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Sample records for early adolescent psychopathology

  1. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  3. Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology.

    PubMed

    af Klinteberg, Britt; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Gacono, Carl; Alm, Per Olof

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11-14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32-40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36-44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group--the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology.

  4. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  5. Early Adversity, Psychopathology, and Latent Class Profiles of Global Physical Health From Preschool Through Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Diana J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L

    The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence; explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period; and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning 10 years. Semistructured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children's psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3 and 6 years. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child's physical health problems (ages 3-13) and reported on the family's income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Growth mixture modeling revealed 2 trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3 to 13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Estimate [Est] = 0.05, p < .001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est = -0.01, p = .012), and psychosocial adversity (Est = 0.02, p = .015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ = 0.31, p = .050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ = -0.29, p < .021). These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems.

  6. Early adversity, psychopathology, and latent class profiles of global physical health from preschool through early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Diana J.; Belden, Andy C.; Tillman, Rebecca; Barch, Deanna M.; Luby, Joan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present report was to describe the longitudinal trajectories of physical health beginning during preschool and continuing into early adolescence, explore whether these trajectories were predicted by psychosocial adversity, family income-to-needs ratio, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period, and determine whether psychiatric disorders mediated these relations. Methods Participants included 296 children participating in a longitudinal study of early-onset psychopathology spanning ten years. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted with caregivers to determine children’s psychiatric diagnoses between ages 3–6. Caregivers also completed annual assessments of their child’s physical health problems (ages 3–13), as well as reported on the family’s income and indicators of psychosocial adversity. Results Growth mixture modeling revealed two trajectories of physical health problems: a stable, low group (n = 199) and a high, increasing group (n = 57) indicating linear increases in physical health problems from ages 3–13. Preschool psychiatric diagnoses (Est= 0.05, p<.001), family income-to-needs ratio (Est= −0.01, p=.012), and psychosocial adversity (Est=0.02, p=.015) predicted membership in the high, increasing trajectory of physical health problems. Early-onset psychopathology mediated relations between psychosocial adversity and physical health problems (αβ= 0.31, p=.050) and between income-to-needs ratio and physical health problems (αβ= −0.29, p<.021). Conclusions These findings indicate the importance of early indicators of risk: low income-to-needs ratios, high psychosocial adversity, and psychiatric disorders occurring during the preschool period for contributing to increasing physical health problems from preschool through early adolescence. Early-onset psychiatric disorders also mediated relations between psychosocial adversity, income-to-needs ratio, and physical health problems

  7. Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology as predictors of cannabis use disorder onset during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2017-08-01

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  9. Cognitive vulnerabilities and depression versus other psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Lauren B; Black, Shimrit K; Young, Mathew E; Goldstein, Kim E; Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Boccia, Angelo S; Matt, Lindsey M; Boland, Elaine M; Moore, Lauren C; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Male and female, Caucasian and African American, 12- to 13-year-old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals' presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated.

  10. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in Hopelessness Theory, Beck’s Theory, and Response Styles Theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and externalizing psychopathology, controlling for co-occurring symptoms and diagnoses. Method Male and female, Caucasian and African-American, 12–13 year old adolescents were assessed in a cross-sectional design. Cognitive vulnerabilities of hopelessness, inferential style, rumination, and self-referent information processing were assessed with self-reports and behavioral tasks. Symptoms and diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and externalizing disorders were assessed with self-report questionnaires and diagnostic interviews. Results Hopelessness exhibited the greatest specificity to depressive symptoms and diagnoses, whereas negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with both depressive and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses and, in some cases, with externalizing disorders. Conclusions Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, hopelessness, negative inferential styles, rumination, and negative self-referent information processing were associated with depressive symptoms and diagnoses. However, with the exception of hopelessness, most of the remaining cognitive vulnerabilities were not specific to depression. With further maturation of our sample, these cognitive vulnerabilities may become more specific to depression as cognitive styles further develop and consolidate, the rates of depression increase, and individuals’ presentations of psychopathology become more differentiated. PMID:22853629

  11. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Rejection and Acceptance across Contexts: Parents and Peers as Risks and Buffers for Early Adolescent Psychopathology. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover, we examined whether acceptance in one context…

  13. Mood Reactivity to Daily Negative Events in Early Adolescence: Relationship to Risk for Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiders, Josien; Nicolson, Nancy A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Feron, Frans J.; van Os, Jim; deVries, Marten W.

    2006-01-01

    Emotional responses to negative daily experiences in young adolescents may provide important clues to the development of psychopathology, but research is lacking. This study assessed momentary mood reactivity to daily events as a function of risk profile in a school sample, ages 11-14. High-risk (HR, n = 25) and low-risk (LR, n = 106) subgroups…

  14. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time. PMID:27274416

  15. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  16. Buffers and Risks in Temperament and Family for Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Generic, Conditional, or Domain-Specific Effects? The Trails Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the possible risk-buffering and risk-enhancing role of family characteristics on the association between temperament and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems, adjusted for familial vulnerability for psychopathology and early childhood problem behavior. Furthermore, it explored whether these effects were…

  17. Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression versus Other Psychopathology Symptoms and Diagnoses in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Black, Shimrit K.; Young, Mathew E.; Goldstein, Kim E.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Boccia, Angelo S.; Matt, Lindsey M.; Boland, Elaine M.; Moore, Lauren C.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between multiple cognitive vulnerabilities to depression featured in hopelessness theory, Beck's theory, and response styles theory and depressive symptoms and diagnoses in a sample of early adolescents. We also examined the specificity of these cognitive vulnerabilities to depression versus anxiety and…

  18. Factors Observed During Adolescence Which Anticipate the Degree of Psychopathology and Social Competence Seen in Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Michael J.

    The author conducted two studies of disturbed adolescents in an effort to specify the precursors of severe psychopathology in adulthood, particularly the schizophrenic spectrum of disorders. In the prospective study 35 disturbed adolescents were followed for a five-year period from age 16 to 21. Numerous measures were taken on the target…

  19. Psychopathological Development across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Daniel Offer's seminal writings in the 1960s led to a realization that normal adolescence was not characterized by turmoil and upheaval, the then prevailing view that derived from studies of clinical samples. In this paper, the research findings that have appeared over the last four decades are reviewed with respect to the overall features of…

  20. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2014-12-30

    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p < .001), persistent anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p < .001). Socio-economic status (SES) was positively related to academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.

  1. Emotional Dynamics in the Development of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of the level and variability of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness in the development of adolescent-reported anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in 452 adolescents (250 male) followed from age 13 to 14. Level and between-day variability of emotions were assessed through…

  2. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  3. A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2002-02-01

    Developmental psychopathology offers an integrative framework for conceptualizing the course of development during adolescence, with particular relevance for understanding continuity and the emergence of psychopathology during this and subsequent developmental periods. In this article, the utility of a developmental psychopathology perspective for informing the design of research, prevention, and intervention is highlighted. Interdisciplinary, organizational models of development, emphasizing the dynamic relations between the developing individual and internal and external contexts, are discussed. Examination of boundaries between abnormal and normal development during adolescence offers important vantage points for articulating diversity in the developmental course during this period. Conceptualizing divergence and convergence in developmental pathways, continuity and discontinuity in development, and the transactions of risk and protective processes leading to maladaptation, psychopathology, and resilience are highlighted.

  4. Trajectories of psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors from early adolescence to adulthood: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Ferro, Mark A; Schmidt, Louis A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Mathewson, Karen J

    2018-04-18

    Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; >2,500 g). Internalizing and externalizing data were collected over 20 years in three waves, during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. Growth models were used to compare longitudinal trajectories in a geographically based sample of 151 ELBW survivors and 137 NBW control participants born between 1977 and 1982 matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status at age 8. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic and immigrant status, and family functioning, ELBW survivors failed to show the normative, age-related decline in internalizing problems over time relative to their NBW peers (β = .21; p < .01). Both groups exhibited small declines in externalizing problems over the same period. Self-esteem (but not physical health, IQ, or maternal mood) partially mediated the association between ELBW status and internalizing problems. Extremely low birth weight survivors experienced a blunting of the expected improvement in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood. These findings suggest that altered physiological regulatory systems supporting emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the maintenance of internalizing problems in this population. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  6. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Daryanai, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N= 385, 52% female, 48% Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed. PMID:26767832

  7. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  8. Adolescent Victimization and Early-Adult Psychopathology: Approaching Causal Inference Using a Longitudinal Twin Study to Rule Out Noncausal Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L.; Houts, Renate; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Wertz, Jasmin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the peak age for both victimization and mental disorder onset. Previous research has reported associations between victimization exposure and many psychiatric conditions. However, causality remains controversial. Within the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested whether seven types of adolescent victimization increased risk of multiple psychiatric conditions and approached causal inference by systematically ruling out noncausal explanations. Longitudinal within-individual analyses showed that victimization was followed by increased mental health problems over a childhood baseline of emotional/behavioral problems. Discordant-twin analyses showed that victimization increased risk of mental health problems independent of family background and genetic risk. Both childhood and adolescent victimization made unique contributions to risk. Victimization predicted heightened generalized liability (the “p factor”) to multiple psychiatric spectra, including internalizing, externalizing, and thought disorders. Results recommend violence reduction and identification and treatment of adolescent victims to reduce psychiatric burden. PMID:29805917

  9. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Since this journal's inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical-cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology-context interactions, represent the field's most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled.

  10. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANA, MONICA

    2014-01-01

    Since this journal’s inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical–cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology–context interactions, represent the field’s most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled. PMID:24342843

  11. Psychopathology in adolescents with TLE and FLE.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Julia; Plattner, Belinda; Planer, Nadja; Steiner, Hans; Feucht, Martha

    2016-11-01

    To describe the rates and types of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with chronic symptomatic epilepsies and to evaluate syndrome-specific differences between temporal lobe (TLE) and frontal lobe (FLE) epilepsies. A cross-sectional single-center study design applying the Youth Self Report (YSR) to investigate psychopathological symptoms and the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI) to investigate personality dimensions was used. Consecutive adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age with drug-resistant symptomatic TLE and FLE were investigated during pre-surgical evaluation prior to epilepsy surgery. Data from twenty-eight patients (19 with TLE and 9 with FLE) were analyzed for this report. Compared with the test norm, higher prevalence rates and a wider range of psychopathological symptoms were seen in patients with TLE. This result was not seen in patients with FLE. Concerning personality dimensions, significantly higher values of repressive defensiveness and significantly lower values of positive emotion and confidence were found in patients with TLE. In contrast, significantly lower levels of distress and significantly higher levels of repressive defensiveness and denial of distress were seen in patients with FLE. Comparing TLE with FLE, a significantly higher mean score for distress, and a significantly lower mean score for positive emotion and denial of distress were found in patients with TLE. In summary, psychiatric comorbidity was frequently found in this sample of youths with chronic drug-resistant localization-related epilepsies. Although results have to be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size, psychiatric symptomatology was significantly different between TLE and FLE. Our results show that continuous and syndrome-specific psychiatric monitoring is essential in young patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective Relations between Organized Activity Participation and Psychopathology during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychopathology as a predictor and outcome of organized activity involvement during high school among 198 adolescents who varied in risk for psychopathology as a function of their mother's depression history. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in eighth grade significantly predicted lower…

  13. Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia A; Hammen, Constance; Katz, Anna R; Le Brocque, Robyne M

    2002-10-01

    The authors examined the relationship between maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes in a community sample of 522 Australian families. They also examined whether chronic family stress, father's expressed emotion, and parents' marital satisfaction mediated the relationship between parental psychopathology and adolescent outcomes. Mother's education, child's gender, and family income were covaried in all analyses. Results revealed that maternal depression and paternal depression had an additive effect on youth externalizing disorders. In addition, maternal depression interacted with both paternal depression and paternal substance abuse in predicting youth depression but not youth nondepressive disorders. Chronic family stress and father's expressed emotion appeared to mediate the relationship between parental psychopathology and youth depression.

  14. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  16. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  17. Predictors of psychopathology among Nigerian adolescents: the role of psychosocial, demographics, personality and medical condition reports domains.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, A O

    2011-06-01

    Psychopathology among adolescents has become a global concern in the last decade. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of psychopathology among adolescents in Ibadan region using a multi-theoretical approach. Eight hundred and eighty-nine (889) male and female adolescents drawn from different parts of Ibadan region of the South-West Nigeria, participated in the study. The study is a cross-sectional survey and adopted an ex-post facto design. A questionnaire divided into six sections, with two versions was used for data collection. Analysis of data involved multiple/stepwise regressions, F-test & T-test. SPSS 10.0 computer programme was utilized for all analyses. Data showed that all the predictors jointly contributed 37% (P<0.0001) to the prediction of reported psychopathology. The domains of psychosocial, personality, demographic and medical condition reports all independently and significantly predicted psychopathology among the adolescents but psychosocial domain had the highest contribution of 16% (P<0.0001). Prevalence rate for psychopathology among the sampled adolescents was 0.152 (15.2%) at the criteria of one standard deviation above the mean. It is concluded that a multi-theoretical approach to the understanding of psychopathology among adolescents will be more appropriate in the Nigerian community. Results have implication for further assessment and treatments. Parents are advised to report any behavioural dysfunction observed in their wards to experts early enough to avoid degeneration to greater psychopathology in the later years.

  18. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  19. [Psychopathological and comorbid disorders of incarcerated adolescents in Austria].

    PubMed

    Plattner, Belinda; Aebi, Marcel; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia

    2011-07-01

    Incarcerated adolescents show a high prevalence rate of psychopathology and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Child and adolescent psychiatrists working in the penal system are confronted with the need to provide care and to develop specific treatment plans. The data gathered from incarcerated juveniles were analyzed with a special focus on gender-specific treatment aspects. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents was used to assess psychopathology in detained juveniles in Austria. The final study sample consisted of 333 juveniles (58 girls and 275 boys). 90 % of the juveniles in our sample suffered from at least one psychiatric disorder, and more than 60 % were diagnosed with two or more simultaneous psychiatric disorders. Using factor analyses we found three clinically relevant disorder patterns according to psychopathological characteristics for males: ADHD/conduct disorder and drug abuse; anxiety and depression; separation anxiety disorder/PTSD and alcohol abuse. In females, we found four disorder patterns: separation anxiety disorder/social phobia/dysthymia; PTSD and drug abuse in combination with either ADHD or conduct disorder; depression and alcohol abuse. Considering that juvenile detainees are burdened by high rates of psychopathology and comorbidity, it is essential to develop a substantiated diagnostic procedure in order when making treatment decisions; different disorder patterns must be considered in conjunction with detained juveniles. The patterns of psychopathology observed might be related to different characteristics in the development of delinquent behavior, in treatment needs, and legal prognosis.

  20. Recovering from early deprivation: attachment mediates effects of caregiving on psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T; Drury, Stacy S; Nelson, Charles A; Gregas, Matthew C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2012-07-01

    Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal intervention study of children abandoned and placed in institutions at or shortly after birth. Measures included observed caregiving when children were 30 months of age, observed attachment security at 42 months, and caregiver reports of children's psychopathology at 54 months. At 54 months, some children remained in institutions, others were in foster care, others had been adopted domestically, and still others had been returned to their biological families. Thus, the children had experienced varying amounts of institutional rearing. After controlling for gender, quality of caregiving when children were 30 months old was associated with symptoms of multiple domains of psychopathology at 54 months of age. Ratings of security of attachment at 42 months mediated the associations between quality caregiving at 30 months and fewer symptoms of psychopathology at 54 months. Among deprived young children, high-quality caregiving at 30 months predicted reduced psychopathology and functional impairment at 54 months. Security of attachment mediated this relationship. Interventions for young children who have experienced deprivation may benefit from explicitly targeting caregiver-child attachment relationships. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relapse Contexts for Substance Abusing Adolescents with Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…

  2. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  3. [Computer game addiction: a psychopathological symptom complex in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, Klaus; Thalemann, Ralf; Grüsser-Sinopoli, Sabine M

    2008-07-01

    Cases of excessive computer gaming are increasingly reported by practitioners in the psychiatric field. Since there is no standardized definition of this symptom complex, the aim of this study is to access excessive computer gaming in German adolescents as an addictive disorder and its potential negative consequences. Psychopathological computer gaming behavior was diagnosed by applying the adapted diagnostic criteria of substance-related-addictions as defined by the ICD-10. At the same time demographic variables, state of clinical anxiety and underlying cognitive mechanisms were analyzed. 6.3 % of the 221 participating pupils - mostly boys with a low educational background - fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of a behavioral addiction. Clinically diagnosed adolescents exhibited limited cognitive flexibility and were identified to utilize computer gaming as a mood management strategy. These results can be interpreted as a first hint for a prevalence estimation of psychopathological computer gaming in German adolescents.

  4. Association study of monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) with self-reported anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in a community sample of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2015-04-01

    The polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) is reported to be an important enzyme involved in human physiology and behavior. With a sample of 228 early-adolescents from a community sample (143 girls) and adjusting for environmental variables, we examined the influence of MAOA-uVNTR alleles on the scores obtained in the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and in the Child Symptom Inventory-4. Our results showed that girls with the high-activity MAOA allele had higher scores for generalized and total anxiety than their low-activity peers, whereas boys with the low-activity allele had higher social phobia scores than boys with the high-activity allele. Results for conduct disorder symptoms did not show a significant relationship between the MAOA alleles and the presence of these symptoms. Our findings support a possible association, depending on gender, between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, which affects high rates of children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul Mg; Nauta, Maaike H

    2012-08-27

    A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101) and a healthy control group (N = 44). Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders) were completed by their mothers. Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection) and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD patients.

  6. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  8. The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: make room for daddy.

    PubMed

    Phares, V; Compas, B E

    1992-05-01

    This review summarizes research concerning the relation between paternal factors and child and adolescent psychopathology. When compared with mothers, fathers continue to be dramatically underrepresented in developmental research on psychopathology. However, findings from studies of children of clinically referred fathers and nonreferred samples of children and their fathers indicate that there is substantial association between paternal characteristics and child and adolescent psychopathology. Findings from studies of fathers of clinically referred children are stronger for fathers' effects on children's externalizing than internalizing problems. In most cases the degree of risk associated with paternal psychopathology is comparable to that associated with maternal psychopathology. Evidence indicates that the presence of paternal psychopathology is a sufficient but not necessary condition for child or adolescent psychopathology.

  9. [Family characteristics, organic risk factors, psychopathological picture and premorbid adjustment of hospitalized adolescent patients].

    PubMed

    Małkiewicz-Borkowska, M; Namysłowska, I; Siewierska, A; Puzyńska, E; Sredniawa, H; Zechowski, C; Iwanek, A; Ruszkowska, E

    1996-01-01

    The relation of some family characteristics such as cohesion and adaptability with organic risk factors, developmental psychopathology, clinical picture and premorbid adjustment was assessed in the group of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients and families. We found correlation between: some of organic risk factors (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood), some of indicators of developmental psychopathology (eating disorders, conduct disorders), some of clinical signs (mannerism, grandiosity, hostility, suspciousness, disturbances of content of thinking), premorbid adjustment, and variables related to families, described before. We think that biological variables characterizing child (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood) have an influence on some family characteristics as independent variable. General system theory and circular thinking support these conclusions. In order to verify them, it is necessary to undertake further investigations, based on other methodology, using this results as preliminary findings.

  10. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  11. Adolescent emotionality and effortful control: Core latent constructs and links to psychopathology and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart’s temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains three main components: positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and effortful control (EC). However, the latent factor structure of Rothbart’s temperament measure for adolescents, the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Revised (EATQ-R, Ellis & Rothbart, 2001) has not been definitively established. To address this problem and investigate links between adolescent temperament and functioning, we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent constructs of the EATQ-R in a large combined sample. For EC and NE, bifactor models consisting of a common factor plus specific factors for some sub-facets of each component fit best, providing a more nuanced understanding of these temperament dimensions. The nature of the PE construct in the EATQ-R is less clear. Models replicated in a hold-out dataset. The common components of high NE and low EC where broadly associated with increased psychopathology symptoms, and poor interpersonal and school functioning, while specific components of NE were further associated with corresponding specific components of psychopathology. Further questioning the construct validity of PE as measured by the EATQ-R, PE factors did not correlate with construct validity measures in a way consistent with theories of PE. Bringing consistency to the way the EATQ-R is modeled and using purer latent variables has the potential to advance the field in understanding links between dimensions of temperament and important outcomes of adolescent development. PMID:26011660

  12. Adolescent emotionality and effortful control: Core latent constructs and links to psychopathology and functioning.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Hannah R; Gulley, Lauren D; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-12-01

    Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart's temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains 3 main components: positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and effortful control (EC). However, the latent factor structure of Rothbart's temperament measure for adolescents, the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Revised (EATQ-R; Ellis & Rothbart, 2001) has not been definitively established. To address this problem and investigate links between adolescent temperament and functioning, we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent constructs of the EATQ-R in a large combined sample. For EC and NE, bifactor models consisting of a common factor plus specific factors for some subfacets of each component fit best, providing a more nuanced understanding of these temperament dimensions. The nature of the PE construct in the EATQ-R is less clear. Models replicated in a hold-out dataset. The common components of high NE and low EC where broadly associated with increased psychopathology symptoms, and poor interpersonal and school functioning, while specific components of NE were further associated with corresponding specific components of psychopathology. Further questioning the construct validity of PE as measured by the EATQ-R, PE factors did not correlate with construct validity measures in a way consistent with theories of PE. Bringing consistency to the way the EATQ-R is modeled and using purer latent variables has the potential to advance the field in understanding links between dimensions of temperament and important outcomes of adolescent development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-08-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze associations between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety in order to determine clinically relevant cut-points for male and female adolescents' self-esteem as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The participants of the present prospective study, started in 2002-2003, were 2070 adolescents aged 15 years (1,167 girls and 903 boys) at two study sites in Finland who participated at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Self-esteem was related to depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and the RSES was able to discriminate between cases of depression and social phobia. The present study suggests a cutoff of 25 points to classify low self-esteem in both girls and boys. Low self-esteem may function as an indicator of various forms of internalizing psychopathology. The RSES is worth further examination as a potential screening tool for adolescents in risk of psychopathology.

  14. Cultural Differences and Similarities in Terms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    This study investigates the controversy over whether or not culture has an effect on child and adolescent psychopathology. It presents the two opposing positions held in the field. The "universalists" argue that child and adolescent psychopathology is significantly similar across cultures. The "culturalists" argue that culture…

  15. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2013-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-reversed attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood but have not been assessed in adolescence. One hundred twenty low-income late adolescents (aged 18 – 23) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected Partnership in Adolescence Coding Scales. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three disorganized constructs (punitive, care-giving, and disoriented interaction) were best represented as distinct factors and were separable from a fourth factor for collaboration. The four factors were then assessed in relation to measures of attachment disorganization, partner abuse, and psychopathology. Results indicate that forms of disorganized behavior first described in early childhood can also be reliably assessed in adolescence and are associated with maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains. PMID:23621826

  16. Working Models of Attachment in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents: Relation to Psychopathology and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Diana S.; Horowitz, Harvey A.

    This study examined the role of attachment in adolescent psychopathology among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Subjects consisted of 60 adolescents and 27 of their mothers. Measures included the Adult Attachment Interview classification for both the adolescents and their mothers, and a battery of diagnostic and personality assessment of…

  17. Early Adult Outcomes of Adolescents Who Deliberately Poisoned Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…

  18. Quality of life among adolescents living in residential youth care: do domain-specific self-esteem and psychopathology contribute?

    PubMed

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Kayed, Nanna S; Ranøyen, Ingunn; Greger, Hanne K; Wallander, Jan L; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents living in residential youth care (RYC) institutions perceive their quality of life (QoL) to be low. Enhancing QoL is thus important, but little is known about the potential contributors to their QoL. Early interpersonal trauma and subsequent removal from home and repeated relocations to new placements are expected to affect mental health and self-esteem. We therefore investigated if domain-specific self-esteem contributed to QoL among adolescents living in RYC institutions over and beyond their levels of psychopathology. All youth in Norwegian RYC institutions between the ages 12-23 years were invited to participate. Of a total of 98 RYC institutions, 86 participated, and 400 of 601 eligible youths were examined. The participants' primary contact completed the Child Behavior Checklist to assess psychopathology. The adolescents completed a revised version of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents and the questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents (KINDL-R). After adjusting for psychopathology, age, and gender, self-esteem domains uniquely explained 42% of the variance in Qol, where social acceptance (β = 0.57) and physical appearance (β = 0.25) domains significantly predicted concurrent QoL. The self-esteem domains, social acceptance and physical appearance, add substantially to the explained variance in QoL among adolescents living in RYC institutions, over and beyond the levels of psychopathology. These self-esteem domains may be targets of intervention to improve QoL, in addition to treating their psychopathology.

  19. Psychopathology in the adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with dysthymic disorder and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lizardi, Humberto; Klein, Daniel N; Shankman, Stewart A

    2004-03-01

    This study addressed the following question: are the adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with early-onset dysthymic disorder (DD) at increased risk for psychopathology? Participants included 41 offspring of 21 outpatients with early-onset DD, 19 offspring of nine outpatients with episodic major depressive disorder (MDD), and 32 offspring of 11 normal controls (NCs). Lifetime best-estimate diagnoses were determined for each offspring using a team consensus method. Diagnoses were derived blind to all information about the index parents. The offspring of outpatients with early-onset DD exhibited significantly higher lifetime rates of a broad range of psychiatric disorders than the offspring of NCs. In addition, the offspring of outpatients with early-onset DD exhibited significantly higher lifetime rates of DD, anxiety disorders, and phobia than the offspring of outpatients with episodic MDD. These results support the importance of early-onset DD in parents as a risk factor for psychopathology in their offspring.

  20. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findings suggest that parental psychopathology, parent-child relations and life events are all relevant factors in adolescent depression and should be considered in combination for assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.

  1. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  2. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. This was a case-control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture's repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers' and their parents' awareness of the disorder. Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right.

  3. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  4. Maternal ADHD, parenting, and psychopathology among mothers of adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Method Two sets of pairwise comparisons: 1) COMP vs. CA and 2) CA vs. MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared to COMP, and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared to CA. Results Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. PMID:23160485

  5. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest…

  6. Alexithymia and psychopathological symptoms in adolescent outpatients and mothers suffering from migraines: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Rita; Valastro, Carmela; Tarantino, Samuela; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Faedda, Noemi; Spensieri, Valentina; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Headache is a common disorder affecting a growing number of children and adolescents. In recent years, there has been an increase in scientific interest in exploring the relationship between migraine and emotional regulation, and in particular, the impact of emotional dysregulation on mental and physical health. The present study aims to explore the relationship between migraine and alexithymia among adolescents and their mothers as well as the impact of this association on mental health. An additional aim is to verify whether alexithymia may be a predictor of psychopathological symptoms in adolescents and mothers with migraines. A total of 212 subjects were involved in this study. The sample was divided into (a) Experimental Group (EG) consisting of 106 subjects (53 adolescents and 53 mothers) with a diagnosis of migraine according to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) and (b) Control Group (CG) including 106 subjects (53 adolescents and 53 mothers) without a diagnosis of migraine. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale to assess alexithymia and the Symptom Checklist-90-R to assess psychopathological symptoms. Higher rates of alexithymia were found in the adolescents and mothers of the EG in comparison to the adolescents and mothers of the CG. Furthermore, adolescents and mothers experiencing both migraine and alexithymia, demonstrated a higher risk of psychopathology. Findings from this study provide evidence that the co-occurrence of migraine and alexithymia increases the risk of psychopathology for both adolescents and their mothers.

  7. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. Purpose This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. Patients and methods This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Results Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder. Conclusion Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. PMID:27672324

  8. Psychopathology of adolescents with an intellectual disability who present to general hospital services.

    PubMed

    Theodoratos, Oreste; McPherson, Lyn; Franklin, Catherine; Tonge, Bruce; Einfeld, Stewart; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disability have increased rates of psychopathology compared with their typically developing peers and present to hospital more frequently for ambulant conditions. The aim of this study is to describe the psychopathology and related characteristics of a sample of adolescents with intellectual disability who presented to general hospital services. We investigated a cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability in South East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and June 2010. Demographic and clinical data were obtained via mailed questionnaires and from general practice notes. Psychopathology was measured with the Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Of 98 individuals presenting to hospital, 71 (72.5%) had significant levels of psychopathology. Unknown aetiology for the intellectual disability was associated with presence of problem behaviours. Adolescents with more severe intellectual disability were more likely to have major problem behaviours. Co-morbid physical health issues were not associated with psychopathology. Only 12 (12.1%) adolescents had undergone specialized mental health intervention. The general hospital environment may offer opportunities for liaison psychiatry services to screen and provide management expertise for adolescent individuals with intellectual disability presenting for physical health issues.

  9. Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Panic Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Amritha S.; Srinivasan, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, depression and normal controls. Methods: Adolescent offspring (11-16 years) of parents with a diagnosis of panic disorder and major depression, and normal controls were interviewed using Missouri Assessment of Genetics…

  10. Symptoms of ecstasy dependence and correlation with psychopathology in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Sen-Yen

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed at examining the spectrum and frequency of symptoms of ecstasy dependence and their correlation with psychopathology by controlling polysubstance use in Taiwanese adolescents. Two hundred adolescents who had used ecstasy were recruited into this study. Symptoms of ecstasy dependence that had occurred in the preceding year were determined by an interview using the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The adolescents' psychopathology was examined using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale. The proportion of participants who had symptoms of ecstasy dependence was calculated. The association between the number of symptoms of ecstasy dependence and psychopathology was examined by using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that "continuing ecstasy use despite knowledge of having a problem related to ecstasy use," "spending a great deal of time in activities related to ecstasy use or to recover from its effects," and "ecstasy use tolerance" were the 3 most prevalent symptoms of dependence, and "withdrawal" was the symptom least reported. Heavy ecstasy use led to more symptoms of ecstasy dependence than light use. Symptoms of ecstasy dependence independently increased the risk of severe psychopathology after controlling the effects of polysubstance use. The results of this study indicated that adolescents were aware of the adverse effects of ecstasy use and that repeated ecstasy use would result in dependence on it. Screening the dependence symptoms of adolescent ecstasy users may help clinicians more thoroughly understand their psychopathology.

  11. Adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety: psychopathology, functional impairment and increased suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Judit; Miklósi, Mónika; Keresztény, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Pádraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-06-01

     Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models.  Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, comprising 12,395 adolescents from 11 countries. Based on self-report, including Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS) were administered to students. Based on BDI-II, adolescents were divided into three groups: nondepressed, subthreshold-depressed and depressed; based on the SAS, they were divided into nonanxiety, subthreshold-anxiety and anxiety groups. Analyses of Covariance were conducted on SDQ scores to explore psychopathology of the defined groups. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between functional impairments, suicidality and subthreshold and full syndromes.  Thirty-two percent of the adolescents were subthreshold-anxious and 5.8% anxious, 29.2% subthreshold-depressed and 10.5% depressed, with high comorbidity. Mean scores of SDQ of subthreshold-depressed/anxious were significantly higher than the mean scores of the nondepressed/nonanxious groups and significantly lower than those of the depressed/anxious groups. Both subthreshold and threshold-anxiety and depression were related to functional impairment and suicidality. Subthreshold-depression and subthreshold-anxiety are associated with an increased burden of disease and suicide risk. These results highlight the importance of early identification of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety to minimize suicide. Incorporating these subthreshold disorders into a diagnosis could provide a bridge between categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child

  12. Childhood psychopathology and adolescent cigarette smoking: a prospective survival analysis in children at high risk for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Duncan B; Cornelius, Jack

    2004-06-01

    Children of parents with substance use disorders (SUDs) have been shown to demonstrate an increased risk for cigarette smoking in adolescence. In this prospective study, we hypothesized that adolescent cigarette smoking risk would be accounted for by childhood disruptive behavior disorders and parent cigarette smoking. Preadolescent children (ages 10-12 years) of fathers with SUD considered at high average risk (HAR; n=274) and children of fathers without SUD or major psychopathology considered at low average risk (LAR; n=298) participated in structured interviews to determine mental disorder diagnoses and substance use history. Both parents were assessed. The age of onset of daily tobacco use was determined in three follow-up assessments conducted through late adolescence. Conduct disorder (CD) and parental smoking predicted earlier daily cigarette smoking, and mediated the relationship between risk status and offspring daily cigarette smoking. Through the identification of childhood characteristics predicting daily cigarette smoking in adolescence, these results may facilitate targeting of early childhood preventive interventions.

  13. Incentive-Related Modulation of Cognitive Control in Healthy, Anxious, and Depressed Adolescents: Development and Psychopathology Related Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Michael G.; Schroth, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background: Developmental changes in cognitive and affective processes contribute to adolescent risk-taking behavior, emotional intensification, and psychopathology. The current study examined adolescent development of cognitive control processes and their modulation by incentive, in health and psychopathology. Predictions include 1) better…

  14. Understanding AIDS-Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in Psychiatric Care: Links to Psychopathology and Peer Relationships

    PubMed Central

    DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; WILSON, HELEN; WEBER-SHIFRIN, ERYN

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Severely mentally ill youths are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection, but little is known about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk behavior in adolescents who seek outpatient mental health services or about the links between psychiatric problems and particular high-risk behaviors. This pilot study used structural equation modeling to conduct a path analysis to explore the direct and indirect effects of adolescent psychopathology on risky sex, drug/alcohol use, and needle use. Method: Ethnically diverse youths (N = 86) and their caregivers who sought outpatient psychiatric services in Chicago completed questionnaires of adolescent psychopathology. Youths reported their relationship attitudes, peer influence, sexual behavior, and drug/alcohol use. Results: Different AIDS-risk behaviors were associated with distinct forms of adolescent psychopathology (e.g., delinquency was linked to drug/alcohol use, whereas aggression was related to risky sexual behavior), and peer influence mediated these linkages. Some patterns were similar for caregiver- and adolescent-reported problems (e.g., peer influence mediated the relation between delinquency and drug/alcohol use), but others were different (e.g., caregiver-reported delinquency was associated with risky sex, whereas adolescent-reported delinquency was not). Conclusions: Findings underscore the complexity of factors (types of informants and dimensions of psychopathology) that underlie AIDS risk in troubled youths, and they offer specific directions for designing and implementing uniquely tailored AIDS prevention programs, for example, by targeting delinquent behavior and including high-risk peers and important family members in interventions. PMID:11392341

  15. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  16. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Maria; Goti, Javier; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74) and matched community controls (MCC n = 74) using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation. PMID:26082873

  17. The role of parental psychopathology and personality in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Gromatsky, Molly A; Waszczuk, Monika A; Perlman, Greg; Salis, Katie Lee; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14.39 years, SD = 0.63) and their biological parents. We first investigated whether parental lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and personality and clinical (rumination, self-criticism, emotional reliance) traits were associated with adolescent NSSI. We also tested whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits mediated the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI. Parental substance use disorder, adult-ADHD symptoms, self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with offspring's NSSI. These associations were mediated through adolescent characteristics. In contrast, parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were unrelated to adolescent NSSI. The results suggest that parental traits and disorders characterized by self-regulatory difficulties and lack of support constitute risk factors for self-injury in adolescent girls, acting via adolescent traits. This demonstrates that parental influences play a significant role in the etiology of adolescent NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attachment styles and psychopathology among adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-04-16

    The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). As a result of the assessments, 12 adolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (p<0.05). However, when psychiatric diagnoses were assessed separately, the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the adolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.

  19. Assessment of Psychopathological Problems in the School Context: The Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale--Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemos, Ida Timoteo; Faisca, Luis Madeira; Valadas, Sandra Teodosio

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form (APS-SF) were studied in a sample of 656 Portuguese adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years, assessed in school context. Also, the aim of the study was to gather data concerning age- and gender-related differences in the expression of psychopathological…

  20. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  1. Common Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and a General Psychopathology Factor in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Hulle, Carol Van; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a “bifactor”; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, Van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tests a prediction derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially—at both phenotypic and genetic levels—with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9–17) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PMID:24364617

  2. Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Lahey, Benjamin B; van Hulle, Carol; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity has supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a "bifactor"; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tested a prediction, derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially-at both phenotypic and genetic levels-with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9-17 years) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Psychopathological Influence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woo; Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Sik; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is no report about psychopathological effect causing by disc herniation. The disease could impose psychopathological influence on the social life, the treatment period, and response to the treatment. This study was to evaluate retrospectively the psychopathological influence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) among Korean 19-year-old males. Materials and Methods We compared the Korean military multiphasic personality inventory (KMPI) profiles of 74 LDH cases with the KMPI profiles of 150 controls. The LDH groups were categorized to 2 groups according to the presence of thecal sac compression by disc materials, and evaluated the relation between the KMPI and LDH. Results The decrease of the faking-good response scale and increase of the faking-bad response scale were observed more in the LDH group than in the normal volunteer group (p<0.05). The neurosis set such as anxiety, depression and somatization was markedly increased in the LDH group compared to the normal volunteers group (p<0.05). The scale of personality disorder was also increased more in the LDH group (p=0.002). The differences of KMPI scales were not correlated with the severe pathology of LDH. Conclusion Young male with LDH may tend to have more abnormal results of multiphasic personality inventory test compared to the normal volunteers, suggesting that LDH may be related to the psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate and treat the psychopathological aspects in patients with LDH. PMID:23709412

  4. Examining relations between psychopathology and psychopathy dimensions among adolescent female and male offenders.

    PubMed

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Krischer, Maya K

    2009-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate relations between psychopathology and psychopathy in adolescent female and male detainees. We examined 91 male and 123 female adolescent detainees (aged 14-19) for psychopathology -using the Youth Self Report, the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified and a Conduct Disorder Self Report Scale- and for psychopathic dimensions using the psychopathy checklist youth version (PCL:YV). Based on a linear regression analysis we compared the specific associations between psychopathology and psychopathy in both male and female delinquent juveniles. Our results revealed higher scores for externalizing behavior and psychopathic dimensions in delinquent males, and higher internalizing problem scores in delinquent females. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between suicidal behavior and the psychopathy total score as well as the affective, the lifestyle and the antisocial dimension only in girls. No association was found for suicidal behavior in boys. Regarding anxious-depressive behavior, we found a negative relation to the psychopathy total score and to the affective psychopathy factor for the boys. Expectedly, the population of incarcerated adolescents exhibited a high prevalence of psychopathology. At the same time our results referred to meaningful gender-related differences with respect to associations with psychopathy. The gender-related differences in psychopathological symptoms could indicate varied subtypes of psychopathy in boys and girls.

  5. Real and virtual worlds alike: Adolescents' psychopathology is reflected in their videogame virtual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Segev, Aviv; Gabay-Weschler, Hila; Naar, Yossi; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Current research refers to videogames as a constant variable. However, games today are designed to be highly interactive and versatile: two players may be using the same videogame, but as a result of different using patterns, the game will not necessarily encompass the same content and gameplay. The current study examined the possible relationship between psychopathology and in-game playing patterns. We hypothesized that adolescents would play videogames differently, in a manner that would reflect their particular psychopathologies. We examined 47 male adolescents from three diagnostic groups: those suffering from externalizing psychopathologies, internalizing psychopathologies and controls. We performed a high-resolution examination of their gameplay, using in-game quantitative statistics mechanisms of two fundamentally different games, a structured racing game and an unstructured adventure game. While there was no difference in the groups' using patterns of the structured game, there was a high variability between the groups' using patterns when they were using a non-structured game. These findings suggest that virtual behavior in unstructured games is reflective of adolescent-players psychopathology, and might shed light on an unexplored facet of videogames research. Possible implications are discussed.

  6. Real and virtual worlds alike: Adolescents' psychopathology is reflected in their videogame virtual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gabay-Weschler, Hila; Naar, Yossi; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Current research refers to videogames as a constant variable. However, games today are designed to be highly interactive and versatile: two players may be using the same videogame, but as a result of different using patterns, the game will not necessarily encompass the same content and gameplay. The current study examined the possible relationship between psychopathology and in-game playing patterns. We hypothesized that adolescents would play videogames differently, in a manner that would reflect their particular psychopathologies. We examined 47 male adolescents from three diagnostic groups: those suffering from externalizing psychopathologies, internalizing psychopathologies and controls. We performed a high-resolution examination of their gameplay, using in-game quantitative statistics mechanisms of two fundamentally different games, a structured racing game and an unstructured adventure game. While there was no difference in the groups' using patterns of the structured game, there was a high variability between the groups' using patterns when they were using a non-structured game. These findings suggest that virtual behavior in unstructured games is reflective of adolescent-players psychopathology, and might shed light on an unexplored facet of videogames research. Possible implications are discussed. PMID:28708879

  7. Child and adolescent psychopathology: spiritual and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mabe, P Alex; Josephson, Allan M

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between children's religious beliefs and spiritual practices and the presence of psychopathology. Study of this subject represents a formidable task due to the complexity and diversity of the constructs involved, heterogeneity in religious beliefs and practices, and the difficulty in discriminating between the independent effects of religion and culture. Nevertheless, broad links between child psychopathology and spiritual/religious beliefs and practices are proposed. On the whole, the available empiric data suggest that religion is primarily health promoting in direct, positive benefits for children and in indirect, positive effects through parent and family functioning, although there are isolated exceptions. When spirituality and religious beliefs/practices are associated with negative mental health outcomes in children or their families, evidence points to "poorness-of-fit," based on an interaction between the child's psychopathology and aspects and religious beliefs/practice. Clinical implications of the findings and proposels are outlined.

  8. Are children and adolescents with food allergies at increased risk for psychopathology?

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology-concurrently and over time. Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N=1420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 and 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N=5165 pairs of interviews. Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, disorder, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. The unique constellation of adolescents' increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic and early environmental influences on the serotonin system: consequences for brain development and risk for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite more than 60 years of research in the role of serotonin (5-HT) in psychopathology, many questions still remain. From a developmental perspective, studies have provided more insight into how 5-HT dysfunctions acquired in utero or early in life may modulate brain development. This paper discusses the relevance of the developmental role of 5-HT for the understanding of psychopathology. We review developmental milestones of the 5-HT system, how genetic and environmental 5-HT disturbances could affect brain development and the potential role of DNA methylation in 5-HT genes for brain development. Methods Studies were identified using common databases (e.g., PubMed, Google Scholar) and reference lists. Results Despite the widely supported view that the 5-HT system matures in early life, different 5-HT receptors, proteins and enzymes have different developmental patterns, and development is brain region–specific. A disruption in 5-HT homeostasis during development may lead to structural and functional changes in brain circuits that modulate emotional stress responses, including subcortical limbic and (pre)frontal areas. This may result in a predisposition to psychopathology. DNA methylation might be one of the underlying physiologic mechanisms. Limitations There is a need for prospective studies. The impact of stressors during adolescence on the 5-HT system is understudied. Questions regarding efficacy of drugs acting on 5-HT still remain. Conclusion A multidisciplinary and longitudinal approach in designing studies on the role of 5-HT in psychopathology might help to bring us closer to the understanding of the role of 5-HT in psychopathology. PMID:25285876

  10. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  12. Psychopathology profiles of acutely suicidal adolescents: Associations with post-discharge suicide attempts and rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Berona, Johnny; Horwitz, Adam G.; Czyz, Ewa K.; King, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicidal adolescents are heterogeneous, which can pose difficulties in predicting suicidal behavior. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) psychopathology profiles predict the future onset of psychopathology and suicide-related outcomes. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of YSR psychopathology profiles among suicidal adolescents and prospective associations with post-discharge rates of suicide attempts and psychiatric rehospitalization. Methods Participants were acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N=433 at baseline; n=355 at follow-up) who were enrolled in a psychosocial intervention trial during hospitalization. Psychopathology profiles were assessed at baseline. Suicide attempts and rehospitalization were assessed for up to 12 months following discharge. Results Latent profile analysis identified four psychopathology profiles: subclinical, primarily internalizing, and moderately and severely dysregulated. At baseline, profiles differed by history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and multiple suicide attempts (MA) as well as severity of suicide ideation, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance abuse, and functional impairment. The dysregulation profiles predicted suicide attempts within 3 months post-discharge. The internalizing profile predicted suicide attempts and rehospitalization at 3 and 12 months. Limitations This study’s participants were enrolled in a randomized trial and were predominantly female, which limit generalizability. Additionally, only a history of NSSI was assessed. Conclusions The dysregulation profile was overrepresented among suicidal youth and associated with impairment in several domains as well as suicide attempts shortly after discharge. Adolescents with a severe internalizing profile also reported adverse outcomes throughout the study period. Psychopathology profiles warrant further examination in terms of their potential predictive validity in relation to

  13. Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…

  14. Effects of Music Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Psychopathology: A Meta-analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Method: Eleven studies were included for…

  15. Suicidal Adolescents' Social Support from Family and Peers: Gender-Specific Associations with Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Preuss, Lesli J.; King, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of social support from family, non-family adults, and peers were examined in relation to the psychopathology reported by 220 suicidal adolescents (152 females) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Results of regression analyses showed that, among females, family support was negatively related to hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and…

  16. A Dimensional Model of Psychopathology among Homeless Adolescents: Suicidality, Internalizing, and Externalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Longley, Susan L.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined associations among dimensions of suicidality and psychopathology in a sample of 428 homeless adolescents (56.3% female). Confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for a three-factor model in which suicidality (measured with lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), internalizing disorders (assessed…

  17. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  18. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  19. Longitudinal Dimensionality of Adolescent Psychopathology: Testing the Differentiation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Copeland, William; Egger, Helen L.; Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The differentiation hypothesis posits that the underlying liability distribution for psychopathology is of low dimensionality in young children, inflating diagnostic comorbidity rates, but increases in dimensionality with age as latent syndromes become less correlated. This hypothesis has not been adequately tested with longitudinal…

  20. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  1. Trends in Psychopathology across the Adolescent Years: What Changes When Children become Adolescents, and When Adolescents become Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders between childhood and adolescence, and adolescence and adulthood. Methods: We reviewed papers reporting prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders separately for childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional papers published in…

  2. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence and its common personality and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Brière, Frederic N; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Robbins, Trevor W; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years. The second objective was to identify common personality and cognitive correlates of psychopathology, assessed at 14 years. Results showed that psychopathology at 16 years fit 2 bifactor models equally well: (a) a bifactor model, reflecting a general psychopathology factor, as well as specific externalizing (representing mainly substance misuse and low ADHD) and internalizing factors; and (b) a bifactor model with a general psychopathology factor and 3 specific externalizing (representing mainly ADHD and ODD), substance use and internalizing factors. The general psychopathology factor was related to high disinhibition/impulsivity, low agreeableness, high neuroticism and hopelessness, high delay-discounting, poor response inhibition and low performance IQ. Substance use was specifically related to high novelty-seeking, sensation-seeking, extraversion, high verbal IQ, and risk-taking. Internalizing psychopathology was specifically related to high neuroticism, hopelessness and anxiety-sensitivity, low novelty-seeking and extraversion, and an attentional bias toward negatively valenced verbal stimuli. Findings reveal several nonspecific or transdiagnostic personality and cognitive factors that may be targeted in new interventions to potentially prevent the development of multiple psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  3. The Structure of Psychopathology in Adolescence and Its Common Personality and Cognitive Correlates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years. The second objective was to identify common personality and cognitive correlates of psychopathology, assessed at 14 years. Results showed that psychopathology at 16 years fit 2 bifactor models equally well: (a) a bifactor model, reflecting a general psychopathology factor, as well as specific externalizing (representing mainly substance misuse and low ADHD) and internalizing factors; and (b) a bifactor model with a general psychopathology factor and 3 specific externalizing (representing mainly ADHD and ODD), substance use and internalizing factors. The general psychopathology factor was related to high disinhibition/impulsivity, low agreeableness, high neuroticism and hopelessness, high delay-discounting, poor response inhibition and low performance IQ. Substance use was specifically related to high novelty-seeking, sensation-seeking, extraversion, high verbal IQ, and risk-taking. Internalizing psychopathology was specifically related to high neuroticism, hopelessness and anxiety-sensitivity, low novelty-seeking and extraversion, and an attentional bias toward negatively valenced verbal stimuli. Findings reveal several nonspecific or transdiagnostic personality and cognitive factors that may be targeted in new interventions to potentially prevent the development of multiple psychopathologies. PMID:27819466

  4. Chronic Stress in Adolescents and Its Neurobiological and Psychopathological Consequences: An RDoC Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Chandni; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a strategy for classifying psychopathology based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures. Neurodevelopment is an orthogonal dimension in the current RDoC framework; however, it has not yet been fully incorporated into the RDoC approach. A combination of both a neurodevelopmental and RDoC approach offers a multidimensional perspective for understanding the emergence of psychopathology during development. Environmental influence (e.g., stress) has a profound impact on the risk for development of psychiatric illnesses. It has been shown that chronic stress interacts with the developing brain, producing significant changes in neural circuits that eventually increase the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders. This review highlights effects of chronic stress on the adolescent brain, as adolescence is a period characterized by a combination of significant brain alterations, high levels of stress, and emergence of psychopathology. The literature synthesized in this review suggests that chronic stress-induced changes in neurobiology and behavioral constructs underlie the shared vulnerability across a number of disorders in adolescence. The review particularly focuses on depression and substance use disorders; however, a similar argument can also be made for other psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders. The summarized findings underscore the need for a framework to integrate neurobiological findings from disparate psychiatric disorders and to target transdiagnostic mechanisms across disorders.

  5. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gregas, Mathew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal intervention study of children abandoned and placed in institutions at or shortly after birth. Measures included observed caregiving when children were 30 months of age, observed attachment security at 42 months and caregiver reports of children’s psychopathology at 54 months. At 54 months, some children remained in institutions, others were in foster care, others had been adopted domestically, and still others had been returned to their biological families. Thus, the children had experienced varying amounts of institutional rearing. Results After controlling for gender, quality of caregiving when children were 30 months old was associated with symptoms of multiple domains of psychopathology at 54 months of age. Ratings of security of attachment at 42 months mediated the associations between quality caregiving at 30 months and fewer symptoms of psychopathology at 54 months. Conclusions Among deprived young children, high quality caregiving at 30 months predicted reduced psychopathology and functional impairment at 54 months. Security of attachment mediated this relationship. Interventions for young children who have experienced deprivation may benefit from explicitly targeting caregiver-child attachment relationships. PMID:22721591

  7. [Adolescence, addictive disorders and psychopathology. Between the brain systems of reward and the self-regulation].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Frágola, Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    The author analyzes certain aspects of the psychopathology of addictions in adolescence, from a psychoanalytical and neurobiological point of view. Within the feld of present psychopathology we frequently fnd problems related with use and abuse of substances, particularly in adolescent therapy. Impulsivity, violence, marginalization, and primitive phantasies appear in the setting along with the functioning of the "addictive brain". Several aspects of vulnerability in adolescence, like depressive symptoms or narcissistic unbalance are connected with two basic principles in addiction: 1) drugs as a mean of obtaining pleasure, and 2) drugs as self regulators. The paper also describes the brain reward systems and the effect of drugs as neurotransmitters within the framework of intersubjectivity. A social approach completes the interdisciplinary work and enables us to use different explanatory models.

  8. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction…

  9. Attachment Styles and Psychopathology among Adolescent Children of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. Material/Methods We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Results Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (p<0.05). As a result of the assessments, 12 adolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (p<0.05). However, when psychiatric diagnoses were assessed separately, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions We found that the adolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles. PMID:25877235

  10. Relations Between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems In Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substanceabusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence and 59 of their coparents (16.9% in treatment for substance-abuse/dependence) from middle income households (SES: M = 4.7; SD = 2.1). Ratings were obtained for 325 adolescents (48% female; 27.8% non-Caucasian) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (M = 13.5 years; SD = 2.5 years). Parent psychopathology, family functioning problems, and adolescent problems were assessed with parent and coparent ratings on the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)/Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Relationship Measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Results indicated that maternal psychopathology was directly related to adolescent internalizing problems and substance use, but maternal perceptions of family functioning problems failed to mediate relations between maternal psychopathology and adolescent problems. By contrast, paternal perceptions of family functioning problems uniquely mediated relations between paternal psychopathology and adolescent externalizing problems. Findings underscore the importance of examining how mothers and fathers may differentially impact adolescent problems in substance-abusing families. PMID:22392413

  11. Convergence in Reports of Adolescents' Psychopathology: A Focus on Disorganized Attachment and Reflective Functioning.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Jessica L; Palmer, Alexandra; Vanwoerden, Salome; Sharp, Carla

    2017-12-13

    Although convergence in parent-youth reports of adolescent psychopathology is critical for treatment planning, research documents a pervasive lack of agreement in ratings of adolescents' symptoms. Attachment insecurity (particularly disorganized attachment) and impoverished reflective functioning (RF) are 2 theoretically implicated predictors of low convergence that have not been examined in the literature. In a cross-sectional investigation of adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, we examined whether disorganized attachment and low (adolescent and parent) RF were associated with patterns of convergence in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Compared with organized adolescents, disorganized adolescents had lower parent-youth convergence in reports of their internalizing symptoms and higher convergence in reports of their externalizing symptoms; low adolescent self-focused RF was associated with low convergence in parent-adolescent reports of internalizing symptoms, whereas low adolescent global RF was associated with high convergence in parent-adolescent reports of externalizing symptoms. Among adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, disorganized attachment and lower RF were associated with weaker internalizing symptom convergence and greater externalizing symptom convergence, which if replicated, could inform assessment strategies and treatment planning in this setting.

  12. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  13. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity as a mechanism linking child trauma to adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Heleniak, Charlotte; McLaughlin, Katie A; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in physiological reactivity to stress are argued to be central mechanisms linking adverse childhood environmental experiences to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Childhood trauma exposure may influence physiological reactivity to stress in distinct ways from other forms of childhood adversity. This study applied a novel theoretical model to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on cardiovascular stress reactivity - the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. This model suggests that inefficient cardiovascular responses to stress - a threat as opposed to challenge profile - are characterized by blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity and increased vascular resistance. We examined whether childhood trauma exposure predicted an indicator of the threat profile of cardiovascular reactivity and whether such a pattern was associated with adolescent psychopathology in a population-representative sample of 488 adolescents (M=16.17years old, 49.2% boys) in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Exposure to trauma was associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a pattern of cardiovascular reactivity consistent with the threat profile, including blunted CO reactivity during a social stress task. Blunted CO reactivity, in turn, was positively associated with externalizing, but not internalizing symptoms and mediated the link between trauma and externalizing psychopathology. None of these associations varied by gender. The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat provides a novel theoretical framework for understanding disruptions in physiological reactivity to stress following childhood trauma exposure, revealing a potential pathway linking such exposure with externalizing problems in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Are Children and Adolescents with Food Allergies at Increased Risk for Psychopathology?

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology—concurrently and over time. Methods Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N = 1,420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 to 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N = 5,165 pairs of interviews. Results Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Conclusion The unique constellation of adolescents’ increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. PMID:25454290

  16. The Cognitive Psychopathology of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.

  17. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Heleniak, Charlotte; Jenness, Jessica L; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-06-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology.

  18. Childhood Maltreatment Exposure and Disruptions in Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Pathway to Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Jessica L.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples. We additionally investigated whether each of these components of emotion regulation were associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and mediated the association between child maltreatment and psychopathology. Study 1 included a sample of 167 adolescents recruited based on exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Study 2 included a sample of 439 adolescents in a community-based cohort study followed prospectively for 5 years. In both samples, child maltreatment was associated with higher levels of internalizing psychopathology, elevated emotional reactivity, and greater habitual engagement in rumination and impulsive responses to distress. In Study 2, emotional reactivity and maladaptive responses to distress mediated the association between child maltreatment and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These findings provide converging evidence for the role of emotion regulation deficits as a transdiagnostic developmental pathway linking child maltreatment with multiple forms of psychopathology. PMID:27695145

  19. Incentive-related modulation of cognitive control in healthy, anxious, and depressed adolescents: development and psychopathology related differences.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Michael G; Schroth, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2007-05-01

    Developmental changes in cognitive and affective processes contribute to adolescent risk-taking behavior, emotional intensification, and psychopathology. The current study examined adolescent development of cognitive control processes and their modulation by incentive, in health and psychopathology. Predictions include 1) better cognitive control in adults than adolescents, and in healthy adolescents than anxious and depressed adolescents, and 2) a stronger influence of incentives in adolescents than adults, and in healthy adolescents than their depressed and anxious counterparts. Antisaccadic eye movement parameters, which provide a measure of cognitive control, were collected during a reward antisaccade task that included parameterized incentive levels. Participants were 20 healthy adults, 30 healthy adolescents, 16 adolescents with an anxiety disorder, and 11 adolescents with major depression. Performance accuracy and saccade latency were analyzed to test both developmental and psychopathology hypotheses. Development and psychopathology group differences in cognitive control were found. Specifically, adults performed better than healthy adolescents, and healthy adolescents than anxious and depressed adolescents. Incentive improved accuracy for all groups; however, incremental increases were not sufficiently large to further modulate performance. Incentives also affected saccade latencies, pushing healthy adolescent latencies to adult levels, while being less effective in adolescents with depression or anxiety. This latter effect was partially mediated by anxiety symptom severity. Current findings evidence the modulation of cognitive control processes by incentives. While seen in both healthy adults and healthy adolescents, this modulatory effect was stronger in youth. While anxious and depressed adolescents exhibited improved cognitive control under incentives, this effect was smaller than that in healthy adolescents. These findings suggest differential

  20. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  1. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  2. Cardiovascular reactivity as a mechanism linking child trauma to adolescent psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Heleniak, Charlotte; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in physiological reactivity to stress are argued to be central mechanisms linking adverse childhood environmental experiences to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Childhood trauma exposure may influence physiological reactivity to stress in distinct ways from other forms of childhood adversity. This study applied a novel theoretical model to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on cardiovascular stress reactivity – the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. This model suggests that inefficient cardiovascular responses to stress – a threat as opposed to challenge profile – are characterized by blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity and increased vascular resistance. We examined whether childhood trauma exposure predicted an indicator of the threat profile of cardiovascular reactivity and whether such a pattern was associated with adolescent psychopathology in a population-representative sample of 488 adolescents (M = 16.17 years old, 49.2% boys) in the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Exposure to trauma was associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a pattern of cardiovascular reactivity consistent with the threat profile, including blunted CO reactivity during a social stress task. Blunted CO reactivity, in turn, was positively associated with externalizing, but not internalizing symptoms and mediated the link between trauma and externalizing psychopathology. None of these associations varied by gender. The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat provides a novel theoretical framework for understanding disruptions in physiological reactivity to stress following childhood trauma exposure, revealing a potential pathway linking such exposure with externalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:27568327

  3. Psychopathology and behavior problems in children and adolescents with Williams syndrome: Distinctive relationships with cognition.

    PubMed

    Osório, Ana A C; Rossi, Natália F; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Sampaio, Adriana; Giacheti, Célia M

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have documented the high prevalence of psychopathology and behavior problems in Williams syndrome (WS). However, the links between cognitive development and such symptoms need further clarification. Our study aims to expand current knowledge on levels of behavior problems and its links to cognition in a sample of Brazilian individuals with WS. A total of 25 children and adolescents with WS and their parents participated in this study. The participants' IQs were assessed with the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (for children or adults) and parental reports of psychopathology/behavior problems were collected using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The presence of clinically significant attention problems was a main feature in our sample of children and adolescents with WS. In the children, higher IQ scores were found to be significantly associated with less externalizing problems, while in the adolescents cognitive abilities were found to be associated with less internalizing symptoms. These results provide further insight into the links between psychopathology and behavior problems and cognitive abilities in WS, and suggest the need to take age into consideration when analyzing such relationships.

  4. Facial expressions of emotion and psychopathology in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Keltner, D; Moffitt, T E; Stouthamer-Loeber, M

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of the widespread belief that emotions underpin psychological adjustment, the authors tested 3 predicted relations between externalizing problems and anger, internalizing problems and fear and sadness, and the absence of externalizing problems and social-moral emotion (embarrassment). Seventy adolescent boys were classified into 1 of 4 comparison groups on the basis of teacher reports using a behavior problem checklist: internalizers, externalizers, mixed (both internalizers and externalizers), and nondisordered boys. The authors coded the facial expressions of emotion shown by the boys during a structured social interaction. Results supported the 3 hypotheses: (a) Externalizing adolescents showed increased facial expressions of anger, (b) on 1 measure internalizing adolescents showed increased facial expressions of fear, and (c) the absence of externalizing problems (or nondisordered classification) was related to increased displays of embarrassment. Discussion focused on the relations of these findings to hypotheses concerning the role of impulse control in antisocial behavior.

  5. Dimensions of Adversity, Physiological Reactivity, and Externalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Deprivation and Threat

    PubMed Central

    Busso, Daniel S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is a putative intermediate phenotype linking childhood adversity (CA) with later psychopathology. However, associations of CAs with ANS and HPA-axis function vary widely across studies. Here, we test a novel conceptual model discriminating between distinct forms of CA (deprivation and threat) and examine their independent associations with physiological reactivity and psychopathology. Methods Adolescents (N = 169; mean age = 14.9 years; S.D.=1.4) with a range of interpersonal violence (e.g., maltreatment, community violence) and poverty exposure participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). During the TSST, electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) data were collected. We compared the associations of poverty (an indicator of deprivation) and interpersonal violence (an indicator of threat) on sympathetic, parasympathetic, and HPA-axis reactivity to the TSST, and assessed whether these differences mediated the association of adversity with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results Exposure to poverty and interpersonal violence was associated with psychopathology. Interpersonal violence, adjusting for poverty, was associated with blunted sympathetic (β=1.44, p=.050) and HPA-axis reactivity (β=−.09, p=.021). Blunted cortisol reactivity mediated the association of interpersonal violence with externalizing, but not internalizing, psychopathology. In contrast, poverty was not associated with physiological reactivity after adjusting for interpersonal violence. Conclusions We provide evidence for distinct neurobiological mechanisms through which adversity related to poverty and interpersonal violence are associated with psychopathology in adolescence. Distinguishing distinct pathways through which adversity influences mental health has implications for preventive interventions

  6. Dimensions of Adversity, Physiological Reactivity, and Externalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Deprivation and Threat.

    PubMed

    Busso, Daniel S; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A

    Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is a putative intermediate phenotype linking childhood adversity (CA) with later psychopathology. However, associations of CAs with autonomic nervous system and HPA-axis function vary widely across studies. Here, we test a novel conceptual model discriminating between distinct forms of CA (deprivation and threat) and examine their independent associations with physiological reactivity and psychopathology. Adolescents (N = 169; mean [SD] age, 14.9 [1.4] years) with a range of interpersonal violence (e.g., maltreatment, community violence) and poverty exposure participated in the Trier Social Stress test (TSST). During the TSST, electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, salivary cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate data were collected. We compared the associations of poverty (an indicator of deprivation) and interpersonal violence (an indicator of threat) on sympathetic, parasympathetic, and HPA-axis reactivity to the TSST, and assessed whether these differences mediated the association of adversity with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Exposure to poverty and interpersonal violence was associated with psychopathology. Interpersonal violence, adjusting for poverty, was associated with blunted sympathetic (b = 1.44, p = .050) and HPA-axis reactivity (b = -.09; p = .021). Blunted cortisol reactivity mediated the association of interpersonal violence with externalizing, but not internalizing, psychopathology. In contrast, poverty was not associated with physiological reactivity after adjusting for interpersonal violence. We provide evidence for distinct neurobiological mechanisms through which adversity related to poverty and interpersonal violence is associated with psychopathology in adolescence. Distinguishing distinct pathways through which adversity influences mental health has implications for preventive interventions targeting youths exposed to

  7. Psychopathological traits of adolescents with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a comparison with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Monica; Corbetta, Fabiola; Bonini, Luisa; Gambera, Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Neri, Francesca; Nacinovich, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a form of anovulation, due to the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, not related to identifiable organic causes. Like adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), subjects with FHA show dysfunctional attitudes, low self-esteem, depressive mood, anxiety and inability to cope with daily stress. The aim of the study is to examine similarities and differences between FHA and AN in terms of clinical profiles and psychological variables. 21 adolescents with FHA, 21 adolescents with anorexia nervosa, and 21 healthy adolescents were included in the study. All the teenagers completed a battery of self-administered psychological tests for the detection of behaviors and symptoms attributable to the presence of an eating disorder (EDI-2), depression (CDI), and alexithymia (TAS-20). Different from healthy controls, subjects with FHA and with AN shared common psychopathological aspects, such as maturity issues, social insecurity and introversion, a tendency to depression, excessive concerns with dieting, and fear of gaining weight. Nevertheless, adolescents with AN presented a more profound psychopathological disorder as observed at test comparisons with subjects with FHA. Results show a clinical spectrum that includes AN and FHA and suggest the necessity to treat FHA with a multidisciplinary approach for both organic and psychological aspects.

  8. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  9. Caffeine Use: Association with Nicotine Use, Aggression, and Other Psychopathology in Psychiatric and Pediatric Outpatient Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Catherine A.; Cook, Circe; Woodring, John H.; Burkhardt, Gretchen; Guenthner, Greg; Omar, Hatim A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caffeine use, other drug use, and psychopathology in adolescents, using self-report measures. The study group consisted of 132 adolescents (average age 14.01 ± 2.06 years, 52% female, 19% African American, 5% other categories, 76% Caucasian). Most (47%) were recruited from a child psychiatry clinic with emphasis on youth with disruptive disorders, with 35% from an adolescent pediatric clinic with emphasis on prevention of risk-taking behavior and 18% from a pediatric clinic for families with limited resources. Subjects were consecutively recruited before or after regular clinic visits. Consent was obtained from parents and assent from the youth. High caffeine consumption was associated with daily cigarette use; aggressive behavior; conduct, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and social problems; and increased somatic complaints in adolescents. PMID:18516472

  10. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  11. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  12. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Slobodskaya, Helena R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Development of the General Factor of Psychopathology 'p Factor' Through Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the structure of psychopathology may be usefully represented in terms of a general factor of psychopathology (p-factor) capturing variance common to a broad range of symptoms transcending diagnostic domains in addition to specific factors capturing variance common to smaller subsets of more closely related symptoms. Little is known about how the general co-morbidity captured by this p-factor develops and whether general co-morbidity increases or decreases over childhood and adolescence. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: 1) dynamic mutualism which predicts growth in general co-morbidity and associated p-factor strength over time and 2) p-differentiation which predicts that manifestations of liabilities towards psychopathology become increasingly specific over time. Data came from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths (z-proso), a longitudinal study of a normative sample (approx. 50 % male) measured at 8 time points from ages 7 to 15. We operationalised general co-morbidity as p-factor strength in a bi-factor model and used omega hierarchical to track how this changed over development. In contrast to the predictions of both dynamic mutualism and p-differentiation, p-factor strength remained relatively constant over the studied period suggesting that such processes do not govern the interplay between psychopathological symptoms during this phase of development. Future research should focus on earlier phases of development and on factors that maintain the consistency of symptom-general covariation across this period.

  14. Psychosocial Stress and Brain Function in Adolescent Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Erin Burke; Cattrell, Anna; Jia, Tianye; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Brühl, Rüdiger; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora C; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Buitelaar, Jan K; Happé, Francesca; Loth, Eva; Barker, Edward D; Schumann, Gunter

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to explore how conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, and emotional symptoms are associated with neural reactivity to social-emotional stimuli, and the extent to which psychosocial stress modulates these relationships. Participants were community adolescents recruited as part of the European IMAGEN study. Bilateral amygdala regions of interest were used to assess the relationship between the three symptom domains and functional MRI neural reactivity during passive viewing of dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions. Exploratory functional connectivity and whole brain multiple regression approaches were used to analyze how the symptoms and psychosocial stress relate to other brain regions. In response to the social-emotional stimuli, adolescents with high levels of conduct or hyperactivity/inattention symptoms who had also experienced a greater number of stressful life events showed hyperactivity of the amygdala and several regions across the brain. This effect was not observed with emotional symptoms. A cluster in the midcingulate was found to be common to both conduct problems and hyperactivity symptoms. Exploratory functional connectivity analyses suggested that amygdala-precuneus connectivity is associated with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. The results link hyperactive amygdala responses and regions critical for top-down emotional processing with high levels of psychosocial stress in individuals with greater conduct and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. This work highlights the importance of studying how psychosocial stress affects functional brain responses to social-emotional stimuli, particularly in adolescents with externalizing symptoms.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Prototype Diagnosis for Adolescent Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Zodan, Jennifer; Mehra, Ashwin; Zubair, Ayyan; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J; DeFife, Jared

    2016-04-01

    The current study investigated the interrater reliability and validity of prototype ratings of 5 common adolescent psychiatric disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. One hundred fifty-seven adolescent inpatient participants consented to participate in this study. We compared ratings from 2 inpatient clinicians, blinded to each other's ratings and patient measures, after their separate initial diagnostic interview to assess interrater reliability. Prototype ratings completed by clinicians after their initial diagnostic interview with adolescent inpatients and outpatients were compared with patient-reported behavior problems and parents' report of their child's behavioral problems. Prototype ratings demonstrated good interrater reliability. Clinicians' prototype ratings showed predicted relationships with patient-reported behavior problems and parent-reported behavior problems. Prototype matching seems to be a possible alternative for psychiatric diagnosis. Prototype ratings showed good interrater reliability based on clinicians unique experiences with the patient (as opposed to video-/audio-recorded material) with no training.

  16. Perceived family functioning, adolescent psychopathology and quality of life in the general population: a 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Wallander, Jan L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether perceived family functioning of adolescent is moderating or mediating the longitudinal association of adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology with quality of life (QoL) after 6 months in the general population. Using a cluster sampling technique in one Norwegian county 1331, 10- to 16-year-old students were included in the study (51 % girls). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for the assessment of adolescent psychopathology at Time 1. The students completed the General Functioning Scale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents at time 2 6 months later. Psychopathology, family functioning and QoL were treated as latent variables in a structural equation model adjusted for sex, age and parent education. The regression coefficients for paths from psychopathology decreased (β = .199 for the internalizing and β = .102 for the externalizing model) in each case when including the indirect path via family functioning compared with the direct path from psychopathology to QoL. The sum of indirect effects on QoL via family functioning was significant for internalizing β = 0.093 (95 % CI 0.054-0.133) and externalizing β = 0.119 (95 % CI 0.076-0.162) psychopathology. Family functioning significantly mediated the longitudinal association between psychopathology and QoL. Because the family remains an important social domain for adolescents, it must be an important consideration when attempting to reduce or alleviate psychopathology in youth and improve the quality of their life experience throughout this period.

  17. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  18. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.

  19. Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal PTSD, Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article. PMID:19486844

  20. Tracking Effects of Problematic Social Networking on Adolescent Psychopathology: The Mediating Role of Sleep Disruptions.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are growing about adolescents' problematic social networking and possible links to depressed mood and externalizing behavior. Yet there remains little understanding of underlying processes that may account for these associations, including the mediating role of sleep disruption. This study tests this putative mediating process and examines change in problematic social networking investment and disrupted sleep, in relation to change in depressed mood and externalizing behavior. A sample of 874 students (41% male; 57.2% Caucasian; baseline M age = 14.4 years) from 27 high schools were surveyed. Participants' problematic social networking, sleep disruption, and psychopathology (depressed mood, externalizing behaviors) were measured annually over 3 years. Longitudinal mediation was tested using latent trajectories of problematic social networking use, sleep disruption, and psychopathology. Both problematic social networking and sleep disruption underwent positive linear growth over time. Adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking reported increased depressed mood, with around 53% of this association explained by the indirect effect of increased sleep disruptions. Further, adolescents who increasingly invested in social networking also reported increased externalizing behavior; some of this relation was explained (13%) via increased sleep disruptions. However an alternative model in which increased externalizing was associated with increased social networking, mediated by sleep disruptions, indicated a reciprocal relation of similar magnitude. It is important for parents, teachers, and psychologists to minimize the negative effects of social networking on adolescents' psychopathology. Interventions should potentially target promoting healthy sleep habits through reductions in social networking investment and rescheduling usage away from bedtime.

  1. Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure Relative to Puberty and the Nature of Psychopathology Among Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    Increased neuroplasticity and neural development during puberty provide a context for which stress and trauma can have dramatic and long-lasting effects on psychological systems; therefore, this study was designed to determine whether exposure to potentially traumatic events during puberty uniquely predicts adolescent girls' psychopathology. Because neural substrates associated with different forms of psychopathology seemingly develop at different rates, the possibility that the developmental timing of trauma relative to puberty predicts the nature of psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depressive, and anxiety disorders) was examined. A subset of 2,899 adolescent girls from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement who completed the study 2+ years postmenarche was selected. Past-year psychiatric disorders and reports of age of trauma exposure were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Developmental stages were defined as the 2 years after the year of menarche ("postpuberty"), 3 years before and year of menarche ("puberty"), 2 to 6 years before the puberty period ("grade school"), and 4 to 5 years after birth ("infancy-preschool"). Compared to other developmental periods, trauma during puberty conferred significantly more risk (50.47% of model R(2)) for girls' past-year anxiety disorder diagnoses (primarily social phobia), whereas trauma during the grade school period conferred significantly more risk (47.24% of model R(2)) for past-year depressive disorder diagnoses. Recency of trauma best predicted past-year PTSD diagnoses. Supporting rodent models, puberty may be a sensitive period for the impact of trauma on girls' development of an anxiety disorder. Trauma prepuberty or postpuberty distinctly predicts depression or PTSD, suggesting differential etiological processes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trauma profile in Egyptian adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia: relation to psychopathology and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Kira, Ibrahim A; Fawzi, Mohab M; Mohamed, Hanan E; Fawzi, Maggie M

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relation of trauma profile to schizophrenia psychopathology in a sample of Egyptian drug-naïve adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia. In addition, a hypothesized mediating effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this relation was formally tested. We assessed 74 eligible outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for measuring psychopathology. Trauma histories were recorded with the help of the Cumulative Trauma Measure. Serum BDNF levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total cumulative trauma, personal identity trauma, and survival trauma were found to be the significant predictors for schizophrenia psychopathology. BDNF fully mediated the associations between total cumulative trauma and overall schizophrenia psychopathology. BDNF also mediated the associations between some types of trauma and both PANSS-positive and PANSS-negative symptom factors. We concluded that total cumulative trauma and certain trauma types are linked with schizophrenia psychopathology. BDNF appears to mediate these links.

  3. Self-concept, self-esteem, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents with and without visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernarás, Elena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and other personality traits and psychopathological symptoms in subjects with and without visual impairment. The sample was made up of 90 participants aged 12 to 17: 61 with no impairment and 29 with visual impairment. The ANOVA showed that there were no significant differences in self-concept and self-esteem in the samples, but the visually impaired adolescents scored significantly higher in various psychopathological symptoms as well as in their capacity for kind behavior. The ANOVA revealed no gender differences in any variables in adolescents without visual impairment. However, women with visual impairment scored lower in self-esteem and higher in various psychopathological symptoms. Pearson coefficients revealed negative relations between self-concept/self-esteem and all the psychopathological symptoms, and neuroticism, as well as a positive relation with extraversion. Low psychoticism, high extraversion, and low hostility were identified as predictors of high self-concept.

  4. Genetic questions for environmental studies. Differential parenting and psychopathology in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M; Plomin, R; Howe, G W; Simmens, S J; Henderson, S H; O'Connor, T J; Bussell, D A; Anderson, E R; Law, T

    1995-11-01

    Recent genetic evidence suggests that the most important environmental influences on normal and pathologic development are those that are not shared by siblings in the same family. We sought to determine the relationship between differences in parenting styles and depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adolescence, and to compare the influence of these nonshared experiences with genetic influences. We studied 708 families with at least two same-sexed adolescent siblings who were monozygotic twins (93 families), dizygotic twins (99 families), ordinary siblings (95 families), full siblings in step families (181 families), half siblings in step families (110 families), and genetically unrelated siblings in step families (130 families). Data on parenting style were collected by questionnaire and by video recording of interaction between parents and children. Almost 60% of variance in adolescent antisocial behavior and 37% of variance in depressive symptoms could be accounted for by conflictual and negative parental behavior directed specifically at the adolescent. In contrast, when a parent directed harsh, aggressive, explosive, and inconsistent parenting toward the sibling, we found less psychopathologic outcome in the adolescent. Parenting behavior directed specifically at each child in the family is a major correlate of symptoms in adolescents. Furthermore, harsh parental behavior directed at a sibling may have protective effects for adolescents, a phenomenon we call the "siblin barricade."

  5. Eating Disorder Psychopathology as a Marker of Psychosocial Distress and Suicide Risk in Female and Male Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294

  6. Adolescents' ability to read different emotional faces relates to their history of maltreatment and type of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Leist, Tatyana; Dadds, Mark R

    2009-04-01

    Emotional processing styles appear to characterize various forms of psychopathology and environmental adversity in children. For example, autistic, anxious, high- and low-emotion conduct problem children, and children who have been maltreated, all appear to show specific deficits and strengths in recognizing the facial expressions of emotions. Until now, the relationships between emotion recognition, antisocial behaviour, emotional problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits and early maltreatment have never been assessed simultaneously in one study, and the specific associations of emotion recognition to maltreatment and child characteristics are therefore unknown. We examined facial-emotion processing in a sample of 23 adolescents selected for high-risk status on the variables of interest. As expected, maltreatment and child characteristics showed unique associations. CU traits were uniquely related to impairments in fear recognition. Antisocial behaviour was uniquely associated with better fear recognition, but impaired anger recognition. Emotional problems were associated with better recognition of anger and sadness, but lower recognition of neutral faces. Maltreatment was predictive of superior recognition of fear and sadness. The findings are considered in terms of social information-processing theories of psychopathology. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.

  7. Anxiety Psychopathology and Alcohol Use among Adolescents: A Critical Review of the Empirical Literature and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Badour, Christal L; Babson, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is a critical public health concern; accordingly, a considerable body of work exists identifying developmentally salient risk and protective factors. One area receiving increasing attention among adults is the linkage between specific constellations of anxiety psychopathology and alcohol use problems. Relatively less is known about such linkages among adolescents, despite the onset of both anxiety-type problems and alcohol use during this developmental period. The current review presents a detailed summary and analysis of the empirical literature focused on specific forms of anxiety psychopathology as they relate to alcohol use among adolescents, and provides a number of specific recommendations for future work with an emphasis on the utility of experimental psychopathology techniques for clarifying basic questions and forwarding this body of work.

  8. Self-injurious behavior in adolescent girls. Association with psychopathology and neuropsychological functions.

    PubMed

    Ohmann, S; Schuch, B; Konig, M; Blaas, S; Fliri, C; Popow, C

    2008-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is increasingly popular in psychically ill adolescents, especially in girls with posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and personality disorders. Adolescents with SIB frequently exhibit neurofunctional and psychopathological deficits. We speculated that specific neuropsychological deficits and temperamental factors could predispose patients to SIB and prospectively explored adolescent psychiatric patients with and without SIB in order to find out differences in psychopathology, and neuropsychological or temperamental factors. Ninety-nine psychically ill adolescent girls with SIB, aged 12-19 years and treated at our clinic, were prospectively recruited during a period of 5.5 years (1999-2005). The clinical (ICD-10) diagnoses were mainly substance abuse, eating disorders, depression, PTSD and personality disorders. The control group was also prospectively recruited during the same period and consisted of 77 girls with similar diagnoses and ages but no SIB. All patients were subjected to the same selection of clinical and neuropsychological tests, mainly self-rating questionnaires and tests evaluating executive functions. Adolescent girls with psychiatric disease and SIB were more severely traumatized and depressed. They reported severe emotional and behavioral problems and deficits of self-regulation. In addition, their parents more frequently had psychiatric problems. Temperament, intelligence, investigated executive functions and presence of dissociative symptoms were not different in patients with and without SIB. We could not verify our primary hypothesis that SIB is related to specific neuropsychological deficits or temperamental factors. SIB was associated with traumatic experience, depression, problems of self-regulation and parental psychiatric disease. The prevention of SIB should therefore focus on improving affect regulation, the management of emotional distress and problem-solving strategies. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Cognitive Vulnerabilities Amplify the Effect of Early Pubertal Timing on Interpersonal Stress Generation During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  10. Difficulties with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology Interact to Predict Early Smoking Cessation Lapse

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants (n = 250; 53.2 % female, Mage = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 26(1):41–54, 2004) and smoking behavior in the 28 days post-quit was assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB; Sobell and Sobell in Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods. Humana Press, Totowa, 1992). A Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to model the effects of past-year psychopathology, DERS (total score), and their interaction, in terms of time to lapse post-quit day. After adjusting for the effects of gender, age, pre-quit level of nicotine dependence, and treatment condition, the model revealed a non-significant effect of past-year psychopathology (OR = 1.14, CI95 % = 0.82–1.61) and difficulties with emotion regulation (OR = 1.01, CI95 % = 1.00–1.01) on likelihood of lapse rate. However, the interactive effect of psychopathology status and difficulties with emotion regulation was significant (OR = 0.98, CI95 % = 0.97–0.99). Specifically, there was a significant conditional effect of psychopathology status on lapse rate likelihood at low, but not high, levels of emotion regulation difficulties. Plots of the cumulative survival functions indicated that for smokers without a past-year psychological disorder, those with lower DERS scores relative to elevated DERS scores had significantly lower likelihood of early smoking lapse, whereas for smokers with past-year psychopathology, DERS scores did not differentially impact lapse rate likelihood. Smokers with emotion

  11. Difficulties with Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology Interact to Predict Early Smoking Cessation Lapse.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-06-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotion regulation difficulties interplay with psychopathology in terms of smoking cessation. Participants ( n = 250; 53.2 % female, M age = 39.5, SD = 13.85) were community-recruited daily smokers (≥8 cigarettes per day) who self-reported motivation to quit smoking; 38.8 % of the sample met criteria for a current (past 12-month) psychological disorder. Emotion regulation deficits were assessed pre-quit using the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 26(1):41-54, 2004) and smoking behavior in the 28 days post-quit was assessed using the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB; Sobell and Sobell in Measuring alcohol consumption: psychosocial and biochemical methods. Humana Press, Totowa, 1992). A Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to model the effects of past-year psychopathology, DERS (total score), and their interaction, in terms of time to lapse post-quit day. After adjusting for the effects of gender, age, pre-quit level of nicotine dependence, and treatment condition, the model revealed a non-significant effect of past-year psychopathology ( OR = 1.14, CI 95 % = 0.82-1.61) and difficulties with emotion regulation ( OR = 1.01, CI 95 % = 1.00-1.01) on likelihood of lapse rate. However, the interactive effect of psychopathology status and difficulties with emotion regulation was significant ( OR = 0.98, CI 95 % = 0.97-0.99). Specifically, there was a significant conditional effect of psychopathology status on lapse rate likelihood at low, but not high, levels of emotion regulation difficulties. Plots of the cumulative survival functions indicated that for smokers without a past-year psychological disorder, those with lower DERS scores relative to elevated DERS scores had significantly lower likelihood of early smoking lapse, whereas for smokers with past-year psychopathology, DERS scores did not differentially impact lapse rate likelihood. Smokers with emotion

  12. Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Gilbert, P; McEwan, K

    2009-06-01

    Experiences of early childhood have a major impact on physiological, psychological, and social aspects of maturation and functioning. One avenue of work explores the recall and memory of positive or negative rearing experiences and their association with psychopathology measures. However, while many self-report studies have focused on the recall of parental behaviours this study developed a new measure called the early memories of warmth and safeness scale (EMWSS), which focuses on recall of one's own inner positive feelings, emotions and experiences in childhood. Student participants (N = 180) completed the new scale and a series of self-report scales measuring different types of early recall, psychopathology, types of positive affect, and self-criticism/reassurance. The EMWSS was found to have good psychometric properties and reliability. Recall of parental behaviour and recall of positive emotional memories were highly related, but recall of positive emotional memories was a better predictor of psychopathology, styles of self-criticism/self-reassurance and disposition to experience positive affect, than recall of parental behaviour.

  13. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…

  14. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  15. Psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in urban adolescents with suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Summerville, M B; Kaslow, N J; Abbate, M F; Cronan, S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in 121 African-American adolescents who attempted suicide. Group means suggested that these youths, when taken together, were not reporting significant psychological distress. However, after classifying the youths into three groups by level of depressive symptoms interesting findings emerged. Youth self-reports of depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory were associated with the presence of internalizing and externalizing disorders on the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist, and with a maladaptive attributional style. Sixty-seven percent of participants classified their family types as maladaptive in terms of levels of cohesion and/or adaptability. In fact, the majority of adolescents and parents reported their families as disengaged. These findings are discussed from a culturally and developmentally sensitive framework which considers key demographic variables (race, socioeconomic status, age). Clinical implications are offered for individual and family interventions.

  16. Risk models of dating aggression across different adolescent relationships: a developmental psychopathology approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tricia S; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy; Laporte, Lise

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined physical dating aggression in different adolescent relationships and assessed linear, threshold, and moderator risk models for recurrent aggressive relationships. The 621 participants (59% girls, 41% boys) were drawn from a 1-year longitudinal survey of Canadian high school youths ranging from Grade 9 through Grade 12. Approximately 13% of participants reported recurrent dating aggression across 2 different relationships. Using peer and dyadic risk factors from Time 1 of the study, the authors confirmed a linear risk model, such that adolescents in 2 different violent relationships had significantly more contextual risk factors than did adolescents in 1 or no violent relationship. Further, structural equation modeling assessing moderation of contextual risk factors indicated that, for adolescents with high acceptance of dating aggression, peer aggression and delinquency significantly predicted recurrent aggression in a new relationship. In comparison, for adolescents with low acceptance of dating aggression, negative relationship characteristics significantly predicted recurrent aggression. Acceptance did not moderate concurrent associations between risk factors and aggression in 1 relationship. Results support a developmental psychopathological approach to the understanding of recurrent aggression and its associated risk factors. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Substance use or abuse, internet use, psychopathology and suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio

    2017-01-12

    Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.

  18. Eating-related Psychopathology and Food Addiction in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; Föcker, Manuel; Kliewer, Josephine; Esber, Simon; Peters, Triinu; de Zwaan, Martina; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate the relationship between food addiction and mental disorders including eating disorders (ED), eating-related psychopathology and body mass index-standard deviation score in a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Food addiction was assessed with the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). Eating-related psychopathology was measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The sample consisted of n = 242 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, of which n = 37 (15.3%) met criteria for an ED. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between YFAS symptom count, TFEQ scales and ED controlling for age and gender. Food addiction frequency was 16.5%, and the mean YFAS symptom count was 2.39 (SD: 1.60). In patients with food addiction, TFEQ scale scores were significantly higher than patients without food addiction. Frequency of ED was 42.9% in patients with and 9.9% in patients without food addiction. The TFEQ subscales disinhibition and hunger as well as diagnosis of ED were associated with YFAS symptom count. Food addiction in adolescent psychiatric inpatients occurs with rates higher than those seen in community samples of children, adolescents and adults. Food addiction might be associated with eating styles related to susceptibility to hunger and feelings of loss of control. The implications of high-YFAS scores in restricting-type anorexia nervosa warrant further investigations to explore which and how the respective items are interpreted in this ED subgroup. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood: an 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, R F; Verhulst, F C

    1995-11-01

    This study investigated the stability of behavioral and emotional problems from adolescence into young adulthood. Subjects from the general population (N = 459), aged 13-16 years, were evaluated initially with the Child Behavior Checklist (completed by parents) and 8 years later with the Young Adult Self-Report. The scoring format and factor structure of the two assessment instruments are similar; syndromes constructed from the two instruments are based on parents', teachers', and self-report information derived from large clinical samples. Signs of maladjustment also were assessed at follow-up through interviews. Of the individuals with total problem scores in the deviant range on the Child Behavior Checklist, 27.3% had total problem scores in the deviant range on the Young Adult Self-Report at follow-up. The probability of having a total problem score in the deviant range at follow-up was raised 7.4-fold by having deviant-range scores on the Child Behavior Checklist somatic complaints and anxious/depressed syndromes (simultaneously) at the initial assessment. Referral to mental health services was predicted by deviant-range scores on the anxious/depressed syndrome, while suicide attempts were predicted by deviance on the withdrawn syndrome. Adolescent problems tended to persist into young adulthood to a moderate degree. High rates of withdrawal from social contacts, anxiety or depression, somatic complaints without known medical origin, social problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior during adolescence were risk factors for specific types of psychopathology and maladjustment at 8-year follow-up. The presence of psychopathology in adolescence should not be regarded as normative.

  20. Psychopathology and Borderline Personality Pathology Associated with Lifetime Self-Injurious Behavior in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients and Detainees.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Brunner, Romuald; Schmidt, Johannes Michael; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a widespread phenomenon among adolescent psychiatric inpatients. It is also reported among delinquent adolescents detained in correctional facilities. While previous studies have addressed different functions of SIB within offender populations, here we investigate particular patterns of borderline personality pathology and psychopathology underlying SIB in both adolescent psychiatric inpatients and detainees. Adolescent psychiatric inpatients and detainees were recruited consecutively. Participants completed self-reports on SIB, suicidal thoughts and behavior, borderline personality pathology, and general psychopathology. Predictors of lifetime SIB by group were analyzed. Psychiatric inpatients (n = 77) and detainees (n = 50) did not differ with respect to lifetime SIB (57.14 % versus 54.00 %), whereas SIB within the past year did (67.53 % versus 14 %; χ2 (1) = 6.158, p = .013). Psychiatric inpatients reported greater emotional problems (t (125) = 5.109, p < .0001) and greater borderline personality pathology. Those with lifetime SIB were characterized by greater emotional problems and borderline personality pathology, independent of their group. Results from regression analyses suggest no group-specific predictors of lifetime SIB. Although psychiatric inpatients endorse greater psychopathological distress, lifetime SIB among adolescent psychiatric inpatients and detainees is associated with similar patterns of psychopathology and borderline personality pathology.

  1. Culture beats gender? The importance of controlling for identity- and parenting-related risk factors in adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Besevegis, Elias; Chau, Cecilia; Karaman, Neslihan Güney; Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Lubiewska, Katharzyna; Rohail, Iffat

    2018-02-01

    This study analyzed the unique effects of gender and culture on psychopathology in adolescents from seven countries after controlling for factors which might have contributed to variations in psychopathology. In a sample 2259 adolescents (M = 15 years; 54% female) from France, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Peru, Pakistan, and Poland identity stress, coping with identity stress, maternal parenting (support, psychological control, anxious rearing) and psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing and total symptomatology) were assessed. Due to variations in stress perception, coping style and maternal behavior, these covariates were partialed out before the psychopathology scores were subjected to analyses of variance with gender and country as factors. These analyses leveled out the main effect of country and revealed country-specific gender effects. In four countries, males reported higher internalizing and total symptomatology than females. Partialing out the covariates resulted in a clearer picture of culture-specific and gender-dependent effects on psychopathology, which is helpful in designing interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Low Is Low? Low Self-Esteem as an Indicator of Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Vaananen, Juha-Matti; Frojd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-01-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze…

  3. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Garrad, Megan C; Somerville, Leah H

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds.

  4. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Garrad, Megan C.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds. PMID:26869841

  5. Sibling relationship quality and psychopathology of children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Buist, Kirsten L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In the current meta-analysis, we investigated the link between child and adolescent sibling relationship quality (warmth, conflict and differential treatment) and internalizing and externalizing problems, and potential moderators of these associations. From 34 studies, we obtained 85 effect sizes, based on 12,257 children and adolescents. Results showed that more sibling warmth, less sibling conflict and less differential treatment were all significantly associated with less internalizing and externalizing problems. Effect sizes for sibling conflict were stronger than for sibling warmth and differential treatment, and associations for internalizing and externalizing problems were similar in strength. Effect sizes were moderated by sibling gender combination (stronger effects for higher percentage brother pairs), age difference between siblings (stronger effects for smaller age differences), and developmental period (stronger effect sizes for children than for adolescents). These results indicate that the sibling context is important when considering psychopathology. In addition to the overwhelming evidence of the impact of parent-child and marital relationships on child and adolescent development, the present meta-analysis is a reminder that the sibling relationship warrants more attention in research as well as in clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Substance Use & Psychopathology: Interactive Effects of Cortisol Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Turpyn, Caitlin C.; Hansen, Amysue; Jacangelo, Juliana; Chaplin, Tara M.

    2015-01-01

    How are emotional processes associated with the increased rates of substance use and psychological disorders commonly observed during adolescence? An index of emotion-related physiological arousal—cortisol reactivity—and subjective emotion regulation have both been independently linked to substance use and psychological difficulties among youth. The current study (N = 134 adolescents) sought to elucidate the interactive effects of cortisol reactivity following a stressful parent–child interaction task and self-reported emotion regulation ability on adolescents’ substance use and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Results revealed that adolescents with low levels of cortisol reactivity and high emotion regulation difficulties were more likely to use substances, and also had the highest parent-reported symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. With respect to internalizing symptoms, high emotion-related physiological reactivity coupled with high emotion regulation difficulties were associated with higher self-reported major depression symptoms among youth. Findings reveal that different profiles of HPA axis arousal and emotion regulation are associated with substance use and symptoms of psychopathology among adolescents. PMID:27330232

  7. Profiles of Adolescent Religiousness using Latent Profile Analysis: Implications for Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Gregory S.; Bray, Bethany; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has documented robust associations between adolescent religiousness/spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology outcomes including externalizing and internalizing symptomatology, yet no previous studies have examined these associations with adolescent R/S profiles using a person-centered approach. We examined if there are identifiable subgroups characterized by unique multidimensional patterns of R/S experiences and how these experiences may be related to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The sample consisted of 220 Appalachian adolescents between 12 and 18 years old who were primarily White and primarily Christian. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of adolescent R/S; high religiousness (28.4%), introjectors (47.6%), and low religiousness (24.0%). These profiles were differentially related to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology such that the high religiousness group was significantly lower than the introjectors with respect to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology and lower than the low religiousness group in externalizing symptomatology. Implications and suggestions for future research using person-centered approaches to better understand differential developmental trajectories of religious development are provided. PMID:28220955

  8. Research review: the shared environment as a key source of variability in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral genetic research has historically concluded that the more important environmental influences were nonshared or result in differences between siblings, whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as shared environmental influences) were indistinguishable from zero. Recent theoretical and meta-analytic work {Burt. Psychological Bulletin [135 (2009) 608]} has challenged this conclusion as it relates to child and adolescent psychopathology, however, arguing that the shared environment is a moderate, persistent, and identifiable source of individual differences in such outcomes prior to adulthood. The current review seeks to bolster research on the shared environment by highlighting both the logistic advantages inherent in studies of the shared environment, as well as the use of nontraditional but still genetically informed research designs to study shared environmental influences. Although often moderate in magnitude prior to adulthood and free of unsystematic measurement error, shared environmental influences are nevertheless likely to have been underestimated in prior research. Moreover, the shared environment is likely to include proximal effects of the family, as well as the effects of more distal environmental contexts such as neighborhood and school. These risk and protective factors could influence the child either as main effects or as moderators of genetic influence (i.e. gene-environment interactions). Finally, because the absence of genetic relatedness in an otherwise nonindependent dataset also qualifies as 'genetically informed', studies of the shared environment are amenable to the use of novel and non-traditional designs (with appropriate controls for selection). The shared environment makes important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Empirical examinations of the shared environment would thus be of real and critical value for understanding the development and

  9. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes--The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12-20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were administered to assess health-related functioning. Clinical data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Significant gender differences were demonstrated in the pattern of correlates of eating disorder pathology. Among females, eating disorder psychopathology was significantly associated with body mass index adjusted for age and gender, age, insulin restriction, coping, illness perceptions, and perceptions of insulin concern. In a regression model, age, illness perceptions, and insulin restriction remained significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology, explaining 48% of the variance. None of the variables were associated with eating disorder psychopathology among males. Greater clinical awareness of illness perceptions, attitudes toward insulin, and insulin restriction may potentially decrease the risk of developing eating disorders among female adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and the subsequent increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid type 1 diabetes and eating disorders.

  10. Identifying the Presence, Severity, and Chronicity of Psychopathological Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Runaways Using the Personality Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Michael E.; And Others

    An extensive review of the adolescent runaway literature indicated inconsistent findings regarding the presence, severity, and chronicity of psychopathological behavior among this high-risk group. Three experiments were conducted to address these issues using one personality measure, the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). The results of the…

  11. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  12. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  13. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  14. Health related quality of life and psychopathological distress in risk taking and self-harming adolescents with full-syndrome, subthreshold and without borderline personality disorder: rethinking the clinical cut-off?

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Koenig, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic standards do not acknowledge developmental specifics and differences in the clinical presentation of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD is associated with severe impairments in health related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased psychopathological distress. Previously no study addressed differences in HRQoL and psychopathology in adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD as well as adolescents at-risk for the development but no current BPD. Drawing on data from a consecutive sample of N  = 264 adolescents (12-17 years) presenting with risk-taking and self-harming behavior at a specialized outpatient clinic, we investigated differences in HRQoL (KIDSCREEN-52) and psychopathological distress (SCL-90-R) comparing adolescents with no BPD (less than 3 criteria fulfilled), to those with subthreshold (3-4 BPD criteria) and full-syndrome BPD (5 or more BPD criteria). Group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Sidak corrected contrasts or Chi-Square test for categorical variables. Adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD presented one year later at our clinic and were more likely female. Adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD showed greater Axis-I and Axis-II comorbidity compared to adolescents with no BPD, and reported greater risk-taking behaviour, self-injury and suicidality. Compared to those without BPD, adolescents with subthreshold and full-syndrome BPD reported significantly reduced HRQoL. Adolescents with sub-threshold BPD and those with full-syndrome BPD did not differ on any HRQoL dimension, with the exception of Self-Perception . Similar, groups with sub-threshold and full-syndrome BPD showed no significant differences on any dimension of self-reported psychopathological distress, with the exception of Hostility . Findings highlight that subthreshold BPD in adolescents is associated with impairments in HRQoL and psychopathological distress comparable to full

  15. Suicidal ideations and sleep-related problems in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Franić, Tomislav; Kralj, Zana; Marčinko, Darko; Knez, Rajna; Kardum, Goran

    2014-05-01

    Suicidal ideation and sleep-related problems are associated with many common psychopathological entities in early adolescence. This study examined possible association between suicidal ideation and sleep-related problems. A cross-sectional study was performed in classroom settings at 840 early adolescents 11-13 years of age. Of those, 791 adolescents fully completed the data and thus represent an actual sample. Suicidal ideations were assessed with three dichotomous (yes/no) items: 'I often think about death'; 'I wish I was dead'; 'I often think about suicide.' A composite measure of perceived sleep-related problems was formed by combining items from the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Do you find it hard to sleep at night because you are worrying about things?), Children Depression Inventory (It is hard for me to fall asleep at night), and two additional dichotomous questions (I often was not able to fall asleep because of worrying; At times I was not able to stay asleep because of worrying). This score mainly assessed difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep. A total of 7.1% adolescents reported suicidal ideation and 86.7% of them had sleep problems. Sleep-related problems were associated with any suicidal ideation and each type of ideation separately. This study suggests association of sleep problems and suicidal ideations in early adolescence. Therefore, clinicians should evaluate this population for sleep disturbances, as they might be a marker of increased risk for suicidality. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. [Parental Stress and psychopathological traits in children and adolescents. A controlled study].

    PubMed

    Gatta, Michela; Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Birocchi, Valentina; Del Col, Lara; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Since parental stress and family empowerment were shown to influence children's and adolescents' outcome, especially in the case of psychotherapeutic treatments, the present study aims to deeply explore factors that are likely to impact on stress and empowerment in parents of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Parenting stress and empowerment have been compared between 45 parents of children with a psychiatric disorder and 96 parents of children without psychiatric disorders. Parenting stress appeared to be higher in patients' parents and it varied according to disorder severity, while socio-demographic variables seemed to influence the stress levels only to a slight extent. Moreover parental stress and empowerment influenced each other within the parental couple. Developing interventions aimed to support parenting and to involve fathers in the parent-child relationship, focused on increasing parents empowerment and self-efficacy, could contribute to decrease stress and positively influence children's psychopathology.

  17. Profiles of adolescent religiousness using latent profile analysis: Implications for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Longo, Gregory S; Bray, Bethany C; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has documented robust associations between adolescent religiousness/spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology outcomes including externalizing and internalizing symptomatology, yet no previous studies have examined these associations with adolescent R/S profiles using a person-centred approach. We examined whether there are identifiable subgroups characterized by unique multidimensional patterns of R/S experiences and how these experiences may be related to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The sample consisted of 220 Appalachian adolescents between 12 and 18 years old who were primarily White and primarily Christian. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of adolescent R/S: high religiousness (28.4%), introjectors (47.6%), and low religiousness (24.0%). These profiles were differentially related to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology such that the high religiousness group was significantly lower than the introjectors with respect to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology and lower than the low religiousness group in externalizing symptomatology. Implications and suggestions for future research using person-centred approaches to better understand differential developmental trajectories of religious development are provided. Statement of contribution What is already known Prior research has demonstrated a negative relationship between adolescent religiousness and spirituality (R/S) and psychopathology. Numerous studies document the differential relationships between aspects of R/S and psychopathology; however, few have done so from a person-centred perspective. There are several theories that outline how R/S to study R/S when paying specific attention to culture. Saroglou's Big Four dimensions of religion (believing, bonding, behaving, and belonging) posits that these four dimensions (1) are able to delimit religion from proximal constructs; (2) translate major distinct dimensions of religiousness; (3) can be

  18. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    PubMed

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  19. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-lagged relations among parenting, children's emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed.

  1. Text-Bullying among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    Increased availability of cell-phones has provided new avenues through which adolescents can bully their peers. Text-bullying is an emerging form of bullying which may threaten the emotional well-being of early adolescents. In this study 565 early adolescents (10-13 years old) completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with bullying…

  2. Adolescents Who Take Overdoses: Outcome in Terms of Changes in Psychopathology and the Adolescents' Attitudes to Care and to Their Overdose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sally; Hawton, Keith; Loveday, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent self-poisoners were followed up three months after taking an overdose. High levels of psychopathology were found. Subjects were offered follow-up treatment; 72% found this treatment useful. More than half the subjects (54%) thought that their overdose had resulted in overall improvements to their lives, while 44% would consider taking…

  3. The Psychopathological Influence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Korean Male : An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Shik; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon; Lee, Myoung Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are few published studies which have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of AIS in Korean 19-year-old males. Methods The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 105 AIS cases (more than 10 degrees of Cobb's angle without surgical treatment) with the KMPI profiles of 108 normal controls. The AIS group was split depending on Cobb's angle to further evaluate this relation by the severity of AIS. Results A significantly decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an significantly increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.012). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were significantly increased in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.010). The severity level of personality disorder and schizophrenia were also significantly increased in the AIS group (p<0.010). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to the severity of AIS. Conclusion Young males with AIS tend to have abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test compared to normal volunteers, suggesting that AIS may be related to psychopathology in the young male group in Korea. Although these psychopathology in AIS were differently observed compared to normal controls, but not interfered with military life. Clinicians are recommended to pay attention the psychopathological traits of patients with AIS. PMID:23440382

  4. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time.

  5. Irritability, Externalizing, and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations and Moderation by Sex.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Schouboe, Sophie N F; Kircanski, Katharina; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-04-18

    Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11.39, SD = 1.07) boys and girls (37% White/Caucasian, 8% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 2% Native American, 2% Pacific Islander, 28% Other, and 3% not reported). A subset of the sample (n = 112) provided data at a 2-year follow-up, used to extend these associations. There were no sex differences in levels of irritability; however, the associations between irritability and symptom domains were moderated by sex. Specifically, in girls, irritability was associated equally with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In contrast, in boys, irritability was associated more strongly with externalizing symptoms than with internalizing symptoms. Thus, across both sexes, irritability was moderately associated with externalizing symptoms, but the association between irritability and internalizing symptoms was stronger in girls than in boys. At follow-up, sex moderated the association between baseline irritability and later externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These findings indicate that irritability is associated with both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence and that irritability is associated with internalizing symptoms more strongly in girls than in boys.

  6. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  7. Heightened extended amygdala metabolism following threat characterizes the early phenotypic risk to develop anxiety-related psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an anxious temperament (AT) are prone to heightened shyness and behavioral inhibition (BI). When chronic and extreme, this anxious, inhibited phenotype is an important early-life risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, depression, and co-morbid substance abuse. Individuals with extreme AT often show persistent distress in the absence of immediate threat and this contextually inappropriate anxiety predicts future symptom development. Despite its clear clinical relevance, the neural circuitry governing the maladaptive persistence of anxiety remains unknown. Here, we used a well-established nonhuman primate model of childhood temperament and high-resolution 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging to understand the neural systems governing persistent anxiety and clarify their relevance to early-life phenotypic risk. We focused on BI, a core component of anxious temperament, because it affords the moment-by-moment temporal resolution needed to assess contextually appropriate and inappropriate anxiety. From a pool of 109 peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys, we formed groups characterized by high or low levels of BI, as indexed by freezing in response to an unfamiliar human intruder’s profile. The High-BI group showed consistently elevated signs of anxiety and wariness across more than 2 years of assessments. At the time of brain imaging, 1.5 years after initial phenotyping, the High-BI group showed persistently elevated freezing during a 30-min ‘recovery’ period following an encounter with the intruder — more than an order of magnitude greater than the Low-BI group — and this was associated with increased metabolism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a key component of the central extended amygdala. These observations provide a neurobiological framework for understanding the early phenotypic risk to develop anxiety-related psychopathology, for accelerating the development of improved interventions, and

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Impaired reading comprehension and mathematical abilities in male adolescents with average or above general intellectual abilities are associated with comorbid and future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Nahon, Daniella; Kravitz, Efrat; Lubin, Gad; Knobler, Haim Y; Davidson, Michael; Noy, Shlomo

    2007-11-01

    Research indicates that persons with learning disorders often suffer from psychopathology. We assessed current and future psychopathology in male adolescents with discrete impairments in reading comprehension (IRC) or arithmetic abilities (IAA) but with average or above-average general intellectual abilities. Subjects were a population-based cohort of 174,994 male adolescents screened by the Israeli Draft Board with average or above-average intellectual abilities but with low scores (8.6th and 10th lowest percentile respectively) on reading or arithmetic tests. They were compared with adolescents who scored in the 10th percentile and above on these tests (comparison group). Relative to the comparison group, male adolescents with IRC, IAA, or IRC and IAA (0.69%), had poorer scores on most behavioral assessments and higher prevalence of current psychopathology: 4.2% (comparison group), 8.0% (IRC), 7.0% (IAA), and 9.8% (IRC and IAA). Adolescents with IRC were also at increased risk for later hospitalization for schizophrenia (hazard ratios = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.6). Male adolescents with average and above-average general intellectual abilities but with IRC or IAA are more likely to have current and future psychopathology. Impairments in intellectual functioning and abnormal behaviors leading to mental illnesses may share common neurobiological substrates. The results support screening male adolescents with learning disorders for psychopathology.

  10. Center for Early Adolescence Studies Adolescent Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppenhave, David; Jacoby, Monica, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and impact of adolescent illiteracy, brief descriptions of several successful programs designed to combat adolescent illiteracy, and a more detailed description of one of those programs are included in this collection of articles. The first article argues that while experts may disagree about the numbers of illiterate adolescents and…

  11. A Test of Three Alternative Hypotheses regarding the Effects of Early Delinquency on Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning and Substance Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitchings, Julia E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared alternative hypotheses (from general deviance, life course, and developmental psychopathology perspectives) regarding the effects of early adolescent delinquency on psychosocial functioning in family, school, and peer contexts, and on alcohol use. Analyses also examined parent-child negative affective quality, prosocial school…

  12. Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Eleven studies were included for analysis, which resulted in a total of 188 subjects for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes from these studies were combined, with weighting for sample size, and their distribution was examined. After exclusion of an extreme positive outlying value, the analysis revealed that music therapy has a medium to large positive effect (ES =.61) on clinically relevant outcomes that was statistically highly significant (p <.001) and statistically homogeneous. No evidence of a publication bias was identified. Effects tended to be greater for behavioural and developmental disorders than for emotional disorders; greater for eclectic, psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches than for behavioural models; and greater for behavioural and developmental outcomes than for social skills and self-concept. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  13. Psychopathological and nutritional correlates of plasma homovanillic acid in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramón; Baeza, Immaculada; Casulà, Vanessa; Saura, Begoña; Lázaro, Luisa; Puig, Josefina; Toro, Josep; Bernardo, Miquel

    2008-02-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities have been described in anorexia nervosa but studies about plasma level of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have yielded conflicting results probably due to the small number and the heterogeneity of patients. Plasma HVA, nutritional and hormonal parameters and several scales - the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-child version (LOI-C) and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) - were assessed in 44 adolescent anorexia nervosa patients (mean age 14.7 years, SD 1.7) consecutively admitted to an Eating Disorder Unit. They were evaluated at admission, at discharge and, in 34 cases, after 9 months of follow-up. pHVA was also assessed in 16 control adolescents. Patients had significantly higher pHVA than controls (p = .002). About 31% of patients had a very high level of pHVA, a significantly higher (p = .006) mean score in the BDI and a non significantly higher mean score in the EAT. After weight recovery some laboratory parameters improved as well as the EAT (p = .019), the BDI (p = 001) and the Interference score of the LOI-C (p = .004). Moreover, pHVA decreased significantly (p=.036). At follow-up, patients with normal weight had lower (p = .037) pHVA than patients with low weight. The conclusion would be that there is a dopaminergic dysfunction in anorexic patients, specially in a subgroup with high depressive and anorexic symptomatology. With weight recovery and psychopathological improvement, pHVA tends to normalization.

  14. General personality and psychopathology in referred and nonreferred children and adolescents: an investigation of continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; Beyers, Wim; De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models as plausible explanations for personality-psychopathology relations in a combined sample of community (n = 571) and referred (n = 146) children and adolescents. Multivariate structural equation modeling was used to examine the structural relations between latent personality and psychopathology change across a 2-year period. Item response theory models were fitted as an additional test of the continuity hypothesis. Even after correcting for item overlap, the results provided strong support for the continuity model, demonstrating that personality and psychopathology displayed dynamic change patterns across time. Item response theory models further supported the continuity conceptualization for understanding the association between internalizing problems and emotional stability and extraversion as well as between externalizing problems and benevolence and conscientiousness. In addition to the continuity model, particular personality and psychopathology combinations provided evidence for the pathoplasty and complication models. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed, and suggestions for future research are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Impact of Early Intervention on Psychopathology, Crime, and Weil-Being at Age 25

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of early intervention to prevent adult psychopathology and improve well-being in early-starting conduct-problem children. Method Kindergarteners (N=9,594) in three cohorts (1991–1993) at 55 schools in four communities were screened for conduct problems, yielding 979 early starters. A total of 891 (91%) consented (51% African American, 47% European American; 69% boys). Children were randomly assigned by school cluster to a 10-year intervention or control. The intervention goal was to develop social competencies in children that would carry them throughout life, through social skills training, parent behavior-management training with home visiting, peer coaching, reading tutoring, and classroom social-emotional curricula. Manualization and supervision ensured program fidelity. Ninety-eight percent participated during grade 1, and 80% continued through grade 10. At age 25, arrest records were reviewed (N=817,92%), and condition-blinded adults psychiatrically interviewed participants (N=702; 81% of living participants) and a peer (N=535) knowledgeable about the participant. Results Intent-to-treat logistic regression analyses indicated that 69% of participants in the control arm displayed at least one externalizing, internalizing, or substance abuse psychiatric problem (based on self- or peer interview) at age 25, in contrast with 59% of those assigned to intervention (odds ratio=0.59, CI=0.43–0.81; number needed to treat=8). This pattern also held for self-interviews, peer interviews, scores using an “and” rule for self- and peer reports, and separate tests for externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and substance abuse problems, as well as for each of three cohorts, four sites, male participants, female participants, African Americans, European Americans, moderate-risk, and high-risk subgroups. Intervention participants also received lower severity-weighted violent (standardized estimate

  16. Parents' childhood experiences of bonding and parental psychopathology predict borderline personality disorder during adolescence in offspring.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Fuchs, Anna; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Reichl, Corinna; Holz, Birger; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2016-12-30

    Previous studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) development suggest a transgenerational transmission of parent-child relationship quality, which may also be influenced by parents' mental health status. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we aimed to investigate the transgenerational effect of parental bonding experiences on the development of BPD in their offspring. Second, we examined the association between parents' mental health status and BPD in offspring. Ninety-one female adolescent psychiatric inpatients along with 87 mothers and 59 fathers were enrolled in the study. Adolescent BPD was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-II, parental bonding with the Parental Bonding Instrument, and parents´ psychiatric symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire. We found that low parental care produced a transgenerational effect from mother to BPD in offspring. Further, significant associations were found between paternal psychiatric symptoms and adolescent BPD. High paternal stress levels mediated the association between maternal affect reported by fathers and BPD in daughters. There is evidence of a transgenerational effect of parental bonding specifically for female adolescents with BPD, compared with other clinical control subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of including both parents in future research and in early clinical treatment in adolescents with BPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Adolescents' Social Goals and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly

    2017-01-01

    What are the common types of social goals endorsed by early adolescents and how are they related to their school adjustment? This article discusses the importance of assessing students' social goals during the early adolescent developmental period when peers become increasingly important and youth experience tremendous changes to the school…

  18. Is the Continuity of Externalizing Psychopathology the Same in Adolescents and Middle-Aged Adults? A Test of the Externalizing Spectrum's Developmental Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Perlman, Greg; Krueger, Robert F.; Iacono, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Externalizing psychopathology (EXT) is a framework for understanding diagnostic comorbidity and etiology of antisocial and substance-use behaviors. EXT indicates continuity in adulthood but the structure of adolescent EXT is less clear. This report examines whether adolescent EXT is trait-like, as has been found with adults, or categorical. We use…

  19. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol: Interaction of early adversity and 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frances R; Stroud, Catherine B; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and early adversity on trait-like levels of cortisol. A community sample of 117 early adolescent girls (M age=12.39years) provided DNA samples for 5-HTTLPR genotyping, and saliva samples for assessing cortisol 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking, and bedtime) over a three-day period. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) was modeled using the first 2 samples of each day. Early adversity was assessed with objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers. A significant 5-HTTLPR×early adversity interaction indicated that greater early adversity was associated with lower LTC levels, but only among individuals with either L/L or S/L genotype. Findings suggest that serotonergic genetic variation may influence the impact of early adversity on individual differences in HPA-axis regulation. Future research should explore whether this interaction contributes to the development of psychopathology through HPA axis functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  1. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  2. Preschool psychiatric disorders: homotypic and heterotypic continuity through middle childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-01-16

    Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.

  3. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838

  4. Suicidality and its relationships with individual, family, peer, and psychopathology factors among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rates of suicidal intent and its correlates among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11-18 years and diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of suicide with individual, family, peer, ADHD, and psychopathology factors. A total of 12.2% of the participants reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. A logistic regression analysis model showed that adolescents who were older, were bullying perpetrators, and reported high depression level were more likely to have suicidal intent. These three factors were also significantly correlated with suicidal ideation; however, only having high depression level was significantly correlated with suicidal attempts. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of adolescents with ADHD reported suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Multiple factors were significantly associated with suicidal intent among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the possibility of suicide in adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the correlates of suicidal intent identified in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlations between psychopathology and self-reported quality of life among adolescents in youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A short report.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle; Abiri, Gbonjubola; Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between psychopathology and quality of life (QoL) and well-being among young incarcerated offenders has hardly been explored. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that higher self-rated psychopathology would be associated with lower QoL among adolescents resident within youth correctional facilities in Lagos. Psychopathology was assessed using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ), while QoL was measured by using the Paediatric Quality of Life. One hundred and sixty-five adolescents completed the study, mostly boys (n = 124; 75%) with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.1 years. Nearly, a fifth (30, 18%) of respondents had abnormal total SDQ scores (≥17), suggestive of definite psychiatric disorder, while another 44 (27%) had highly probable psychopathology (total SDQ scores 15-16). There was strong negative correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.001) between total SDQ scores and overall self-reported QoL among respondents. Although we were unable to infer direction of relationship between psychopathology and QoL among these adolescents, it is plausible to suppose that treatment of mental health problems could have a positive impact on rehabilitation and reintegration. Given the rate of likely psychopathology, mental health screening within young offender institutions should be routine, and followed, as necessary with full assessment and resultant treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    PubMed

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  9. Transactional processes in child disruptive behavior and maternal depression: A longitudinal study from early childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, HEATHER E.; SHAW, DANIEL S.; BURWELL, REBECCA A.; NAGIN, DANIEL S.

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the utility of applying Sameroff and Chandler's transactional perspective to the study of child psychopathology, relatively few researchers have used such an approach to trace the emergence of child problem behavior from infancy to adolescence. Using a sample of 289 male toddlers from predominantly low-income families, the current study examined associations between various forms of early child disruptive behavior, subsequent trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over the course of 8 years, and adolescent problem behavior. Results indicated that early child noncompliance was the most robust predictor of more chronic and elevated trajectories of maternal depression, which in turn discriminated teacher and youth reports of adolescent antisocial behavior but not internalizing symptoms. The findings were consistent with transactional perspectives of developmental psychopathology that have emphasized the dynamic interplay between child and parent characteristics. PMID:19144227

  10. Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale" (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents…

  11. Motivation and Cheating during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; And Others

    Why do some adolescents cheat and others do not? To answer this question, the relationship between motivational factors and self-reported cheating beliefs and behaviors was examined in a sample of early adolescents. It was hypothesized that cheating and beliefs in the acceptability of cheating would be more likely to occur when students perceived…

  12. Erikson's Psychosocial Theories Help Explain Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Middle school educators can design a learning environment for early adolescents based on Erik Erikson's social development theories, which divide human life into eight psychological stages. The identity versus role confusion stage characterizing adolescence will significantly determine the developing person's future. Schools can help learners…

  13. Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Amy; Dunham, Mardis

    2011-01-01

    This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting…

  14. Effects of sensitivity to life stress on uncinate fasciculus segments in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    King, Lucy S.; Leong, Josiah K.; Colich, Natalie L.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Ordaz, Sarah J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research suggests that exposure to early life stress (ELS) affects the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a frontolimbic white matter tract that undergoes protracted development throughout adolescence. Adolescence is an important transitional period characterized by the emergence of internalizing psychopathology such as anxiety, particularly in individuals with high levels of stress sensitivity. We examined the relations among sensitivity to ELS, structural integrity of the UF, and anxiety symptoms in 104 early adolescents. We conducted structured interviews to assess exposure to ELS and obtained subjective and objective ratings of stress severity, from which we derived an index of ELS sensitivity. We also acquired diffusion MRI and conducted deterministic tractography to visualize UF trajectories and to compute measures of structural integrity from three distinct segments of the UF: frontal, insular, temporal. We found that higher sensitivity to ELS predicted both reduced fractional anisotropy in right frontal UF and higher levels of anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that fibers in frontal UF, which are still developing throughout adolescence, are most vulnerable to the effects of heightened sensitivity to ELS, and that reduced structural integrity of frontal UF may underlie the relation between early stress and subsequent internalizing psychopathology. PMID:28460088

  15. Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in early childhood: implications for developmental psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Choi, Seung W.; Carter, Alice S.; Hullsiek, Heide; Burns, James; McCarthy, Kimberly; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds. Methods Parent-reported patterns of temper loss were delineated in a diverse community sample of preschoolers (n = 1,490). A developmentally sensitive questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), was used to assess temper loss in terms of tantrum features and anger regulation. Specific aims were: (a) document the normative distribution of temper loss in preschoolers from normative misbehaviors to clinically concerning temper loss behaviors, and test for sociodemographic differences; (b) use Item Response Theory (IRT) to model a Temper Loss dimension; and (c) examine associations of temper loss and concurrent emotional and behavioral problems. Results Across sociodemographic subgroups, a unidimensional Temper Loss model fit the data well. Nearly all (83.7%) preschoolers had tantrums sometimes but only 8.6% had daily tantrums. Normative misbehaviors occurred more frequently than clinically concerning temper loss behaviors. Milder behaviors tended to reflect frustration in expectable contexts, whereas clinically concerning problem indicators were unpredictable, prolonged, and/or destructive. In multivariate models, Temper Loss was associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Parent reports on a developmentally informed questionnaire, administered to a large and diverse sample, distinguished normative and problematic manifestations of preschool temper loss. A developmental, dimensional approach shows promise for elucidating the boundaries between normative early childhood temper loss and emergent psychopathology. PMID:22928674

  16. Prediction of incidence and stability of alcohol use disorders by latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles in adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Silke; Bühringer, Gerhard; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid internalizing mental disorders in alcohol use disorders (AUD) can be understood as putative independent risk factors for AUD or as expressions of underlying shared psychopathology vulnerabilities. However, it remains unclear whether: 1) specific latent internalizing psychopathology risk-profiles predict AUD-incidence and 2) specific latent internalizing comorbidity-profiles in AUD predict AUD-stability. To investigate baseline latent internalizing psychopathology risk profiles as predictors of subsequent AUD-incidence and -stability in adolescents and young adults. Data from the prospective-longitudinal EDSP study (baseline age 14-24 years) were used. The study-design included up to three follow-up assessments in up to ten years. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the DIA-X/M-CIDI. To investigate risk-profiles and their associations with AUD-outcomes, latent class analysis with auxiliary outcome variables was applied. AUD-incidence: a 4-class model (N=1683) was identified (classes: normative-male [45.9%], normative-female [44.2%], internalizing [5.3%], nicotine dependence [4.5%]). Compared to the normative-female class, all other classes were associated with a higher risk of subsequent incident alcohol dependence (p<0.05). AUD-stability: a 3-class model (N=1940) was identified with only one class (11.6%) with high probabilities for baseline AUD. This class was further characterized by elevated substance use disorder (SUD) probabilities and predicted any subsequent AUD (OR 8.5, 95% CI 5.4-13.3). An internalizing vulnerability may constitute a pathway to AUD incidence in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, no indication for a role of internalizing comorbidity profiles in AUD-stability was found, which may indicate a limited importance of such profiles - in contrast to SUD-related profiles - in AUD stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Degree of exposure to domestic violence, psychopathology, and functional impairment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bayarri Fernàndez, Eduard; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Domènech, Josep María

    2011-04-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and exposed to DV were evaluated using a diagnostic interview and other instruments of psychopathology and functional impairment. The participants were classified in three groups according to the degree of exposure: witness (n = 72), involved (n = 52), and victim (n = 20). According to mothers' self-reports and mother-child combined information, DV equally affects psychopathology and functional impairment regardless of the degree of the exposure. Children's self-reports showed a linear trend to present greater psychopathology as a victim than as a witness. The differential effect of exposure to DV measured in this study depended on the informant, which underlines the importance of obtaining information from the children exposed to violence at home.

  18. Association between psychopathology and substance use among school-going adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J; Distiller, Greg

    2010-12-01

    Limited information exists regarding the association between psychopathology and specific substance use in young people both globally and locally. We examined the association between psychopathology and substance use in high school students to determine the nature of the associations and the role of demographic factors in these associations. Grade 8 (N=480) and Grade 11 (N=459) students from 39 high schools in Cape Town, South Africa, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Psychopathology information was obtained from total scores on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Lifetime prevalence rates were calculated for tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and inhalant use. Associations between psychopathology and substance use were determined using regression analyses and structural equation modeling. On adjusting for demographic characteristics, significant associations were found between PTSD and all substance use, between depression, alcohol, cannabis and inhalant use, and between anxiety and cannabis use. The associations of PTSD and depression with alcohol and cannabis use, and between anxiety and cannabis use, were moderated by grade. Although psychopathology and substance use were associated with each other, these associations occurred in accordance with substance and grade. Roles for gender, age and ethnicity emerged in the associations, but further investigation is recommended to examine these.

  19. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  20. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  1. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  2. A Multisite 2-Year Follow Up of Psychopathology Prevalence, Predictors, and Correlates Among Adolescents Who Did or Did Not Undergo Weight Loss Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Sanita L; Garland, Beth H; Rofey, Dana; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Mitchell, James; Courcoulas, Anita; Jenkins, Todd M; Zeller, Meg H

    2018-04-30

    We aimed to characterize prevalence, change, predictors, and correlates of psychopathology and associations with weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity 24 months after weight loss surgery (WLS) utilizing a controlled multisite sample design. Adolescents undergoing WLS (n = 139) and nonsurgical comparisons with severe obesity (NSComp; n = 83) completed validated questionnaires assessing psychopathology and potential predictors and correlates at presurgery/baseline and 24 months postoperatively/follow-up. At 24 months, 34.7% of WLS and 37.7% of nonsurgical comparisons were categorized as "symptomatic" (Youth Self-Report ≥ borderline on at least one DSM scale). The majority maintained their symptomatic or nonsymptomatic status from baseline to 24 months postbaseline. Remission of symptoms was more common than the development of new symptomatology at 24 months. Beyond demographics, separate models of baseline predictors and concurrent correlates of 24-month psychopathology identified baseline psychopathology and loss of control (LOC) eating as significant. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and LOC eating emerged as correlates in the concurrent model. For the WLS group, preoperative, postoperative, and change in symptomatology were not related to 24-month percent weight loss. At 2 years, approximately one in three adolescents were symptomatic with psychopathology. Maintenance of symptomatic/nonsymptomatic status over time or remission was more common than new incidence. Although symptomatology was not predictive of surgical weight loss outcomes at 2 years, preoperative psychopathology and several other predictors (LOC eating) and correlates (LOC eating, AUD) emerged as signals for persistent mental health risks, underscoring the importance of pre- and postoperative psychosocial monitoring and the availability of adjunctive intervention resources. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Anxiety Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (Mage=11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder. PMID:24062146

  4. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  5. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    PubMed

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  6. Self-Concept and Psychopathology in Deaf Adolescents: Preliminary Support for Moderating Effects of Deafness-Related Characteristics and Peer Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: High rates of psychopathology were found amongst deaf adolescents, but little is known about the psychosocial risk factors. This study investigated whether (1) less severe deafness and/or acquired or otherwise complicated deafness, and (2) having mainly contacts with hearing people, each represent chronic stressful conditions that…

  7. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  8. Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts Associated with Co-occurring Depression and Conduct Disorders in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stoep, Ann Vander; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct disorders as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct disorder were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were tracked through multiple assessments carried out over the middle school years. Compared to adolescents with depression symptoms only, conduct disorder symptoms only, or low psychopathology, those with co-occurring depression and conduct disorder symptoms had the highest risk for subsequent suicidal ideation, recurrent suicidal behaviors, and suicide attempts. PMID:21463356

  9. Risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts associated with co-occurring depression and conduct problems in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were tracked through multiple assessments carried out over the middle school years. Compared to adolescents with depression symptoms only, conduct problem symptoms only, or low psychopathology, those with co-occurring depression and conduct problem symptoms had the highest risk for subsequent suicidal ideation, recurrent suicidal behaviors, and suicide attempts. © 2011 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Childhood verbal abuse and risk for personality disorders during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J G; Cohen, P; Smailes, E M; Skodol, A E; Brown, J; Oldham, J M

    2001-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate whether childhood verbal abuse increases risk for personality disorders (PDs) during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric and psychosocial interviews were administered to a representative community sample of 793 mothers and their offspring from two New York State counties in 1975, 1983, 1985 to 1986, and 1991 to 1993, when the mean ages of the offspring were 5, 14, 16, and 22 years, respectively. Data regarding childhood abuse and neglect were obtained from the psychosocial interviews and from official New York State records. Offspring who experienced maternal verbal abuse during childhood were more than three times as likely as those who did not experience verbal abuse to have borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and paranoid PDs during adolescence or early adulthood. These associations remained significant after offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. In addition, youths who experienced childhood verbal abuse had elevated borderline, narcissistic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood after the covariates were accounted for. These findings suggest that childhood verbal abuse may contribute to the development of some types of PDs, independent of offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

  11. Wisconsin Twin Research: early development, childhood psychopathology, autism, and sensory over-responsivity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicole L; Van Hulle, Carol A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Meyer, Lauren R; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-02-01

    The Wisconsin Twin Research Program comprises multiple longitudinal studies that utilize a panel recruited from statewide birth records for the years 1989 through 2004. Our research foci are the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, autism, sensory over-responsivity, and related topics. A signature feature of this research program is the breadth and depth of assessment during key periods of development. The assessments include extensive home- and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, recorded sibling and caregiver interactions, structured psychiatric interviews with caregivers and adolescents, observer ratings of child behavior, child self-report, cognitive testing, neuroendocrine measures, medical records, dermatoglyphics, genotyping, and neuroimaging. Across the various studies, testing occasions occurred between 3 months and 18 years of age. Data collection for some aspects of the research program has concluded and, for other aspects, longitudinal follow-ups are in progress.

  12. Wisconsin Twin Research: Early Development, Childhood Psychopathology, Autism, and Sensory Over-responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Wisconsin Twin Research Program comprises multiple longitudinal studies that utilize a panel recruited from statewide birth records for the years 1989 through 2004. Our research foci are the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, autism, sensory over-responsivity, and related topics. A signature feature of this research program is the breadth and depth of assessment during key periods of development. The assessments include extensive home and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, recorded sibling and caregiver interactions, structured psychiatric interviews with caregivers and adolescents, observer ratings of child behavior, child self-report, cognitive testing, neuroendocrine measures, medical records, dermatoglyphics, genotyping, and neuroimaging. Across the various studies, testing occasions occurred between 3 months and 18 years of age. Data collection for some aspects of the research program has concluded and, for other aspects, longitudinal follow-ups are in progress. PMID:23200241

  13. A Social-Cognitive Perspective on Early Childhood Influences in Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohart, Arthur C.

    The Freudian view of psychopathology suggests that the individual is motivated to distort reality. In contrast, social-cognitive theory views the individual as a naive social scientist, who observes his behavior, others' behavior, and the social context. Out of these observations come meaning structures which organize, guide, and structure…

  14. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  15. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p < 0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  16. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p < 0.0005), after adjustment for prior levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

  17. [From nosology to functionality: the current discussion of psychopathology in the psychotherapy of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Resch, Franz; Parzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the question whether the psychopathology in psychotherapy has relevance, different aspects of symptoms are described: the causal model views symptoms as a necessary consequence of specific preconditions. The functional model views symptoms as behaviors aiming at the achievement of internal motives and desires. An application of the cybernetic control model on psychological processes is formulated as a theory of the control of perception. Often the goals of behavior are represented by verbal rules. Such inner verbalizations are described in detail. An attempt of a functional symptom analysis is made, according to the theory of the control of perception in a clinical context. The psychotherapeutic attempt to modify dysfunctional goals in patients aims to decouple the emotional experiences from verbalized inner rules. Functional psychopathology may be useful for treatment failure after conventional therapies, as well as in multimodal interventions (combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy).

  18. Combining neural and behavioral indicators in the assessment of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moser, Jason S; Durbin, C Emily; Patrick, Christopher J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health problems affecting our youth. We propose that assessment and treatment efforts in this area can benefit from a focus on developmentally sensitive neurobehavioral trait constructs, that is, individual difference constructs with direct referents in both neurobiology and behavior across the lifespan. This approach dovetails with the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria initiative, which aims to improve classification and treatment of psychopathology by delineating dimensions of functioning that transcend measurement domains and traditional diagnostic categories. We highlight two neurobehavioral dimensions with clear relevance for understanding internalizing problems at differing ages: (a) defensive reactivity and (b) cognitive control. Individual differences in defensive reactivity are posited to reflect variations in sensitivity of the brain's negative valence systems, whereas differences in cognitive control are theorized to reflect variations in neural systems dedicated to regulating behavior and affect. Focusing on these target constructs, we illustrate a psychoneurometric approach to assessment of internalizing psychopathology entailing use of neural, self-report, and behavioral indicators. We address the feasibility of the psychoneurometric approach for clinical application and present results from a pilot study demonstrating expected associations for neural, parent-report, and behavioral measures of defensive reactivity and cognitive control with internalizing symptoms in preschoolers. Together, our conceptual and empirical analyses highlight the promise of multimethod, dimensional assessment of internalizing psychopathology in the lab and in the clinic.

  19. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism and Resilience Components on the Development of Psychopathology in Adolescent Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Çarkaxhiu Bulut, Gresa; Rodopman Arman, Ayşe; Güney, İlter; Gültepe, Pınar

    2017-09-01

    More than one-fourth adolescents are exposed to unexpected frightening experiences and traumas until adulthood. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism regarding resilience factors in the symptom variability of individuals exposed to sexual abuse. Adolescents aged 11-17 years, who were admitted to the Marmara University Child Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic Forensic division with sexual abuse experience history, were informed about the research, and volunteers were included in the study. Turkish versions of "Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL)" was used to assess the psychopathology and functionality. The evaluation of participants also included self-reports based on "Eysenck Personality Inventory" and "Ways of Coping Inventory" for reflecting the resilience domain. The sample included 16 girls (88.9%) and 2 boys (11.1%), and the mean (±standard deviation) age was 14.58±1.97 years. Genotyping of the insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the 5-HTT gene's transcriptional control zone was established, and 8 participants (44.4%) were determined to be of the LL genotype, while 7 (38.8%) were LS and 3 (16.6%) were SS carriers. Considering the relationship between coping styles regarding resilience and genetic variants, 87.5% of participants (n=7) exhibiting problem-focused coping style were determined found to carry the LL allele, while 90% (n=9) who exhibited emotion-focused coping styles were the SS-LS allele carriers (p=0.003). Our findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism has a significant impact on the formation of coping styles. More studies are needed to determine other factors involved in the complex relationship between 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism and development of psychopathology.

  1. Transition from adolescence to early adulthood: adaptation and psychiatric status of women with 47,XXX.

    PubMed

    Harmon, R J; Bender, B G; Linden, M G; Robinson, A

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the adolescent and early adult adaptation of a group of 47,XXX women as compared with their siblings, addressing developmental differences in adaptation and psychiatric status. Subjects included eleven 47,XXX women and nine female sibling controls. Interviews during adolescence and during early adulthood were semistructured and included a psychiatric evaluation. Four areas of inquiry were (1) relationships with other family members, (2) sense of self-esteem, (3) sexual identity and preference, and (4) responses to life stressors. A DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis was assigned where appropriate. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime version was also administered, and assessments of overall functioning and adaptation were completed. The 47,XXX women during adolescence and young adulthood were less well adapted; had more stress; had more work, leisure, and relationship problems; had a lower IQ; and showed more psychopathology when contrasted with the comparison group. However, most of the 47,XXX women were self-sufficient and functioning reasonably well, albeit less well than their siblings. This longitudinal study has clarified that previously reported outcomes of severe psychopathology and antisocial behavior in individuals with sex chromosome anomalies are rare and variability in the behavioral phenotype is much larger than originally appreciated.

  2. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group.

  3. Initiation of Coitus in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udry, J. Richard; Billy, John O. G.

    1987-01-01

    White males' initiation of coitus in early adolescence is dominated by motivational hormone effects and social attractiveness. White females' initiation of coitus is dominated by the effects of social controls. Black females' initiation of coitus is dominated by their level of pubertal development, an attractiveness variable. (Author/BJV)

  4. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  5. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Early adolescence can be a challenging time for both children and parents. This booklet is intended to provide parents with the latest research and practical information that can help them support their young teen children at home and in school. Selected subject headings include: (1) Changes; (2) Being an Effective Parent; (3) Communication; (4)…

  6. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  7. Exploratory Home Economics for Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in using a life skills approach to introducing early adolescents to the five basic areas of home economics. The following topics are covered in the individual units: life skills in family communication (hearing and listening, speaking, writing, obtaining and responding to feedback, holding a sustained…

  8. The Changing Life Space of Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed, Ed.; Richards, Maryse, H., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eight papers are presented that describe the daily experience of White American children in grades 5 through 9. Each paper examines a segment of daily activity (e.g., schoolwork, talking, sports) and the associated affective states for 401 participants to provide a picture of the life space of early adolescence. (SLD)

  9. I thought we were good: social cognition, figurative language, and adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Cohen, Nancy J; Farnia, Fataneh

    2013-07-01

    Language has been shown to play a critical role in social cognitive reasoning in preschool and school-aged children, but little research has been conducted with adolescents. During adolescence, the ability to understand figurative language becomes increasingly important for social relationships and may affect social adjustment. This study investigated the contribution of structural and figurative language to social cognitive skills in adolescents who present for mental health services and those who do not. One hundred and thirty-eight adolescents referred to mental health centers (clinic group) and 186 nonreferred adolescents (nonclinic group) aged 12-17 were administered measures of structural and figurative language, working memory, and social cognitive problem solving. We found that adolescents in the clinic group demonstrated less mature social problem solving overall, but particularly with respect to anticipating and overcoming potential obstacles and conflict resolution compared with the nonclinic group. In addition, results demonstrated that age, working memory, and structural and figurative language predicted social cognitive maturity in the clinic group, but only structural language was a predictor in the nonclinic group. Social problem solving may be particularly difficult for adolescents referred for mental health services and places higher demands on their cognitive and language skills compared with adolescents who have never been referred for mental health services. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Popularity in Early Adolescence: Prosocial and Antisocial Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine early adolescents' stereotypical descriptions of two types of youth who are seen as popular by their peers. Participants were 13- to 14-year-old early adolescents (N = 287). The results indicated that early adolescents distinguished two types of popular peers: a "populistic" (popular but not…

  11. Early family context and development of adolescent ruminative style: moderation by temperament.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Lori M; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2012-01-01

    We know very little about the development of rumination, the tendency to passively brood about negative feelings. Because rumination is a risk factor for many forms of psychopathology, especially depression, such knowledge could prove important for preventing negative mental health outcomes in youth. This study examined developmental origins of rumination in a longitudinal sample (N=337; 51% girls) studied in preschool (ages 3½ and 4½ years) and early adolescence (ages 13 and 15 years). Results indicated that family context and child temperament, assessed during the preschool period, were risk factors for a ruminative style in adolescence. Specifically, early family contexts characterised by over-controlling parenting and a family style of negative-submissive expressivity predicted higher levels of later rumination. These associations were moderated by children's temperamental characteristics of negative affect and effortful control. Further, the interaction of these temperament factors exerted an additional influence on later rumination. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  12. Change in depression across adolescence: The role of early anger socialization and child anger.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Colleen R; Weston, Lynsey C; He, Xin; Huang, Keng-Yen; Pine, Daniel S; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]. A videotaped parent-child interaction was coded for parental socialization of preschooler anger, and psychiatric interviews of depression were conducted three times across preadolescence and adolescence. Major depression diagnoses increased from preadolescence to adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated parent discouragement of child anger was a significant predictor of an increase in the child's later depression from preadolescence to adolescence, and child anger intensity was a significant moderator. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  14. Girls' challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; McAloon, Rose L; Hoffmann, Amy M; Keenan, Kathryn E; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The Temporal Relation between Depression and Comorbid Psychopathology in Adolescents at Varied Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallerani, Catherine M.; Garber, Judy; Martin, Nina C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined the temporal comorbidity of depressive disorders with anxiety, externalizing, and substance use disorders in adolescents who varied in risk for depression. Methods: Participants were 240 adolescents and their mothers who had either a history of depression (high-risk, n = 185) or were lifetime-free of psychiatric…

  16. Social Support as Predictor of Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefnagels, Cees; Meesters, Cor; Simenon, Joke

    2007-01-01

    The potential role of social support for the adolescent offspring of psychiatric patients has hitherto not been examined. We examined whether the adolescent's level of psychiatric symptoms is dependent on the content and the function of social support (whether direct or moderating), controlling for perceived stress. In a cross-sectional design, 40…

  17. Investigation of Profiles of Risk Factors for Adolescent Psychopathology: A Person-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra, Gilbert R.; DuBois, David L.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Latent variable mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of adolescents with distinct profiles of risk factors from individual, family, peer, and broader contextual domains. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Four-class models provided the most theoretically meaningful solutions for both 7th (n = 907;…

  18. Parasocial Interactions and Relationships in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.

    2017-01-01

    Parasocial interactions and relationships, one-sided connections imagined with celebrities and media figures, are common in adolescence and might play a role in adolescent identity formation and autonomy development. We asked 151 early adolescents (Mage = 14.8 years) to identify a famous individual of whom they are fond; we examined the type of celebrities chosen and why they admired them, and the relationships imagined with these figures across the entire sample and by gender. Adolescents emphasized highly salient media figures, such as actors, for parasocial attention. While different categories of celebrities were appreciated equally for their talent and personality, actors/singers were endorsed for their attractiveness more so than other celebrity types. Most adolescents (61.1%) thought of their favorite media figures as relationship partners, and those who did reported more parasocial involvement and emotional intensity than those who did not. Gender differences emerged in that boys chose more athletes than girls and were more likely to imagine celebrities as authority figures or mentors than friends. Celebrities afforded friendship for girls, who overwhelmingly focused on actresses. Hierarchical parasocial relationships may be linked to processes of identity formation as adolescents, particularly boys, imagine media figures as role models. In contrast, egalitarian parasocial relationships might be associated with autonomy development via an imagined affiliation with an attractive and admirable media figure. PMID:28280479

  19. Stressful life events during adolescence and risk for externalizing and internalizing psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    March-Llanes, Jaume; Marqués-Feixa, Laia; Mezquita, Laura; Fañanás, Lourdes; Moya-Higueras, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the present research was to analyze the relations between stressful life events and the externalizing and internalizing spectra of psychopathology using meta-analytical procedures. After removing the duplicates, a total of 373 papers were found in a literature search using several bibliographic databases, such as the PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science. Twenty-seven studies were selected for the meta-analytical analysis after applying different inclusion and exclusion criteria in different phases. The statistical procedure was performed using a random/mixed-effects model based on the correlations found in the studies. Significant positive correlations were found in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. A transactional effect was then found in the present study. Stressful life events could be a cause, but also a consequence, of psychopathological spectra. The level of controllability of the life events did not affect the results. Special attention should be given to the usage of stressful life events in gene-environment interaction and correlation studies, and also for clinical purposes.

  20. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  1. Cannabis use in children and adolescents with first episode psychosis: influence on psychopathology and short-term outcome (CAFEPS study).

    PubMed

    Baeza, Immaculada; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Parellada, Mara; González-Pinto, Ana; Payá, Beatriz; Soutullo, César; de la Serna, Elena; Arango, Celso

    2009-09-01

    To know the prevalence of substance use and its relationship with psychopathology at onset and after six months in children and adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). 110 FEP patients, aged 9-17, were assessed for substance use, and with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and other psychopathological and general functioning scales at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Patients' substance use at baseline was: tobacco (30.9%), cannabis (29.1%), alcohol (21.8%), cocaine (8.2%), amphetamines (2.7%), LSD (1.8%) and opiates (0.90%). Six months later, there was a decrease in patients' use of cannabis (p=0.004) and other drugs, except tobacco. Patients were divided, according to their baseline cannabis use, into 32 cannabis users (CU) and 78 non-cannabis users (NCU). CU were older (p=0.002) and had higher PANSS positive scores (p=0.002) and lower PANSS negative (p<0.001), PANSS general (p=0.002) and PANSS total (p=0.007) scores than NCU. At six months, CU had significantly lower PANSS positive (p=0.010), negative (p=0.0001), general (p=0.002) and total (p=0.002) scores than NCU. When we divided CU at six months into previous CU (n=16) and current CU (n=15), previous CU had the best outcome, NCU the worst and current CU had an intermediate profile. Cannabis use may be related to higher positive symptom scores for FEP patients, with greater improvement after six months for those who cease using cannabis.

  2. Self-concept and psychopathology in deaf adolescents: preliminary support for moderating effects of deafness-related characteristics and peer problems.

    PubMed

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Treffers, Philip D A

    2011-06-01

    High rates of psychopathology were found amongst deaf adolescents, but little is known about the psychosocial risk factors. This study investigated whether (1) less severe deafness and/or acquired or otherwise complicated deafness, and (2) having mainly contacts with hearing people, each represent chronic stressful conditions that moderate the associations between self-esteem and emotional problems. In addition, the moderating effect of observed peer rejection on the association between social acceptance and behavioural problems was explored. Deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68) completed the Self Perception Profile for Adolescents. Psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured interview with adolescents and reports by parents, teachers and expert ratings. Data on moderator variables were collected from school records, parental and teachers' reports. Emotional mental health problems were negatively associated with self-esteem and positively with peer rejection. The association between self-esteem and emotional problems was moderated by the deafness variable less severe deafness or acquired or otherwise complicated deafness. Behavioural mental health problems were positively associated with social acceptance and peer rejection but negatively with the amount of involvement with hearing people. Peer rejection moderated the association between social acceptance and behavioural problems. The findings emphasise the importance of considering self-concept dimensions, peer problems and deafness- and context-related characteristics when assessing and treating deaf adolescents. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Does help-seeking alter the risk for incident psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with and without fearful spells or panic attacks? Findings from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal community study.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Höfler, Michael; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2014-12-01

    Although fearful spells (FS) and panic attacks (PA) increase the risk for various mental disorders, few studies have examined whether help-seeking in those with FS/PA attenuates the risk for incident psychopathology. A community sample of adolescents and young adults (N=2978, aged 14-24 at baseline) was followed up in up to 3 assessment waves over 10 years. FS, PA, psychopathology, and help-seeking were assessed using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Logistic regressions with interaction terms (adjusted for sex and age) were used to test interactions between FS/PA and help-seeking at baseline on predicting incident psychopathology at follow-up. Cases with panic disorder (PD) at baseline were excluded from all analyses. FS/PA at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, PD, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and depression at follow-up (Odds Ratios, OR 1.62-5.80). FS/PA and help-seeking at baseline interacted on predicting incident PD (OR=0.09) and depression (OR=0.22) at follow-up in a way that FS/PA only predicted the respective disorders in individuals not seeking help at baseline. In those with FS/PA, a higher number of panic symptoms interacted with help-seeking on predicting incident PD (OR=0.63) in a way that a higher number of panic symptoms only increased the risk for PD in those without help-seeking at baseline. Help-seeking at baseline was not restricted to panic-specific interventions, but included treatment due to other psychological problems as well. Findings suggest that early help-seeking might modify psychopathology trajectories and prevent incident disorders in high-risk individuals with FS/PA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Roles of Stress and Coping in Explaining Gender Differences in Risk for Psychopathology among African American Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ginger Apling; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    This study used self-report symptom inventories administered in school classrooms to examine relations among gender, psychological symptoms, stress, and coping in 1,200 low-income African American urban early adolescents. Girls reported more symptoms than boys, accounted for by higher internalizing symptoms. Boys reported more stress than girls,…

  5. Interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and relationship outcomes among adolescent mothers and their partners.

    PubMed

    Moore, David R; Florsheim, Paul; Butner, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to identify predictors of relationship outcomes among 179 young (ages 14-24) coparenting couples during the transition to parenthood, with a particular focus on interpersonal process and psychopathology. Findings indicated that couples identified as hostile during the prenatal assessment were more likely to report relationship violence at follow-up (2 years postbirth). Couples identified as warm were more likely to remain together as coparents even if their romantic relationship dissolved. Couples in which the female partner was highly controlling were less likely to be cohabiting at follow-up. Mothers with a history of substance abuse and fathers with a history of conduct disorder were also more likely to engage in interpartner violence. Latino couples were more likely than Caucasian and African American couples to be warmly engaged and to remain romantically involved across the transition to parenthood.

  6. The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Parental Divorce and Initiation of Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0–5, ages 6–9, age 10+). Cox proportional-hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. PMID:27322803

  9. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  10. Borderline personality features and implicit shame-prone self-concept in middle childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hawes, David J; Helyer, Rebekah; Herlianto, Eugene C; Willing, Jonah

    2013-01-01

    This study tested if children and adolescents with high levels of borderline personality features (BPF) exhibit the same shame-prone self-concept previously found to characterize adults with borderline personality disorder (Rüsch et al., 2007 ). Self-concept was indexed using the Implicit Association Test, in a community sample of children/adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (48% female; M age = 12.04 years). Common domains of child and adolescent psychopathology and core components of BPF were assessed using self-reports on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children. The identity problems component of BPF was found to significantly predict implicit levels of shame-prone self-concept, but only among girls. This effect was independent of the key dimensions of child and adolescent psychopathology that overlap with BPF-including features hyperactivity/inattention, disruptive behavior problems, and anxiety/depression-none of which were associated with shame-prone self-concept at the bivariate level or otherwise. The current findings provide preliminary evidence that self-schemas related to shame are uniquely associated with a core component of BPF in middle childhood and early adolescence and suggest that this correlate may apply uniquely to female individuals. These findings point to the identity problems component of BPF as a priority for future clinical and developmental research into mechanisms associated with BPF across childhood and adolescence.

  11. The natural course of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: factors related to persistence.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems during childhood and adolescence. This study examined the course of anxiety symptoms in early adolescents from the general population over three phases. Prospective cohort study. Two hundred and forty-two participants (mean-age of 13.52) from a baseline sample of 1514 (mean-age of 10.23) were followed up three times. Of the 1514 children, those with emotional risk and controls without risk constituted the second-phase sample (n = 562; mean-age of 11.25). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-SCARED was administered in all three phases. Fifty-six percent and 32% of respondents showed total scores above the SCARED cutoff point at one and three years follow-up, respectively. Eight percent showed fluctuating symptoms. Fifty-five percent of respondents showed high scores for any subtype of anxiety over three years. Social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms were the most prevalent and persistent. Participants with persistent separation anxiety showed the highest co-occurrence with symptoms of other psychopathological disorders. Participants with persistent anxiety showed lower academic performance. Being male was a protective factor against persistence. The data support anxiety maintenance during early adolescence. Early adolescence is a critical period which may involve other serious academic, social, and family problems.

  12. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    PubMed

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  13. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-05-04

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.

  14. Executive Functioning and Psychopathology in Psychotherapy for Adolescents with Specific Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelman-Rubin, Daphne; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Al-Yagon, Michal; Mufson, Laura; Apter, Alan; Mikulincer, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive functioning (EF) to improvements in psychiatric symptomatology following I Can Succeed (ICS; Kopelman-Rubin, 2012) psychotherapy, a skill-enhancement intervention designed to target EF and socio-emotional aspects of specific learning disabilities (SLD). Forty adolescents with SLD underwent ICS in…

  15. Assessment of Psychopathology and Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents With Migraine.

    PubMed

    Öztop, Didem Behice; Taşdelen, Bedia İnce; PoyrazoğLu, Hatıce Gamze; Ozsoy, Saliha; Yilmaz, Rabia; Şahın, Nilfer; Per, Hüseyin; Bozkurt, Selma

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and to identify anxiety and depression levels and quality of life in children and adolescents with migraine; and to assess their relationship with migraine. 35 patients aged 9-16 years were followed in our neurology clinic and their parents were included into the study. 35 age- and sex-matched patients were employed as the control group. In the subjects included, psychiatric disorders were assessed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. All children and adolescents were assessed by using the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. In addition, the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Tool and visual analog scale were used to identify the degree of disability and pain severity in patients with migraine. In the psychiatric assessment of children and adolescents with migraine, it was found that a psychiatric diagnosis was made in 40% of patients; and depression scale scores were significantly higher than those of controls. Quality of life was found to be poorer in patients with migraine compared to controls. It was found that quality of life was negatively correlated with pain severity and degree of disability; while it was positively correlated with depression scores. In children and adolescents with migraine, treatment of psychiatric disorders in addition to migraine therapy can facilitate migraine management and may decrease the need for prophylactic therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  17. The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…

  18. Testing Structural Models of DSM-IV Symptoms of Common Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Van Hulle, Carol; Urbano, Richard C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Applegate, Brooks; Garriock, Holly A.; Chapman, Derek A.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) symptoms of common mental disorders derived from structured interviews of a representative sample of 4,049 twin children and adolescents and their adult caretakers. A dimensional model based on the assignment of symptoms…

  19. Psychopathology and Associated Risk Factors Among Forcibly Displaced Syrian Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gormez, Vahdet; Kılıç, Hale Nur; Orengul, A Cahid; Demir, Merve Nursoy; Demirlikan, Şeyma; Demirbaş, Sibel; Babacan, Betül; Kınık, Kerem; Semerci, Bengi

    2018-06-01

    More than half of the 2.7 million registered Syrian refugees in Turkey are under 18 years of age. This study investigates prevalence of psychopathology and associated risk factors in refugee children in Turkey. Of a total of 218 children aged 9-15 years, 56.2% lost someone important to them, 55.1% saw dead or wounded people, 70.4% witnessed explosions or gun battles, 42.5% witnessed people being tortured and 25.6% personally experienced cruelty/torture during war. Prevalence of PTSD was 18.3% and that of anxiety-related disorders were as high as 69.0%. Death of an important person (p = .032) and male gender (p = .040) were associated with PTSD; whilst exposure to cruelty or torture (p = .014) and increasing duration of refuge (p = .042) were significantly associated with development of anxiety disorders. Findings of the present study reveals existence of the expected but unspoken mental health needs among the Syrian children in Turkey.

  20. The effects of early-life stress on dopamine system function in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Solarz, Anna; Wędzony, Krzysztof; Chocyk, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    During adolescence, many neural systems, including the dopamine system, undergo essential remodeling and maturation. It is well known that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk for many psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood. It is hypothesized that ELS interferes with the maturation of the dopamine system. There is a sex bias in the prevalence of stress-related mental disorders. Information regarding the effects of ELS on brain functioning in females is very limited. In the current study, maternal separation (MS) procedures were carried out to study the effects of ELS on dopamine system functioning in adolescent female rats. Our study showed that MS increased the density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in the prelimbic cortex (PLC) and nucleus accumbens (Acb). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the level of D5 receptor mRNA and an increase in D2 receptor mRNA expression in the PLC of MS females. Conversely, D1 and D5 receptor mRNA levels were augmented in the caudate putamen (CPu), while the expression of the D3 dopamine receptor transcript was reduced in MS females. Additionally, in the Acb, MS elicited a decrease in D2 receptor mRNA expression. At the behavioral level, MS increased apomorphine-induced locomotion; however, it did not change locomotor responses to selective D1/D5 receptor agonist and attenuated D2/D3 receptor agonist-triggered locomotion. Moreover, MS decreased D1/D5 receptor agonist-induced grooming behavior. These results indicate that ELS disrupts dopamine receptor function in the PLC and basal ganglia during adolescence in females and may predispose them to psychopathologies during adolescence and adulthood. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers' and fathers' responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression.

  2. Emotion socialization in the context of risk and psychopathology: Mother and father socialization of anger and sadness in adolescents with depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Allen, Nicholas; Leve, Craig; Davis, Betsy; Sheeber, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N=107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multisource/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers’ and fathers’ responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and the adolescents completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta-emotion interviews and parent-adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of nondepressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression. PMID:28804218

  3. The role of total body fat mass and trunk fat mass, combined with other endocrine factors, in menstrual recovery and psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Karountzos, Vasileios; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsitsika, Artemis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios

    2017-10-01

    To determine the threshold of total body and trunk fat mass required for menstrual recovery and to assess the impact of body composition in psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Prospective study of 60 adolescents presented with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed with AN. Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies and responses to mental health screens (EAT-26), were obtained at the beginning and at complete weight restoration, in all adolescents, independently of menstrual recovery (Group A) or not (Group B). At weight restoration, Group A total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and trunk/extremities fat ratio were significantly higher (p < .001) than Group B. Menstruation was expected in 20% of total body fat mass and 20% of trunk fat mass (% of total trunk tissue). At time of menstrual recovery, total body fat mass (%) and trunk fat mass (%) were significantly negatively correlated with EAT-26 (r = -0.363, p = .032) and (r = -0.416, p = .013), respectively, while an increase of 0.40% of trunk fat mass (%) lowers EAT-26 by one unit. Trunk fat mass distribution can positively influence psychopathology of adolescents with AN.

  4. Development of alcohol expectancies and early alcohol use in children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Koen; Voogt, Carmen; Hiemstra, Marieke; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Developmental changes in alcohol expectancies (AE) have been proposed to lead to alcohol use initiation and later alcohol use in adolescence. This systematic review aims to provide longitudinal evidence of the development of AE and the relation of AE to alcohol outcomes from childhood to late adolescence (4-18 years old). A computer-assisted search of relevant articles identified 1602 studies, of which 43 studies (conducted between 1996 and 2016) were selected. First, negative AE decline and positive AE increase in early adolescence. Moreover, alcohol use (initiation) seems to strongly influence changes in AE. Second, AE predict alcohol use initiation and drinking patterns over time. Third, longitudinal predictors of AE could be divided into individual predictors (i.e., alcohol-related cognitions, psychopathology, and genetics) and environmental predictors (i.e., family, peer, and media influences). Lastly, the results indicated that AE function as mediators of the relations between the various individual and environmental predictors and adolescent's alcohol use. Alcohol expectancies form an important framework through which drinking behavior can be explained over time. Due to the diverse findings on the predictors of AE, future longitudinal studies should further clarify the factors that are essential in the development of AE and adolescent's later alcohol use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescence as predictors of obesity in early adulthood: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Pine, D S; Cohen, P; Brook, J; Coplan, J D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the longitudinal relationship between psychopathology and obesity in young adulthood. METHODS: More than 700 youth in a population-based sample were psychiatrically assessed in 1983 (mean age = 14 years) and 1992 (mean age = 22 years). Self-reported body mass index (BMI) in 1992 was regressed on measures of depression and conduct disorder as well as a set of covariates including indices of physical health, social class, intelligence, and cigarette and alcohol use. Associations were examined with BMI treated as a continuous variable and with a binary index of obesity derived from the BMI distribution in each gender. RESULTS: BMI in young adults was positively related to a number of covariates. With all covariates controlled, BMI was inversely related to adult depressive symptoms in males but not females. BMI was positively related to adolescent symptoms of conduct disorder in both sexes. Similar associations were found between psychiatric symptoms and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Conduct disorder symptoms in adolescence predicted BMI and obesity in early adulthood. These associations remained after controlling for factors that can affect the association between psychopathology and obesity. PMID:9279265

  6. Do adolescents support early marriage in Bangladesh? Evidence from study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Kabir, M

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for female adolescents as they have to make decisions regarding their marriage, education and work which would influence and determine their future course of life. Although, early marriage has negative consequences, still a proportion of female adolescents favour early marriage because of prevailing cultural norms. This paper attempts to investigate the factors influencing the adolescents' attitude towards early marriage among the married and unmarried female adolescents. This is a quantitative and qualitative study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. For quantitative results, data on 3362 female adolescents from rural and urban areas irrespective of their marital status were analyzed. To supplement the results found in quantitative analysis, a series of focus group discussions were conducted among the adolescents. Analysis revealed that one fourth (25.9%) of the adolescents were in favour of early marriage. A number of societal factors influenced them towards early marriage, despite the fact that adolescents are aware of the consequences of maternal and child health. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that current marital status, years of schooling, work status and parental marital decision are important predictors of early marriage (p < 0.05). The study concluded that female education would be an important determinant of adolescent marriage. Therefore, opportunities and scope of education beyond secondary would helps to bring change in the attitude towards early marriage.

  7. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Esteem and Perceived Parent–Child Relationship in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Babore, Alessandra; Trumello, Carmen; Candelori, Carla; Paciello, Marinella; Cerniglia, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period both from a psychological and a psychopathological point of view. During this period, one of the most common disorders that frequently arise is represented by depression, that tends to become chronic and may produce many subsequent psychosocial impairments. The present study aimed to analyze characteristics of depressive symptoms in an Italian sample of early adolescents, and to explore their connections with self-esteem levels and perceived maternal and paternal emotional availability. Methods: 594 adolescents (50% females) with a mean age of 12.11 years (SD = 0.98) were administered the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the maternal and the paternal forms of the Lum Emotional Availability of Parents. Results: Findings highlighted a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, level of depressive symptoms in girls than in boys. Regression analysis showed that, as far as predictors of depression, self-esteem was the most relevant one, followed by maternal and paternal emotional availability. Conclusion: Our results strongly suggested to plan intervention programs aimed at monitoring early adolescents’ self-esteem and supporting relationship with both parents, in order to prevent the emergence of depressive symptoms. PMID:27445941

  8. Early childhood sleep and eating problems as predictors of adolescent and adult mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Say How; Wickramaratne, Priya; Tang, Min; Weissman, Myrna M

    2006-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that eating and sleep problems during early childhood may pose as risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in later life. We aim to study the associations between early childhood sleep and eating problems, specifically high motor activity during sleep and irregularities in sleep/eating schedules, and lifetime history of mood and anxiety disorders. We followed up 164 offspring, who were at high and low risk for major depression by virtue of their parental history (at least one parent had Major Depressive Disorder). Target sleep and eating problems were measured using Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS). The offspring were blindly assessed at 3 times over 20 years using a structured diagnostic interview. Irregularities in sleeping and eating schedules in childhood (low rhythmicity) was associated with adolescent-onset major depression and anxiety disorder, as well as childhood-onset anxiety disorder. High motor activity level during sleep was associated with both childhood-onset and adolescent-onset dysthymic disorder. Neither childhood sleep nor eating irregularities were associated with adult onset psychopathology. Retrospective reports of childhood sleep and eating patterns were derived from parent-reports. Reported problems may overlap with clinical diagnoses. Clinicians should be alerted to parental reports of children's sleep and eating problems suggesting low rhythmicity, as well as high motor activity levels during sleep. These early behaviors may be predictive of subsequent mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  9. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  10. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L

    2017-04-01

    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  11. The child and adolescent trichotillomania impact project: descriptive psychopathology, comorbidity, functional impairment, and treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Martin E; Flessner, Christopher A; Woods, Douglas W; Keuthen, Nancy J; Piacentini, John C; Moore, Phoebe; Stein, Dan J; Cohen, Sara B; Wilson, Michelle A

    2008-12-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is associated with significant morbidity, comorbidity, and functional impairment in adults. Despite the fact that TTM is typically a pediatric onset disorder, important questions remain about its phenomenology, comorbid symptoms, functional impact, and treatment utilization in youth. The current study was designed to provide an initial description of these factors using a convenience sample. An internet-based survey. Surveys completed by 133 youth ages 10 to 17 were analyzed. Scalp hair was the most common pulling site, followed by eyelashes and eyebrows. The majority reported tension before pulling and gratification/relief immediately after pulling. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms were somewhat elevated, as measured by standard instruments, and correlated positively with the severity of TTM symptoms. Moderate impairment in social and academic functioning was reported. For those who had received treatment specifically for TTM, parent ratings indicated that few (17%) children and adolescents were either very much improved or much improved after intervention. This study represents the largest survey of youth with TTM conducted thus far, and thus provides the most comprehensive description of TTM in youth to date. Data was obtained from an anonymous, Internet-based sample, and thus may not be generalizable to all youth with TTM.

  12. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from

  13. Objective and Subjective Attractiveness and Early Adolescent Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Jasna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used data from Pennsylvania Early Adolescent Transitions Study to assess how objective physical attractiveness (PA), indexed by appraisals from others, and subjective PA, indexed by self-appraisals, related to each other and to early adolescent adjustment. Findings indicated low relationship between objective and subjective PA; only subjective PA…

  14. Vocational Preferences of Early Adolescents: Their Development in Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…

  15. Early Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Sources of Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Kylea K.

    2017-01-01

    Early adolescence includes youth approximately 11-14 years of age. This age group represents a population open to learning more information about sexuality and signifies a developmental period where effective sexuality interventions may begin (Ott & Pfieffer, 2009; Grossman et al., 2014). Early adolescence is a critical period when…

  16. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  17. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  18. The Challenge of Sexual Maturation in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This fifth chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" looks at the issue of sexual maturation in early adolescence via four articles. "The Counselor's Impact on Middle-Grade Students," by Hershel Thornburg, examines physical, intellectual, and social developmental tasks of early adolescence. "Contraceptive and Sexuality Knowledge…

  19. Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

  20. Defining the Developmental Parameters of Temper Loss in Early Childhood: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Choi, Seung W.; Carter, Alice S.; Hullsiek, Heide; Burns, James; McCarthy, Kimberly; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds. Methods:…

  1. Day occupation is associated with psychopathology for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Jacoby, Peter; Einfeld, Stewart; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Riches, Vivienne; Leonard, Helen

    2014-10-03

    Young adults with Down syndrome experience increased rates of emotional and behavioural problems compared with the general population. Most adolescents with Down syndrome living in Western Australia participate in sheltered employment as their main day occupation. Relationship between day occupation and changes in behaviour has not been examined. Therefore, the aim of this research was to explore any relationship between post school day occupations and changes in the young person's behaviour. The Down syndrome Needs Opinion Wishes database was used for case ascertainment of young adults aged 15 to 32 years with Down syndrome. Families of 118 young people in this population-based database completed questionnaires in 2004, 2009 and 2011. The questionnaires addressed both young person characteristics such as age, gender, presence of impairments, behaviour, functioning in activities of daily living, and family characteristics such as income and family functioning. Post-school day occupations in which the young people were participating included open and sheltered employment, training and day recreation programs. Change in behaviour of young adults who remained in the same post-school day occupation from 2009 to 2011 (n = 103) were examined in a linear regression model adjusting for confounding variables including age, gender, prior functioning and behaviour in 2004 and family income. In comparison to those young adults attending open employment from 2009 to 2011, those attending day recreation programs were reported to experience worsening in behaviour both in the unadjusted (effect size -0.14, 95% CI -0.24, -0.05) and adjusted models (effect size -0.15, 95% CI -0.29, -0.01). We found that the behaviour of those participating in open employment improved compared to those attending other day occupations. Further examination of the direction of this association is required.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689

  3. Understanding Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Robert F.; Markon, Kristian E.

    2008-01-01

    Research on psychopathology is at a historical crossroads. New technologies offer the promise of lasting advances in our understanding of the causes of human psychological suffering. Making the best use of these technologies, however, requires an empirically accurate model of psychopathology. Much current research is framed by the model of psychopathology portrayed in current versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although the modern DSMs have been fundamental in advancing psychopathology research, recent research also challenges some assumptions made in the DSM—for example, the assumption that all forms of psychopathology are well conceived of as discrete categories. Psychological science has a critical role to play in working through the implications of this research and the challenges it presents. In particular, behavior-genetic, personality, and quantitative-psychological research perspectives can be melded to inform the development of an empirically based model of psychopathology that would constitute an evolution of the DSM. PMID:18392116

  4. Adolescent Stress, Coping, and Academic Persistence in Rural Appalachia: The Unacknowledged Import of Early Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Linda; Bickel, Robert

    This paper examines pregnancy in early adolescence, among West Virginia females aged 10-14, as it relates to local economic and social contexts. Although research on adolescent pregnancy is substantial, it is generally limited to the experiences of older adolescents and premised on assumptions of methodological individualism--that the correlates…

  5. The Role of Language Skill in Child Psychopathology: Implications for Intervention in the Early Years.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann

    2016-12-01

    In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.

  6. Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents: Personality, Psychopathology and Evaluation of a Psychological Intervention Combined With Parent Psychoeducation

    PubMed Central

    González-Bueso, Vega; Santamaría, Juan J.; Fernández, Daniel; Merino, Laura; Montero, Elena; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Ribas, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder is an increasingly prevalent disorder, which can have severe consequences in affected young people and in their families. There is an urgent need to improve existing treatment programs; these are currently hampered by the lack of research in this area. It is necessary to more carefully define the symptomatic, psychosocial and personality characterization of these patients and the interaction between treatment and relevant variables. The objectives of this study were three: (1) to analyze the symptomatic and personality profiles of young patients with Internet Gaming Disorder in comparison with healthy controls; (2) to analyze the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral treatment on reducing symptomatology; and (3) to compare the results of that treatment with or without the addition of a psychoeducational group offered to the parents. The final sample consisted of 30 patients consecutively admitted to a specialized mental health unit in Spain, and 30 healthy controls. The experimental group received individual cognitive-behavioral therapy. The experimental group was divided into two subgroups (N = 15), depending on the addition or not of a psychoeducational group for their parents (consecutively admitted). Scores on the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MACI), the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), and other clinical and psychopathological measures were recorded. The patients were re-assessed post treatment (except for the MACI questionnaire). Compared with healthy controls, patients did not differ in symptomatology at baseline, but scored significantly higher in the personality scales: Introversive and Inhibited, and in the expressed concerns scales: Identity Confusion, Self-Devaluation, and Peer Insecurity and scored significantly lower in the Histrionic and Egotistic scale. In the experimental group, pre-post changes differed statistically on SCL-90-R scales Hostility, Psychoticism, and

  7. A cohort study on psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Isabela Ribeiro; Castro, Marta; Sarmento, Sofia Lourenço; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose was to study psychosocial adjustment and psychiatric morbidity of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion. Clinical data was obtained through the patient's clinical records. Setting A teaching and tertiary care facility in Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 110 CHD patients (62 male) aged from 12 to 26 years (mean=18.00±3.617), 58 cyanotic. All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion in a tertiary hospital. Demographic information and clinical history were collected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Questionnaires regarded topics such as social support, family educational style, self-image and physical limitations, a standardised psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version (SADS-L), and a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial adjustment, youth self-report or adult self-report. One of the relatives completed an observational version of the same questionnaire (child behaviour checklist (CBCL) or ABCL (adult behaviour checklist)). Results We found a 21.8% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology, 31.3%, in females, 14.5% in males, showing a somewhat increased proneness in CHD patients. Females also showed worse psychosocial adjustment, with more somatic complaints (u=260 000; p=0.011), anxiety/depression (u=984 000; p=0.002), aggressive behaviour (u=920 500; p=0.001), attention problems (u=1123 500; p=0.027), thought problems (u=1069 500; p=0.010), internalisation (u=869 000; p=0.0) and externalisation (u=1163 000; p=0.05). Patients with severe CHD (u=939 000; p=0.03) and surgical repair (u=719 000; p=0.037) showed worse psychosocial adjustment. Those with poor social support showed more withdrawal (u=557 500; p=0.0) and social problems (u=748 500; p=0.023), and patients with unsatisfactory school performance revealed more anxiety/depression (u=916

  8. Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescents: Personality, Psychopathology and Evaluation of a Psychological Intervention Combined With Parent Psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    González-Bueso, Vega; Santamaría, Juan J; Fernández, Daniel; Merino, Laura; Montero, Elena; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Ribas, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder is an increasingly prevalent disorder, which can have severe consequences in affected young people and in their families. There is an urgent need to improve existing treatment programs; these are currently hampered by the lack of research in this area. It is necessary to more carefully define the symptomatic, psychosocial and personality characterization of these patients and the interaction between treatment and relevant variables. The objectives of this study were three: (1) to analyze the symptomatic and personality profiles of young patients with Internet Gaming Disorder in comparison with healthy controls; (2) to analyze the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral treatment on reducing symptomatology; and (3) to compare the results of that treatment with or without the addition of a psychoeducational group offered to the parents. The final sample consisted of 30 patients consecutively admitted to a specialized mental health unit in Spain, and 30 healthy controls. The experimental group received individual cognitive-behavioral therapy. The experimental group was divided into two subgroups ( N = 15), depending on the addition or not of a psychoeducational group for their parents (consecutively admitted). Scores on the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MACI), the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), and other clinical and psychopathological measures were recorded. The patients were re-assessed post treatment (except for the MACI questionnaire). Compared with healthy controls, patients did not differ in symptomatology at baseline, but scored significantly higher in the personality scales: Introversive and Inhibited, and in the expressed concerns scales: Identity Confusion, Self-Devaluation, and Peer Insecurity and scored significantly lower in the Histrionic and Egotistic scale. In the experimental group, pre-post changes differed statistically on SCL-90-R scales Hostility, Psychoticism, and

  9. Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in children and adolescents evaluated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire dysregulation profile in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan José; Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Elena; García Nieto, Rebeca; Díaz de Neira-Hernando, Mónica; Pérez-Fominaya, Margarita; Molina-Pizarro, Cristian Antonio; De León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of children and adolescents referred to mental health services is frequently complicated by comorbid and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. This dysregulation phenotype seems to be an indicator of overall psychopathology, symptom severity and functional impairment. Currently, this phenotype is assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist. However, the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been recently validated to screen the Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of the SDQ-DP phenotype in a Spanish clinical sample. In a clinical sample of 623 consecutively referred children and adolescents (4-17 years old), we compared clinical and sociodemographic correlates between subjects who met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP) and those who did not (NO_DP). Sociodemographic data, parent-rated SDQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression, family Apgar scale and clinical diagnoses were collected by experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists. Overall in our sample, 175 subjects (28.1%) met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP group). Compared with the NO_DP group, the DP subjects had significantly higher scores on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, problems with peers and overall problems as well as significantly lower scores on prosocial behavior. Clinical diagnoses assigned revealed that DP subjects showed significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity. DP subjects also showed significantly worse family functioning and increased symptom severity and significantly lower scores on psychosocial functioning. A high prevalence of children and adolescents with the dysregulated profile, assessed by the SDQ-DP, was found in our clinical setting. The SDQ-DP may serve as an index of overall psychological severity and functional impairment. In addition, it may indicate family

  10. Theory of mind, insecure attachment and paranoia in adolescents with early psychosis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-08-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.

  11. The continuity of psychopathology from early childhood to preadolescence: a prospective cohort study of 3-12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Pihlakoski, Leena; Sourander, Andre; Aromaa, Minna; Rautava, Päivi; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpää, Matti

    2006-10-01

    To study the continuity of psychopathology from the age of 3-12 years. In a population-based birth cohort, children's emotional and behavioral problems were assessed at age 3 using the Child Behavior Checklist 2-3 (CBCL 2-3), and at age 12 by parents using the CBCL 11-18, and the Youth Self Report (YSR) completed by the children. Behavioral ratings were obtained from 800 subjects at both time points. externalizing problems at age 3 predicted both externalizing and internalizing problems among both genders in preadolescence. In girls, internalizing behavior at age 3 predicted parent-reported internalizing behavior, and associated negatively with externalizing behavior in self-reports at age 12. Aggressive behavior was found to be remarkably stable, and both aggressive and destructive behavior independently predicted a wide range of later externalizing and internalizing problems. Parent ratings of withdrawal showed stability from early childhood to preadolescence in both genders. Somatic complaints of 3-year-old girls independently predicted both externalizing and internalizing problems. The results show the complexity of pathways in psychopathology from early childhood to preadolescence. In particular, aggressive and destructive behaviors in very early childhood predict later problems and necessitate early recognition and possible intervention at an early age. An instrument like the CBCL 2-3 is valuable in the early detection of children at risk of long-term problems.

  12. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  14. Psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, major depression, or both: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Mazursky, Heather; Bruett, Lindsey; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    The authors examined the specificity and course of psychiatric disorders from early childhood through adolescence in offspring of parents with confirmed panic disorder and major depressive disorder. The authors examined rates of psychiatric disorders at 10-year-follow-up (mean age, 14 years) in four groups: offspring of referred parents with panic and depression (N=137), offspring of referred parents with panic without depression (N=26), offspring of referred parents with depression without panic (N=48), and offspring of nonreferred parents with neither disorder (N=80). Follow-up assessments relied on structured interviews with the adolescents and their mothers; diagnoses were rated present if endorsed by either. Parental panic disorder, independently of parental depression, predicted lifetime rates in offspring of multiple anxiety disorders, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Parental depression independently predicted offspring bipolar, drug use, and disruptive behavior disorders. Parental panic and depression interacted to predict specific phobia and major depressive disorder. Phobias were elevated in all at-risk groups, and depression was elevated in both offspring groups of parents with depression (with or without panic disorder), with the highest rates in the offspring of parents with depression only. Parental depression independently predicted new onset of depression, parental panic disorder independently predicted new onset of social phobia, and the two interacted to predict new onset of specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. At-risk offspring continue to develop new disorders as they progress through adolescence. These results support the need to screen and monitor the offspring of adults presenting for treatment of panic disorder or major depressive disorder.

  15. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care.

    PubMed

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  17. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  18. Institutional Influence on Behavioural Disorders in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2014-01-01

    Early adolescence a period of transition between childhood and late adolescence, is where one experiences dramatic changes physically, and psychologically. These transitions cause cognitive, emotional, and social changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degrees of disturbance in them. The period of transition…

  19. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  20. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  1. Our Last Best Shot: Guiding Our Children through Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Laura Sessions

    Noting that amid the enormous change inherent in early adolescence, many parents fail to distinguish between behaviors signaling healthy growth and those indicating troubled development, this book uses the stories of 12 representative adolescents from various locations in the United States and existing research literature to provide guidance on…

  2. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  3. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  4. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder. PMID:19874976

  5. [The 100th anniversary of Gustav Wilhelm Störring's "Lectures on Psychopathology". A review of his early years].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H; Künstler, U

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this essay is to retell the life and work of philosopher and psychiatrist Gustav Wilhelm Störring (1860-1946) during his early years in Leipzig and Erdmannshain. His "Lectures on Psychopathology and its Impact on Normal Psychology", written 100 years ago, are acknowledged as his most important work. With this book Störring stands in opposition to many of his contemporaries, which is illustrated with his concept of mania. In some aspects, however, his ideas coincide with those of other well-known psychiatrists such as Emil Kraepelin. Both were inclined to the idea that psychiatry and psychology could mutually stimulate each other. Störring's work in Wundt's laboratory of experimental psychology had a major impact on his work. Wundt's ideas gave impetus to a lot of his work and also influenced papers Störring was to write later on. Störring's biography is followed until 1902 when he was appointed professor of philosophy of Zurich University, in which his friend Ernst Meumann was substantially involved. In Leipzig Störring had started his work as Flechsig's assistant at the hospital of psychiatry and neurology of Leipzig University. In 1897 he founded his own sanitarium for mentally and neurologically ill in Erdmannshain, a village near Leipzig, which he managed together with his wife Marie, née Bonacker. With the help of Wundt Störring qualifies as a university lecturer. During the years regarded here, however, he got more and more attracted to philosophical matters, thus turning away from neurosciences. In time he started to regard his work as physician as nothing more than necessary for making his living. His relationship with Wundt, who together with his laboratory of experimental psychology had previously made him wish to come to Leipzig, cooled down, at least on the part of the first. That puts an end to Störring's early years not only from the point of view of his biography but also from his work.

  6. A multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle school in a Southeastern state. The parents of a subset of these adolescents (i.e., 487 mother-father pairs) participated in this study as well. Correlational analyses indicate that authoritative and authoritarian parenting, family cohesion and adaptability, and conflict are significant predictors of early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that fathers' parenting may not predict directly externalizing problems in male and female adolescents but instead may act through conflict. More direct relationships exist when examining mothers' parenting. The impact of parenting, family environment, and conflict on early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems and the importance of both gender and cross-informant ratings are emphasized.

  7. The Psychopathological Influence of Congenital Heart Disease in Korean Male Adolescents: An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Chung, Joonho; Park, Hyeong-Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korean 19-year-old males. Materials and Methods The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 211 CHD cases (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or combined CHD) with the KMPI profiles of 300 normal controls. The CHD group was also divided according to whether or not the subjects had undergone open cardiac surgery in order to evaluate the psychopathological effects of an operation among the subjects. Results A decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were markedly increased in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The severity level of personality disorder was also increased in the CHD group (p<0.001). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to open cardiac surgery history. Conclusion In this study, young males with CHD tended to report more abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test in comparison to normal subjects, suggesting that CHD may be related to psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate the psychopathological traits of patients with CHD. PMID:23074109

  8. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  9. The psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease in Korean male adolescents: an analysis of multiphasic personal inventory test results.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Chung, Joonho; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korean 19-year-old males. The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 211 CHD cases (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, or combined CHD) with the KMPI profiles of 300 normal controls. The CHD group was also divided according to whether or not the subjects had undergone open cardiac surgery in order to evaluate the psychopathological effects of an operation among the subjects. A decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were markedly increased in the CHD group compared to the control (p<0.01). The severity level of personality disorder was also increased in the CHD group (p<0.001). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to open cardiac surgery history. In this study, young males with CHD tended to report more abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test in comparison to normal subjects, suggesting that CHD may be related to psychopathology in young males in Korea. Therefore, clinicians are recommended to evaluate the psychopathological traits of patients with CHD.

  10. Early adolescent deaf boys: a biopsychosocial approach.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, C B

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter I have reviewed observations from clinical consultation and group-therapy work with early adolescent deaf boys in a special day school for the deaf. I have stressed how problems in communication exert a profound effect on the lives of these youngsters, both by virtue of their past and present influence on family life and by their ongoing effect on peer-group processes and academic adjustment. Primary consideration was given to certain "here and now" aspects of these boys' lives: ongoing problems in the social fabric of their home and school; narcissistic vulnerabilities and defenses against shame; and language-processing difficulties. The ways in which these problems undermine the supportive effect of the peer group at a time when it plays a particularly important role in development were reviewed. By emphasizing current sources of difficulty, using a biopsychosocial approach, I hope to point out fruitful opportunities for significant psychiatric intervention in a psychiatrically vulnerable population whose needs for professional service have never been met.

  11. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  12. Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Changing Nature of Adolescent Friendships Longitudinal Links With Early Adolescent Ego Development

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Penny; Allen, Joseph P.; Ho, Martin; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, F. Christy

    2008-01-01

    Although success in managing evolving peer relationships is linked to critical adolescent outcomes, little is known about the specific factors that lead to success or failure in peer relationship development across adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the role of adolescents’ level of ego development as a predictor of the future course of several facets of friendship development in early adolescence. Ego development was assessed in a community sample of adolescents at age 13. Several facets of adolescent friendship were also assessed at 13 and then reassessed 1 year later, including adolescent intimate behavior during a supportive interaction with their best friends, adolescent reports of psychological security in their friendships, and peer-rated popularity. As predicted, ego development not only explained concurrent levels of peer functioning but also predicted markers of change over time in each of the assessed domains of peer functioning. Implications for ego development in increasing our understanding of individual differences in adolescent friendship development are discussed. PMID:18548124

  14. Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.

  15. Parental Child-Rearing Strategies Influence Self-Regulation, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Psychopathology in Early Adulthood: Evidence from a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Courtney N.; Hoerger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU – a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents’ child-rearing behaviors – as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavior, interpersonal problems, personal financial problems, and academic maladjustment. A subset of participants also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Parental warmth was found to be related to overall better self-regulation and improved interpersonal and academic adjustment. In contrast, both parental rejection and overcontrol were found to be related to general deficits in self-regulation as well as adjustment difficulties and psychopathology. Parental rejection was most closely related to internalizing clinical presentations like anxiety, depression, and somatization, whereas overcontrol was most aligned with increased hypomanic activation and psychoticism. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationships between parental child-rearing strategies and socio-emotional adjustment and psychopathology were partially mediated by self-regulation. Future directions are suggested, including basic and translational research related to better understanding the roles of parental child-rearing and self-regulation in the development of internalizing symptoms, activation, and psychotic symptoms. PMID:22423172

  16. Testing the cumulative stress and mismatch hypotheses of psychopathology in a rat model of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Oitzl, Melly S; Schächinger, Hartmut; Champagne, Danielle L; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2012-07-16

    In the present study, we tested both the cumulative stress and the mismatch hypothesis of psychopathology. For this purpose the combined effects of early-life adversity and later-life stress exposure on behavioral markers of psychosis susceptibility were studied in male Wistar rats. Experiment I: rat pups divided on the basis of the levels of their maternal care experience in low, medium or high maternal care groups, were reared post-weaning in groups (Exp. IA) or in social isolation (Exp. IB) and tested at adulthood under basal conditions or after an acute corticosterone (CORT) administration. Maternal care levels were assessed by measuring the dam's licking and grooming (LG) the first postnatal week of life. Experiment II: rat pups exposed as neonates to daily sessions of 8h of maternal separation (MS) on postnatal days 3, 4 and 5 either altogether in their home cage (HOME SEP) or alone in a novel environment (NOVEL SEP), were reared post-weaning in groups and tested at adulthood under basal conditions. Adult testing included behaviors marking psychosis susceptibility: apomorphine-induced gnawing (APO-gnawing), acoustic startle response and its modulation by a prepulse stimulus (PPI). The behavior of the Medium LG offspring was used as baseline reference for all the three experiments. Experiment I: Low maternal LG history alone had limited effects on the behavior of Wistar offspring, although increased acoustic startle and increased PPI, at high prepulse intensity levels, were observed. When low maternal LG history was combined with post-weaning social isolation, basal APO-gnawing was decreased and PPI increased, compared to High LG and Med LG offspring. This reflects attenuated psychosis susceptibility. High LG offspring reared in isolation displayed, however, the highest APO-gnawing and the lowest PPI levels among rats reared in social isolation, which is indicative for increased psychosis susceptibility. These findings support the mismatch hypothesis. For

  17. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Can we really use available scales for child and adolescent psychopathology across cultures? A systematic review of cross-cultural measurement invariance data.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Jafari, Peyman; Knez, Rajna; Franic, Tomislav; Atilola, Olayinka; Davidovic, Nikolina; Bagheri, Zahra; Lakic, Aneta

    2017-02-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed available evidence for cross-cultural measurement invariance of assessment scales for child and adolescent psychopathology as an indicator of cross-cultural validity. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Cross-cultural measurement invariance data was available for 26 scales. Based on the aggregation of the evidence from the studies under review, none of the evaluated scales have strong evidence for cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparison. A few of the studies showed a moderate level of measurement invariance for some scales (such as the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale), which may make them suitable in cross-cultural comparative studies. The remainder of the scales either showed weak or outright lack of measurement invariance. This review showed only limited testing for measurement invariance across cultural groups of scales for pediatric psychopathology, with evidence of cross-cultural validity for only a few scales. This study also revealed a need to improve practices of statistical analysis reporting in testing measurement invariance. Implications for future research are discussed.

  19. Marital conflict and early adolescents' self-evaluation: the role of parenting quality and early adolescents' appraisals.

    PubMed

    Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.

  20. Early Adolescent Childbearing: Some Further Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeppner, Marie

    Current research on adolescent fertility indicates that illegitimacy is becoming concentrated in the teenage and even preteen years. Increasing sexual activity, lack of contraceptive information and techniques, and a desired pregnancy are possible explanations. Some of the problems faced by adolescent mothers include more complicated pregnancies,…

  1. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  2. Outcome of dysthymic disorder at 5-year follow-up: the effect of familial psychopathology, early adversity, personality, comorbidity, and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Hayden, E P; Klein, D N

    2001-11-01

    This study sought to identify predictors of course and outcome in dysthymic disorder. Eighty-six outpatients with early-onset dysthymic disorder (before age 21) participated in a prospective 5-year follow-up study. Family history of psychopathology, early home environment, axis I and II comorbidity, social support, and chronic stress were assessed at baseline. The Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used in the follow-up assessments conducted at 30 and 60 months. Comorbid anxiety disorder, cluster C and depressive personality features, and chronic stress were associated with a lower rate of recovery from dysthymic disorder, while family history of bipolar disorder was associated with a higher probability of recovery. Family history of dysthymic disorder, poor childhood maternal and paternal relationships, childhood sexual abuse, cluster C features, neuroticism, a history of anxiety and eating disorders, and chronic stress predicted higher levels of depression at follow-up. Multivariate models indicated that almost all domains contributed to the prediction of course and outcome. The course and outcome of dysthymic disorder is best conceptualized within a multifactorial framework, with family history of psychopathology, early adversity, axis I and II comorbidity, and chronic stress all making important contributions.

  3. Compounded effect of early adolescence depressive symptoms and impulsivity on late adolescence gambling: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace P.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Depression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on the combined effects of both on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, MD. Methods The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Revised (TOCA-R), and Baltimore How I Feel-Adolescent Version (BHIF-AY), were used to assess late adolescence gambling behaviors, early adolescence impulsivity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Data analyses were conducted using ANOVA and binary logistic regression models. Results Twelve percent of the sample were problem gamblers (includes at-risk and problem gamblers), 87.5% of whom were males and 12.5% were females (p<0.001). Among males, there appeared to be a slight association between early adolescence depressive symptoms and late adolescence problem gambling. Compared to nongambling (NG) and social gambling (SG), depressive symptoms increased the odds of problem gambling by four-fold (PG vs. NG: OR=4.1, 95% CI=0.73–22.47, p=0.11; PG vs. SG: OR=3.9, 95% CI=0.78–19.31, p=0.10). Among those with high depressive symptoms, increases in impulsivity decreased the odds of problem gambling while among those with high impulsivity, increases in depressive symptoms decreased the odds of problem gambling. Conclusions Early adolescence depressive symptoms appear to be more positively associated with late adolescence problem gambling than early adolescence impulsivity, there seems to be a divisive interaction between depressive symptoms and impulsivity on problem gambling. PMID:21257115

  4. The association between early generative concern and caregiving with friends from early to middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Heather L; Doyle, Anna-Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    Generativity, defined as concern for future generations, is theorized to become a priority in midlife, preceded by a stage in which intimacy is the central issue. Recent research, however, has found evidence of generativity even in adolescence. This longitudinal study explored the associations between caregiving in friendships, closely related to intimacy, and early generative concern in a young adolescent sample. Given the importance of close friendships in adolescence, it was hypothesized that responsive caregiving in early adolescent friendships would predict later generative concern. Approximately 140 adolescents (56 % female, aged 14 at Time 1) completed questionnaires regarding generative concern and responsive caregiving with friends yearly across 2 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that caregiving predicted generative concern 1 year later but generative concern did not predict later caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving in close friendships plays an important role in the development of adolescents' motivation to contribute to future generations.

  5. Recent pregnancy trends among early adolescent girls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Sachiko; Goto, Aya; Reich, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines recent time trends, explores potentially influential background factors and discusses prevention strategies of pregnancy among girls under 15 years of age in Japan. Using Japanese government data, we first analyzed time trends of early adolescence (<15 years of age) abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse from 2003 to 2010. Second, we analyzed ecological correlations of early adolescent pregnancy (abortion, live birth and stillbirth) with pregnancy in other age groups, child sexual abuse, and indicators of juvenile victimization and juvenile delinquency, using prefectural data. We found that rates of both abortion and live birth in early adolescents have increased since 2005 (annual percent change 5.3% and 2.3%, respectively), despite declining rates in older age groups. The abortion ratio in early adolescence remained the highest among all age groups in Japan. The early adolescent pregnancy rate showed significant correlation with the rates of juvenile victimization of welfare crimes (obscenity, alcohol drinking, smoking and drug use) (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.42, P = 0.00) and juvenile delinquency among junior high school students (12-14 years of age) (rs = 0.69, P = 0.00). The observed rise in rates of abortion, live birth and child sexual abuse among early adolescents along with strong ecological correlations of their pregnancy rate with juvenile victimization and delinquency indicators suggests that epidemiological investigation and public health programs at the individual and community levels are needed to address the complex social roots of these trends and to produce effective improvements in early adolescent reproductive health. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  7. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  8. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next page > Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  9. Parent, Family, and Neighborhood Effects on the Development of Child Substance Use and Other Psychopathology From Preschool to the Start of Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Buu, Anne; DiPiazza, Cydney; Wang, Jing; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined the long-term effects of childhood familial and neighborhood risk on adolescent substance use and psychiatric symptomatology. Method: This study used data from an ongoing 2-decade long study that recruited alcoholic and neighborhood control families through fathers' drunk-driving records and door-to-door canvassing in a four county area. The sample included 220 male, initially 3- to 5-year-old children of the participant families, who received in-home assessments at baseline and thereafter at 3-year intervals. Parental lifetime psychopathology and offspring symptomatology at ages 18-20 were assessed by semistructured diagnostic interviews. Census tract variables were used to indicate neighborhood characteristics. Results: The isomorphic parental symptomatology predicted offspring psychopathology. For marijuana-use disorder, major depressive disorder, and nicotine dependence, the other parental comorbidities were also significant predictors. Neighborhood residential instability in childhood contributed to the development of late adolescent alcohol-use disorder, marijuana-use disorder, major depressive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and nicotine-dependence symptomatology. Although lower family socioeconomic status in childhood contributed to more adolescent marijuana-use disorder, major depressive disorder, and nicotine-dependence symptoms, neighborhood socioeconomic status did not predict adolescent psychopathology. Longitudinal changes in neighborhood environments from early childhood to adolescence had significant effects on alcohol-use disorder, marijuana-use disorder, and major depressive disorder symptoms in late adolescence. A higher frequency of family mobility from early childhood to adolescence predicted more nicotine-dependence symptoms in late adolescence. Conclusions: Findings indicate that parental psychopathology, family socioeconomic status, and neighborhood residential instability are all important risk factors for

  10. A Multivariate Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Variables in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…

  11. Parenting, Marital Conflict and Adjustment from Early- To Mid-Adolescence: Mediated by Adolescent Attachment Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…

  12. Parental Monitoring during Early Adolescence Deters Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Discrete-Time Survival Mixture Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…

  13. Internet gaming disorder in early adolescence: Associations with parental and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, L; Kriston, L; Kramer, M; Schwedler, A; Lincoln, T M; Kammerl, R

    2017-06-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Currently, associations between IGD in early adolescence and mental health are largely unexplained. In the present study, the relation of IGD with adolescent and parental mental health was investigated for the first time. We surveyed 1095 family dyads (an adolescent aged 12-14 years and a related parent) with a standardized questionnaire for IGD as well as for adolescent and parental mental health. We conducted linear (dimensional approach) and logistic (categorical approach) regression analyses. Both with dimensional and categorical approaches, we observed statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher degree of adolescent antisocial behavior, anger control problems, emotional distress, self-esteem problems, hyperactivity/inattention and parental anxiety (linear regression model: corrected R 2 =0.41, logistic regression model: Nagelkerke's R 2 =0.41). IGD appears to be associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Moreover, the findings of the present study provide first evidence that not only adolescent but also parental mental health is relevant to IGD in early adolescence. Adolescent and parental mental health should be considered in prevention and intervention programs for IGD in adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Salience network response to changes in emotional expressions of others is heightened during early adolescence: relevance for social functioning.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Maya L; Sheridan, Margaret A; Sambrook, Kelly A; Dennison, Meg J; Jenness, Jessica L; Askren, Mary K; Meltzoff, Andrew N; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2018-05-01

    Adolescence is a unique developmental period when the salience of social and emotional information becomes particularly pronounced. Although this increased sensitivity to social and emotional information has frequently been considered with respect to risk behaviors and psychopathology, evidence suggests that increased adolescent sensitivity to social and emotional cues may confer advantages. For example, greater sensitivity to shifts in the emotions of others is likely to promote flexible and adaptive social behavior. In this study, a sample of 54 children and adolescents (age 8-19 years) performed a delayed match-to-sample task for emotional faces while undergoing fMRI scanning. Recruitment of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula when the emotion of the probe face did not match the emotion held in memory followed a quadratic developmental pattern that peaked during early adolescence. These findings indicate meaningful developmental variation in the neural mechanisms underlying sensitivity to changes in the emotional expressions. Across all participants, greater activation of this network for changes in emotional expression was associated with less social anxiety and fewer social problems. These results suggest that the heightened salience of social and emotional information during adolescence may confer important advantages for social behavior, providing sensitivity to others' emotions that facilitates flexible social responding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Ecological influences of sexuality on early adolescent African American females.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Rennells, Rachel E; Todd, Erin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans make up the greater proportion of AIDS cases in adolescent girls but little is understood about the development of sexual risk behaviors during the early adolescent years. This article will explore ecological factors influencing adolescent sexual risk behaviors. In the focus groups, which were conducted using 28 African American mothers and their early adolescent daughters, 2 major themes emerged: exposure and support systems. Mothers described the impact community had on their daughters and how monitoring and support systems worked together to control exposure. The girls detailed the different ways they were impacted by the community. Attitudes the girls adopted from their exposures resulted in risk-taking behaviors or a determination to positively impact the community. Community was shown to be the context of the acquisition of sexual knowledge and attitudes. These findings support the development of interventions to address the impact of community on the participation of sexual risk behaviors.

  18. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression.

  20. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7% female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children’s attitudes about violence and caregivers’ perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression. PMID:27230117

  1. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Liu, Richard T.; Y.Abramson, Lyn; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52% female, 51% Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress. PMID:25911194

  2. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p < .01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES = -.30, p < .01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES = -.17, p < .05), and simple phobia (ES = -.17, p < .05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p < .05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Early Adolescence Ethnic Identity Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cindy Y.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is marked by transitions for adolescents, and is also a time for identity exploration. Ethnic identity is an essential component of youths’ sense of self. In this study we examined the trajectories of ethnic identity for adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds during a 4-year period. Six latent class trajectories were identified in the study: the majority of adolescents (41.8%) displayed growth in ethnic identity over 4 years, followed by 30.1% whose high levels of ethnic identity remained stable, then by those who experienced moderate decreases in ethnic identity (10.8 percent). Another class of adolescents (7.3%) showed significant declines in ethnic identity level, followed by 5.5% of adolescents with significant increases, and finally by 4.5% of adolescents with low stable levels of ethnic identity during this developmental period. The classes differed by ethnicity, and adolescents with increasing high levels of ethnic identity reported better parent–child relationships. Findings and implications are discussed. PMID:21787058

  5. Maternal Employment and Early Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…

  6. Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 132 junior high school students completed a biographical data sheet, short forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, a Sensation-Seeking Scale, the Family Environment Scale, a social support index, and a life stress inventory, to determine to what extent depression in young adolescents could be predicted. (Author/PN)

  7. Self-criticism and dependency in female adolescents: Prediction of first onsets and disentangling the relationships between personality, stressful life events, and internalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N; Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman

    2017-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that personality traits, such as self-criticism and dependency, predict the development of depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as depressive episodes. However, it is unknown whether self-criticism and dependency predict the first onset of depressive and anxiety disorders, and unclear how to characterize dynamic mechanisms by which these traits, stressful life events, and psychopathology influence one another over time. In this study, 550 female adolescents were assessed at baseline, 528 and 513 of whom were assessed again at Waves 2 and 3, respectively, over the course of 18 months. Self-criticism and dependency were assessed with self-report inventories, depressive and anxiety disorders were assessed with diagnostic interviews, and stressful life events were assessed via semistructured interview. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-criticism and dependency significantly predicted the first onset of nearly all depressive and anxiety disorders (significant polychoric r s ranged from .15-.42). Subsequent path analyses focused on prediction of depression, and supported several conceptual models of personality-stress-psychopathology relationships. In particular, Personality × Stress interactions were evident for both dependency and self-criticism. These interactions took the form of dual vulnerability, such that stressful life events predicted an increased probability of a later depressive disorder only at low levels of each trait. Results suggest the traits of self-criticism and dependency are important to consider in understanding who is at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, p<0.01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES=−0.30, p<0.01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES=−0.17, p<0.05), and simple phobia (ES=−0.17, p<0.05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, p<0.05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  9. Variation in Common Preschool Sleep Problems as an Early Predictor for Depression and Anxiety Symptom Severity across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Diana J.; Gilbert, Kirsten E.; Barch, Deanna M.; Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Child and adolescent psychopathology has been linked to increased sleep problems, but there has been less investigation of this relationship in younger samples with early-onset psychopathology. This study examined three specific but commonly observed aspects of sleep behaviors in young children--(i) Sleep onset latency, (ii) Refusal to…

  10. Characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Godinho, José; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Ramos, Elisabete

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to identify socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics associated with media use in early adolescence. The sample was comprised of 1,680 adolescents (884 girls and 796 boys) aged 13, attending private and public schools in Porto, Portugal, during 2003/2004. Adolescents completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic, social and behavioral characteristics, including the time spent watching television and playing computer games on week and weekend days. Logistic and proportional ordinal regressions showed that attending public schools, sleeping less time, using tobacco and presenting low levels of physical activity were factors associated with high media use. In boys living with one of their parents as well as living with younger and older parents were also associated with high media use. Besides the association with less healthier behaviours, we also found higher media use among adolescents from lower social classes and less structured families, which may increase their exposure to negative influence of the media.

  11. A Self-Regulatory Model of Behavioral Disinhibition in Late Adolescence: Integrating Personality Traits, Externalizing Psychopathology, and Cognitive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Two samples with heterogeneous prevalence of externalizing psychopathology were used to investigate the structure of self-regulatory models of behavioral disinhibition and cognitive capacity. Consistent with expectations, structural equation modeling in the first sample (N = 541) showed a hierarchical model with three lower-order factors of impulsive sensation-seeking, anti-sociality/unconventionality, and lifetime externalizing problem counts, with a behavioral disinhibition superfactor best accounted for the pattern of covariation among six disinhibited personality trait indicators and four externalizing problem indicators. The structure was replicated in a second sample (N = 463) and showed that the behavioral disinhibition superfactor, and not the lower-order impulsive sensation-seeking, anti-sociality/unconventionality, and externalizing problem factors, was associated with lower IQ, reduced short-term memory capacity, and reduced working memory capacity. The results provide a systemic and meaningful integration of major self-regulatory influences during a developmentally important stage of life. PMID:20433626

  12. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  13. [Psychopathology related to women pubertal precocity].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Didillon, A

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental process characterized by hormonal and physical changes leading to the ability of reproduction. Precocious puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with an increased incidence of emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescence is a life stage influenced both by the biological changes of puberty and the emergence of new social challenges. In individuals facing these developmental issues at a younger age than expected, the exposure to internal and external stress factors may be greater than in other young people. This narrative review provides an overview of psychopathology associated with precocious puberty in order to raise awareness of clinicians dealing with adolescents at risk for adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes. Developmental challenges of standard puberty and adolescence will be outlined before a more detailed description of recent findings from clinical and epidemiological studies. Putative mechanisms underlying the association between precocious puberty and psychopathology will also be discussed. Epidemiological studies have shown that an early onset of puberty in girls is associated with an earlier onset of sexuality, an earlier age of first birth and a lesser professional qualification regardless of cognitive abilities and socio-economic status. In both population studies and clinical cohorts, girls with an early age of puberty or in treatment for precocious puberty have more disruptive behavior disorders such as conduct disorders, more substance abuse disorders and delinquent behavior compared to their standard developing peers. Precocious puberty and behavioral problems may have common genetic and environmental risk factors. In young people with conduct disorders and early puberty, findings have emphasized the role of non-shared environmental factors. Low birth weight, obesity, exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and adoption are potentially shared between both conditions. Early puberty in girls is also

  14. The Early Adolescent's Personality and His Style of Marijuana Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; And Others

    Students in four metropolitan high schools participated in a survey of marijuana use. It was found that the personality traits of these early adolescents were related to the "style" of their marijuana usage, i.e., to the social conditions under which they tended to use the drug. Further, a given personality trait's relationship to the style of…

  15. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  16. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  17. Peer Victimization and Mental Health during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe recent research on peer victimization and its mental health consequences during early adolescence. They begin with a working definition of peer victimization that distinguishes it from lethal school violence and from simple conflict between peers. They then present a psychosocial profile of youth who are…

  18. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  19. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  20. The Contextual Specificity of Masculinity and Femininity in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leszczynski, Jennifer Pickard; Strough, JoNell

    2008-01-01

    Using a social constructionist perspective, we investigated the flexibility of early adolescents' (N = 80, 40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 13.14; SD = 0.65) masculinity and femininity as a function of the interpersonal context (same- or other-sex partner) and situational demands (co-operation or competition). Participants played a block-building game…

  1. Early Adolescence: Perspectives and Recommendations to the National Science Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenmeyer, Conrad G., Ed.; Rivkin, Mary S., Ed.

    Contained in this publication is the final report of a panel of experts, convened by the Assistant Director for Science Education of the National Science Foundation, interested in science education for early adolescence. The document also contains three appendices. Appendix A lists members of the panel and their professional affiliation. Appendix…

  2. Thoughts of Death and Suicide in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Flynn, Cynthia; Stone, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and persistence of thoughts of death and suicide during early adolescence were estimated in a community-based cohort. A latent class approach was used to identify distinct subgroups based on endorsements to depression items administered repeatedly over 24 months. Two classes emerged, with 75% in a low ideation class across four…

  3. Longitudinal Effects on Early Adolescent Language: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlarr, Nicole; De Thorne, Laura Segebart; Smith, Jamie Mahurin; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in language skills during early adolescence, measured by both language sampling and standardized tests, and examined the extent to which these genetic and environmental effects are stable across time. Purpose: We evaluated genetic and environmental…

  4. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  5. Positive Home Environment and Behaviour Development in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…

  6. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  7. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  8. The Challenge of Family Relationships in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This second chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" presents four articles that deal with family relationships in early adolescence. "Teen-Parent Relationship Enrichment Through Choice Awareness," by Richard Nelson and Marsha Link, describes a process through which counselors may help to enrich relationships between teenagers…

  9. Peer Relationships and Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…

  10. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  11. Assessment and Implications of Social Avoidance in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi

    2018-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…

  12. Evaluation of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET) in Adolescents with Eating Disorders: Factor Structure and Relation to Eating Disordered Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the factor structure of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET) in a clinical sample of Swedish adolescents with eating disorders (ED) and to study the relationship of CET with ED cognitions, body weight and exercise frequency. The compulsive Exercise Test, the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, body mass index (BMI) and exercise frequency were available at assessment of 210 adolescents (age 14.4 ± 1.6 years) with ED. Factor analysis generated four factors with close similarity to factors previously obtained in a community sample of adolescents samples and supported the use of the original version of CET. Exercise for weight control was strongly related to ED cognitions but less to exercise frequency and BMI. Exercise for regulation of mood was related to ED cognitions and exercise frequency but not to BMI. In adolescents with ED, different aspects of exercise are related to ED cognitions. This needs addressing in the treatment of adolescents with ED. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Mali adolescents: early parenthood does not equal more choice.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This paper highlights the impact of laws and policies on reproductive rights in adolescents and young girls in Mali. The Center for Reproductive Law and the Association of Women Lawyers in the country uncovered several areas of concern on the adolescents in Mali. It was noted that 94% of the women in reproductive age have undergone female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision. According to the report, 34% of the female adolescents have experienced pregnancy despite their knowledge that early pregnancies are critical risk factors in maternal and infant mortality. The adolescent pregnancy is attributed to their law, which permits girls to marry at an early age. Moreover, the low level of knowledge on contraceptives contributed to the increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS infection in the country. Also documented was the outlawing of abortion in Mali and is permitted only when the life of the woman is at risk. Because of this, adolescents flood to illegal abortions, putting themselves at risk of infection and complications. In response to this report, the UN recommended that Mali government should establish strategies against maternal mortality.

  14. Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on Early Adolescents and Youth.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth.

  15. Alcohol and drug use in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Tina; Haans, Dave

    2004-05-01

    This analysis presents the prevalence of substance use among young adolescents. The extent to which factors such as peer behaviour, parenting practices and school commitment and achievement are associated with drinking to intoxication and other drug use is investigated. The data are from the 1998/99 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Analysis is based on a cross-sectional file from 4,296 respondents aged 12 to 15. Prevalence estimates for alcohol and drug use were calculated by sex. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, peer and parent substance use, parenting practices, school commitment/attachment, emotional health and religious attendance. In general, drinking to intoxication and drug use were more common among 14- and 15-year-olds than among 12- and 13-year-olds. The odds of drinking to intoxication and drug use were highest among adolescents whose friends used alcohol or drugs or were often in trouble, who reported low commitment to school, or whose parents had a hostile and ineffective parenting style.

  16. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  17. [Addictive internet use as a comorbid disorder among clients of an adolescent psychiatry - prevalence and psychopathological symptoms].

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai W; Ammerschläger, Marcella; Freisleder, Franz Joseph; Beutel, Manfred E; Wölfling, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Excessive and addictive internet use fulfilling criteria of nonsubstance related addiction disorder is increasingly being discussed by scientists and clinicians alike. Its prevalence of about 3 % among minors points to a relatively frequent phenomenon that can lead to functional impairment and distress. However, there is still no evidence concerning its prevalence among underaged patients in psychiatric treatment. 81 patients between the age of 8 and 17 years were screened by a standardized instrument for internet addiction (AICA-S) to assess the prevalence of internet addiction among minors being treated in psychiatric inpatient settings. Their clinical symptoms were examined using Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist. 11.3 % of the patients fulfilled the criteria of addictive internet use. These patients were older and more often affected by anxiety and depression than patients without internet addiction. Data suggest that internet addiction is a relevant factor among minors in psychiatric institutions. Those with comorbid internet addiction show distinct patterns of psychopathology and may require disorder-specific treatment.

  18. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  19. Risk behaviours among early adolescents: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lin, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Lee, Shu-Li

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the influence of risk/protective factors on risk behaviours of early adolescents and whether protective factors moderate their impact. An understanding of how risk and protective factors operate to influence risk behaviours of early adolescents will better prepare nurses to perform interventions appropriately to reduce risk behaviours of early adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out, based on a sample of public junior high schools (from 7th to 9th grades) in one city and one county in Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire designed to measure five risk factors, six protective factors and risk behaviours was administered from October 2006 to March 2007. Data from 878 students were used for the present analysis. Pearson's correlations, anova with random effect models, and generalized linear models were used to analyse the statistically significant explanatory variables for risk behaviours. Gender, perceived father's risk behaviour, perceived mother's risk behaviour, health self-efficacy, interaction of health self-efficacy and perceived peers' risk behaviour, and interaction of emotional regulation and perceived peers' risk behaviour were statistically significant explanatory variables of risk behaviours. Health self-efficacy and emotional regulation moderated the negative effects of peers' perceived risk behaviour on risk behaviours. All protective factors were negative statistically correlated with risk behaviours, and all risk factors positively statistically correlated with risk behaviours. Male adolescents should be considered an at-risk group for risk behaviour intervention. Nurses could provide early adolescents with training regarding health self-efficacy improvement, self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills to reduce their risk behaviours.

  20. When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct, affective and anxiety problems are associated with male adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Prins, Seth J; Galea, Sandro; Howe, Chanelle J; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    There is a documented link between common psychiatric disorders and substance use in adolescent males. This study addressed two key questions: (1) is there a within-person association between an increase in psychiatric problems and an increase in substance use among adolescent males and (2) are there sensitive periods during male adolescence when such associations are more evident? Analysis of longitudinal data collected annually on boys selected randomly from schools based on a comprehensive public school enrollment list from the Pittsburgh Board of Education. Recruitment occurred in public schools in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. A total of 503 boys assessed at ages 13-19 years, average cooperation rate = 92.1%. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-oriented affective, anxiety and conduct disorder problems were measured with items from the caregiver, teacher and youth version of the Achenbach scales. Scales were converted to t-scores using age- and gender-based national norms and combined by taking the average across informants. Alcohol and marijuana use were assessed semi-annually by a 16-item Substance Use Scale adapted from the National Youth Survey. When male adolescents experienced a 1-unit increase in their conduct problems t-score, their rate of marijuana use subsequently increased by 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.05], and alcohol quantity increased by 1.01 (95% CI = 1.0002, 1.02). When adolescents experienced a 1-unit increase in their average quantity of alcohol use, their anxiety problems t-score subsequently increased by 0.12 (95% CI = 0.05, 0.19). These associations were strongest in early and late adolescence. When adolescent boys experience an increase in conduct disorder problems, they are more likely to exhibit a subsequent escalation in substance use. As adolescent boys increase their intensity of alcohol use, they become more likely to develop subsequent anxiety problems. Developmental turning points such as early and late

  1. When psychopathology matters most: identifying sensitive periods when within-person changes in conduct, affective, and anxiety problems are associated with male adolescent substance use

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Prins, Seth J.; Galea, Sandro; Howe, Chanelle J.; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims There is a documented link between common psychiatric disorders and substance use in adolescent males. This study addressed two key questions: 1) Is there a within-person association between an increase in psychiatric problems and an increase in substance use among adolescent males?; and 2) Are there sensitive periods during male adolescence when such associations are more evident? Design Analysis of longitudinal data collected annually on boys randomly selected from schools based on a comprehensive public school enrollment list from the Pittsburgh Board of Education Setting Recruitment occurred in public schools in Pittsburgh, Pennysylvania, USA. Participants 503 boys assessed at ages 13-19, average cooperation rate = 92.1% Measurements DSM-oriented affective, anxiety, and conduct disorder problems were measured with items from the caregiver, teacher, and youth version of the Achenbach scales. Scales were converted to T-scores using age- and gender-based national norms and combined by taking the average across informants. Alcohol and marijuana use were assessed semi-annually by a 16-item Substance Use Scale adapted from the National Youth Survey. Findings When male adolescents experienced a one-unit increase in their conduct problems T-score, their rate of marijuana use subsequently increased by 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.05), and alcohol quantity increased by 1.01 (95% CI: 1.0002, 1.02). When adolescents experienced a one-unit increase in their average quantity of alcohol use, their anxiety problems T-score subsequently increased by 0.12 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.19). These associations were strongest in early and late adolescence. Conclusions When adolescent boys experience an increase in conduct disorder problems, they are more likely to exhibit a subsequent escalation in substance use. As adolescent boys increase their intensity of alcohol use, they become more likely to develop subsequent anxiety problems. Developmental turning

  2. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  3. Effects of early life abuse differ across development: Infant social behavior deficits are followed by adolescent depressive-like behaviors mediated by the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Raineki, Charlis; Cortés, Millie Rincón; Belnoue, Laure; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2012-01-01

    Abuse during early life, especially from the caregiver, increases vulnerability to develop later life psychopathologies such as depression. Although signs of depression are typically not expressed until later life, signs of dysfunctional social behavior have been found earlier. How infant abuse alters the trajectory of brain development to produce pathways to pathology is not completely understood. Here we address this question using two different but complementary rat models of early-life abuse from postnatal days (PN) 8–12: a naturalistic paradigm, where the mother is provided with insufficient bedding for nest building and a more controlled paradigm, where infants undergo olfactory classical conditioning. Amygdala neural assessment (c-Fos), as well as social behavior and forced swim tests were performed at preweaning (PN20) and adolescence (PN45). Our results show that both models of early life abuse induce deficits in social behavior, even during the preweaning period; however, depressive-like behaviors were observed only during adolescence. Adolescent depressive-like behavior corresponds with an increase in amygdala neural activity in response to forced swim test. A causal relationship between the amygdala and depressive-like behavior was suggested through amygdala temporary deactivation (muscimol infusions), which rescued the depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Our results indicate that social behavior deficits in infancy could serve as an early marker for later psychopathology. Moreover, the implication of the amygdala in the ontogeny of depressive-like behaviors in infant abused animals is an important step toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of later life mental disease associated with early-life abuse. PMID:22649253

  4. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to early adversity.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that youth who experience early adversity exhibit alterations in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, thereby increasing risk for negative health outcomes. However, few studies have explored whether early adversity alters enduring trait indicators of HPA axis activity. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescents and their mothers to assess early adversity, we examined the cumulative impact of nine types of early adversity on early adolescents girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC). Adolescents (n = 122; M age = 12.39 years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30 min post-waking, and bedtime) over 3 days. Latent state-trait modeling indicated that the waking and 30 min post-waking samples contributed to a LTC factor. Moreover, greater early adversity was associated with a lower LTC level. Implications of LTC for future research examining the impact of early adversity on HPA axis functioning are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:700-713, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Consumption of pornographic materials in early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cecilia M S; Shek, Daniel T L

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in pornography consumption and related psychosocial correlates (ie, positive youth development qualities and family function) among Hong Kong early adolescents. In this study, adolescent consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3 waves of longitudinal data. A total of 3,325 Secondary 1 students (Grade 7) from 28 schools participated in the study at Wave 1. The mean age of the participants was 12.6 years old (SD = .74). Results showed that the internet was the most common medium for consuming pornography materials. Boys consumed more pornographic materials than did girls. Findings showed that family functioning and positive youth development were negatively associated with consumption of pornographic materials over time. This study highlights the importance of developing adolescents' competencies and establishing an atmosphere that reduces the use of pornographic materials among adolescents. It sheds light on designing early prevention programs on pornography consumption for young people in Hong Kong. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  7. Physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Latham, Melissa D; Cook, Nina; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Kettle, Jonathan W L; Schwartz, Orli; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images. Adolescent participants did not exhibit fear-potentiated startle blink. However, they did display affect-consistent zygomatic and corrugator activity during reactivity, as well as inhibition of some of these facial patterns during regulation. Skin conductance demonstrated arousal dependent activity during reactivity, and overall decreases during regulation. These findings suggest that early adolescents display reactivity to valenced pictures, but not to startle probes. Psychophysiological patterns during emotion regulation indicate additional effort and/or attention during the regulation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…

  9. The Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale for adolescents: Cross-Sample Validation of the Complete and Brief Versions.

    PubMed

    Vagos, Paula; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Brazão, Nélio; Rijo, Daniel; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-05-01

    This work presents psychometric analyses on the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale, which intends to evaluate the subjective perception of ones' early rearing experiences. Factor structure, measurement invariance, latent mean comparisons and validity in relation to external variables (i.e., forms of self-criticism/self-assurance, experiential avoidance and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms) were investigated. A sample of 1464 adolescents (52.3% male adolescents, mean age = 16.16, standard deviation = 1.51) was used, including 1064 participants recruited from schools, 192 participants recruited from foster care facilities and 208 boys recruited from juvenile justice facilities. A shortened version of the scale was also developed and subjected to the same psychometric analyses. A one-factor measurement model was a good fit for the data taken from both the complete and brief versions of the instrument. Such measures showed to be internally consistent with alpha values higher than 0.89. Evidence for their construct validity in relation to external variables was also found, with correlation values ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the complete version and from 0.18 to 0.44 for the brief version of the instrument. The brief version was the only one proving to be gender and sample invariant. Boys and girls scored similarly in their account of early memories, whereas community boys presented significantly higher scores when compared with referred and detained boys. Thus, the brief version of the instrument may be an appropriate alternative for use with diverse adolescent samples and may serve to advance knowledge on how early experiences impact on psychopathological outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale (EMWSS), assessing early memories of warmth and safeness, was studied across community, referred for behavioural problems and detained Portuguese adolescent samples. A brief version of this

  10. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Campo, John V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide in elementary school–aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school–aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. METHODS: We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5–11 years and 12–14 years) were conducted by using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school–aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. PMID:27647716

  12. Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Joanne B; Arseneault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-01-01

    Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of childhood maltreatment requires clarification in order to inform the design of future studies investigating the mental health consequences of maltreatment. The present study assessed agreement between prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment, as well as the comparative utility of both reports for predicting a range of psychiatric problems at age 18. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative birth cohort of 2232 children followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). Childhood maltreatment was assessed in two ways: (i) prospective informant-reports from caregivers, researchers, and clinicians when children were aged 5, 7, 10 and 12; and (ii) retrospective self-reports of maltreatment experiences occurring up to age 12, obtained at age 18 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants were privately interviewed at age 18 concerning several psychiatric problems including depression, anxiety, self-injury, alcohol/cannabis dependence, and conduct disorder. There was only slight to fair agreement between prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment (all Kappa's ≤ 0.31). Both prospective and retrospective reports of maltreatment were associated with age-18 psychiatric problems, though the strongest associations were found when maltreatment was retrospectively self-reported. These findings indicate that prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment capture largely non-overlapping groups of individuals. Young adults who recall being maltreated have a particularly elevated risk for psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  13. Early Intervention To Help Parents Manage Behavioural and Emotional Problems in Early Adolescents: What Parents Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Alan; Toumbourou, John Winston; Grigg, Morgen; Mulcahy, Rhiannon; Carr-Gregg, Michael; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2003-01-01

    Parents of 468 children aged between 12 and 14 participated in a survey of early adolescent behavior. Major undesirable behaviors experienced by parents were fighting with siblings, talking back to adults, moodiness, and school difficulties. Findings are discussed in the context of the challenge of designing and delivering effective early…

  14. Early Childhood Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use during Early Adolescence: Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alfred S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Gathered substance use histories from African American male (n=318) and female (n=322) adolescents to determine whether gender differences affected early life risk factors for drug use or abuse. Family variables and subject behavior predicted degree of substance use and frequency of intoxication, but no risk factor applied to both genders. (SNR)

  15. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  16. Inattention/Overactivity Following Early Severe Institutional Deprivation: Presentation and Associations in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Rutter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the persistence and phenotypic presentation of inattention/overactivity (I/O) into early adolescence, in a sample of institution reared (IR) children adopted from Romania before the age of 43 months. Total sample comprised 144 IR and 21 non-IR Romanian adoptees, and a comparison group of 52 within-UK adoptees, assessed…

  17. Conceptual Foundations and Components of a Contextual Intervention to Promote Student Engagement during Early Adolescence: The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Hall, Cristin M.; Murray, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research indicate that many early adolescents are at risk for developing significant school adjustment problems in the academic, behavioral, and social domains during the transition to middle school. The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) model has been developed as a professional development and…

  18. Insomnia is Associated with Cortical Hyperarousal as Early as Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fang, Jidong; Gaines, Jordan; Calhoun, Susan L.; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15–35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. Methods: A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15–25 Hz) and high-beta (25–35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Results: Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J, Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fang J, Gaines J, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia is associated with cortical hyperarousal as early as adolescence. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1029–1036. PMID:26951400

  19. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Developmental Psychopathology: A Systematic Review on Early Psychosis, Autism, and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Maria; Ciappolino, Valentina; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Tesei, Alessandra; Turolo, Stefano; Crippa, Alessandro; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Altamura, Carlo A.; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field. Heterogeneity in study designs will be discussed in the light of differences in results and interpretation of studies carried out so far. PMID:29207548

  20. Interactions between empathy and resting heart rate in early adolescence predict violent behavior in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2017-12-01

    Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood. Controlling for child ethnicity, family income, and child antisocial behavior at age 12, empathy inversely predicted moral disengagement and juvenile petitions for violent crimes, while RHR was unrelated to all measures of violent behavior. Interactive effects were also evident such that among men with lower but not higher levels of RHR, lower empathy predicted increased violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile arrests for violent offenses, peer-reported violent behavior at age 17, self-reported moral disengagement at age 17, and self-reported violent behavior at age 20. Implications for prevention and intervention are considered. Specifically, targeting empathic skills among individuals at risk for violent behavior because of specific psychophysiological profiles may lead to more impactful interventions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Delinquent-oriented attitudes mediate the relation between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behavior.

    PubMed

    Halgunseth, Linda C; Perkins, Daniel F; Lippold, Melissa A; Nix, Robert L

    2013-04-01

    Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in sixth grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by seventh grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by eighth grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Delinquent-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relation Between Parental Inconsistent Discipline and Early Adolescent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924

  3. Insomnia is Associated with Cortical Hyperarousal as Early as Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Li, Yun; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fang, Jidong; Gaines, Jordan; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-05-01

    To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15-35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample. A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15-25 Hz) and high-beta (25-35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration. Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  5. The Early Identity Exploration Scale—a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance. PMID:25983707

  6. Incentive effect on inhibitory control in adolescents with early-life stress: an antisaccade study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Hardin, Michael G; Korelitz, Katherine; Daniele, Teresa; Bemis, Jessica; Dozier, Mary; Peloso, Elizabeth; Maheu, Francoise S; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2012-03-01

    Early-life stress (ES) such as adoption, change of caregiver, or experience of emotional neglect may influence the way in which affected individuals respond to emotional stimuli of positive or negative valence. These modified responses may stem from a direct alteration of how emotional stimuli are coded, and/or the cognitive function implicated in emotion modulation, such as self-regulation or inhibition. These ES effects have been probed on tasks either targeting reward and inhibitory function. Findings revealed deficits in both reward processing and inhibitory control in ES youths. However, no work has yet examined whether incentives can improve automatic response or inhibitory control in ES youths. To determine whether incentives would only improve self-regulated voluntary actions or generalize to automated motoric responses, participants were tested on a mixed eye movement task that included reflex-like prosaccades and voluntary controlled antisaccade eye movements. Seventeen adopted children (10 females, mean age 11.3 years) with a documented history of neglect and 29 typical healthy youths (16 females, mean age 11.9 years) performed the mixed prosaccade/antisaccade task during monetary incentive conditions or during no-incentive conditions. Across both saccade types, ES adolescents responded more slowly than controls. As expected, control participants committed fewer errors on antisaccades during the monetary incentive condition relative to the no-incentive condition. By contrast, ES youths failed to show this incentive-related improvement on inhibitory control. No significant incentive effects were found with prepotent prosaccades trials in either group. Finally, co-morbid psychopathology did not modulate the findings. These data suggest that youths with experience of early stress exhibit deficient modulation of inhibitory control by reward processes, in tandem with a reward-independent deficit in preparation for both automatic and controlled responses

  7. Energy drink consumption in children and early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Vinelli, Angela; Lazzarin, Gianna; Terraneo, Alberto; Scafato, Emauele; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of energy drink consumption in children and very young adolescents and to study the sociodemographic and environmental-behavioral factors associated with regular, at least once a week, energy drink consumption in early adolescence. This survey was conducted during the 2011-2012 school year in the Province of Rovigo, in the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy), and involved a sample of 916 students. The usage of energy drinks increased significantly with age, from 17.8 % among sixth graders to 56.2 % among eighth graders. Among the male student population, 16.5 % of those in the eighth grade and 6.21 % of those in the sixth grade, respectively, drank them at least once a week. The independent variables conferring a higher likelihood of being at least once-a-week energy drink consumers were smoking and alcohol consumption. Awareness of the damage caused by energy drinks emerged as a protective factor that reduced the likelihood of young students consuming such drinks. This study showed that energy drink consumption is rising steadily in children and early adolescents. Energy drink consumption was found associated with the abuse of other substances, such as tobacco and alcohol.

  8. Early Predictors of Hypertension in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vohr, Betty R.; Allan, Walter; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the blood pressure of former preterm and term matched adolescent controls, and identify risk factors associated with blood pressure at 16 years. Design Observational cohort study. Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Setting Three academic centers participating in the Multicenter Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial. Participants 296 children born in 1989–1992 with birth weights 600- <1250g who participated in the Multicenter Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial and 95 term controls were evaluated at 16 years. Main Outcome Measures Blood pressure and predictors of blood pressure. Results The adjusted mean difference in blood pressure for preterm adolescents was 5.1 mm Hg; p=0.002 for systolic and 2.1 mm Hg; p=0.027 for diastolic blood pressure. Among preterms, the primary predictors of increased systolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months (b=8.54, p<.001), preeclampsia (b=5.67, p=0.020), non-white race (b=3.77, p=0.04) and male gender (b=5.09). Predictors of diastolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months, (b=4.69, p=0.001, brain injury (b=6.51, p=0.002 and male gender (b=−2.4, p=0.02). Conclusions Early programming secondary to increased early weight gain velocity, intrauterine stress and neonatal brain injury may all contribute to risk of increased blood pressure among former preterm adolescents. PMID:20586997

  9. Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation and early detection of problematic Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Braña Tobío, Teresa; Varela Mallou, Jesús; Barreiro Couto, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use in adolescents has become an issue of concern for a growing number of researchers and institutions over the past years. Behavioural problems, social isolation, school failure and family problems are some of the consequences of psychological and behavioural impact on teenagers. Taking into account the interest that this issue has generated at many levels, the aim of this paper is to develop a screening tool for early detection of problematic Internet use in teenagers. A survey of Compulsory Secondary School students from Galicia involving a total of 2,339 individuals was carried out. The results obtained allow (1) gauging the magnitude of the problem, establishing the risk levels among the adolescents, and (2) presenting a new, simple and short screening instrument. The present scale has sufficient theoretical and empirical support, including good psychometric properties (a = .83; specificity = .81; sensitivity = .80; ROC curve = .90), making it an interesting applied tool.

  11. International epidemiology of child and adolescent psychopathology ii: integration and applications of dimensional findings from 44 societies.

    PubMed

    Rescorla, Leslie; Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Begovac, Ivan; Chahed, Myriam; Drugli, May Britt; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Fung, Daniel S S; Haider, Mariam; Hansson, Kjell; Hewitt, Nohelia; Jaimes, Stefanny; Larsson, Bo; Maggiolini, Alfio; Marković, Jasminka; Mitrović, Dragan; Moreira, Paulo; Oliveira, João Tiago; Olsson, Martin; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Petot, Djaouida; Pisa, Cecilia; Pomalima, Rolando; da Rocha, Marina Monzani; Rudan, Vlasta; Sekulić, Slobodan; Shahini, Mimoza; de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges Ferreira; Szirovicza, Lajos; Valverde, José; Vera, Luis Anderssen; Villa, Maria Clara; Viola, Laura; Woo, Bernardine S C; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing

    2012-12-01

    To build on Achenbach, Rescorla, and Ivanova (2012) by (a) reporting new international findings for parent, teacher, and self-ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Teacher's Report Form; (b) testing the fit of syndrome models to new data from 17 societies, including previously underrepresented regions; (c) testing effects of society, gender, and age in 44 societies by integrating new and previous data; (d) testing cross-society correlations between mean item ratings; (e) describing the construction of multisociety norms; (f) illustrating clinical applications. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of parent, teacher, and self-ratings, performed separately for each society; tests of societal, gender, and age effects on dimensional syndrome scales, DSM-oriented scales, Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales; tests of agreement between low, medium, and high ratings of problem items across societies. CFAs supported the tested syndrome models in all societies according to the primary fit index (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA]), but less consistently according to other indices; effect sizes were small-to-medium for societal differences in scale scores, but very small for gender, age, and interactions with society; items received similarly low, medium, or high ratings in different societies; problem scores from 44 societies fit three sets of multisociety norms. Statistically derived syndrome models fit parent, teacher, and self-ratings when tested individually in all 44 societies according to RMSEAs (but less consistently according to other indices). Small to medium differences in scale scores among societies supported the use of low-, medium-, and high-scoring norms in clinical assessment of individual children. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychopathology and friendship in children and adolescents: disentangling the role of co-occurring symptom domains with serial mediation models.

    PubMed

    Manfro, Arthur Gus; Pan, Pedro M; Gadelha, Ary; Fleck, Marcelo; do Rosário, Maria C; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Affonseca-Bressan, Rodrigo; Mari, Jair; Miguel, Euripedes C; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-11-01

    The consolidation of social friendship groups is a vital part of human development. The objective of this study is to understand the direct and indirect influences of three major symptomatic domains-emotional, hyperkinetic, and conduct-on friendship. Specifically, we aim to study if the associations of one domain with friendship may be mediated by co-occurring symptoms from another domain. A total of 2512 subjects aged 6-14 years participated in this study. Friendship was evaluated by the Development and Well-Being Assessment's friendship section. We evaluated two main constructs as outcomes: (1) social isolation and (2) friendship latent construct. Emotional, hyperkinetic, and conduct symptomatic domains were evaluated with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). All SDQ domains were positively associated with social isolation and negatively associated with friendship latent construct in univariate analysis. However, serial mediation models showed that the association between conduct domains with social isolation was mediated by emotion and hyperkinetic domains. Moreover, the associations between emotional and hyperkinetic domains with friendship latent construct in non-isolated children were mediated by the conduct domain. Emotion and hyperkinetic domains were directly and indirectly associated with social isolation, whereas conduct was directly and indirectly associated with overall friendship in non-isolated children. Results suggest that interventions aimed to improve social life in childhood and adolescence may have stronger effects if directed towards the treatment of emotion and hyperkinetic symptoms in socially isolated children and directed towards the treatment of conduct symptoms in children with fragile social connections.

  13. Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p < .001) in birth rates were observed across demographic characteristics, maltreatment history, and foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Validation of a Decision Tool for Early Identification of Adult Patients with Severe and Complex Eating Disorder Psychopathology in Need of Highly Specialized Care.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Goorden, Maartje; Lötters, Freek J B; Bouwmans, Clazien; Danner, Unna N; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Furth, Eric F; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2017-09-01

    Patients with complex and severe eating disorders often receive a number of ineffective or/and insufficient treatments. Direct referral of these patients to highly specialized tertiary treatment facilities in an earlier stage of the disorder is likely to be more (cost)-effective. The aim of the study was to develop a decision tool that aids clinicians in early identification of these patients. After identification of criteria that were indicative of severity and complexity of eating disorder psychopathology by means of a systematic review of literature and consultation of a focus group, a Delphi method was applied to obtain consensus from experts on the list of relevant criteria. Finally, the decision tool was validated in clinical practice, and cut-off criteria were established. The tool demonstrated good feasibility and validity to identify patients for highly specialized tertiary care. The final decision tool consisted of five criteria that can easily be implemented in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. 5HTT genotype moderates the influence of early institutional deprivation on emotional problems in adolescence: evidence from the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study.

    PubMed

    Kumsta, Robert; Stevens, Suzanne; Brookes, Keeley; Schlotz, Wolff; Castle, Jenny; Beckett, Celia; Kreppner, Jana; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2010-07-01

    A common polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5HTT) has been repeatedly shown to moderate the influence of childhood adversity and stressful life events on the development of psychopathology. Using data from the English and Romanian Adoptee Study, a prospective-longitudinal study of individuals (n = 125) exposed to severe early institutional deprivation (ID), we tested whether the effect of ID on adolescent emotional problems is moderated by 5HTT genotype and stressful life events in adolescence. Emotional problems were assessed using questionnaire data (age 11), and on the basis of the CAPA diagnostic interview (age 15). Additionally, the number of stressful life events was measured. There was a significant effect for genotype (p = .003) and a gene x environment interaction (p = .008) that was independent of age at testing. Carriers of the s/l and s/s genotype who experienced severe ID showed the highest emotional problem scores, while l/l homozygotes in the severe ID group showed the lowest overall levels. Furthermore, s/s carriers in the severe ID group who experienced a high number of stressful life events between 11 and 15 years had the largest increases in emotional problem scores, while a low number of stressful life events was associated with the largest decrease (4-way interaction: p = .05). The effects of severe early ID on emotional problems in adolescence are moderated by 5HTT genotype, and influenced by stressful life events in adolescence.

  16. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  17. Course of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder From Early Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyon-Harris, Katherine L; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2018-05-01

    Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) is poorly understood beyond early childhood. The course of DSED signs in a sample of children who experienced severe, early deprivation from early childhood to early adolescence was examined using variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. The study included 124 children with a history of institutional care from a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care and 69 community comparison children matched by age and sex. DSED signs were assessed at baseline (mean age 22 months), 30, 42, and 54 months of age, and 8 and 12 years of age using a validated caregiver report of disturbed attachment behavior. Variable-centered analyses based on intent-to-treat groups indicated that signs of DSED decreased sharply for children randomized to foster care and decreased slightly but remained high for children randomized to care as usual. Person-centered analyses showed 4 profiles (i.e., elevated, persistent modest, early decreasing, and minimal). Elevated and persistent modest courses were associated with greater placement disruptions (F 3,99  = 4.29, p = .007, partial eta-squared [η 2 ] = 0.12), older age at placement into foster care (F 3,56  = 3.41, p < .05, partial η 2  = 0.16), and more time in institutional care (F 3,115  = 11.91, p < .001, partial η 2  = 0.24) compared with decreasing and minimal courses. Early and sustained placement into families after deprivation is associated with minimal or decreasing signs of DSED across development. Shortening the amount of time children spend in institutions and preserving placements could help decrease signs of DSED into early adolescence in previously institutionalized children. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Future in psychopathology research.

    PubMed

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  19. Reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol outcome expectancies in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Read, Jennifer P

    2012-03-01

    Little research has examined the development of alcohol expectancies in childhood, a notable omission as expectancies are viable targets for prevention programs. Moreover, limited alcohol expectancies research has been conducted from the perspective of psychobiological models of motivation despite the strong conceptual links between such models and cognitive models of alcohol use. To examine if the associations between individual differences from the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray JA, McNaughton N. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-hippocampal System (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000) and alcohol use is mediated by alcohol expectancies in a large community sample of early adolescents using a prospective design. 378 families (1 caregiver; 1 child) were recruited via random digit phone call using a prospective design. Our findings suggest that both a strong behavioral approach system and fight-flight or freeze system were associated with high levels of positive outcome expectancies, which subsequently predicted an increase in likelihood of alcohol use. There was also some evidence that drive (an aspect of behavioral approach system) was also positively associated with negative expectancies, which subsequently predicted a low probability of alcohol use. Individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity may influence the acquisition of positive and negative outcome expectancies, thereby potentially influencing the likelihood of alcohol use in early adolescence. Thus, reinforcement sensitivity theory is a promising theory to account for the link between neural models of addiction and early acquisition of alcohol use in humans.

  20. Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.

  1. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  2. Ability of the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile and the Youth Self Report-Dysregulation Profile to identify serious psychopathology and association with correlated problems in high-risk children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dölitzsch, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc

    2016-11-15

    The current analyses examined whether the dysregulation profile (DP) 1) could be used to identify children and adolescents at high risk for complex and serious psychopathology and 2) was correlated to other emotional and behavioral problems (such as delinquent behavior or suicide ideation). DP was assessed using both the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self Report (YSR) in a residential care sample. Children and adolescents (N=374) aged 10-18 years living in residential care in Switzerland completed the YSR, and their professional caregivers completed the CBCL. Participants meeting criteria for DP (T-score ≥67 on the anxious/‌depressed, attention problems, and aggressive behavior scales of the YSR/CBCL) were compared against those who did not for the presence of complex psychopathology (defined as the presence of both emotional and behavioral disorders), and also for the prevalence of several psychiatric diagnoses, suicidal ideation, traumatic experiences, delinquent behaviors, and problems related to quality of life. The diagnostic criteria for CBCL-DP and YSR-DP were met by just 44 (11.8%) and 25 (6.7%) of participants. Only eight participants (2.1%) met the criteria on both instruments. Further analyses were conducted separately for the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP groups. DP was associated with complex psychopathology in only 34.4% of cases according to CBCL and in 60% of cases according to YSR. YSR-DP was somewhat more likely to be associated with psychiatric disorders and associated problems than was the CBCL-DP. Because of the relatively small overlap between the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP, analyses were conducted largely with different samples, likely contributing to the different results. Despite a high rate of psychopathology in the population studied, both the YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP were able to detect only a small proportion of those with complex psychiatric disorders. This result questions the validity of YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP in detecting subjects

  3. Self-esteem in Early Adolescence as Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Motivational and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J

    2018-05-01

    Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.

  4. Perception of body image in early adolescence. An investigation in secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2017-09-01

    Raiting Scale test both males and females want to be of lesser weight. 91 subjects reached a BSQ test score of over 34, so most of the sample has a strong concern for their physical appearance. The results obtained by administering the BUT test also highlighted concern about the body with moderate gravity. Body dissatisfaction, as so many studies have confirmed, can be considered a precursor of psychopathology. Concerns concern both female gender and male gender. It is also necessary to pay close attention to the pressure exerted by family members, friends and the media towards a difficult to reach thinness ideal. That is why we need to focus on strengthening protective factors in adolescents with prevention and awareness campaigns which are properly targeted. The work resulted a useful reflection on the building of the body image as an early risk factor for the onset of pathologies linked to this concept. We need to commit to an educative practice of support for adolescent, recognition and sharing, which does not avoid the presence of the adults, but in fact it is enriched. It would be appreciated if we could introduce in the school, in the program of different subjects, the discussion regarding different aspects of a healthy nutrition and the formation of a solid self-esteem in order, for the students, to have a critical interpretation of the media message on food, body and beauty. It is desirable to promote the emancipation of the adolescents from a condition of dependence to discover their own place in the world. The educative action can help developing the research of the meaning of the own personality.

  5. Amygdalo-cortical sprouting continues into early adulthood: implications for the development of normal and abnormal function during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Miles Gregory; Bhattacharyya, Sujoy; Benes, Francine Mary

    2002-11-11

    Adolescence is a critical stage for the development of emotional maturity and diverse forms of psychopathology. The posterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala is known to mediate fear and anxiety and is important in assigning emotional valence to cognitive processes. The medial prefrontal cortex, a homologue of the human anterior cingulate cortex, mediates emotional, attentional, and motivational behaviors at the cortical level. We postulate that the development of connectivity between these two corticolimbic regions contributes to an enhanced integration of emotion and cognition during the postnatal period. In order to characterize the development of this relay, injections of the anterograde tracer biocytin were stereotaxically placed within the posterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala of rats at successive postnatal time points (postnatal days 6-120). Labeled fibers in the medial prefrontal cortex were evaluated using a combination of brightfield, confocal, and electron microscopy. We found that the density of labeled fibers originating from the posterior basolateral nucleus shows a sharp curvilinear increase within layers II and V of the anterior cingulate cortex and the infralimbic subdivisions of medial prefrontal cortex during the late postweanling period. This increase was paralleled by a linear rise in the number of axospinous and axodendritic synapses present in the neuropil. Based on these results, we propose that late maturation of amygdalo-cortical connectivity may provide an anatomical basis for the development and integration of normal and possibly abnormal emotional behavior during adolescence and early adulthood. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

  8. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  9. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  10. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  11. Gender Differential Influences of Early Adolescent Risk Factors for the Development of Depressive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmler, Mark; Petersen, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on a model by Cyranowski, J., et al. (2000), Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 21-27, adolescents at-risk for the development of depressive symptoms were identified. Adolescents were considered at-risk if they had 2 or more of the following early adolescent risk factors: (1) insecure parental attachment, (2) anxious/inhibited temperament, (3) low…

  12. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  13. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  14. Educational Paths and Substance Use from Adolescence into Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Charles B; White, Helene R; Haggerty, Kevin P; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-04-01

    This study examined how substance use trajectories from ages 15 to 23 in a community sample (N=921) were related to educational pathways. Rates of heavy drinking converged across different paths, but starting college at a 2-year college before transferring to a 4-year college was related to later increase in drinking after high school. Higher future educational attainment was negatively associated with high school marijuana use, but marijuana use increased after high school for individuals who went to 4-year colleges compared to those who did not. Noncollege youth had the highest rates of daily cigarette smoking throughout adolescence and early adulthood, while college dropouts had higher rates of smoking than college students who did not drop out. The findings support the need for universal prevention for early adult heavy drinking, addressing increases in drinking and marijuana use in 4-year colleges, and targeting marijuana use and cigarette smoking interventions at noncollege youth and college dropouts.

  15. Educational Paths and Substance Use from Adolescence into Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; White, Helene R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how substance use trajectories from ages 15 to 23 in a community sample (N=921) were related to educational pathways. Rates of heavy drinking converged across different paths, but starting college at a 2-year college before transferring to a 4-year college was related to later increase in drinking after high school. Higher future educational attainment was negatively associated with high school marijuana use, but marijuana use increased after high school for individuals who went to 4-year colleges compared to those who did not. Noncollege youth had the highest rates of daily cigarette smoking throughout adolescence and early adulthood, while college dropouts had higher rates of smoking than college students who did not drop out. The findings support the need for universal prevention for early adult heavy drinking, addressing increases in drinking and marijuana use in 4-year colleges, and targeting marijuana use and cigarette smoking interventions at noncollege youth and college dropouts. PMID:24403645

  16. Identification and prediction of drinking trajectories in early and mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A; Meeus, Wim H J; Deković, Maja; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger siblings). Latent Class Growth Analyses were performed to identify drinking trajectories. Four drinking trajectories emerged for early adolescents: abstainers, light drinkers, increasers, and heavy drinkers. For mid-adolescents, we identified a fifth group (stable drinkers) in addition to the four trajectories identified for early adolescents. Our results showed that being a boy, having a best friend or father who drinks heavily, and having parents who are permissive toward adolescents' alcohol creates increased risk for both siblings to attend the more heavy drinking trajectories.

  17. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Results Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in

  18. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  19. Trajectories of Change and Relationship between Parent-Adolescent School-Related Conflict and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita

    2014-01-01

    The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…

  20. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  1. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all p<0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3 to 28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all p<0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6 to 13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  2. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2012-07-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11-14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all P < 0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3-28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all P < 0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6-13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Father's and mother's perceptions of parenting styles as mediators of the effects of parental psychopathology on antisocial behavior in outpatient children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys). Parenting style had a mediating effect on the studied relationships. Maternal psychopathology was positively associated with antisocial behavior in children, either directly or partially by parenting style, while paternal psychopathology was positively associated with offspring antisocial behavior only through the mediator role of parenting style. Child's sex did not moderate these relationships. Parenting style could be a target for prevention and intervention of antisocial behavior in the offspring of parents with mental health problems.

  5. Are Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents Less Impairing Than ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders? Associations with Child Quality of Life and Parental Stress and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Telman, Liesbeth G E; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Maric, Marija; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-12-01

    We compared clinically referred children with anxiety disorders (AD; n = 63) to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 39), ADHD Combined (ADHD-C; n = 62), ADHD Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I; n = 64), and typically developing children (n = 42) on child quality of life (QOL), paternal and maternal psychopathology and parental stress. Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Multilevel analyses showed that QOL in AD was higher on school and social functioning, compared to respectively ADHD and ASD, and lower compared to normal controls on all five domains. Fathers reported their AD children higher QOL than mothers. Also, AD appeared to be associated with less parental stress and parental psychopathology than other child psychopathology. Therefore, parental factors may need to be considered more in treatment of children with ADHD/ASD than AD.

  6. Construction of Social Reality during Early Adolescence: Can Expecting Storm and Stress Increase Real or Perceived Storm and Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy M.; Hughes, Johna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether mothers' or adolescents' expectations concerning "storm and stress" behaviors at adolescence predict subsequent real or perceived adolescent behavior and attributes during the early years of adolescence. The study used a short-term longitudinal design. Participants were 6th- and 7th-grade adolescents and their mothers…

  7. Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

  8. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  9. Are There Gendered Pathways to Intimacy in Early Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Friendships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radmacher, Kimberley; Azmitia, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    Two studies addressed age- and gender-related patterns in early adolescents' and emerging adults' conceptions of intimacy in friendships. Forty-one early adolescents and 96 emerging adults in Study 1 and 174 emerging adults in Study 2 described a time when they felt especially close to a friend. Narratives were coded for intimate behaviors and…

  10. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  11. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Early Adolescents' Social Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…

  12. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  13. Interparental Conflict and Early Adolescents' Aggression: Is Irregular Sleep a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemola, Sakari; Schwarz, Beate; Siffert, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether (a) short and irregular sleep are related to aggressive behavior in early adolescence and (b) whether they moderate the relation between interparental conflict and aggressive behavior. 176 early adolescents (mean age 11.6 years, 89 girls) reported their bed and wake times on weekdays and on weekends and their aggressive…

  14. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  15. Distress and Violent Victimization among Young Adolescents: Early Puberty and the Social Interactionist Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Christopher J.; Burek, Melissa W.; Stewart, Eric A.; Miller, J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the empirical validity of the Social Interactionist (SI) perspective as an explanation of violent victimization. An additional goal is to explain why early puberty among adolescents is connected to violent victimization. Using SI, we theorize that early puberty creates unusually high levels of distress for adolescents (more…

  16. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  17. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  18. Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

  19. Middle Grades' School Models and Their Impact on Early Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…

  20. External validity of a hierarchical dimensional model of child and adolescent psychopathology: Tests using confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate behavior genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Irwin D; Poore, Holly E; van Hulle, Carol; Rathouz, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2016-11-01

    Several recent studies of the hierarchical phenotypic structure of psychopathology have identified a General psychopathology factor in addition to the more expected specific Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions in both youth and adult samples and some have found relevant unique external correlates of this General factor. We used data from 1,568 twin pairs (599 MZ & 969 DZ) age 9 to 17 to test hypotheses for the underlying structure of youth psychopathology and the external validity of the higher-order factors. Psychopathology symptoms were assessed via structured interviews of caretakers and youth. We conducted phenotypic analyses of competing structural models using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and used Structural Equation Modeling and multivariate behavior genetic analyses to understand the etiology of the higher-order factors and their external validity. We found that both a General factor and specific Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions are necessary for characterizing youth psychopathology at both the phenotypic and etiologic levels, and that the 3 higher-order factors differed substantially in the magnitudes of their underlying genetic and environmental influences. Phenotypically, the specific Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions were slightly negatively correlated when a General factor was included, which reflected a significant inverse correlation between the nonshared environmental (but not genetic) influences on Internalizing and Externalizing. We estimated heritability of the general factor of psychopathology for the first time. Its moderate heritability suggests that it is not merely an artifact of measurement error but a valid construct. The General, Externalizing, and Internalizing factors differed in their relations with 3 external validity criteria: mother's smoking during pregnancy, parent's harsh discipline, and the youth's association with delinquent peers. Multivariate behavior genetic analyses supported the external validity

  1. Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C

    2001-01-01

    In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events

  2. Views of Adolescent Female Youth on Physical Activity During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yungblut, Hope E.; Schinke, Robert J.; McGannon, Kerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes. Key points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the study. Inductive qualitative methodologies can encourage the much-needed voice of female youth in sport and physical activity research. Vignettes serve, not only as a method to illustrate data, but also as a medium to teach contextually relevant information to participants and sport science service providers. The barriers and solutions to female youth engagement in physical activity are best understood through the perspectives of the intended participant. Female youth can serve as central informants in the development and analysis of research projects relating to female youth physical activity. PMID:24149121

  3. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Selective early-acquired fear memories undergo temporary suppression during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Bath, Kevin G.; Casey, B. J.; Ninan, Ipe; Lee, Francis S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly conserved neural circuitry between rodents and humans has allowed for in-depth characterization of behavioral and molecular processes associated with emotional learning and memory. Despite increased prevalence of affective disorders in adolescent humans, few studies have characterized how associative-emotional learning changes during the transition through adolescence or identified mechanisms underlying such changes. By examining fear conditioning in mice, as they transitioned into and out of adolescence, we found that a suppression of contextual fear occurs during adolescence. Although contextual fear memories were not expressed during early adolescence, they could be retrieved and expressed as the mice transitioned out of adolescence. This temporary suppression of contextual fear was associated with blunted synaptic activity in the basal amygdala and decreased PI3K and MAPK signaling in the hippocampus. These findings reveal a unique form of brain plasticity in fear learning during early adolescence and may prove informative for understanding endogenous mechanisms to suppress unwanted fear memories. PMID:21220344

  5. Early and middle adolescents' disclosure to parents about activities in different domains.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Villalobos, Myriam; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Gettman, Denise C; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2009-06-01

    Disclosure, disclosure strategies, and justifications for nondisclosure for prudential, peer, multifaceted, and personal acts were assessed using a sorting task with 118 lower-middle class early and middle adolescents (Ms=12.77 and 15.68 years). Adolescents were less involved in prudential than other behaviors, although prudential behavior was greater among middle than early adolescents; adolescents disclosed more about prudential and personal than multifaceted and peer behaviors. Nondisclosure was primarily due to concerns about parental disapproval (for prudential acts), claims that acts were personal or not harmful (for personal acts), and their mixture (for peer and multifaceted acts). When concerned about parental disapproval, older adolescents fully disclosed less (and lied somewhat more) than younger adolescents, whereas adolescents primarily avoided discussing the issue when they viewed acts as personal. Full disclosure was associated with better relationships with parents and less depressed mood; lying was associated with more parental behavioral control over personal issues and poorer relationships with fathers.

  6. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Chloe E; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah A; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C

    2017-01-26

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O'ahu, Hawai'i ( n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  7. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    PubMed Central

    Panizza, Chloe E.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa; Banna, Jinan C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR). Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted). Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%). Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216) at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents. PMID:28134757

  8. Life satisfaction and maladaptive behaviors in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  10. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age = 11.3) and their parents (912 mothers, 647 fathers) randomly selected from 28 rural/small town communities. Results indicated that depressed and comorbid groups were associated with significantly lower parenting quality and higher parent psychopathology compared to the nonelevated and anxious groups. This pattern was generally consistent across reporters (youth, mother, and father) and four domains of or related to parenting (support/warmth, conflict/anger, general child management (GCM), and parent psychopathology). Results highlight the importance of accounting for comorbidity when examining relationships between psychopathology symptoms and related variables such as parenting. Implications include the need to address relationships with parents when intervening with youth at risk for or experiencing elevated depressive symptoms. PMID:24027352

  11. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  12. Psychopathology in Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Peltoniemi, Rosa E.

    Refugees, like most other migrants, are at increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. This paper documents the relationship between refugee migration and psychopathology by reviewing pertinent epidemiological, clinical, and survey studies from the refugee literature. The picture that emerges shows consistently increased levels of serious…

  13. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    PubMed

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  14. Determinants of tobacco-related health literacy: A qualitative study with early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parisod, Heidi; Axelin, Anna; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna

    2016-10-01

    Today's adolescents are used to a constant information flow, but many face difficulties in processing health-related information due to low health literacy. There is still need for deeper understanding on the determinants of health literacy in relation to adolescents to guide the development of health literacy instruments and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore, from the perspective of early adolescents, the determinants of health literacy in the context of tobacco-related health communication. A qualitative descriptive study. Two schools located in the south of Finland. One school represented a typical Finnish public school with students following general curriculum and the other represented a Finnish public school with students with special educational needs. Purposively selected sample of 10-13-year-old early adolescents (n=39) from the two schools to obtain a varied group of early adolescents representing different kinds of literacy levels. We conducted 10 focus groups with early adolescents and analyzed the data using the theoretical thematic analysis method. We used a combination of the determinants presented in three