the initiation of waterpipe smoking, and the full syndrome of ND was reached at 13.9 months. In addition, cues such as seeing or smelling waterpipe, and the café environment triggered craving in most waterpipe smokers with symptoms of ND. Symptoms of ND develop among adolescent waterpipe smokers at low levels of consumption and frequency of use. Craving for nicotine triggered by waterpipe-specific cues is reported even at this young age. Waterpipe-specific ND prevention and intervention programmes for youth are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
The present longitudinal study examined the development of self-reported prosociality (i.e., the tendency to enact prosocial behaviors) from adolescence to early adulthood and its prediction from teacher-reported effortful control (i.e., dispositional regulation) at age 13. Participants were 573 (276 girls) Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 (M = 12.98, SD = 0.80) at the first assessment and 21 (M = 21.23, SD = 0.67) at the last assessment. The study used three different cohorts recruited across ten years (from 1994 to 2004) from a larger longitudinal project with a multiple-cohort design. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that the overall level of prosociality declined until approximately age 17 with a subsequent slight rebound until age 21. Significant inter-individual variability in developmental trends of prosociality in males and females was observed. Youths' effortful control was related to a lesser decline of prosociality in adolescence. Being able to regulate one's own emotions and behaviors in early adolescence may not only affect the tendency to behave prosocially, but also counter the self-centered tendencies observed across this phase of development. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002
Casement, Melynda D; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; McAloon, Rose L; Hoffmann, Amy M; Keenan, Kathryn E; Forbes, Erika E
Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Blake, Brian F.; And Others
Students in four metropolitan high schools participated in a survey of marijuana use. It was found that the personality traits of these early adolescents were related to the "style" of their marijuana usage, i.e., to the social conditions under which they tended to use the drug. Further, a given personality trait's relationship to the style of…
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…
Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.
In this article, the authors describe recent research on peer victimization and its mental health consequences during early adolescence. They begin with a working definition of peer victimization that distinguishes it from lethal school violence and from simple conflict between peers. They then present a psychosocial profile of youth who are…
Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.
Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…
Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.
Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…
Katzenmeyer, Conrad G., Ed.; Rivkin, Mary S., Ed.
Contained in this publication is the final report of a panel of experts, convened by the Assistant Director for Science Education of the National Science Foundation, interested in science education for early adolescence. The document also contains three appendices. Appendix A lists members of the panel and their professional affiliation. Appendix…
Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Flynn, Cynthia; Stone, Andrea
The prevalence and persistence of thoughts of death and suicide during early adolescence were estimated in a community-based cohort. A latent class approach was used to identify distinct subgroups based on endorsements to depression items administered repeatedly over 24 months. Two classes emerged, with 75% in a low ideation class across four…
Harlarr, Nicole; De Thorne, Laura Segebart; Smith, Jamie Mahurin; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; Petrill, Stephen A.
Purpose: We evaluated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in language skills during early adolescence, measured by both language sampling and standardized tests, and examined the extent to which these genetic and environmental effects are stable across time. Purpose: We evaluated genetic and environmental…
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William
Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…
Mounts, Nina S.
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This second chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" presents four articles that deal with family relationships in early adolescence. "Teen-Parent Relationship Enrichment Through Choice Awareness," by Richard Nelson and Marsha Link, describes a process through which counselors may help to enrich relationships between teenagers…
Ryan, Allison M.
Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…
Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily
Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…
Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi
The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…
Borghuis, Jeroen; Denissen, Jaap J A; Oberski, Daniel; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Bleidorn, Wiebke
Using data from 2 large and overlapping cohorts of Dutch adolescents, containing up to 7 waves of longitudinal data each (N = 2,230), the present study examined Big Five personality trait stability, change, and codevelopment in friendship and sibling dyads from age 12 to 22. Four findings stand out. First, the 1-year rank-order stability of personality traits was already substantial at age 12, increased strongly from early through middle adolescence, and remained rather stable during late adolescence and early adulthood. Second, we found linear mean-level increases in girls' conscientiousness, in both genders' agreeableness, and in boys' openness. We also found temporal dips (i.e., U-shaped mean-level change) in boys' conscientiousness and in girls' emotional stability and extraversion. We did not find a mean-level change in boys' emotional stability and extraversion, and we found an increase followed by a decrease in girls' openness. Third, adolescents showed substantial individual differences in the degree and direction of personality trait changes, especially with respect to conscientiousness, extraversion, and emotional stability. Fourth, we found no evidence for personality trait convergence, for correlated change, or for time-lagged partner effects in dyadic friendship and sibling relationships. This lack of evidence for dyadic codevelopment suggests that adolescent friends and siblings tend to change independently from each other and that their shared experiences do not have uniform influences on their personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hadley, Wendy; Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Senocak, Natali
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating influence of parental monitoring (e.g., unsupervised time with opposite sex peers) and adolescent emotional competence on sexual behaviors, among a sample of at-risk early adolescents. This study included 376 seventh-grade adolescents (age, 12-14 years) with behavioral or emotional difficulties. Questionnaires were completed on private laptop computers and assessed adolescent Emotional Competence (including Regulation and Negativity/Lability), Unsupervised Time, and a range of Sexual Behaviors. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the independent and combined influence of Emotional Competency and Unsupervised Time on adolescent report of Sexual Behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender to account for the notable gender differences in the targeted moderators and outcome variables. Findings indicated that more unsupervised time was a risk factor for all youth but was influenced by an adolescent's ability to regulate their emotions. Specifically, for males and females, poorer Emotion Regulation was associated with having engaged in a greater variety of Sexual Behaviors. However, lower Negativity/Lability and >1× per week Unsupervised Time were associated with a higher number of sexual behaviors among females only. Based on the findings of this study, a lack of parental supervision seems to be particularly problematic for both male and female adolescents with poor emotion regulation abilities. It may be important to impact both emotion regulation abilities and increase parental knowledge and skills associated with effective monitoring to reduce risk-taking for these youth.
Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David
We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.
Herres, Joanna; Kobak, Roger
Negative interpersonal events have been consistently identified as both antecedents and sequalae of adolescent depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the relative contributions of specific domains of interpersonal events (parents, peers or teachers) to the maintenance of depressive symptoms during early adolescence or whether a lack of positive interpersonal interactions plays a direct role in maintaining depressive symptoms. Further, few studies have examined whether positive interpersonal events moderate associations between negative events and adolescents' depressive symptoms. This study combined stress generation and exposure models to evaluate the contribution of daily events to the maintenance of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 adolescents (53 % female) followed from ages 13 to 15. Daily phone diaries collected at age 14 assessed adolescents' negative and positive interactions with parents, teachers, and peers in a sample of adolescents from economically disadvantaged families. Negative peer events uniquely accounted for the maintenance of depressive symptoms over the 2 years period. Results did not differ by gender; however, positive parent events buffered the effects of negative parent events for females but not for males. Findings highlight the significance of peer relationships during a period of vulnerability for depressive symptoms.
Raustorp, Anders; Lindwall, Magnus
One variable that has been consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity is perceived activity competence. Perceived physical (or sport) competence is considered a sub-domain to the physical self-esteem or self-worth (i.e., a person's valuation of what is good and worthy in their self-description). This study aimed to describe levels of and inter-correlations among physical self-esteem, physical activity, and body mass index in a longitudinal design spanning adolescence to early adulthood. At mean ages of 12.7, 15.7, 17.7 and 22.7 years, we measured perceived physical self-esteem in 39 (22 boys) Swedish adolescents. Physical activity (steps/day) for four consecutive schooldays, height, and weight were also measured. No significant difference between the four time points for any variable of perceived physical self-esteem was seen, neither in boys nor girls. In general, all physical self-variables revealed non-linear trajectories across time, where the general trend was an increase during the younger ages followed by a decrease during older ages. At ages 12 and 15 years in boys and girls physical condition and physical strength as well as body attractiveness and physical strength, respectively, had the strongest correlations to physical self-esteem. At age 17 and 22 years sports competence had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in girls, while body attractiveness and physical strength had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in boys. An overall stability in physical self-esteem was found. However the impact of a sub-domain upon physical self-esteem vary during adolescence and early adulthood. Such information may be useful when creating physical activity programs that support and develop physical self-esteem.
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Cain, Sarah
Most school-aged children experience exposure to hazardous sound levels via high-risk noise activities (e.g. loud music/concerts, firearms). Little information exists regarding factors influencing pediatric engagement in these activities and use of hearing protection devices. This study explores effects of age, gender, and attitudes toward noise on participation in acoustic risk-taking behaviors and hearing conservation practices in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional. Children and adolescents (10-19 years) with normal hearing. Most children and adolescents (86.5%) participate in at least one potentially high-risk noise behavior. The most frequently cited activities include sporting events, concerts, and playing a musical instrument. Use of hearing protection devices varies by activity, with consistent wear while using firearms but inconsistent application during all other activities. Gender, but not age, influences acoustic risk-taking behaviors: Boys engage in significantly more high-risk noise activities than girls. Participants expressed a neutral attitude toward noise that persisted across age and gender, but a trend shifting toward a pro-noise attitude emerges in later adolescence. The proliferation of acoustic risk-taking behaviors and lack of hearing conservation practices in children and adolescents requires attention at an early age to prevent future noise-induced hearing loss and subsequent quality of life effects.
Rubner, Frederick J; Jackson, Daniel J; Evans, Michael D; Gangnon, Ronald E; Tisler, Christopher J; Pappas, Tressa E; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F
Early life rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses and aeroallergen sensitization increase the risk of asthma at school age. Whether these remain risk factors for the persistence of asthma out to adolescence is not established. We sought to define the relationships among specific viral illnesses and the type and timing of aeroallergen sensitization with the persistence of asthma into adolescence. A total of 217 children were followed prospectively from birth to age 13 years. The etiology and timing of viral wheezing illnesses during the first 3 years of life were assessed along with patterns of allergen sensitization. The associations between viral wheezing illnesses, presence and pattern of aeroallergen sensitization, and asthma diagnosis at age 13 years were evaluated. When adjusted for all viral etiologies, wheezing with RV (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.1), but not respiratory syncytial virus (odds ratio = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.3), was associated with asthma at age 13 years. Age of aeroallergen sensitization also influenced asthma risk; 65% of children sensitized by age 1 year had asthma at age 13 years, compared with 40% of children not sensitized at age 1 year but sensitized by age 5 years, and 17% of children not sensitized at age 5 years. Early life aeroallergen sensitization and RV wheezing had additive effects on asthma risk at adolescence. In a high-risk birth cohort, the persistence of asthma at age 13 years was most strongly associated with outpatient wheezing illnesses with RV and aeroallergen sensitization in early life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J
Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.
Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.
Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433
Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.
This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319
Saxbe, Darby; Khoddam, Hannah; Piero, Larissa Del; Stoycos, Sarah A; Gimbel, Sarah I; Margolin, Gayla; Kaplan, Jonas T
Community violence exposure is a common stressor, known to compromise youth cognitive and emotional development. In a diverse, urban sample of 22 adolescents, participants reported on community violence exposure (witnessing a beating or illegal drug use, hearing gun shots, or other forms of community violence) in early adolescence (average age 12.99), and underwent a neuroimaging scan 3-5 years later (average age 16.92). Community violence exposure in early adolescence predicted smaller manually traced left and right hippocampal and amygdala volumes in a model controlling for age, gender, and concurrent community violence exposure, measured in late adolescence. Community violence continued to predict hippocampus (but not amygdala) volumes after we also controlled for family aggression exposure in early adolescence. Community violence exposure was also associated with stronger resting state connectivity between the right hippocampus (using the manually traced structure as a seed region) and bilateral frontotemporal regions including the superior temporal gyrus and insula. These resting state connectivity results held after controlling for concurrent community violence exposure, SES, and family aggression. Although this is the first study focusing on community violence in conjunction with brain structure and function, these results dovetail with other research linking childhood adversity with smaller subcortical volumes in adolescence and adulthood, and with altered frontolimbic resting state connectivity. Our findings suggest that even community-level exposure to neighborhood violence can have detectable neural correlates in adolescents. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wroblewski, Kristen
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13-14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist suggests
KEENAN, KATE; HIPWELL, ALISON E.; STEPP, STEPHANIE D.; WROBLEWSKI, KRISTEN
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13–14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist
Riggs, Nathaniel R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann
The aim of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of an early adolescent substance abuse prevention program on trajectories and initiation of amphetamine use into early adulthood. Eight middle schools were assigned randomly to a program or control condition. The randomized controlled trial followed participants through 15 waves of data, from ages 11-28 years. This longitudinal study design includes four separate periods of development from early adolescence to early adulthood. The intervention took place in middle schools. A total of 1002 adolescents from one large mid-western US city were the participants in the study. The intervention was a multi-component community-based program delivered in early adolescence with a primary emphasis on tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use. At each wave of data collection participants completed a self-report survey that included questions about life-time amphetamine use. Compared to a control group, participants in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) intervention condition had reduced growth (slope) in amphetamine use in emerging adulthood, a lower amphetamine use intercept at the commencement of the early adulthood and delayed amphetamine use initiation. The pattern of results suggests that the program worked first to prevent amphetamine use, and then to maintain the preventive effect into adulthood. Study findings suggest that early adolescent substance use prevention programs that focus initially on the 'gateway' drugs have utility for long-term prevention of amphetamine use. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Zarbatany, Lynne; Marshall, Kiera G.
This study assessed the effects of a best friend's facial attractiveness on first impressions of medium-attractive children and early adolescents. Younger (N = 114, 48 boys and 66 girls, M[subscript age] = 8.16 years) and older (N = 168, 83 boys and 85 girls, M[subscript age] = 12.32 years) participants rated photos of unknown medium-attractive…
Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam
Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart, the present study tested the hypothesis that weak working memory ability predicts early sexual initiation and explored whether this relationship is mediated by sensation seeking and 2 forms of impulsivity, namely acting-without-thinking and temporal discounting. The 2 forms of impulsivity were expected to be positively associated with early sexual initiation, whereas sensation seeking was hypothesized to be unrelated or to have a protective influence, due to its positive association with working memory. Results obtained from structural equation modeling procedures supported these predictions and in addition showed that the effects of 3 prominent risk factors (Black racial identity, low socioeconomic background, and early pubertal maturation) on early sexual initiation were entirely mediated by working memory and impulsivity. The findings are discussed in regard to their implications for preventing early sexual onset among adolescents. PMID:22369334
The dynamics of communicating with children change in adolescence. Children who, in elementary school, readily responded to and initiated conversations and interactions with adults, now display new mannerisms and tendencies, in a time when they question, challenge, and separate, and are less willing to admire or trust adults. As such, adults must…
Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384
Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Comet, M P; Calvo, A I; Zapata, M; Cebollada, M; Trébol, L; Lobo, A
To measure the prevalence of Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD) in Spanish early-adolescent students using standardized methods. A two-stage survey of prevalence of ED in a representative sample of 12 to 13 year old students in 2007 in Zaragoza (Spain). Standard evaluation: We used a two-phase cross sectional design, which involved the screening with questionnaires (EAT at a cutoff score of 20) and subsequent semi-structured interviews (SCAN) of screen-positive and screen-negative subjects. We calculated the sociodemographic characteristics, ED prevalence with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) with Confidence Interval Analysis (C.I.A.) disk version 2.0.0 (Altman et al, 2000). The study is financed by F.I.S. PI 05/2533 (Spain Health Department). In 2007 we studied 701 students seventh-grade, ages 12 to 13, girls and boys, in 9 public and private schools in Zaragoza (30 classrooms). In the second phase 164 preteens agreed to proceed with the clinical evaluation (63 at risk, high scorers; 101 selected sample not at risk). ED prevalence was 0.7% EDNOS F 50.9 (CI 95%: 0.3%-1.7%). The ICD-10 point prevalence rates of ED population in Spanish preteen students is similar to those reported for other developed countries. The prevalence of subclinical ED is substantially higher than that of full-syndrome.
Hilt, Lori M; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J
We know very little about the development of rumination, the tendency to passively brood about negative feelings. Because rumination is a risk factor for many forms of psychopathology, especially depression, such knowledge could prove important for preventing negative mental health outcomes in youth. This study examined developmental origins of rumination in a longitudinal sample (N=337; 51% girls) studied in preschool (ages 3½ and 4½ years) and early adolescence (ages 13 and 15 years). Results indicated that family context and child temperament, assessed during the preschool period, were risk factors for a ruminative style in adolescence. Specifically, early family contexts characterised by over-controlling parenting and a family style of negative-submissive expressivity predicted higher levels of later rumination. These associations were moderated by children's temperamental characteristics of negative affect and effortful control. Further, the interaction of these temperament factors exerted an additional influence on later rumination. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.
Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.
Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655
Mounts, Nina S
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in
Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.
Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…
Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lin, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Lee, Shu-Li
This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the influence of risk/protective factors on risk behaviours of early adolescents and whether protective factors moderate their impact. An understanding of how risk and protective factors operate to influence risk behaviours of early adolescents will better prepare nurses to perform interventions appropriately to reduce risk behaviours of early adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out, based on a sample of public junior high schools (from 7th to 9th grades) in one city and one county in Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire designed to measure five risk factors, six protective factors and risk behaviours was administered from October 2006 to March 2007. Data from 878 students were used for the present analysis. Pearson's correlations, anova with random effect models, and generalized linear models were used to analyse the statistically significant explanatory variables for risk behaviours. Gender, perceived father's risk behaviour, perceived mother's risk behaviour, health self-efficacy, interaction of health self-efficacy and perceived peers' risk behaviour, and interaction of emotional regulation and perceived peers' risk behaviour were statistically significant explanatory variables of risk behaviours. Health self-efficacy and emotional regulation moderated the negative effects of peers' perceived risk behaviour on risk behaviours. All protective factors were negative statistically correlated with risk behaviours, and all risk factors positively statistically correlated with risk behaviours. Male adolescents should be considered an at-risk group for risk behaviour intervention. Nurses could provide early adolescents with training regarding health self-efficacy improvement, self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills to reduce their risk behaviours.
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark
We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…
Mitchell, D B; Hauser-Cram, P
The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of questions regarding these relationships. In particular, we asked: are there differences in the relationships of mothers and fathers with their adolescent with DD? Are there early childhood predictors of the parent-teen relationship and are those based on variables that are amenable to intervention? Finally, do these predictors differ for mothers and fathers? This study focused on the relationships of 72 mothers and 53 fathers with their 15-year-old teens with DD and their predictors from the early childhood years. Data were collected from parents through interviews and self-administered questionnaires, and from their children with disabilities through structured assessment when children were age 3 years and again at age 15 years. Analyses indicated that both mother-teen and father-teen relationships were predicted by earlier parenting stress. The father-teen relationship was also predicted by early behaviour problems, but this relation was mediated by parenting stress. Socio-economic status, type of disability and the child's level of functioning were not predictive of later relationships between parents and teens. Mothers and fathers did not differ significantly in their reports of perceived positive relationships with their teens. The findings from this study suggest two important points of potential intervention during the early intervention years. First, parenting assistance and support to reduce stress during the early childhood years can benefit both mothers and fathers. Second, helping families and children cope with and diminish problem behaviours is likely to yield multiple advantages for parents and children and deserves
Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N
Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age
Kunzmann, Ute; Wieck, Cornelia; Dietzel, Cathrin
This study investigated age differences in empathic accuracy, the ability to correctly perceive others' emotions, in a sample of 151 boys and men from three age groups: adolescents (M age = 16 years, SD = 1.04), young adults (M age = 29 years, SD = 2.78), and middle-aged adults (M age = 50 years, SD = 3.07). All participants viewed nine newly developed film clips, each depicting a boy or a man reliving one of three emotions (anger, sadness, or happiness), while talking about an autobiographical memory. Adolescents and middle-aged men were less accurate than young men, and these age differences were associated with parallel age differences in fluid-mechanical abilities. In addition, age differences in vocabulary, one indicator of crystallized-pragmatic intelligence, were associated with age differences in empathic accuracy in adolescent and young, but not middle-aged, men. Within the limitations of cross-sectional data, this study provides evidence for the idea that empathic accuracy is an effortful task that requires cognitive resources and, thus, may show a normative increase until young adulthood followed by periods of stability and decline in subsequent decades.
Lavallee, Kristen L; Parker, Jeffrey G
Two focal social cognitive processes were evaluated in a structural model for their direct and indirect roles in early adolescents' jealousy surrounding their closest friend in a sample of 325 early adolescents (169 girls and 156 boys) ages 11-14 years. Individuals who are rigid and unrealistic about meeting their friendship needs were more vulnerable to feelings of jealousy than individuals who think more flexibly. Inflexible individuals also engage in more jealousy-driven surveillance and other problem behavior towards their friends. Stronger jealous feelings and behavior were related, in turn, to greater conflict with friends and to a vulnerability to emotional maladjustment. In addition, young adolescents who tended to ruminate over friendship problems were also more vulnerable to jealousy. Inflexible attitudes and friendship rumination were positively associated. Results extend recent models of friendship jealousy that focus only on early adolescents' self-worth.
Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Ooshige, Narumi; Goto, Tomoko; Shimazaki, Azusa
This study examined factors related to sexual assault among early adolescents in Japan. During a 6-month period, an anonymous questionnaire survey was distributed to 1,246 students ages 13-15 years at eight junior high schools. Consent to participation in this study was obtained from a total of 1,125 (90.3%) students. It was found that the…
Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia
The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…
Sabia, Joseph J.
A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…
van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf
It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen
The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children.
Luk, Tzu Tsun; Wang, Man Ping; Leung, Lok Tung; Chen, Jianjiu; Wu, Yongda; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin
The role of family relationship in adolescent use of emerging tobacco products, which have become increasingly popular, is unknown. We examined the associations of perceived family relationship quality with current use of poly-tobacco products including cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe and smokeless tobacco in adolescents. Data from a representative sample of 42,250 US grade 7-12 equivalent students (mean ± SD age 14.6 ± 1.9 years; 51.3% boys) from 75 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong (2012-13) were analysed. Logistic regressions yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and poly-tobacco (≥2 products) in relation to perceived family relationship quality, adjusted for age, sex, perceived family affluence, parental education, family structure, parental and sibling smoking and secondhand smoke exposure at home. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare the associations in early (aged ≤14 years) versus late (>14) adolescents. The odds of current use increased with worse perceived family relationship quality with AORs (95% confidence interval) of up to 2.92 (2.32-3.68) for cigarettes, 7.28 (4.71-11.2) for e-cigarettes, 5.04 (3.44-7.40) for waterpipe, 8.09 (4.87-13.4) for smokeless tobacco and 5.25 (3.45-8.01) for poly-tobacco products use (all P for trend <.001). The associations for all tobacco use outcomes were stronger in early than late adolescents (all P for interaction <.001). Dose-response relationships were found between negatively perceived family relationship quality and current poly- and individual tobacco product use by Hong Kong Chinese secondary students. The associations were stronger for alternative tobacco products and in early adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burkholder, Amanda R; Koss, Kalsea J; Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E; Gunnar, Megan R
This study examined children's ( N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' ( N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care ( N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers ( N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful.
Caravita, Simona C S; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Gini, Gianluca
Moral disengagement processes are cognitive self-justification processes of transgressive actions that have been hypothesized to be learned and socialized within social contexts. The current study aimed at investigating socialization of moral disengagement by friends in two developmentally different age groups, namely late childhood (age: 9-10 years; n = 133, 42.9% girls) and early adolescence (age: 11-14 years; n = 236, 40.6% girls) over a 1-year period. Specifically, the current study examined whether similarity in moral disengagement between friends was the result of friends' influence or friend selection. Moreover, gender (42% girls), individual bullying behavior, and perceived popularity status were examined as potential moderators of socialization for moral disengagement within friendship networks. Self-report measures were used to assess moral disengagement, sociometric questions and a peer-nomination scale for friendship networks and bullying behavior, respectively. Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) was used to study change of moral disengagement in friendship networks during a 1-year interval. In early adolescence, friends were more likely to be similar to each other over time and this was explained only by influence processes and not by selection processes. Gender, bullying, and perceived popularity did not moderate the friends' influence on moral disengagement over time. Results indicate that self-justification processes change over time already in late childhood, but only in early adolescence this change is likely to be dependent upon peers' moral disengagement.
Fradkin, Chris; Valentini, Nadia C; Nobre, Glauber C; Dos Santos, João O L
As with most emerging nations, Brazil lacks up-to-date data on the prevalence of obesity and overweight among its children. Of particular concern is the lack of data on children in early adolescence, considered by many to be the crucial stage for weight-related healthcare. To assess regional, socioeconomic, and gender differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Brazilian early adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a racially diverse sample of students aged 10-13 years, from schools in three geographic regions (north, northeast, south) ( N = 1,738). Data on gender, age, race, socioeconomic status (SES), weight, and height were obtained. Weight class was calculated from age- and gender-adjusted body mass index, based on children's weight and height. Bivariate and multivariable analyses, with post hoc tests, were conducted to estimate differences between groups and were corrected for multiple comparisons. Procedures were approved by institutional review boards at study sites. Analyses revealed a higher prevalence of obesity and/or overweight among: (1) children of higher SES; (2) children in southern Brazil; (3) males; and (4) Black females. The most salient predictor of weight risk among Brazilian early adolescents is higher SES. This finding is consistent with previous findings of an inverse social gradient, in weight risk, among emerging-nation population groups.
Hoffmann, Marianela; Pérez, J. Carola; García, Catalina; Rojas, Graciela; Martínez, Vania
The aim of this study was to develop an adapted version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R) that would be valid and reliable for assessing temperament and its components in Chileans between 12 and 18 years of age. Originally, Ellis and Rothbart (2001) developed this questionnaire (EATQ-R) to be used in North American adolescents. For the study in Chile, a translation protocol was developed, to maintain the original instrument's cultural and linguistic equivalence in the adapted version. Psychometric properties of the EATQ-R, such as factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity, were also assessed. The adaption and validation was carried out in two stages, with two different studies. The first study, which included 612 adolescent students from educational establishments in the cities of Santiago and Concepcion, Chile, developed the Chilean version of the 83-item EATQ-R, which has 13 dimensions, belonging to 4 theoretical factors with adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79–0.82). The second study assessed the questionnaire's convergent validity, through its application to 973 adolescent students in Santiago. Results show that the effortful control subscale was significantly inversely related to indicators of adolescent maladjustment, such as substance abuse and behavioral problems. In addition, it was directly associated with indicators of self-concept, including self-esteem and self-efficacy. The opposite pattern was observed when considering negative affect. These findings coincide with current knowledge on the relationship between temperament and adjustment in adolescents. PMID:29326616
Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural
Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee
This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…
This paper presents an account of a research project that explored the experiences of adolescents struggling with behavioral and emotional issues, who participated in a 14-day adventure therapy program in Australia referred to by the pseudonym, "Onward Adventures". All participants of this program over the age of 16 who completed within…
Schine, Joan; And Others
This booklet is intended to stimulate new interest in the need of young adolescents to take on meaningful roles and to help planners and practitioneers to translate that interest into youth participation programs. There are three major sections. Section I examines the special needs and characteristics of youth in the 10 to 14 age group. Discussed…
Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E
The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madan, Shivank; Patel, Snehal R; Vlismas, Peter; Saeed, Omar; Murthy, Sandhya; Forest, Stephen; Jakobleff, William; Sims, Daniel; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T; Shin, Julia; Goldstein, Daniel; Jorde, Ulrich P
This study sought to determine outcomes of adult recipients of early adolescent (EA) (10 to 14 years) donor hearts. Despite a shortage of donor organs, EA donor hearts (not used for pediatric patients) are seldom used for adults because of theoretical concerns for lack of hormonal activation and changes in left ventricular mass. Nonetheless, the outcomes of adult transplantation using EA donor hearts are not clearly established. All adult (≥18 years of age) heart transplant recipients in the United Network for Organ Sharing database between April 1994 and September 2015 were eligible for this analysis. Recipients of EA donor hearts were compared with recipients of donor hearts from the usual adult age group (ages 18 to 55 years). Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and cardiac allograft vasculopathy up to 5 years, and primary graft failure up to 90 days post-transplant. Propensity score analysis was used to identify a cohort of recipients with similar baseline characteristics. Of the 35,054 eligible adult recipients, 1,123 received hearts from EA donors and 33,931 from usual-age adult donors. With the use of propensity score matching, 944 recipients of EA donor hearts were matched to 944 recipients of usual-age adult donor hearts. There was no difference in 30-day, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year recipient survival or primary graft failure rates in the 2 groups using both Cox hazards ratio and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of note, adult patients who received EA donor hearts had a trend toward less cardiac allograft vasculopathy (Cox hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 1.01; p = 0.07). In this largest analysis to date, we found strong evidence that EA donor hearts, not used for pediatric patients, can be safely transplanted in appropriate adult patients and have good outcomes. This finding should help increase the use of EA donor hearts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A
Substantial evidence suggests that youth who experience early adversity exhibit alterations in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, thereby increasing risk for negative health outcomes. However, few studies have explored whether early adversity alters enduring trait indicators of HPA axis activity. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers to assess early adversity, we examined the cumulative impact of nine types of early adversity on early adolescents girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC). Adolescents (n = 122; M age = 12.39 years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30 min post-waking, and bedtime) over 3 days. Latent state-trait modeling indicated that the waking and 30 min post-waking samples contributed to a LTC factor. Moreover, greater early adversity was associated with a lower LTC level. Implications of LTC for future research examining the impact of early adversity on HPA axis functioning are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:700-713, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meeus, Wim; Van De Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, Seth J.; Branje, Susan
This study examined identity development in a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents thereby covering the ages of 12-20. Systematic evidence for identity progression was found: The number of diffusions, moratoriums, and searching moratoriums (a newly obtained status) decreased, whereas the representation of the…
Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F
This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.
Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.
Latham, Melissa D; Cook, Nina; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Kettle, Jonathan W L; Schwartz, Orli; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B
Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images. Adolescent participants did not exhibit fear-potentiated startle blink. However, they did display affect-consistent zygomatic and corrugator activity during reactivity, as well as inhibition of some of these facial patterns during regulation. Skin conductance demonstrated arousal dependent activity during reactivity, and overall decreases during regulation. These findings suggest that early adolescents display reactivity to valenced pictures, but not to startle probes. Psychophysiological patterns during emotion regulation indicate additional effort and/or attention during the regulation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations. PMID:19740537
M Nilsson, Peter
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.
Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E
This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15 years old were considered. Results showed that younger adolescent females who lived in poor neighborhoods and who had a history of conduct problems were more likely to report early sexual activity. Peer characteristics partly accounted for this susceptibility. Among adolescent males, no direct neighborhood effects were found, but those who had combined risks at multiple levels appeared more vulnerable. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.
Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive function (EF) deficits to depression during early adolescence (sixth grade). Youth (267 girls, 227 boys; X̄age at Wave 1 = 7.95, SD = .37) completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to assess peer stress and depression, respectively; teachers completed the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function to assess everyday performance in several EF domains. As anticipated, exposure to peer stress in childhood predicted heightened sixth-grade depression in girls but not boys with higher levels of EF deficits. This study extends theory and research on individual differences in vulnerability to adolescent depression, in turn elucidating potential intervention targets. PMID:28936024
Agoston, Anna M; Rudolph, Karen D
Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive function (EF) deficits to depression during early adolescence (sixth grade). Youth (267 girls, 227 boys; X̄ age at Wave 1 = 7.95, SD = .37) completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to assess peer stress and depression, respectively; teachers completed the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function to assess everyday performance in several EF domains. As anticipated, exposure to peer stress in childhood predicted heightened sixth-grade depression in girls but not boys with higher levels of EF deficits. This study extends theory and research on individual differences in vulnerability to adolescent depression, in turn elucidating potential intervention targets.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma
Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents’ cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence; and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel model. Participants included 246 Mexican-origin, predominantly immigrant families that participated in home interviews and a series of nightly phone calls when target adolescents were 12 years and 18 years of age. Girls exhibited more pronounced declines in traditional gender role attitudes than did boys, and all youth declined in familism values, time spent with family, and involvement in Mexican culture. Bidirectional relations between cultural orientations and adjustment emerged, and some associations were moderated by adolescent nativity and gender. PMID:22966929
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; McCullough, Michael E.; Bickel, W. K.; Farley, Julee P.; Longo, Gregory S.
Prior research indicates that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent health risk behaviors, yet how such protective effects operate is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal associations among organizational and personal religiousness, delay discounting, and substance use initiation (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use). The sample comprised 106 early adolescents (10-13 years of age, 52% female) who were not using substances at Time 1. Path analyses suggested that high levels of personal religiousness at Time 1 were related to low levels of substance use at Time 2 (2.4 years later), mediated by low levels of delay discounting. Delay discounting appears to be an important contributor to the protective effect of religiousness on the development of substance use among adolescents. PMID:25750491
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; McCullough, Michael E; Bickel, W K; Farley, Julee P; Longo, Gregory S
Prior research indicates that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent health risk behaviors, yet how such protective effects operate is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal associations among organizational and personal religiousness, delay discounting, and substance use initiation (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use). The sample comprised 106 early adolescents (10-13 years of age, 52% female) who were not using substances at Time 1. Path analyses suggested that high levels of personal religiousness at Time 1 were related to low levels of substance use at Time 2 (2.4 years later), mediated by low levels of delay discounting. Delay discounting appears to be an important contributor to the protective effect of religiousness on the development of substance use among adolescents.
Decker, Michele R; Kalamar, Amanda; Tunçalp, Özge; Hindin, Michelle J
Reducing unwanted adolescent childbearing is a global priority. Little is known about how national-level economic and human development indicators relate to early adolescent childbearing. This ecological study evaluates associations of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GINI index, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender-related Development Index (GDI; i.e. the HDI adjusted for gender disparities) with early adolescent childbearing in 27 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) across three time periods. Among women ages 18–24, prevalence estimates for early birth (<16 years) were calculated by nation, and weighted linear regressions evaluated associations between national indicators and early childbearing. To examine temporal trends, analyses were stratified by year groupings. Early adolescent childbearing declined over time, with the greatest change observed in Bangladesh (31.49% in 1996/7 to 19.69% in 2011). In adjusted models, GDI was negatively associated with early childbearing, i.e. early childbearing prevalence decreased as GDI increased. In the most recent time period, relative to the lowest GDI group, the average prevalence of early childbearing was significantly lower in the middle (-12.40, P < 0.00) and upper (-10.96, P = 0.03) tertiles after adjustment for the other indicators. These other indicators showed no consistent association with early childbearing. As national-level GDI increased, early adolescent childbearing declined. The GDI, which reflects human development adjusted for gender disparities in educational and economic prospects, was more consistently related to early adolescent childbearing than the absolute development prospects as given by the HDI. While creating gender equality is an important goal in and of itself, the findings emphasize the potential for improved national-level gender equitable development as a means to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health.
Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M
Poverty is a well-established risk factor for the development of behavior problems, yet little is known about how timing of exposure to childhood poverty relates to behavior problems in early adolescence. To examine the differential effects of the timing of poverty between birth and late childhood on behavior problems in early adolescence by modeling lifecourse models, corresponding to sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility models. We used the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Poverty was defined as living below the low-income thresholds defined by Statistics Canada and grouped into three time periods: between ages 0-3 years, 5-7 years, and 8-12 years. Main outcomes were teacher's report of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression at age 13 years. Structured linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate the contribution of poverty during the three selected time periods to behavior problems. Partial F-tests were used to compare nested lifecourse models to a full saturated model (all poverty main effects and possible interactions). Families who experienced poverty at all time periods were 9.3% of the original sample. Those who were poor at least one time period were 39.2%. The accumulation of risk model was the best fitting model for hyperactivity and opposition. The risk for physical aggression problems was associated only to poverty between 0 and 3 years supporting the sensitive period. Early and prolonged exposure to childhood poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems in early adolescence. Antipoverty policies targeting the first years of life and long term support to pregnant women living in poverty are likely to reduce behavior problems in early adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; Feenstra, Dineke; Hutsebaut, Joost
Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5 ; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand. Therefore we investigated which items of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems-118 (SIPP-118) were developmentally sensitive throughout adolescence and adulthood and which could be considered more age-specific markers requiring other content or thresholds over age groups. Applying item response theory (IRT) we detected differential item functioning (DIF) in 36% of the items in matched samples of 639 adolescents versus 639 adults. The DIF across age groups mainly reflected a different degree of symptom expressions for the same underlying level of functioning. The threshold for exhibiting symptoms given a certain degree of personality dysfunction was lower in adolescence for areas of personality functioning related to the Self and Interpersonal domains. Some items also measured a latent construct of personality functioning differently across adolescents and adults. This suggests that several facets of the SIPP-118 do not solely measure aspects of personality pathology in adolescents, but likely include more developmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Juhasz, Anne McCreary
Methods for investigating self-esteem may not reveal the factors on which a person's self-esteem rests. Twelve- to fourteen-year-olds identified aspects of the self which were important to them, and evaluated the degree of importance. Results of this study reveal age and gender differences in self-esteem factors. (Author/BL)
Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…
Van Ryzin, Mark J; Nowicka, Paulina
We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family Check-Up, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 years) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent-youth relationship quality (ages 12-15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent-youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent-youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Friedman, Alfred S.; And Others
Gathered substance use histories from African American male (n=318) and female (n=322) adolescents to determine whether gender differences affected early life risk factors for drug use or abuse. Family variables and subject behavior predicted degree of substance use and frequency of intoxication, but no risk factor applied to both genders. (SNR)
Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II
Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…
Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne
Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997
Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne
Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.
Lukaszewska, Kornelia; Lewandowski, Jacek
BACKGROUND. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and patterns of spinal pain (SP) among Polish adolescents as well as the impact of the pain on their daily life activities. Moreover, it analysed the potential effect of extracurricular physical activity on back pain prevalence, frequency and consequent functional limitations among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study involved 2,676 students aged 13 to 19 years enrolled from three randomly selected administrative regions of Poland. The participants completed a survey designed by the authors during their classes. RESULTS. Sixty-five per cent of respondents reported having had back pain and 48% described the episodes as recurring. The pain was most frequently located in the lumbosacral spine and most commonly occurred for the first time in adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. The most significant pain-related functional limitation was noted for physical activity, sitting, learning and concentration and lifting objects. CONCLUSIONS. 1. The prevalence of back pain in Polish adolescents is similar to relevant figures given for adults and their peers in Western Europe. 2. Spinal pain may significantly affect performance of daily activities by adolescents. Further studies should investigate strategies of pain management in this age group in more detail. 3. Regular exercise does not prevent back pain but it may reduce the functional limitations and stimulate recovery of complete capacity.
Mata, Ignacio; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Pazos, Angel; Gutierrez, Agustin; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose Luis; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, the long-term effect of its use in the brain remains controversial. In order to determine whether adolescence and early-adulthood cannabis use is associated with gross volumetric and gyrification abnormalities in the brain, we set up a cross-sectional study using structural magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of general population subjects. Thirty cannabis-using subjects (mean age, 25.7 years; mean duration of regular use, 8.4 years, range: 3-21) with no history of polydrug use or neurologic/mental disorder and 44 non-using control subjects (mean age, 25.8 years) were included. Cannabis users showed bilaterally decreased concavity of the sulci and thinner sulci in the right frontal lobe. Among non-users, age was significantly correlated with decreased gyrification (i.e., less concave sulci and more convexe gyri) and decreased cortical thickness, supporting the notion of age-related gyrification changes. However, among cannabis users gyrification indices did not show significant dependency on age, age of regular cannabis use initiation, or cumulative exposure to cannabis. These results suggest that cannabis use in adolescence and early-adulthood might involve a premature alteration in cortical gyrification similar to what is normally observed at a later age, probably through disruption of normal neurodevelopment. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Hall, Cristin M.; Murray, Robert A.
Decades of research indicate that many early adolescents are at risk for developing significant school adjustment problems in the academic, behavioral, and social domains during the transition to middle school. The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) model has been developed as a professional development and…
For the production of glass three ingredients are necessary: sand, a flux to reduce the melting-temperature and calcium to reduce the danger of glass corrosion. The first objects of glass were made with calcium-rich ashes of halophytic plants, until, in the first millennium BC, the glassmakers began to use natron as a flux adding calcium deliberately or choosing a calcium-rich sand. Natron, a mineral applied to fertilize or to preserve, as a spice, a detergent or part of medical and cosmetic articles, was exploited in the regions south and east of the Mediterranean, so the Central European glassmakers had to import natron or the prefabricated raw glass for their work. Beginning in the 8th century AD in Central Europe the flux changed again: The glassmakers increasingly used ashes from wood growing in their native regions so becoming independent of the necessity to import the raw materials. There are various reasons for this change: First, the Mediterranean was no longer the trade area it had been at the time of the antique Roman Empire due to the activities of the Byzantine navy. Then, the climatic change in the 8th century and political upheavals during the 9th century in Egypt--being the main supplier of natron--caused a decrease in exploitation and trade with this good. Finally, the Egyptian state established a monopoly on the natron production, causing a permanent price increase. Nevertheless, during the Early Middle Ages natron was imported into Europe, although not necessarily for glass production. The article shows that glassmakers of Central Europe were able to produce glass since the end of the Western Roman Empire on the basis of the transfer of raw materials and know-how from the East. From the 8th century onwards they emancipated themselves from the dependency on imports by discovering and using native materials for glass production.
Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910
Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fang, Jidong; Gaines, Jordan; Calhoun, Susan L.; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.
Study Objectives: To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15–35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. Methods: A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15–25 Hz) and high-beta (25–35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Results: Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J, Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fang J, Gaines J, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia is associated with cortical hyperarousal as early as adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1029–1036. PMID:26951400
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
Yarcheski, A; Mahon, N E
The purpose of this study was to examine social support as both a mediator and a moderator of the relationship between perceived stress and symptom patterns in early adolescents. Data were collected from 148 early adolescent boys and girls, ages 12 to 14, who responded to the Perceived Stress Scale, the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part II, and the Symptom Pattern Scale. Using multiple regression analysis procedures specified for the testing of moderation and mediation, results indicated that social support did not play a moderating role in the relationship between perceived stress and symptom patterns, but social support did play a mediating role in this relationship. The findings are interpreted within the two major theoretical orientations that guided the study.
Barker, Edward D; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara
It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems differentially co-develop with the EOP, CL and AO trajectories across the childhood and adolescent years. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an epidemiological, longitudinal cohort of boys and girls, we estimated growth curves for parent-reported hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors conditional on trajectories of conduct problems (i.e., EOP, CL and AO) from ages 4 to 13 years. At ages 7-8 years, DSM-IV-based diagnoses of conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression were examined by conduct problems trajectory. Overall, the development of hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors mirrored the development of conduct problems, showing similar trajectories. Results indicated that the problems of EOP youth were persistent across domains, CL youth showed decreased behavior problems while increasing in prosocial behaviors, and AO youth increased in adjustment problems after 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A
Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cass, Daryn K.; Thomases, Daniel R.; Caballero, Adriana; Tseng, Kuei Y.
Background Drug experimentation during adolescence is associated with increased risk of drug addiction relative to any other age group. To further our understanding on the neurobiology underlying such liability, we investigate how early adolescent cocaine experience impacts the overall medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network function in adulthood. Methods A non-contingent administration paradigm was used to assess the impact of early adolescent cocaine treatment (rats; postnatal days -PD- 35-40) on the overall inhibitory regulation of mPFC activity in adulthood (PD65-75) by means of histochemical and in vivo electrophysiological measures combined with pharmacological manipulations. Results Cocaine exposure during early adolescence yields a distinctive hyper-metabolic PFC state that was not observed in adult (PD75-80)-treated rats. Local field potential recordings expand upon these findings by showing that early adolescent cocaine exposure is associated with an attenuation of mPFC GABAergic inhibition evoked by ventral hippocampal stimulation at beta and gamma frequencies that endures throughout adulthood. Such cocaine-induced mPFC disinhibition was not observed in adult-exposed animals. Furthermore, the normal developmental upregulation of parvalbumin immunoreactivity observed in the mPFC from PD35 to PD65 is lacking following early adolescent cocaine treatment. Conclusion Our data indicate that repeated cocaine exposure during early adolescence can elicit a state of mPFC disinhibition resulting from a functional impairment of the local prefrontal GABAergic network that endures through adulthood. A lack of acquisition of prefrontal GABAergic function during adolescence could trigger long-term deficits in the mPFC that may increase the susceptibility for the onset of substance abuse and related psychiatric disorders. PMID:23558299
Rowe, Susan L; Gembeck, Melanie J Zimmer; Rudolph, Julia; Nesdale, Drew
Rejection sensitivity (RS) has been defined as the tendency to readily perceive and overreact to interpersonal rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test key propositions of RS theory, namely that rejecting experiences in relationships with parents are antecedents of early adolescents' future RS and symptomatology. We also expanded this to consider autonomy-restrictive parenting, given the importance of autonomy in early adolescence. Participants were 601 early adolescents (age 9 to 13 years old, 51% boys) from three schools in Australia. Students completed questionnaires at school about parent and peer relationships, RS, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at two times with a 14-month lag between assessments. Parents also reported on adolescents' difficulties at Time 1 (T1). It was anticipated that more experience of parental rejection, coercion, and psychological control would be associated with adolescents' escalating RS and symptoms over time, even after accounting for peer victimisation, and that RS would mediate associations between parenting and symptoms. Structural equation modelling supported these hypotheses. Parent coercion was associated with adolescents' increasing symptoms of social anxiety and RS over time, and parent psychological control was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Indirect effects via RS were also found, with parent rejection and psychological control linked to higher T1 RS, which was then associated with increasing loneliness and RS. Lastly, in a separate model, peer victimisation and RS, but not parenting practices, were positively associated with concurrent parent reports of adolescents' difficulties.
Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle; Ducharme, Daphne; Leblanc, Raymond
The purpose of this qualitative study is to pave the way for the establishment of healthy interpersonal relations by facilitating an understanding of the impacts of Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence as perceived by adolescents and teachers who took part in it. Lions Quest has become recognized as an evidence-based program for preventing alcohol and drug use through the development of social skills and the promotion of meaningful engagement in the school community (Lions Clubs International, Overview of Skills for Adolescence 2013). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7th and 8th grade Francophone and Anglophone adolescents from three schools in Eastern Ontario who had participated in Lions Quest . Deductive and inductive analysis of interview transcripts clearly underscored that the positive perceptions of those early adolescents on the quality of their relationships with friends outweigh the negative impression that can be created by peer pressures at this age. It is through such a filter that these adolescents came to appreciate the impact of Lions Quest. Their need to be part of a circle of friends also comes to the fore as a crucial component of a sense of school belonging (Faircloth and Hamm (2005) J Youth Adolesc 34:293-309), highlighting the need to incorporate more of this form of positive social norm into interventions and prevention geared toward early adolescents. The data also underline the complementary importance attributed to having positive relationships with supportive adults.
Chorlian, David B.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Dick, Danielle; Almasy, Laura; Bauer, Lance; Bucholz, Kathleen; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kang, Sun J.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice
Discrete time survival analysis (DTSA) was used to assess the age-specific association of event related oscillations (EROs) and CHRM2 gene variants on the onset of regular alcohol use and alcohol dependence. The subjects were 2938 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. Results showed that the CHRM2 gene variants and ERO risk factors had hazards which varied considerably with age. The bulk of the significant age-specific associations occurred in those whose age of onset was under 16. These associations were concentrated in those subjects who at some time took an illicit drug. These results are consistent with studies which associate greater rates of alcohol dependence among those who begin drinking at an early age. The age specificity of the genetic and neurophysiological factors is consistent with recent studies of adolescent brain development, which locate an interval of heightened vulnerability to substance use disorders in the early to mid teens. PMID:23963516
Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina
Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relationship with mother and father, lack of parental support in adolescent's individuation process and poor home atmosphere, and mental health was assessed using Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We analyzed the indirect effects of adolescent family relations on mental health at age 42 years old via various disadvantages (somatic and psychological symptoms, relationship/marital status, low education/unemployment and heavy drinking) at ages 22 and 32 years old. Problematic adolescent family relationships were associated with midlife psychological distress in women (0.19; 95% CI 0.11, 0.26) and men (0.13; 95% CI 0.04, 0.21). However, after adjustment for adolescent psychological symptoms, the association was only significant for women (0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.20). Poor family relationships were associated with various disadvantages in early adulthood. The association from poor family relationships (16 years old) to psychological distress (42 years old) was in part mediated via psychological symptoms in women (0.03; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04) and men (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.04) and in women also via heavy drinking in early adulthood (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.03). Adolescent family relationships have a role in determining adult mental health. Targeted support addressing psychological well-being and hazardous drinking for adolescents with problematic family relationships might prevent disadvantages in early adulthood, and further prevent poor midlife mental health.
Oman, Roy F; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B; Smith, David W; Penn, David A
To investigate relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors using an adolescent age group approach. Cross-sectional data from a randomly selected population. Risk behaviors were compared within specific demographic factors and by adolescent age groups. Racially diverse, inner-city neighborhoods in two midwestern cities. Teenagers (n = 1350) and parents (n = 1350) of the teenagers. Truancy; arrested/picked up by police; weapon carrying; fighting; sexual intercourse; tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; demographic factors; and family structure. Youth mean age was 15.4 (+/- 1.7) years and 52% were female; racial/ethnic characteristics were 47% White, 22% Black, 19% Hispanic, and 10% Native American. Parents' mean age was 42.2 (+/- 8.4) years and 81% were female. chi 2 analyses indicated numerous significant (p < .05) youth risk behavior differences within the demographic factors and that many of the differences varied by adolescent age group. For example, risk behavior differences within racial/ethnic groups were most profound in the middle and older age groups, whereas risk behavior differences within parent income, education levels, and family structure were most apparent in the younger age groups. Of the demographic factors, family structure was most frequently associated with the risk behaviors. The results generally suggest that the relationships among risk behaviors and demographic factors vary within the adolescent age groups included in this study. The results will be useful for developing age-appropriate prevention programs for youth who fit the profile for these risk behaviors. The study protocol also includes specific sampling methods that may be useful for future studies that intend to collect data from difficult-to-reach populations.
Halgunseth, Linda C; Perkins, Daniel F; Lippold, Melissa A; Nix, Robert L
Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in sixth grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by seventh grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by eighth grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.
Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924
Eyde, Donna R., Ed.; And Others
The collection of 12 papers from the 1979 First Annual Nebraska Symposium focuses on the problem of educating the secondary school aged disturbed student. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Issues in Diagnosis and Programming for Socio-Emotionally Impaired Early Adolescents" (W. Morse); "Adolescent Behavior--The…
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Barratt, Marguerite Stevenson
Identified factors contributing to competent parenting by adolescent mothers and optimal outcomes for their school-age children (n=258). Optimal parenting was found to be influenced by background factors as well as factors evolving since birth; in turn these factors and parenting influenced outcomes for children. (ABL)
Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon
Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.
Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fang, Jidong; Gaines, Jordan; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O
To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15-35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15-25 Hz) and high-beta (25-35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration. Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan
The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance. PMID:25983707
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff
Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth complications predispose to externalizing behavior is not well explored. This study aims to assess whether birth complications predispose to early adolescent externalizing behavior and to test whether Intelligence Quotient (IQ) mediates relationships between predictor and outcome variables. We used data from a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort of 1,795 3-year-old boys and girls from Mauritius to test hypotheses. Birth complications were assessed from hospital record data, malnutrition from a pediatric exam at age 3 years, psychosocial adversity from parental interviews at age 3 years, and externalizing behavior problems from parental ratings at age 11 years. We found that babies with birth complications are more likely to develop externalizing behavior problems at age 11. Low IQ was associated with birth complications and was found to mediate the link between early predictors and later externalizing behavior. These prospective, longitudinal findings have potential clinical implications for the identification of early adolescent externalizing behavior and for public health attempts to prevent the occurrence of child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:22485069
Mathias, L; Nestarez, J E; Kanas, M; Neme, B
This study examined the cases of 557 primiparous adolescents, between the ages of 9 and 19, who gave birth at the Obstetric Clinic of the Medical School of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from January 1975 to June 1980. During this period 13,961 deliveries took place, producing an adolescent pregnancy incidence of 3.9%. Based on previous work, 2 groups were established: Group I, composed of 242 women aged 9 to 16, and Group II, composed of 315 women aged 17 to 19. The greatest number of unwed mothers occurred in Group I, the younger age group (98.4%), compared to 54.3% in Group II. An important characteristic in the younger age group was lack of adequate prenatal care. In Group I only 12% received adequate prenatal care, while in Group II, 28.6% received adequate care. Clearly the greatest frequency of prematurity was in the younger group (28.1% of Group I vs. 12.4% of Group II), along with a higher rate of perinatal mortality (4.9% in Group I vs. 2.5% in Group II). Cases of eclampsia occurred more frequently in the younger adolescents (3.3% of Group I vs 1.6% of Group II), but hypertension was more prevalent among the older adolescents (35.9% in Group II vs. 22.7% in Group I). The authors conclude that during pregnancy all adolescents reach similar biologic and endocrine maturity and display similar obstetric performance. The less satisfactory performance among patients in Group I is primarily due to socioeconomic conditions, inadequate resolution of problems related to acceptance of pregnancy, lack of family support, and inadquate prenatal care. The authors believe that the risks associated with adolescent pregnancy could be substantially reduced if adolescents were better informed and received psychological support and adequate prenatal care.
Franken, Aart; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian E G; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, and tobacco use). Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50 % boys; M age = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first year of secondary school. The hypothesis was tested using Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling in SIENA. While taking the network structure into account, and controlling for peer influence effects, the results supported this hypothesis. Early adolescents with higher pubertal development were as likely as their peers to select friends based on similarity in externalizing behavior and especially likely to remain friends with peers who had a similar level of externalizing behavior, and thus break friendship ties with dissimilar friends in this respect. As early adolescents are actively engaged in reorganizing their social context, adolescents with a higher pubertal development are especially likely to lose friendships with peers who do not engage in externalizing behavior, thus losing an important source of adaptive social control (i.e., friends who do not engage in externalizing behavior).
Bierman, Karen L; Kalvin, Carla B; Heinrichs, Brenda S
This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with grade school peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. A central goal was to better understand the common and unique developmental correlates associated with these two types of peer adversity. There were 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male; average age=5.65 at kindergarten entry) followed into seventh grade. Six waves of data were included in structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing problems in kindergarten and Grade 1 (Waves 1-2); peer sociometric nominations tracked "least liked" and victimization in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (Waves 3-5); and youth reported on social problems, depressed mood, school adjustment difficulties, and delinquent activities in early adolescence (Grade 7, Wave 6). Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to grade school peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to grade school victimization. Early internalizing problems and grade school victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and grade school peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer rejection and victimization, and these two types of peer adversity had distinct as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research.
Bierman, Karen L.; Kalvin, Carla B.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.
Objective This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with gradeschool peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. A central goal was to better understand the common and unique developmental correlates associated with these two types of peer adversity. Method 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male; average age 5.65 at kindergarten entry) were followed into seventh grade. Six waves of data were included in structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing problems in kindergarten and grade 1 (waves 1–2); peer sociometric nominations tracked “least liked” and victimization in grades 2, 3, and 4 (waves 3–5); and youth reported on social problems, depressed mood, school adjustment difficulties, and delinquent activities in early adolescence (grade 7, wave 6). Results Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to gradeschool peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to gradeschool victimization. Early internalizing problems and gradeschool victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and gradeschool peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Conclusions Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer rejection and victimization, and these two types of peer adversity had distinct, as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research. PMID:24527989
Vohr, Betty R.; Allan, Walter; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Ment, Laura R.
Objective To assess the blood pressure of former preterm and term matched adolescent controls, and identify risk factors associated with blood pressure at 16 years. Design Observational cohort study. Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Setting Three academic centers participating in the Multicenter Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial. Participants 296 children born in 1989–1992 with birth weights 600- <1250g who participated in the Multicenter Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial and 95 term controls were evaluated at 16 years. Main Outcome Measures Blood pressure and predictors of blood pressure. Results The adjusted mean difference in blood pressure for preterm adolescents was 5.1 mm Hg; p=0.002 for systolic and 2.1 mm Hg; p=0.027 for diastolic blood pressure. Among preterms, the primary predictors of increased systolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months (b=8.54, p<.001), preeclampsia (b=5.67, p=0.020), non-white race (b=3.77, p=0.04) and male gender (b=5.09). Predictors of diastolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months, (b=4.69, p=0.001, brain injury (b=6.51, p=0.002 and male gender (b=−2.4, p=0.02). Conclusions Early programming secondary to increased early weight gain velocity, intrauterine stress and neonatal brain injury may all contribute to risk of increased blood pressure among former preterm adolescents. PMID:20586997
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K
This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample consisted of 523 ethnic German immigrants from the former Soviet Union and 475 native German adolescents, both groups divided into an early (age 12.5years) and a late (age 16years) adolescent group. Results revealed more developmental than acculturative change, as immigrants and natives mostly showed a similar rate of change in autonomy expectations. Acculturative change was found only for oppositional autonomy among late adolescent immigrants, whose later expectations approached those of their native age-mates over time. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L
To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.
Bierman, Karen L.
To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553
Rose, Allison; Koo, Helen P; Bhaskar, Brinda; Anderson, Karen; White, Gregory; Jenkins, Renee R
To describe rates of sexual intercourse initiation, anticipated level of sexual activity in the next 12 months, and other risk behaviors among fifth graders and to examine parental factors associated with such behaviors. This study is based on a cross-sectional, self-administered survey conducted with a nonrandom sample of 408 fifth graders and their caregivers. Children answered questions regarding sexual intercourse initiation, anticipated sexual activity in the next 12 months, and involvement in other risk behaviors. Caregivers answered questions about parenting factors such as monitoring behaviors, parent-child relationship quality, and parent-child communication. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined the association of these variables with the adolescents' behaviors. Almost 5% of girls and 17% of boys reported they had engaged in sexual intercourse. Only 34% of girls and 13% of boys said they did not expect to engage in any type of sexual contact in the next 12 months if they were going with someone they "liked a lot." Parental factors associated with fewer risk behaviors and expected sexual behaviors included higher levels of monitoring, fewer communication barriers, less permissive attitudes regarding adolescent sexual behavior, higher relationship quality with child, having fewer than five children in the household, higher levels of education, and being employed. Significant gender interactions were found for several variables. Adolescents are initiating sexual intercourse at extremely young ages. To delay early sexual activity and prevent adolescent pregnancy, prevention efforts must begin during the elementary school years and include those who raise and care for the adolescent.
van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmée E; van Leuven, Mirande
Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when younger versus older adolescents or girls versus boys differ in the way depression is experienced or expressed. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was administered to a large school population (N = 4048) aged 8-17 years. A 4-factor model was selected by means of factor analyses for ordered categorical measures. For each of the four factor scales measurement invariance with respect to gender and age (late childhood, early and middle adolescence) was tested using item response theory analyses. Subsequently, to examine which items contributed to measurement bias, all items were studied for differential item functioning (DIF). Finally, it was investigated how developmental patterns changed if measurement biases were accounted for. For each of the factors Self-Deprecation, Dysphoria, School Problems, and Social Problems measurement bias with respect to both gender and age was found and many items showed DIF. Developmental patterns changed profoundly when measurement bias was taken into account. The CDI seemed to particularly overestimate depression in late childhood, and underestimate depression in middle adolescent boys. For scientific as well as clinical use of the CDI, measurement bias with respect to gender and age should be accounted for. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K
The literature proposes that leisure boredom may systematically increase during adolescence. Moreover, some authors assume that this hypothesized developmental trend is associated with increases in youthful delinquency and depression. Individual dispositions (e.g., temperamental disinhibition) are believed to exacerbate the relationship between boredom and delinquency. This study investigated whether (1) leisure boredom really is an increasing phenomenon during early adolescence; (2) gender, temperamental disinhibition, shyness, family relationship quality, peer rejection, a deprived school context, and rural/urban living explain developmental variations in boredom; (3) boredom is longitudinally and reciprocally related to delinquency and depression; and (4) bored disinhibited adolescents are particularly likely to become delinquent and to use delinquent acts to mitigate boredom. Analyses were based on a German sample of school students (N = 722) who provided annual self-reports on study variables from age 10 to 14 years. Bivariate growth curve models captured correlations between developmental trajectories of boredom and delinquency/depression. Cross-lagged models examined reciprocal short-term associations. Analyses revealed a modest increase in leisure boredom during early adolescence. Disinhibition and qualities of proximal social contexts (family, peers, school) were related to boredom with peer rejection showing the most consistent longitudinal association. Boredom was developmentally associated with depression whereas longitudinal associations with delinquency were weaker and more short-term. Temperamentally disinhibited adolescents appeared to buffer leisure boredom by means of delinquency. Results support person-context models of leisure boredom with regard to its etiology and consequences. Findings further demonstrate that leisure boredom plays a prominent role in the developmental adaptation of adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.
Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…
Freeman, Ellen W.; Rickels, Karl
This book reports on the Penn Study of Teenage Pregnancy, which examined issues surrounding adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and childbearing. Participants were African-American teenagers between the ages of 13 and 17 from disadvantaged urban backgrounds. Based on individual interviews over 2 years in the early 1980s, the study provided details…
In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…
Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart
The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…
Pomerantz, Eva M.; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang
This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility…
This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender…
Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Sterzing, Paul R.
This study examines ecological level correlates of adverse peer relationships among early adolescents (ages 12-14). Data analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The sample was drawn from the mother-child data set, which included youth who in 2002 or 2004 were living with their mothers and enrolled in school.…
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, Rene; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan
This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 plus or minus 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to…
Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene
In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover, we examined whether acceptance in one context…
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Van Tyne, Kathryne
We examined the extent to which Hispanic orientation and American orientation are associated with substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana) both directly and indirectly through acculturative stress and self-esteem. Participants were 347 Hispanic early adolescents (50.7% male; mean age = 12.57, SD = 0.92, range 11-15) from two middle…
Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.
This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…
Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; Najman, Jake M
Early age of cannabis use predicts subsequent illicit drug abuse and other psychosocial problems. Identification of factors associated with early cannabis use may contribute to the development of preventive interventions. This study aimed to examine the early life predictors of age of initiation to cannabis. Data were from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 3488 young adults who self-reported frequency and age of onset of cannabis use at the 21 year follow up. Of 3488 young adults, 48.9% (51.8% men and 46.4% women) reported having ever used cannabis. For those who had ever used cannabis, age of onset had mean and median of 15.8 and 16.0 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis child's gender, change in maternal marital status, quality of marital relationship, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and maternal depression when the child was 5 years statistically significantly predicted age of initiation to cannabis use. The present study explores the impact of early childhood factors associated with age of onset of cannabis use. It is suggested that the family environment within which children are reared, including factors such as parents' marital circumstances, has a major influence on initiation to cannabis use in adolescence. Research is needed to disentangle the pathways of association between these early life factors and early initiation to use of cannabis. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J
While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) survivors (N = 179) and normal birth weight controls (N = 145) in the world, born between 1977 and 1982. Motor skills were measured using a performance-based assessment at age 8 and a retrospective self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.
This report examines early sexual debut (<age 15) among 15-year-old in-school adolescents in eight African countries. The total sample included 10 070 school children aged 15 years from nationally representative samples from eight African countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socioeconomic status variables. A total of 27.3% had experienced sexual debut before age 15, 38.1% among boys and 15.8% among girls. Boys and girls with sexual debut at less than age 15 were more likely to report alcohol, tobacco and drug use, truancy, poor parental or guardian connectedness, sedentary behaviour, having been in a physical fight and seriously injured, while for girls, mental distress and poor economic status and for boys, bullied and poor parental or guardian supervision were associated with early coital debut. In multivariable analysis, early sexual debut was among boys associated with currently smoking (OR = 4.45, p = 0.002) and truancy (OR = 2.02, p = 0.007) and, among girls, associated with lower education (OR = 0.22, p = 0.004), ever drunk (OR = 3.94, p = 0.016), having no close friends (OR = 3.36, p = 0.014) and poor parental connectedness (OR = 2.43, p = 0.037). The study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut among 15-year-olds in eight African countries. Risk factors identified were consistent with problem behaviour theory in which early onset of adolescent sexual behaviour is shared with other problem behaviours. Prevention programmes should broaden sexual health promotion including problem behaviour such as substance use and mental distress for boys and girls in the preteen years, before sexual debut.
Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa
This study investigated the role of morphological awareness in understanding Chinese word reading and dictation among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers in Hong Kong as well as the cognitive-linguistic profile of early adolescent readers with dyslexia. Fifty-four readers with dyslexia in Grades 5 and 6 were compared with 54 chronological age-matched (CA) typical readers on the following measures of cognitive-linguistic and literacy skills: morphological awareness, phonological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, vocabulary knowledge, verbal short-term memory (STM), Chinese word reading, and dictation (or spelling). The results indicated that early adolescent readers with dyslexia performed less well than the typical readers on all cognitive-linguistic and literacy measures except the phonological measures. Both groups' scores showed substantial correlations between morphological awareness and Chinese word reading and dictation. Visual-orthographic knowledge and rapid naming were also associated with dictation in early adolescent readers with and without dyslexia, respectively. Moderated multiple regression analyses further revealed that morphological awareness and rapid naming explained unique variance in word reading and dictation for the readers with dyslexia and typical readers separately after controlling readers' age and group effect. These results highlight the potential importance of morphological awareness and rapid naming in Chinese word reading and writing in Chinese early adolescents' literacy development and impairment.
Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R
The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU.
CASTELLANOS-RYAN, NATALIE; PINGAULT, JEAN-BAPTISTE; PARENT, SOPHIE; VITARO, FRANK; TREMBLAY, RICHARD E.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.
The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU. PMID:28031069
Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M
This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Braña Tobío, Teresa; Varela Mallou, Jesús; Barreiro Couto, Carmen
Problematic Internet use in adolescents has become an issue of concern for a growing number of researchers and institutions over the past years. Behavioural problems, social isolation, school failure and family problems are some of the consequences of psychological and behavioural impact on teenagers. Taking into account the interest that this issue has generated at many levels, the aim of this paper is to develop a screening tool for early detection of problematic Internet use in teenagers. A survey of Compulsory Secondary School students from Galicia involving a total of 2,339 individuals was carried out. The results obtained allow (1) gauging the magnitude of the problem, establishing the risk levels among the adolescents, and (2) presenting a new, simple and short screening instrument. The present scale has sufficient theoretical and empirical support, including good psychometric properties (a = .83; specificity = .81; sensitivity = .80; ROC curve = .90), making it an interesting applied tool.
Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri
Study Objectives: We examined associations between pubertal maturation and sleep in early adolescence, at age 12 y, and continuity and change in actigraphy-based sleep and parent-reported sleep disorders from age 8 to 12 y. We also explored longitudinal associations between actigraph estimates of sleep and sleep disorders. Design: A cohort study of children born in 1998 and tested at ages 8 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.3) and 12 y (SD = 0.5). Participants: A total of 348 children participated in cross-sectional analyses. We had longitudinal actigraphy data for 188 children and repeated parent reports of sleep disorders for 229 children. Measurements and Results: At age 8 y, participants wore actigraphs for 7.1 nights (SD = 1.2, range 3-14) on average and at age 12 y for 8.4 nights (SD = 1.7, range 3-11). Sleep disorders were parent-rated based on the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Pubertal maturity was self-reported at age 12 y using the continuous Pubertal Development Scale and the picture-assisted categorical Tanner scales. Results: Significant mean-level changes toward shorter but higher quality sleep occurred over time. Sleep variables had low to high rank-order stability over time. Sleep disorders were highly stable from age 8 to 12 y. Actigraphy-based sleep and parent-rated sleep disorders showed no association either in cross-section or longitudinally. Pubertal maturation was not associated with worse sleep. Conclusions: Sleep in early adolescence can be anticipated from childhood sleep patterns and disorders, but is not associated with pubertal maturity. Although sleep duration becomes shorter, sleep quality may improve during early adolescence. Parent-rated sleep disorders are distinct from actigraph estimates of sleep. Citation: Pesonen AK; Martikainen S; Heinonen K; Wehkalampi K; Lahti J; Kajantie E; Räikkönen K. Continuity and change in poor sleep from childhood to early adolescence. SLEEP 2014;37(2):289-297. PMID:24497657
Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi
Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725
Lorson, Kevin M; Stodden, David F; Langendorfer, Stephen J; Goodway, Jacqueline D
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14-17 years old), young adults (18-25 years old), and adults (35-55 years old). Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton's developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15m to 20m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) x 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up post-hoc tests. Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between young-adult and adolescent groups. Gender differences (p < .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed (p < .001) existed within each age group. Although these data were cross-sectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationships among motor skill competence, physical fitness, and physical activity across the lifespan.
Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kerr, David C R; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C; Owen, Lee
Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13-14 years, involving five time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11-12 to 13-14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. The findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children's effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children's development of effortful control from middle childhood to early adolescence.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee
Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809
Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni
Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this
Nakamura, Priscila M; Mielke, Grégore I; Horta, Bernardo L; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Hallal, Pedro C
Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood. HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years. At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c. Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.
Whittle, Sarah; Liu, Kirra; Bastin, Coralie; Harrison, Ben J; Davey, Christopher G
Investigating how brain development during adolescence and early adulthood underlies guilt- and shame-proneness may be important for understanding risk processes for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental correlates of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness in healthy adolescents and young adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). Sixty participants (age range: 15-25) completed sMRI and self-report measures of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness. Independent of interpersonal guilt, higher levels of shame-proneness were associated with thinner posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) thickness and smaller amygdala volume. Higher levels of shame-proneness were also associated with attenuated age-related reductions in thickness of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC). Our findings highlight the complexities in understanding brain-behavior relationships during the adolescent/young adult period. Results were consistent with growing evidence that accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence may be associated with superior socioemotional functioning. Further research is required to understand the implications of these findings for mental disorders characterized by higher levels of guilt and shame. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Gerds, Thomas A; Petersen, Liselotte; Sovio, Ulla; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandbaek, Annelli; Laitinen, Jaana; Taanila, Anja; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Obel, Carsten
Maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and preschool BMI may help identify children at high risk of overweight as they are (1) similarly linked to adolescent overweight at different stages of the obesity epidemic, (2) linked to adult obesity and metabolic alterations, and (3) easily obtainable in health examinations in young children. The aim was to develop early childhood prediction models of adolescent overweight, adult overweight, and adult obesity. Prediction models at various ages in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1966 (NFBC1966) were developed. Internal validation was tested using a bootstrap design, and external validation was tested for the model predicting adolescent overweight using the Northern Finland Birth Cohort born in 1986 (NFBC1986). A prediction model developed in the NFBC1966 to predict adolescent overweight, applied to the NFBC1986, and aimed at labelling 10% as "at risk" on the basis of anthropometric information collected until 5 years of age showed that half of those at risk in fact did become overweight. This group constituted one-third of all who became overweight. Our prediction model identified a subgroup of children at very high risk of becoming overweight, which may be valuable in public health settings dealing with obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Aseltine, R H; Gore, S L
Despite evidence of a strong association between stress and level of drinking in adolescent populations, the role of stress in accounting for changes in drinking behavior throughout the adolescent years is unclear. This study uses a linear growth curve analysis to examine the determinants of within-individual changes in drinking frequency and binge drinking across five waves of data from a community sample of adolescents who were followed into young adulthood. Predictors of drinking include: stressful life events, parental and peer social support, and parental and peer relationship problems. Findings indicate significant effects of stressful life events and parental support and conflict on both the frequency and intensity of alcohol use. Although age-related changes in these variables coincide with changes in drinking behavior, they do not account for drinking variability over this period. Results from conditional models demonstrate that the impact of the stress is contingent on age, and that the strong associations between drinking and stress evidenced during the high school years weaken considerably as individuals move into their late teens and early twenties. Discussion centers on the complex motivations for and facilitators of drinking as young people mature and change environments over the adolescent years.
Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun
Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384
Kravić, Nermina; Pajević, Izet; Hasanović, Mevludin
Aim To examine how the experience of genocide in Srebrenica in the early childhood (ages 1-5) influences the psychological health in adolescence. Methods This study included 100 school-attending adolescents, age 15-16 (born in 1990-91) who were divided in two groups according to the place of residence from 1992-1995: the Srebrenica group – adolescents who lived in Srebrenica during the siege and the non-Srebrenica group who lived in the “free territory,” were not wounded, and experienced no losses. We used the socio-demographic questionnaire created for the purposes of our study and the War Trauma Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Reactions Questionnaire, Self-report Depressive Scale (Zung), Freiburg Personality Inventory, and the Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results Srebrenica adolescents experienced significantly more traumatic experiences (14.26 ± 3.11 vs 4.86 ± 3.16, P < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in the total score of posttraumatic stress reactions and intensity of depression between the two groups, significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress reaction were noticed for several specific questions. The most prominent defense mechanisms in both groups were projection, intellectualization, and reactive formation. Srebrenica adolescents had higher sociability levels (34.7% vs 16.0%, χ2 = 7.231, P = 0.020). Conclusion Srebrenica adolescents reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms and significantly greater sociability. Our findings could be used for planning treatment and improving communication and overcoming traumas in war-affected areas. PMID:23444247
Alshihri, Amin M; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
The aim of this study was to establish reference data on third molar morphology/development for age estimation in Western Saudi adolescents, between ages 14 and 23 years of old. The orthopantomograms of 130 individuals (males and females), were examined, and the stage of third molar development were evaluated. Mean ages, standard deviations, and percentile distributions are presented for each stage of development. The mean estimated age for all participants (n = 130) was 219.7 months, and this differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean chronological age (226.5 months). Deviations of predicted age from real age showed 28.5% of all participants had their age estimated within 1 year (±12 months) of their chronological age. Most (43%) had their age underestimated by more than 12 months and the remaining 28.5% had their age overestimated by more than 12 months of their chronological age. Differences in left-right symmetry information of third molars were detected and were higher in the maxilla (92%) than in the mandible (82%). For all molars reaching stage "H" most individuals (males and females) were over the age 18 years of old. Males reach the developmental stages earlier than females. Third molar tooth development can be reliably used to generate mean age and the estimated age range for an individual of unknown chronological age. Further studies with large populations are needed for better statistical results.
Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Objective: The aim of this study was to establish reference data on third molar morphology/development for age estimation in Western Saudi adolescents, between ages 14 and 23 years of old. Materials and Methods: The orthopantomograms of 130 individuals (males and females), were examined, and the stage of third molar development were evaluated. Results: Mean ages, standard deviations, and percentile distributions are presented for each stage of development. The mean estimated age for all participants (n = 130) was 219.7 months, and this differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the mean chronological age (226.5 months). Deviations of predicted age from real age showed 28.5% of all participants had their age estimated within 1 year (±12 months) of their chronological age. Most (43%) had their age underestimated by more than 12 months and the remaining 28.5% had their age overestimated by more than 12 months of their chronological age. Differences in left-right symmetry information of third molars were detected and were higher in the maxilla (92%) than in the mandible (82%). For all molars reaching stage “H” most individuals (males and females) were over the age 18 years of old. Males reach the developmental stages earlier than females. Conclusion: Third molar tooth development can be reliably used to generate mean age and the estimated age range for an individual of unknown chronological age. Further studies with large populations are needed for better statistical results. PMID:25202206
Chiasson, V; Vera-Estay, E; Lalonde, G; Dooley, J J; Beauchamp, M H
There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years. The findings show a linear increase in MR from childhood to late adolescence with significant group differences between childhood (6-8 years) and preadolescence (9-11 years), and between early adolescence (12-14 years) and middle adolescence (15-17 years). Interpreted in light of current brain development research, the results highlight age-related changes in MR that offer insight into typical MR development and opportunities for comparisons with clinical populations. The findings also provide evidence of the potential of the So-Moral as a developmentally appropriate measure of MR throughout childhood and adolescence.
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.
Childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood aggression-disruptiveness and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. PMID:25403544
The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839
van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf
Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849
Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace
A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls
Mills, Kathryn L.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11–17 and 22–30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking. PMID:26715991
Mills, Kathryn L; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11-17 and 22-30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking.
Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Kwan, Matthew; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E
Sex differences in the rate of decline in physical activity (PA) are most pronounced during adolescence. However, once boys and girls are aligned on biological age, sex differences in the patterns of PA become attenuated. The aim of this study was to test whether biological maturation can account for sex differences in participation in PA over time from late childhood to early adolescence. A prospective cohort of children (N = 2100; 1064 boys) was followed from ages 11 to 14 yr, with repeated assessments of PA and anthropometry. Self-reported participation in organized and free play activities was used to track participation in PA. Biological age was measured using an estimate of years to attainment of peak height velocity. Mixed-effects models were used to test whether controlling for biological age attenuates the effect of chronological age and sex on PA. As expected, the rate of decline in participation in PA was greater for girls than for boys (B = -1.18, P < 0.01). In multivariable analyses, adjusting for biological age completely attenuated the effect of sex and chronological age for participation in free play activities, but not for participation in organized play. Overall, biological age was a stronger predictor of participation than chronological age. The effect of biological age on sex by chronological age differences may be specific to certain types of PA participation. Given the importance of maturation to participation in activity, it is suggested that public health strategies target biological not chronological age to prevent declines in PA during adolescence particularly when promoting habitual or lifestyle activity.
Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M
The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance
Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Read, Jennifer P
Little research has examined the development of alcohol expectancies in childhood, a notable omission as expectancies are viable targets for prevention programs. Moreover, limited alcohol expectancies research has been conducted from the perspective of psychobiological models of motivation despite the strong conceptual links between such models and cognitive models of alcohol use. To examine if the associations between individual differences from the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray JA, McNaughton N. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-hippocampal System (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000) and alcohol use is mediated by alcohol expectancies in a large community sample of early adolescents using a prospective design. 378 families (1 caregiver; 1 child) were recruited via random digit phone call using a prospective design. Our findings suggest that both a strong behavioral approach system and fight-flight or freeze system were associated with high levels of positive outcome expectancies, which subsequently predicted an increase in likelihood of alcohol use. There was also some evidence that drive (an aspect of behavioral approach system) was also positively associated with negative expectancies, which subsequently predicted a low probability of alcohol use. Individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity may influence the acquisition of positive and negative outcome expectancies, thereby potentially influencing the likelihood of alcohol use in early adolescence. Thus, reinforcement sensitivity theory is a promising theory to account for the link between neural models of addiction and early acquisition of alcohol use in humans.
Willoughby, Karen A.; Desrocher, Mary; Levine, Brian; Rovet, Joanne F.
Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. Using the newly developed Children’s Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM both improved between 8 and 16 years of age; however, age-related changes were larger for episodic AM than for semantic AM. In addition, females were found to recall more episodic AM details, but not more semantic AM details, than males. Importantly, this sex difference in episodic AM recall was attenuated under conditions of high retrieval support (i.e., the use of probing questions). The ability to clearly visualize past events at the time of recollection was related to children’s episodic AM recall performance, particularly the retrieval of perceptual details. Finally, similar age and sex effects were found between episodic AM and everyday memory ability (e.g., memory for everyday activities). More specifically, older participants and females exhibited better episodic AM and everyday memory performance than younger participants and males. Overall, the present study provides important new insight into both episodic and semantic AM performance, as well as the relation between episodic AM and everyday memory, during late childhood and adolescence. PMID:22403560
Willoughby, Karen A; Desrocher, Mary; Levine, Brian; Rovet, Joanne F
Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. Using the newly developed Children's Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM both improved between 8 and 16 years of age; however, age-related changes were larger for episodic AM than for semantic AM. In addition, females were found to recall more episodic AM details, but not more semantic AM details, than males. Importantly, this sex difference in episodic AM recall was attenuated under conditions of high retrieval support (i.e., the use of probing questions). The ability to clearly visualize past events at the time of recollection was related to children's episodic AM recall performance, particularly the retrieval of perceptual details. Finally, similar age and sex effects were found between episodic AM and everyday memory ability (e.g., memory for everyday activities). More specifically, older participants and females exhibited better episodic AM and everyday memory performance than younger participants and males. Overall, the present study provides important new insight into both episodic and semantic AM performance, as well as the relation between episodic AM and everyday memory, during late childhood and adolescence.
Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M
Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Johnson, J G; Cohen, P; Smailes, E M; Skodol, A E; Brown, J; Oldham, J M
Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate whether childhood verbal abuse increases risk for personality disorders (PDs) during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric and psychosocial interviews were administered to a representative community sample of 793 mothers and their offspring from two New York State counties in 1975, 1983, 1985 to 1986, and 1991 to 1993, when the mean ages of the offspring were 5, 14, 16, and 22 years, respectively. Data regarding childhood abuse and neglect were obtained from the psychosocial interviews and from official New York State records. Offspring who experienced maternal verbal abuse during childhood were more than three times as likely as those who did not experience verbal abuse to have borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and paranoid PDs during adolescence or early adulthood. These associations remained significant after offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. In addition, youths who experienced childhood verbal abuse had elevated borderline, narcissistic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood after the covariates were accounted for. These findings suggest that childhood verbal abuse may contribute to the development of some types of PDs, independent of offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.
Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca
Aims: Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. Methods: 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Results: Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Conclusion: Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents’ self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms. PMID:27445941
Beckwith, L; Rodning, C; Cohen, S
Patterns in mother-child interaction from infancy to age 12 were investigated in a prospective, longitudinal study of 44 English-speaking mothers and their preterm children. Maternal responsiveness was assessed by home observations during infancy and the Family Interaction Q-Sort at age 12, derived from 2 structured laboratory situations requiring cooperation of mother and child. A cluster of maternal behaviors of critical control toward the toddler was assessed at age 2 years. Children of mothers who were consistently more responsive during both infancy and early adolescence, as well as children whose mothers became more responsive by age 12, achieved higher IQ and arithmetic scores, had more positive self-esteem, and their teachers reported fewer behavioral and emotional problems than children of mothers who were consistently less responsive both during infancy and at age 12. Continuity in parenting behaviors was related to control and criticism beginning in the toddler period and not to degree of responsiveness to the infant.
Lewis, G J; Plomin, R
Although behavioural problems (e.g., anxiety, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems) are known to be heritable both in early childhood and in adolescence, limited work has examined prediction across these ages, and none using a genetically informative sample. We examined, first, whether parental ratings of behavioural problems (indexed by the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire) at ages 4, 7, 9, 12, and 16 years were stable across these ages. Second, we examined the extent to which stability reflected genetic or environmental effects through multivariate quantitative genetic analysis on data from a large (n > 3000) population (UK) sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Behavioural problems in early childhood (age 4 years) showed significant associations with the corresponding behavioural problem at all subsequent ages. Moreover, stable genetic influences were observed across ages, indicating that biological bases underlying behavioural problems in adolescence are underpinned by genetic influences expressed as early as age 4 years. However, genetic and environmental innovations were also observed at each age. These observations indicate that genetic factors are important for understanding stable individual differences in behavioural problems across childhood and adolescence, although novel genetic influences also facilitate change in such behaviours.
Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Beck, Anne; Pöhland, Lydia; Raufelder, Diana; Sommer, Werner; Rapp, Michael A; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen
Processing of reward is the basis of adaptive behavior of the human being. Neural correlates of reward processing seem to be influenced by developmental changes from adolescence to late adulthood. The aim of this study is to uncover these neural correlates during a slot machine gambling task across the lifespan. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate 102 volunteers in three different age groups: 34 adolescents, 34 younger adults, and 34 older adults. We focused on the core reward areas ventral striatum (VS) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), the valence processing associated areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula, as well as information integration associated areas, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Results showed that VS and VMPFC were characterized by a hyperactivation in adolescents compared with younger adults. Furthermore, the ACC and insula were characterized by a U-shape pattern (hypoactivation in younger adults compared with adolescents and older adults), whereas the DLPFC and IPL were characterized by a J-shaped form (hyperactivation in older adults compared with younger groups). Furthermore, a functional connectivity analysis revealed an elevated negative functional coupling between the inhibition-related area rIFG and VS in younger adults compared with adolescents. Results indicate that lifespan-related changes during reward anticipation are characterized by different trajectories in different reward network modules and support the hypothesis of an imbalance in maturation of striatal and prefrontal cortex in adolescents. Furthermore, these results suggest compensatory age-specific effects in fronto-parietal regions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Torres, D Diego
Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goncy, Elizabeth A; Mrug, Sylvie
This study examined the location and time of adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Age, gender, and racial differences in location and time of use were studied for each substance. Using cross-sectional data collected through the schoolwide Pride Survey, 20,055 students between the ages of 10 and 19 years (53.6% female, 55.1% Black, 44.9% White) in one metropolitan area reported on their frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, as well as the location and time of use of each substance. Chi-square tests compared the rates, locations, and times for each substance across boys and girls; Black and White students; and early, middle, and late adolescents. Older adolescents reported higher rates of substance use at friends' homes, at school, and in cars and lower rates of alcohol use at home compared with younger youth. Males were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use at school and on weeknights and alcohol use in cars, whereas females were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use on the weekends. No gender differences emerged for times and locations of cigarette use. Compared with Black youth, White adolescents were more likely to use all substances at friends' homes and on weekends; to smoke cigarettes at school, in the car, and on weeknights; and to use alcohol at home. Black adolescents were more likely to report using alcohol at home, at school, in cars, during and after school, and on weeknights and were more likely to report using marijuana at school. The location and time of adolescent substance use vary substantially by age, gender, and race. These differences may help tailor substance use prevention and intervention programs to specific subgroups of youth to improve program effectiveness.
Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue
Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Burkholder, Amanda R; Koss, Kalsea J.; Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R
This study examined children’s (N = 79; 9–10 years) and adolescents’ (N = 82; 15–16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful. PMID:28584408
The aim of the current research was to disentangle four theoretically sound models of externalizing behavior etiology (i.e., attachment, language, inhibition, and parenting) by testing their relation with behavioral trajectories from early childhood to adolescence. The aim was achieved through a 10-year prospective longitudinal study conducted over five waves with 111 referred children aged 3 to 5 years at the onset of the study. Clinical referral was primarily based on externalizing behavior. A multimethod (questionnaires, testing, and observations) approach was used to estimate the four predictors in early childhood. In line with previous studies, the results show a significant decrease of externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence. The decline was negatively related to mothers' coercive parenting and positively related to attachment security in early childhood, but not related to inhibition and language. The study has implications for research into externalizing behavior etiology recommending to gather hypotheses from various theoretically sound models to put them into competition with one another. The study also has implications for clinical practice by providing clear indications for prevention and early intervention.
Teixeira, Sérgio Araujo Martins; Taquette, Stella Regina
To identify factors associated with unprotected sexual activity in females under the age of 15 years. Cross-sectional observational study of sexually active adolescents under the age of 15 seen at a public outpatient gynecology clinic. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews (personal information and data on sexuality), clinical examination, and laboratory tests for diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. Data were analyzed by frequency testing, association of variables (with p <0.05) and multiple correspondence analysis. One hundred sexually active adolescents between the ages of 11 and 14 were interviewed and examined. Of these, 71% declared themselves black; one-third were behind in school; 80% began sexual activity before the age of 13; 58% reported having been victims of violence within the family environment, and 13% had suffered sexual abuse; 77% did not use condoms regularly; and 22% had STIs. Unprotected sexual activity was more frequent with first sexual intercourse before the age of 13, commercial sexual exploitation, multiple sexual partners, intrafamily violence and school delay, as well as black race, unexpected pregnancy, and STIs. The multiple types of violence suffered by teenagers, including structural, intrafamily, and sexual violence, increase their vulnerability to early, unprotected sexual activity and to STIs and unexpected pregnancy. The synergistic effects of poverty, low educational achievement, and low self-esteem reduces the odds that adolescents will build the tools required for self-protection and exposes them to further victimization outside the family environment.
Farvid, Maryam S; Chen, Wendy Y; Michels, Karin B; Cho, Eunyoung; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather
To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Prospective cohort study. Health professionals in the United States. 90 476 premenopausal women aged 27-44 from the Nurses' Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991 as well as 44 223 of those women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence in 1998. Incident cases of invasive breast cancer, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. There were 3235 cases of invasive breast cancer during follow-up to 2013. Of these, 1347 cases were among women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence (ages 13-18). Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.90; P=0.01 for trend) for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake. The association for fruit intake during adolescence was independent of adult fruit intake. There was no association between risk and total fruit intake in early adulthood and total vegetable intake in either adolescence or early adulthood. Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in α carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake. The association with adolescent fruit intake was stronger for both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cancers than estrogen and progesterone receptor positive cancers (P=0.02 for heterogeneity). For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Fruit juice intake
Chen, Wendy Y; Michels, Karin B; Cho, Eunyoung; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather
Objective To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 90 476 premenopausal women aged 27-44 from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991 as well as 44 223 of those women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence in 1998. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast cancer, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results There were 3235 cases of invasive breast cancer during follow-up to 2013. Of these, 1347 cases were among women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence (ages 13-18). Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.90; P=0.01 for trend) for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake. The association for fruit intake during adolescence was independent of adult fruit intake. There was no association between risk and total fruit intake in early adulthood and total vegetable intake in either adolescence or early adulthood. Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in α carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake. The association with adolescent fruit intake was stronger for both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cancers than estrogen and progesterone receptor positive cancers (P=0.02 for heterogeneity). For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was
Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Spieker, Susan
From a longitudinal sample (n = 957; 49.9% male; 77.3% White/non-Hispanic) of participants studied from infancy through age 15, adolescents' depth of engagement in, and quality of romantic relationships were predicted from early and contemporaneous parent-child interactive quality and peer social competence. High quality maternal parenting and…
Hamann, Christoph; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Tarokh, Leila
The ever-increasing use of the Internet among adolescents represents an emerging opportunity for researchers to gain access to larger samples, which can be queried over several years longitudinally. Among adolescents, young adolescents (ages 11 to 13 years) are of particular interest to clinicians as this is a transitional stage, during which depressive and anxiety symptoms often emerge. However, it remains unclear whether these youngest adolescents can accurately answer questions about their mental well-being using a Web-based platform. The aim of the study was to examine the accuracy of responses obtained from Web-based questionnaires by comparing Web-based with paper-and-pencil versions of depression and anxiety questionnaires. The primary outcome was the score on the depression and anxiety questionnaires under two conditions: (1) paper-and-pencil and (2) Web-based versions. Twenty-eight adolescents (aged 11-13 years, mean age 12.78 years and SD 0.78; 18 females, 64%) were randomly assigned to complete either the paper-and-pencil or the Web-based questionnaire first. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to measure intrarater reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated separately for depression (Children's Depression Inventory, CDI) and anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, SCAS) questionnaires. On average, it took participants 17 minutes (SD 6) to answer 116 questions online. Intraclass correlation coefficient analysis revealed high intrarater reliability when comparing Web-based with paper-and-pencil responses for both CDI (ICC=.88; P<.001) and the SCAS (ICC=.95; P<.001). According to published criteria, both of these values are in the "almost perfect" category indicating the highest degree of reliability. The results of the study show an excellent reliability of Web-based assessment in 11- to 13-year-old children as compared with the standard paper-pencil assessment. Furthermore, we found that Web
Austin, S. Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Wypij, David; Haines, Jess; Camargo, Carlos A.; Field, Alison E.
Purpose To describe patterns of purging and binge eating from early through late adolescence in female and male youth across a range of sexual orientations. Methods Using data from the prospective Growing Up Today Study, a large cohort of U.S. youth, we investigated trends in past-year self-reports of purging (ever vomit or use laxatives for weight control) and binge eating at least monthly. The analytic sample included 57,668 observations from repeated measures gathered from 13,795 youth ages 12 to 23 years providing information collected by self-administered questionnaires from six waves of data collection. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine sexual orientation group (heterosexual, “mostly heterosexual,” bisexual, and lesbian/gay) differences in purging and binge eating throughout adolescence, with same-gender heterosexuals as the referent group and controlling for age and race/ethnicity. Results Throughout adolescence, in most cases, sexual orientation group differences were evident at the youngest ages and persisted through adolescence. Among females and compared to heterosexuals, “mostly heterosexuals,” bisexuals, and lesbians were more likely to report binge eating, but only “mostly heterosexuals” and bisexuals were also more likely to report purging. Among males, all three sexual orientation subgroups were more likely than heterosexual males to report both binge eating and purging. Within each orientation subgroup, females generally reported higher prevalence of purging and binge eating than did males. Conclusions Clinicians need to be alert to the risk of eating disordered behaviors in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and “mostly heterosexual” adolescents of both genders in order to better evaluate these youth and refer them for treatment. PMID:19699419
Haydon, Abigail A.; Herring, Amy H.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker
Purpose Although the emergence of sexual expression during adolescence and early adulthood is nearly universal, little is known about patterns of initiation. Methods We used latent class analysis to group 12,194 respondents from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) into one of five classes based on variety, timing, spacing, and sequencing of oral-genital, anal, and vaginal sex. Multinomial logistic regression models, stratified by biological sex, examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics and class membership. Results Approximately half of respondents followed a pattern characterized predominately by initiation of vaginal sex first, average age of initiation of approximately 16 years, and spacing of one year or more between initiation of the first and second behaviors; almost one third initiated sexual activity slightly later but reported first experiences of oral-genital and vaginal sex within the same year. Classes characterized by postponement of sexual activity, initiation of only one type of behavior, or adolescent initiation of anal sex were substantially less common. Compared to White respondents, Black respondents were more likely to appear in classes characterized by initiation of vaginal sex first. Respondents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were more likely to be in classes distinguished by early/atypical patterns of initiation. Conclusions A small number of typical and atypical patterns capture the emergence of sexual behavior during adolescence, but these patterns reveal complex associations among different elements of emerging sexuality that should be considered in future research. PMID:22525108
Liebrand, Diederik; de Bakker, Anouk T. M.; Beddow, Helen M.; Wilson, Paul A.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Ruessink, Gerben; Pälike, Heiko; Batenburg, Sietske J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Hodell, David A.; Huck, Claire E.; Kroon, Dick; Raffi, Isabella; Saes, Mischa J. M.; van Dijk, Arnold E.; Lourens, Lucas J.
Understanding the stability of the early Antarctic ice cap in the geological past is of societal interest because present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations have reached values comparable to those estimated for the Oligocene and the Early Miocene epochs. Here we analyze a new high-resolution deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ18O) record from the South Atlantic Ocean spanning an interval between 30.1 My and 17.1 My ago. The record displays major oscillations in deep-sea temperature and Antarctic ice volume in response to the ˜110-ky eccentricity modulation of precession. Conservative minimum ice volume estimates show that waxing and waning of at least ˜85 to 110% of the volume of the present East Antarctic Ice Sheet is required to explain many of the ˜110-ky cycles. Antarctic ice sheets were typically largest during repeated glacial cycles of the mid-Oligocene (˜28.0 My to ˜26.3 My ago) and across the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (˜23.0 My ago). However, the high-amplitude glacial-interglacial cycles of the mid-Oligocene are highly symmetrical, indicating a more direct response to eccentricity modulation of precession than their Early Miocene counterparts, which are distinctly asymmetrical—indicative of prolonged ice buildup and delayed, but rapid, glacial terminations. We hypothesize that the long-term transition to a warmer climate state with sawtooth-shaped glacial cycles in the Early Miocene was brought about by subsidence and glacial erosion in West Antarctica during the Late Oligocene and/or a change in the variability of atmospheric CO2 levels on astronomical time scales that is not yet captured in existing proxy reconstructions.
de Bakker, Anouk T. M.; Beddow, Helen M.; Wilson, Paul A.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Pälike, Heiko; Batenburg, Sietske J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Hodell, David A.; Huck, Claire E.; Kroon, Dick; Raffi, Isabella; Saes, Mischa J. M.; van Dijk, Arnold E.; Lourens, Lucas J.
Understanding the stability of the early Antarctic ice cap in the geological past is of societal interest because present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations have reached values comparable to those estimated for the Oligocene and the Early Miocene epochs. Here we analyze a new high-resolution deep-sea oxygen isotope (δ18O) record from the South Atlantic Ocean spanning an interval between 30.1 My and 17.1 My ago. The record displays major oscillations in deep-sea temperature and Antarctic ice volume in response to the ∼110-ky eccentricity modulation of precession. Conservative minimum ice volume estimates show that waxing and waning of at least ∼85 to 110% of the volume of the present East Antarctic Ice Sheet is required to explain many of the ∼110-ky cycles. Antarctic ice sheets were typically largest during repeated glacial cycles of the mid-Oligocene (∼28.0 My to ∼26.3 My ago) and across the Oligocene−Miocene Transition (∼23.0 My ago). However, the high-amplitude glacial−interglacial cycles of the mid-Oligocene are highly symmetrical, indicating a more direct response to eccentricity modulation of precession than their Early Miocene counterparts, which are distinctly asymmetrical—indicative of prolonged ice buildup and delayed, but rapid, glacial terminations. We hypothesize that the long-term transition to a warmer climate state with sawtooth-shaped glacial cycles in the Early Miocene was brought about by subsidence and glacial erosion in West Antarctica during the Late Oligocene and/or a change in the variability of atmospheric CO2 levels on astronomical time scales that is not yet captured in existing proxy reconstructions. PMID:28348211
Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.
This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…
Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.
The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…
Stemmler, Mark; Petersen, Anne C.
Based on a model by Cyranowski, J., et al. (2000), Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 21-27, adolescents at-risk for the development of depressive symptoms were identified. Adolescents were considered at-risk if they had 2 or more of the following early adolescent risk factors: (1) insecure parental attachment, (2) anxious/inhibited temperament, (3) low…