Caldas, Stephen J.
In the emerging tradition of language socialization research, this study examines the changing bilingual self-perceptions of three children, identical twin girls and their older brother, from early adolescence through early adulthood. The children were reared in a predominantly French-speaking home in south Louisiana by French/English bilingual…
Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang
Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…
Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II
Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…
Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method: Participants were young people with a…
Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L
Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew
Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology. PMID:27418713
Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.
Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…
Doyle, L; Faber, B; Callanan, C; Ford, G; Davis, N
Aims: To determine the body size of extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight 500–999 g) subjects in early adulthood. Methods: Cohort study examining the height and weight of 42 ELBW survivors free of cerebral palsy between birth and 20 years of age. Weight and height measurements were converted to Z (SD) scores. Results: At birth the subjects had weight Z scores substantially below zero (mean birth weight Z score -0.90, 95% CI -1.25 to -0.54), and had been lighter than average at ages 2, 5, and 8 years. However, by 14, and again at 20 years of age their weight Z scores were not significantly different from zero. At ages 2, 5, 8, 14, and 20 years of age their height Z scores were significantly below zero. Their height at 20 years of age was, however, consistent with their parents' height. As a group they were relatively heavy for their height and their mean body mass index (BMI) Z score was almost significantly different from zero (mean difference 0.42, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.84). Their mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.0 (SD 5.2); 14 had a BMI >25, and four had a BMI >30. Conclusions: Despite their early small size, by early adulthood the ELBW subjects had attained an average weight, and their height was consistent with their parents' height. They were, however, relatively heavy for their height. PMID:15033844
Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.
Objectives. We investigated prospective associations among assets (e.g., family communication), which research has shown to protect youths from risk behavior, and successful transition to early adulthood (STEA). Methods. We included participants (n = 651) aged 18 years and older at study wave 5 (2007–2008) of the Youth Asset Study, in the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, metro area, in the analyses. We categorized 14 assets into individual-, family-, or community-level groups. We included asset groups assessed at wave 1 (2003–2004) in linear regression analyses to predict STEA 4 years later at wave 5. Results. Individual- and community-level assets significantly (P < .05) predicted STEA 4 years later and the associations were generally linear, indicating that the more assets participants possessed the better the STEA outcome. There was a gender interaction for family-level assets suggesting that family-level assets were significant predictors of STEA for males but not for females. Conclusions. Public health programming should focus on community- and family-level youth assets as well as individual-level youth assets to promote positive health outcomes in early adulthood. PMID:25393188
John-Henderson, Neha A.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.
Objective Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean Intima-Media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Methods Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean age: 42.8 years [SD=7.3]). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Results Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β=0.08, t(447)=2.13, p=0.034, R2=0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and EMA reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001, 95% CI, 0.0001–0.0014 and β=0.001, 95% CI, 0.0002–0.0015, respectively). Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions. PMID:26809109
Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.
This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…
Vernie, Lenneke A.; Rothova, Aniki; v. d. Doe, Patricia; Los, Leonoor I.; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; de Boer, Joke H.
Background Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as ‘JIA-uveitis’) has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyze uveitis activity, complications and visual prognosis in adulthood. Methods In this multicenter study, 67 adult patients (129 affected eyes) with JIA-uveitis were retrospectively studied for best corrected visual acuity, visual fields, uveitis activity, topical/systemic treatments, ocular complications, and ocular surgeries during their 18th, 22nd and 30th year of life. Because treatment strategies changed after the year 1990, outcomes were stratified for onset of uveitis before and after 1990. Results Sixty-two of all 67 included patients (93%) had bilateral uveitis. During their 18th life year, 4/52 patients (8%) had complete remission, 28/52 (54%) had uveitis activity and 37/51 patients (73%) were on systemic immunomodulatory treatment. Bilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 2/51 patients (4%); unilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 17/51 patients (33%) aged 18 years. The visual prognosis appeared to be slightly better for patients with uveitis onset after the year 1990 (for uveitis onset before 1990 (n = 7) four patients (58%) and for uveitis onset after 1990 (n = 44) 13 patients (30%) were either visual impaired or blind). At least one ocular surgery was performed in 10/24 patients (42%) between their 18th and 22nd year of life. Conclusions Bilateral visual outcome in early adulthood in patients with JIA-uveitis appears to be fairly good, although one third of the patients developed one visually impaired or blind eye. However, a fair amount of the patients suffered from ongoing uveitis activity and needed ongoing treatment as well as surgical interventions. Awareness of these findings is important for ophthalmologists and
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…
Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…
Gilman, Amanda B.; Hill, Karl G.; Kim, B.K. Elizabeth; Nevell, Alyssa; Hawkins, J. David; Farrington, David P.
Background There has been very little research examining criminal careers in adulthood using both self-report data and official records. Aims The aims of this paper are to use self-reports and official criminal records to explore (1) the prevalences and frequencies of offending behaviour in adulthood; (2) continuity in offending behaviour across the life course; and (3) predictors of official court charges in adulthood. Method Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a longitudinal study of 808 participants followed from childhood into early adulthood. Data from ages 21 through 33 are used to examine criminal careers. Results Prevalences of offending behaviour decreased with age, while frequency among offenders remained stable or increased. There was significant continuity in offending from adolescence to adulthood in both self-reports and official records, especially for violence. Violent offences were most likely to result in a court charge. Even after controlling for self-reported frequency of offending, demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and poverty) were significantly related to a court charge. Conclusions Self-report and official records, both separately and together, provide valuable information for understanding criminal careers in adulthood, especially with regard to offending continuity across the life course and predicting the likelihood of a court charge. PMID:25294157
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.
Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462
Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik
Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…
Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Purpose The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method Participants were young people with a history of LI and a comparison group of age-matched peers. Both groups were tested at ages 17 and 24 years. Participants completed measures of language ability, nonverbal IQ, shyness, global self-esteem, and (at age 24 years only) social self-efficacy. Results Young adults with LI scored lower than age-matched peers on self-esteem, higher on shyness, and lower on social self-efficacy (medium to large effect sizes). In line with expectations, in the group with LI, language ability in adolescence predicted shyness in young adulthood, which, in turn, was negatively associated with self-esteem. There was also a direct association between language ability in adolescence and self-esteem in young adulthood. Conclusions Young people with a history of LI are likely to be entering adulthood less socially confident than their peers. Interventions may be desirable for young adults with LI, and the present findings indicate social self-efficacy as a key area of social confidence that calls for practitioners' attention. PMID:28586830
Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary
Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Shaw, Daniel S.; Gilliam, Mary
Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys’ early-starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current paper reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from WIC centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood, and smaller cohorts of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, as well as court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in health care settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. PMID:28026042
Fleming, Charles B; White, Helene R; Haggerty, Kevin P; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F
This study examined how substance use trajectories from ages 15 to 23 in a community sample (N=921) were related to educational pathways. Rates of heavy drinking converged across different paths, but starting college at a 2-year college before transferring to a 4-year college was related to later increase in drinking after high school. Higher future educational attainment was negatively associated with high school marijuana use, but marijuana use increased after high school for individuals who went to 4-year colleges compared to those who did not. Noncollege youth had the highest rates of daily cigarette smoking throughout adolescence and early adulthood, while college dropouts had higher rates of smoking than college students who did not drop out. The findings support the need for universal prevention for early adult heavy drinking, addressing increases in drinking and marijuana use in 4-year colleges, and targeting marijuana use and cigarette smoking interventions at noncollege youth and college dropouts.
Fleming, Charles B.; White, Helene R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined how substance use trajectories from ages 15 to 23 in a community sample (N=921) were related to educational pathways. Rates of heavy drinking converged across different paths, but starting college at a 2-year college before transferring to a 4-year college was related to later increase in drinking after high school. Higher future educational attainment was negatively associated with high school marijuana use, but marijuana use increased after high school for individuals who went to 4-year colleges compared to those who did not. Noncollege youth had the highest rates of daily cigarette smoking throughout adolescence and early adulthood, while college dropouts had higher rates of smoking than college students who did not drop out. The findings support the need for universal prevention for early adult heavy drinking, addressing increases in drinking and marijuana use in 4-year colleges, and targeting marijuana use and cigarette smoking interventions at noncollege youth and college dropouts. PMID:24403645
Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.
A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…
Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910
Lahti, Jari; Raïkkönen, Katri; Sovio, Ulla; Miettunen, Jouko; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Taanila, Anja; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha
Although schizotypal traits, such as anhedonia and aberrant perceptions, may increase the risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, little is known about early-life characteristics that predict more pronounced schizotypal traits. To examine whether birth size or several other early-life factors that have been previously linked with schizophrenia predict schizotypal traits in adulthood. Participants of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (n = 4976) completed a questionnaire on positive and negative schizotypal traits at the age of 31 years. Lower placental weight, lower birth weight and smaller head circumference at 12 months predicted elevated positive schizotypal traits in women after adjusting for several confounders (P<0.02). Moreover, higher gestational age, lower childhood family socioeconomic status, undesirability of pregnancy, winter/autumn birth, higher birth order and maternal smoking during pregnancy predicted some augmented schizotypal traits in women, some in men and some in both genders. The results point to similarities in the aetiology of schitzotypal traits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, p<0.01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES=−0.30, p<0.01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES=−0.17, p<0.05), and simple phobia (ES=−0.17, p<0.05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, p<0.05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133
Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.; Czajkowski, N.; Ystrøm, E.; Ørstavik, R.; Aggen, S. H.; Tambs, K.; Torgersen, S.; Neale, M. C.; Røysamb, E.; Krueger, R. F.; Knudsen, G. P.; Kendler, K. S.
Background Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the temporal stability of these etiological factors in adulthood. Method DSM-IV criteria for ASPD and BPD were assessed using structured interviews in 2282 Norwegian twins in early adulthood and again approximately 10 years later. Longitudinal biometric models were used to analyze the number of endorsed criteria. Results The mean criterion count for ASPD and BPD decreased 40% and 28%, respectively, from early to middle adulthood. Rank-order stability was 0.58 for ASPD and 0.45 for BPD. The best-fitting longitudinal twin model included only genetic and individual-specific environmental factors. Genetic effects, both those shared by ASPD and BPD, and those specific to each disorder remained completely stable. The unique environmental effects, however, changed substantially, with a correlation across time of 0.19 for the shared effects, and 0.39 and 0.15, respectively, for those specific to ASPD and BPD. Genetic effects accounted for 71% and 72% of the stability over time for ASPD and BPD, respectively. The genetic and environmental correlations between ASPD and BPD were 0.73, and 0.43, respectively, at both time points. Conclusion ASPD and BPD traits were moderately stable from early to middle adulthood, mostly due to genetic risk factors which did not change over the 10-year assessment period. Environmental risk factors were mostly transient, and appear to be the main source of phenotypic change. Genetic liability factors were, to a large extent, shared by ASPD and BPD. PMID:26050739
Background Famine exposure during the early stage of life is related to a number of adulthood diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association of early life exposure to the famine in China (1959–1961) with the risk of anaemia in adulthood. Methods We used the data of 2007 adults born between 1954 and 1964 in Jiangsu province from the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration <12 g/dl in women and <13 g/dl in men. Results Prevalence of anaemia in adulthood in nonexposed, fetal-exposed, early-childhood, mid-childhood, and late-childhood exposed to famine groups were 26.0%, 33.8%, 28.1%, 28.2% and 29.7%, respectively. Overall, fetal-exposed to famine was associated with 37% increased risk of anaemia as compared with those non-exposed after adjusting for income, education, place of residence, smoking, alcohol drinking, job, hypertension and BMI; relative risk (95% confidence interval) (RR (95% CI)) was 1.37 (1.09, 1.71). In general, this association appeared to be stronger among men, those who were currently overweight or obese, or those of lower educational levels. Corresponding RR (95% CI) was 1.87 (1.21-2.87), 1.75 (1.20-2.56), and 2.07 (1.37-3.12), respectively. Conclusions Fetal exposure to the Chinese famine was associated with an increased risk of anaemia in adulthood. PMID:24079608
Chen, Chuan-Yu; Lawlor, John P.; Duggan, Anne K.; Hardy, Janet B.; Eaton, William W.
Objectives. We assessed the extent to which borderline mental retardation and mental retardation at preschool ages are related to emotional and behavioral problems in young adulthood. We also explored early risk factors for having mental health problems as a young adult that might be related to preschool differences in cognitive ability. Methods. We used data from a cohort of births studied in the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study and followed up in the Pathways to Adulthood Study. Preschool cognitive functioning was assessed at 4 years of age. Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors, and mental problems were prospectively evaluated from birth through young adulthood. Results. Children with subaverage cognitive abilities were more likely to develop mental health problems than their counterparts with IQs above 80. Inadequate family interactions were shown to increase 2- to 4-fold the risk of emotional or behavioral problems among children with borderline mental retardation. Conclusions. Subaverage cognitive functioning in early life increases later risk of mental health problems. Future research may help to delineate possible impediments faced at different developmental stages and guide changes in supportive services to better address the needs of children with borderline mental retardation. PMID:17008572
Larsen, Lars; Hartmann, Peter; Nyborg, Helmuth
Early cross-sectional studies suggested that cognitive functions begin to decline in young adulthood, whereas the first longitudinal studies suggested that they are mainly stable in adulthood. A number of more contemporary longitudinal studies support the stability hypothesis. However, drop out effects have the consequence that most longitudinal…
Aktu, Yahya; Ilhan, Tahsin
Early adulthood is one of the important milestones considered within lifelong development in the relevant literature. Adulthood is examined through various theories; however, universality of many of these is still being discussed. One of these theories is Levinson's theory of life structure. Thus, the current research aims to examine the extent to…
Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars
The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…
Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette
Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.
Malone, Patrick S.; Kertesz, Stefan G.; Wang, Yang; Costanzo, Philip R.
Objectives. We assessed the relationship between alcohol consumption in young adulthood (ages 18–30 years) and occupational success 15 years later among Blacks and Whites. Methods. We analyzed data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study on employment status and occupational prestige at year 15 from baseline. The primary predictor was weekly alcohol use at baseline, after stratification by race and adjustment for socioeconomic factors. Results. We detected racial differences in the relationship between alcohol use in early adulthood and employment status at midlife. Blacks who were very heavy drinkers at baseline were more than 4 times as likely as Blacks who were occasional drinkers to be unemployed at year 15 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22, 8.47). We found no statistically significant relationship among Whites. Occupational prestige at midlife was negatively related to very heavy drinking, but after adjustment for marital status, active coping, life stress, and educational attainment, this relationship was statistically significant only among Blacks. Conclusions. Heavy drinking during young adulthood was negatively associated with labor market success at midlife, especially among Blacks. PMID:19834006
Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios
Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140
John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B
Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.
Reis, Harry T.; And Others
A total of 113 adults from 26 to 31 years of age who had participated in previous social interaction studies while in college kept detailed records of social activity for 2 weeks. Found that from college to adulthood opposite-sex socializing increased, whereas same-sex, mixed-sex, and group interactions decreased. (MDM)
Sun, Wanwan; Shi, Lixin; Ye, Zhen; Mu, Yiming; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun; Chen, Lulu; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Yan, Li; Wan, Qin; Wu, Shengli; Liu, Yan; Wang, Guixia; Luo, Zuojie; Tang, Xulei; Chen, Gang; Huo, Yanan; Gao, Zhengnan; Su, Qing; Wang, Youmin; Qin, Guijun; Deng, Huacong; Yu, Xuefeng; Shen, Feixia; Chen, Li; Zhao, Liebin; Sun, Jichao; Ding, Lin; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Dai, Meng; Wang, Tiange; Zhang, Di; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Lai, Shenghan; Li, Donghui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang
To clarify the quantitative relationship of body mass index (BMI) change from early adulthood to midlife with presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after midlife. This study included 120,666 middle-aged and elderly, whose retrospectively self-reported body weight at 20 and 40 years and measured height were available. BMI at 20 and 40 years and BMI change in between were defined as early-adulthood BMI, midlife BMI, and early-adulthood BMI change. The odds ratio (OR) for T2DM associated with an 1-unit increment of early-adulthood or midlife BMI was 1.08 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.08) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.09-1.10) respectively. In the cross-tabulation of both early-adulthood BMI and BMI change, the prevalence of T2DM increased across both variables. Compared with participants with normal early-adulthood weight and BMI increase/decrease ≤1, the OR (95% CI) for T2DM of participants with early-adulthood overweight/obesity and BMI increase ≥4 kg/m(2) was 3.49 (3.05-4.00). For participants with early-adulthood underweight and BMI increase/decrease ≤ 1, the OR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.75-0.97). Subgroup analysis according to sex and age showed similar trends. Early-adulthood BMI may influence T2DM prevalence after midlife independent of current BMI. T2DM prevalence after midlife was positively associated with early-adulthood weight gain and inversely related to early-adulthood weight loss, while early-adulthood weight loss could not completely negate the adverse effect of early-adulthood overweight/obesity on diabetes. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Adkins, Daniel E; Clark, Shaunna L; Copeland, William E; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Angold, Adrian; Maes, Hermine; Liu, Youfang; Kumar, Gaurav; Erkanli, Alaattin; Patkar, Ashwin A; Silberg, Judy; Brown, Tyson H; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Eaves, Lindon; van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F; Costello, E J
The public health burden of alcohol is unevenly distributed across the life course, with levels of use, abuse, and dependence increasing across adolescence and peaking in early adulthood. Here, we leverage this temporal patterning to search for common genetic variants predicting developmental trajectories of alcohol consumption. Comparable psychiatric evaluations measuring alcohol consumption were collected in three longitudinal community samples (N=2,126, obs=12,166). Consumption-repeated measurements spanning adolescence and early adulthood were analyzed using linear mixed models, estimating individual consumption trajectories, which were then tested for association with Illumina 660W-Quad genotype data (866,099 SNPs after imputation and QC). Association results were combined across samples using standard meta-analysis methods. Four meta-analysis associations satisfied our pre-determined genome-wide significance criterion (FDR<0.1) and six others met our 'suggestive' criterion (FDR<0.2). Genome-wide significant associations were highly biological plausible, including associations within GABA transporter 1, SLC6A1 (solute carrier family 6, member 1), and exonic hits in LOC100129340 (mitofusin-1-like). Pathway analyses elaborated single marker results, indicating significant enriched associations to intuitive biological mechanisms, including neurotransmission, xenobiotic pharmacodynamics, and nuclear hormone receptors (NHR). These findings underscore the value of combining longitudinal behavioral data and genome-wide genotype information in order to study developmental patterns and improve statistical power in genomic studies.
Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Orlandi, Silvana Paiva; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso
Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies). Diet was most commonly assessed by estimating the consumption of food groups (cereals, milk and dairy products) and specific foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, soft drinks, fast foods, milk, etc.). Ten studies found a direct association between diet and quantity of body fat. During adolescence, adhering to a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of energy-dense food, fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and soft drinks, as well as low fiber intake, appears to contribute to an increase in body fat in early adulthood. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of unhealthy foods and food groups (higher energy density and lower nutrient content) in adolescence is associated with higher quantity of body fat in early adulthood.
Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609
Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…
Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue
Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood…
Pine, D S; Cohen, P; Brook, J; Coplan, J D
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the longitudinal relationship between psychopathology and obesity in young adulthood. METHODS: More than 700 youth in a population-based sample were psychiatrically assessed in 1983 (mean age = 14 years) and 1992 (mean age = 22 years). Self-reported body mass index (BMI) in 1992 was regressed on measures of depression and conduct disorder as well as a set of covariates including indices of physical health, social class, intelligence, and cigarette and alcohol use. Associations were examined with BMI treated as a continuous variable and with a binary index of obesity derived from the BMI distribution in each gender. RESULTS: BMI in young adults was positively related to a number of covariates. With all covariates controlled, BMI was inversely related to adult depressive symptoms in males but not females. BMI was positively related to adolescent symptoms of conduct disorder in both sexes. Similar associations were found between psychiatric symptoms and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Conduct disorder symptoms in adolescence predicted BMI and obesity in early adulthood. These associations remained after controlling for factors that can affect the association between psychopathology and obesity. PMID:9279265
Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Kim, B K Elizabeth; Nevell, Alyssa; Hawkins, J David; Farrington, David P
There has been very little research examining criminal careers in adulthood using both self-report data and official records. The aims of this paper are to use self-reports and official criminal records to explore (1) the prevalences and frequencies of offending behaviour in adulthood; (2) continuity in offending behaviour across the life course; and (3) predictors of official court charges in adulthood. Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 participants followed from childhood into early adulthood. Data from ages 21 through 33 are used to examine criminal careers. Prevalences of offending behaviour decreased with age, whilst frequency amongst offenders remained stable or increased. There was significant continuity in offending from adolescence to adulthood in both self-reports and official records, especially for violence. Violent offences were most likely to result in a court charge. Even after controlling for self-reported frequency of offending, demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and poverty) were significantly related to a court charge. Self-report and official records, both separately and together, provide valuable information for understanding criminal careers in adulthood, especially with regard to offending continuity across the life course and predicting the likelihood of a court charge. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.
This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319
Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…
Høeg, Beverley Lim; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Dyregrov, Atle; Bøge, Per; Dencker, Annemarie; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold
Being able to form and maintain intimate relationships is an essential part of development and the early loss of a parent may negatively affect this ability. This study investigates the association between parental loss before the age of 18 years and the formation and dissolution of marriage and cohabitation relationships in adulthood, in relation…
Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.
This study examines the long-term associations among parental support, extra-familial partner support, and the trajectories of sense of mastery from adolescence to the early adulthood years. Ten waves of panel data collected over a 16-year period from the Iowa Family Transitions Project (N = 527) were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated…
Blonigen, Daniel M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Background Recent work has demonstrated the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics from early adolescence to young adulthood. Few studies, however, have tested whether alcohol use initiation impacts trajectories of personality over this time period. We examined the effect of alcohol use initiation on personality development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Participants were male (nmen = 2,350) and female (nwomen = 2,618) twins and adoptees from 3 community-based longitudinal studies conducted at the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research. Data on personality traits of Positive Emotionality (PEM; Well-being), Negative Emotionality (NEM; Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Aggression), and Constraint (CON; Control and Harm Avoidance)—assessed via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)—and age of first drink were collected for up to 4 waves spanning ages 10 to 32. Results Alcohol use initiation was associated with significant decreases in levels of Well-being and CON traits, most notably Control; and significant increases in levels of all NEM traits, particularly Aggression. In general, the effects of alcohol use initiation on personality traits were moderated by gender and enhanced among those with earlier age of first drink. Conclusions From early adolescence to young adulthood, alcohol use initiation predicts deviations from normative patterns of personality maturation. Such findings offer a potential mechanism underlying the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics during this formative period of development. PMID:26419887
Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew
Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence. 2005 APA, all rights reserved
Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Cuilin; Zhou, Minghao; Zhen, Shiqi; Taylor, Anne W
Famine exposure during the early stage of life is related to a number of adulthood diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association of early life exposure to the famine in China (1959-1961) with the risk of anaemia in adulthood. We used the data of 2007 adults born between 1954 and 1964 in Jiangsu province from the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration <12 g/dl in women and <13 g/dl in men. Prevalence of anaemia in adulthood in nonexposed, fetal-exposed, early-childhood, mid-childhood, and late-childhood exposed to famine groups were 26.0%, 33.8%, 28.1%, 28.2% and 29.7%, respectively. Overall, fetal-exposed to famine was associated with 37% increased risk of anaemia as compared with those non-exposed after adjusting for income, education, place of residence, smoking, alcohol drinking, job, hypertension and BMI; relative risk (95% confidence interval) (RR (95% CI)) was 1.37 (1.09, 1.71). In general, this association appeared to be stronger among men, those who were currently overweight or obese, or those of lower educational levels. Corresponding RR (95% CI) was 1.87 (1.21-2.87), 1.75 (1.20-2.56), and 2.07 (1.37-3.12), respectively. Fetal exposure to the Chinese famine was associated with an increased risk of anaemia in adulthood.
Gillette, Meghan T; Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K
As of 2013, 65% of the world's population lived in countries where overweight/obesity kills more people than being underweight. Evolutionary perspectives provide a holistic understanding of both how and why obesity develops and its long-term implications. To test whether the maternal capital hypothesis, an evolutionary perspective, is viable for explaining the development of obesity in adulthood. Restricted-use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; n = 11 403) was analysed using logistic regressions. The sample included adolescents and their biological mothers. The odds of obesity in adulthood increased by 22% for every standard deviation increase in lack of maternal capital (Exp (B) = 1.22, p < .001). That is, individuals whose mothers were young, of an ethnic minority and had short breastfeeding durations were more likely to be obese in adulthood, even after controlling for other factors in infancy, adolescence and adulthood. The results showed that those whose mothers had lower capital were more prone to later life disease (specifically, obesity). The maternal capital perspective is useful for explaining how and why early life characteristics (including maternal resources) predict obesity in adulthood. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Venkataramani, Atheendar S
This study examines the impact of early life malaria exposure on cognition in sample of Mexican adults, using the nationwide introduction of malaria eradication efforts to identify causal impacts. The core findings are that birth year exposure to malaria eradication was associated with increases in Raven Progressive Matrices test scores and consumption expenditures, but not schooling. Additionally, cohorts born after eradication both entered and exited school earlier than their pre-eradication counterparts. These effects were only seen for men and explanations for this are assessed. Collectively, these findings suggest that improvements in infant health help explain secular increases in cognitive test scores, that better cognition may link early life health to adulthood earnings, and that human capital investments through childhood and young adulthood respond sensitively to market returns to early life endowment shocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.
The focus of this study was social (i.e., family and peer) influences on substance use from early adolescence to early adulthood. A large, ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 998) was followed from age 12 to age 23. We tested direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring, family relationship quality, and association with deviant peers on change in substance use across time. Outcomes for tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were analyzed as separate pathways within the same overall model. The results suggest that a significant shift in the nature of family influence occurred across adolescence and into early adulthood, but deviant peer influence was relatively consistent across this period. Specifically, parental monitoring and deviant peer association were predictive of substance use in early adolescence, but family relationship quality was a significant predictor across the transition to high school and generally continued to predict use into later adolescence, as did association with deviant peers. Deviant peers were the only significant predictor in early adulthood. Our results also suggested that parental monitoring and family relationship quality indirectly predicted later substance use by way of deviant peers, implying that an important aspect of the family context is its influence on choice of friends and peer group composition. Implications for family-based prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:22958864
Greenman, Sarah J; Matsuda, Mauri
Previous literature has found continuity for intimate partner violence, but little research has explored continuity between dating violence and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) or whether protective factors may attenuate this relationship. This research hypothesised a positive relationship between dating violence in early adulthood and later adulthood IPV and that support and attachment would provide buffering and direct protection for this relationship. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study were used to explore these questions through negative binomial regression. Dating violence was statistically significantly related to an increase of adult IPV. Family support, parental reports of attachment to the subject, peer support and parenting-related social support all were protective factors that provided a direct effect for those respondents perpetrating dating violence. None of the protective factors provided buffering protection between dating violence and adult IPV. Results confirm significant continuity between dating violence and IPV and that support from peers and family, parenting-related support and parental reports of attachment protect an individual from continuing to engage in intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. Bolstering these supportive relationships may help provide points of intervention to interrupt the link between early dating violence and later adulthood IPV. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Non, Amy L.; Román, Jorge Carlos; Gross, Christopher L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
Background Individual health behaviours are considered important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. These behaviours may be socially patterned by early exposure to social disadvantage, but few studies have prospectively tested this hypothesis empirically. Aim We investigated whether childhood social disadvantage was associated with likelihood of engaging in less healthy behaviours 40 years later. Subjects and Methods Prospective data were analysed from the New England Family Study, a 2005–2007 adult follow-up of a cohort initiated in 1959–1966 (n=565). Childhood social environment (birth-age 7) was assessed using a cumulative index of socioeconomic and family stability factors. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between social disadvantage and each health-related behaviour and obesity in adulthood. Results Relative to low disadvantage, higher disadvantage was associated with 3.6-fold greater odds of smoking (95% CI: 1.9, 7.0), 4.8-fold greater odds (in women only) of excess alcohol consumption (95% CI: 1.6, 14.2), and 2.7-fold greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.3, 5.5), but was not associated with unhealthy diet or physical inactivity. Conclusion These findings suggest childhood social disadvantage may contribute to adult cardiometabolic disease by predisposing children to adopt certain unhealthy behaviours. If replicated, such findings may support intervention strategies that target social environmental factors and behavioural pathways that are established early in life. PMID:26727037
Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Altamirano, Lee J.; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Rhea, Sally Ann; Hewitt, John K.
Executive functions (EFs)--the higher level cognitive abilities that enable us to control our own thoughts and actions--continue to develop into early adulthood, yet no longitudinal study has examined their stability during the important life transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. In this twin study (total N = 840 individuals from…
Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G
Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.
Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Castellani, Valeria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
The goal of this study was to identify heterogenic longitudinal patterns of change in prosocial behavior from adolescence to early adulthood and their association with change in Big Five Factor (BFF) personality traits from adolescence until early adulthood. Participants were 573 Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 at the first assessment and 21 at the last assessment. Using growth mixture modeling, low increasing (LI; 18%), medium quadratic (MQ; 26%), and high quadratic (HQ; 54%) trajectories of prosocial behavior were distinguished. Generally, the LI trajectory group predicted an increase in Conscientiousness over time, whereas the HQ trajectory group predicted greater change in Agreeableness and Openness. In addition, positive changes in Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness between ages 13 and 21 predicted a higher probability of belonging to the HQ prosocial group. Findings support a malleable perspective on personality and identify longterm positive pathways for youths' prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kinnunen, Pirjo; Laukkanen, Eila; Kylmä, Jari
This longitudinal study explored associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood. The baseline data were collected in 1996 from 14-year-old pupils (n = 235; 116 girls, 119 boys) at schools using a structured questionnaire that included a 14-item scale of psychosomatic symptoms. The follow-up data were collected in 2006 from the same persons at the age of 24 using the Symptom Checklist-90. Follow-up questionnaires were returned by 149 (63.4%) young adults (88 women and 61 men). Young adults who had many psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence suffered more often than the others from somatization and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. In addition, women had more symptoms of depression and paranoid ideation, and men had more interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms. Psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence might be important signals of mental health and this should be taken seriously in school health and in general primary care.
Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J
The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.
Johnson, J G; Cohen, P; Smailes, E M; Skodol, A E; Brown, J; Oldham, J M
Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate whether childhood verbal abuse increases risk for personality disorders (PDs) during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric and psychosocial interviews were administered to a representative community sample of 793 mothers and their offspring from two New York State counties in 1975, 1983, 1985 to 1986, and 1991 to 1993, when the mean ages of the offspring were 5, 14, 16, and 22 years, respectively. Data regarding childhood abuse and neglect were obtained from the psychosocial interviews and from official New York State records. Offspring who experienced maternal verbal abuse during childhood were more than three times as likely as those who did not experience verbal abuse to have borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and paranoid PDs during adolescence or early adulthood. These associations remained significant after offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. In addition, youths who experienced childhood verbal abuse had elevated borderline, narcissistic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood after the covariates were accounted for. These findings suggest that childhood verbal abuse may contribute to the development of some types of PDs, independent of offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.
Harris, Mathew A.; Cox, Simon R.; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.
Abstract The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood – as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability – upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies. PMID:28140738
Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue
Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Czajkowski, N; Ystrøm, E; Ørstavik, R; Aggen, S H; Tambs, K; Torgersen, S; Neale, M C; Røysamb, E; Krueger, R F; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the temporal stability of these etiological factors in adulthood. DSM-IV criteria for ASPD and BPD were assessed using structured interviews in 2282 Norwegian twins in early adulthood and again approximately 10 years later. Longitudinal biometric models were used to analyze the number of endorsed criteria. The mean criterion count for ASPD and BPD decreased 40% and 28%, respectively, from early to middle adulthood. Rank-order stability was 0.58 for ASPD and 0.45 for BPD. The best-fitting longitudinal twin model included only genetic and individual-specific environmental factors. Genetic effects, both those shared by ASPD and BPD, and those specific to each disorder remained completely stable. The unique environmental effects, however, changed substantially, with a correlation across time of 0.19 for the shared effects, and 0.39 and 0.15, respectively, for those specific to ASPD and BPD. Genetic effects accounted for 71% and 72% of the stability over time for ASPD and BPD, respectively. The genetic and environmental correlations between ASPD and BPD were 0.73, and 0.43, respectively, at both time points. ASPD and BPD traits were moderately stable from early to middle adulthood, mostly due to genetic risk factors which did not change over the 10-year assessment period. Environmental risk factors were mostly transient, and appear to be the main source of phenotypic change. Genetic liability factors were, to a large extent, shared by ASPD and BPD.
Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian
To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p < .01). Social phobia was found to have the greatest relative impact on average self-esteem (ES = -.30, p < .01), followed by overanxious disorder (ES = -.17, p < .05), and simple phobia (ES = -.17, p < .05). Obsessive compulsive-disorder (OCD) predicted a significant decline in self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p < .05). Separation anxiety disorder was not found to have any significant impact on self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swisher, Raymond R.; Dennison, Christopher R.
Objectives This article examines the relationship between intergenerational educational pathways and change in crime. Moreover, it examines the potential mediating roles of family and employment transitions, economic stressors, and social psychological factors. Method Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 14,742) and negative binomial models are used to assess associations between educational pathways (i.e., upward, downward, and stable) and change in crime between adolescence and early adulthood. Selection effects are assessed with lagged dependent variables and controls for self-control, grades, and the Add Health Picture Vocabulary Test. Results Intergenerational educational pathways are significantly associated with changes in crime. Downward educational pathways were predictive of increases in crime, whereas upward pathways were associated with decreases in crime. These associations were partly mediated by family transitions, and more strongly by economic stressors. These results were robust to controls for selection related variables. Conclusions This study is among the first to examine the relationship between intergenerational educational pathways and crime in the United States. Both upward and downward changes in educational attainments were found to be significant for crime. These findings are notable given the continuing expansion of higher education as well as concerns regarding increasing stratification and downward mobility in the United States. PMID:28348441
Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P
Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.
Chen, Chuan-Yu; Lawlor, John P; Duggan, Anne K; Hardy, Janet B; Eaton, William W
We assessed the extent to which borderline mental retardation and mental retardation at preschool ages are related to emotional and behavioral problems in young adulthood. We also explored early risk factors for having mental health problems as a young adult that might be related to preschool differences in cognitive ability. We used data from a cohort of births studied in the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study and followed up in the Pathways to Adulthood Study. Preschool cognitive functioning was assessed at 4 years of age. Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors, and mental problems were prospectively evaluated from birth through young adulthood. Children with subaverage cognitive abilities were more likely to develop mental health problems than their counterparts with IQs above 80. Inadequate family interactions were shown to increase 2- to 4-fold the risk of emotional or behavioral problems among children with borderline mental retardation. Subaverage cognitive functioning in early life increases later risk of mental health problems. Future research may help to delineate possible impediments faced at different developmental stages and guide changes in supportive services to better address the needs of children with borderline mental retardation.
Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon
Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.
Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Cunningham, Natoshia; Sil, Soumitri; Bromberg, Maggie H; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Strotman, Daniel; Peugh, James; Noll, Jennie; Ting, Tracy V; Powers, Scott W; Lovell, Daniel J; Arnold, Lesley M
This prospective longitudinal study examined the long-term physical and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents with juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM), compared with healthy control subjects, into early adulthood. Adolescent patients with JFM initially seen at a pediatric rheumatology clinic (n = 94) and age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects (n = 33) completed online measures of demographic characteristics, pain, physical functioning, mood symptoms, and health care utilization at ∼6 years' follow-up (mean age: 21 years). A standard in-person tender-point examination was conducted. Patients with JFM had significantly higher pain (P < .001), poorer physical function (P < .001), greater anxiety (P < .001) and depressive symptoms (P < .001), and more medical visits (P < .001)than control subjects. The majority (>80%) of JFM patients continued to experience fibromyalgia symptoms into early adulthood, and 51.1% of the JFM sample met American College of Rheumatology criteria for adult fibromyalgia at follow-up. Patients with JFM were more likely than control subjects to be married and less likely to obtain a college education. Adolescent patients with JFM have a high likelihood of continued fibromyalgia symptoms into young adulthood. Those who met criteria for fibromyalgia in adulthood exhibited the highest levels of physical and emotional impairment. Emerging differences in educational attainment and marital status were also found in the JFM group. JFM is likely to be a long-term condition for many patients, and this study for the first time describes the wide-ranging impact of JFM on a variety of physical and psychosocial outcomes that seem to diverge from their same-age peers.
Breyer, Jessie L.; Lee, Susanne; Winters, Ken; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that is associated with many behavioral and social problems. These problems may continue when an individual continues to meet criteria for ADHD as an adult. In this study, we describe the outcome patterns for three different groups: individuals who had ADHD as children, but no longer meet criteria as adults (Childhood-Limited ADHD, n = 71); individuals who met ADHD criteria as children and continue to meet criteria as young adults (Persistent ADHD n = 79); and a control group of individuals who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria in childhood or adulthood (n = 69). Groups were compared to examine differences in change in rates of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence over three time points in young adulthood (mean ages 18, 20 and 22 years). The method used is notable as this longitudinal study followed participants from childhood into young adulthood instead of relying on retrospective self-reports from adult participants. Results indicated that there were no significant group differences in change in rates of substance dependence over time. However, individuals whose ADHD persisted into adulthood were significantly more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence across the three time points after controlling for age, sex, childhood stimulant medication use, and childhood conduct problems. Implications of these findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. PMID:24731117
McGee, R; Williams, S; Nada-Raja, S
This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family characteristics in early childhood. self-esteem, hopelessness and thoughts of self-harm in the midchildhood years, and suicidal ideation at ages 18 and 21. Path analysis was used to establish separate models for boys and girls. The results suggested different pathways to later suicidal ideation for boys and girls. For boys, suicidal ideation seemed to have stronger roots in childhood, with significant paths from low self-esteem and hopelessness to early thoughts of self-harm and thence to later ideation. For girls, self-esteem had a small but significant direct effect on later suicidal ideation. The findings provide support for the idea that individual characteristics such as feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem act as "generative mechanisms," linking early childhood family characteristics to suicidal ideation in early adulthood.
Sloan, Frank A; Malone, Patrick S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Wang, Yang; Costanzo, Philip R
We assessed the relationship between alcohol consumption in young adulthood (ages 18-30 years) and occupational success 15 years later among Blacks and Whites. We analyzed data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study on employment status and occupational prestige at year 15 from baseline. The primary predictor was weekly alcohol use at baseline, after stratification by race and adjustment for socioeconomic factors. We detected racial differences in the relationship between alcohol use in early adulthood and employment status at midlife. Blacks who were very heavy drinkers at baseline were more than 4 times as likely as Blacks who were occasional drinkers to be unemployed at year 15 (odds ratio [OR]=4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.22, 8.47). We found no statistically significant relationship among Whites. Occupational prestige at midlife was negatively related to very heavy drinking, but after adjustment for marital status, active coping, life stress, and educational attainment, this relationship was statistically significant only among Blacks. Heavy drinking during young adulthood was negatively associated with labor market success at midlife, especially among Blacks.
Stroup, Antoinette M.; Herget, Kimberly A; Hanson, Heidi A; Reed, Diana Lane; Butler, Jared T; Henry, Kevin A; Harrell, C Janna; Sweeney, Carol; Smith, Ken R
BACKGROUND Early life socioeconomic status (SES) may play a role in cancer risk in adulthood. However, measuring SES retrospectively presents challenges. Parental occupation on the birth certificate is a novel method of ascertaining early-life SES that has not been applied in cancer epidemiology. METHODS For a Baby-Boom cohort born in 1945–1959 in two Utah counties, individual-level Nam-Powers SES (Np-SES) was derived from parental industry/occupation reported on birth certificates. Neighborhood SES was estimated from average household income of census tract at birth. Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to Utah Cancer Registry records through the Utah Population Database. Hazard ratios (HR) for cancer risk by SES quartile were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS Females with low Np-SES at birth had lower risk of breast cancer compared to those in the highest Np-SES group (HRQ1/Q4=0.83 95% CI: 0.72–0.97; HRQ2/Q4=0.81 95% CI: 0.69–0.96). Np-SES was inversely associated with melanoma (HRQ1/Q4=0.81 95% CI: 0.67–0.98) and prostate cancer (HRQ1/Q4=0.70 95% CI: 0.56–0.88). Women born into lower SES neighborhoods had significantly increased risk for invasive cervical cancer (HRQ1/Q4=1.44 95% CI: 1.12–1.85; HRQ2/Q4=1.33 95% CI: 1.04–1.72). Neighborhood SES had similar effects for melanoma and prostate cancers, but was not associated with female breast cancer. We found no association with SES for pancreas, lung, and colon and rectal cancers. CONCLUSION Individual SES derived from parental occupation at birth was associated with altered risk for several cancer sites. IMPACT This novel methodology can contribute to improved understanding of the role of early-life SES in affecting cancer risk. PMID:27655898
Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G
A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.
Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred
Puberty is a critical time period during human development. It is characterized by high levels of risk-taking behavior, such as increased alcohol consumption, and is accompanied by various neurobiological changes. Recent studies in animals and humans have revealed that the pubertal stage at first drink (PSFD) significantly impacts drinking behavior in adulthood. Moreover, neuronal alterations of the dopaminergic reward system have been associated with alcohol abuse or addiction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of PSFD on neuronal characteristics of reward processing linked to alcohol-related problems. One hundred sixty-eight healthy young adults from a prospective study covering 25 years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. PSFD was determined according to the age at menarche or Tanner stage of pubertal development, respectively. Alcohol-related problems in early adulthood were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). During reward anticipation, decreased fMRI activation of the frontal cortex and increased preparatory EEG activity (contingent negative variation) occurred with pubertal compared to postpubertal first alcohol intake. Moreover, alcohol-related problems during early adulthood were increased in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners, which was mediated by neuronal activation of the right medial frontal gyrus. At reward delivery, increased fMRI activation of the left caudate and higher feedback-related EEG negativity were detected in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners. Together with animal findings, these results implicate PSFD as a potential modulator of psychopathology, involving altered reward anticipation. Both PSFD timing and reward processing might thus be potential targets for early prevention and intervention. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M
Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Stroup, Antoinette M; Herget, Kimberly A; Hanson, Heidi A; Reed, Diana Lane; Butler, Jared T; Henry, Kevin A; Harrell, C Janna; Sweeney, Carol; Smith, Ken R
Early-life socioeconomic status (SES) may play a role in cancer risk in adulthood. However, measuring SES retrospectively presents challenges. Parental occupation on the birth certificate is a novel method of ascertaining early-life SES that has not been applied in cancer epidemiology. For a Baby-Boom cohort born from 1945-1959 in two Utah counties, individual-level Nam-Powers SES (Np-SES) was derived from parental industry/occupation reported on birth certificates. Neighborhood SES was estimated from average household income of census tract at birth. Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to Utah Cancer Registry records through the Utah Population Database. Hazard ratios (HR) for cancer risk by SES quartile were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Females with low Np-SES at birth had lower risk of breast cancer compared with those in the highest Np-SES group [HR Q1/Q4 = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.97; HR Q2/Q4 = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.96]. Np-SES was inversely associated with melanoma (HR Q1/Q4 = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98) and prostate cancer (HR Q1/Q4 = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88). Women born into lower SES neighborhoods had significantly increased risk for invasive cervical cancer (HR Q1/Q4 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85; HR Q2/Q4 = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.72). Neighborhood SES had similar effects for melanoma and prostate cancers, but was not associated with female breast cancer. We found no association with SES for pancreas, lung, and colon and rectal cancers. Individual SES derived from parental occupation at birth was associated with altered risk for several cancer sites. This novel methodology can contribute to improved understanding of the role of early-life SES on cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 75-84. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197
Taylor, Mark J; Gillberg, Christopher; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are persistent and lifelong conditions. Despite this, almost all twin studies focus on childhood. This twin study investigated the stability of autistic traits from childhood to early adulthood and explored the degree to which any stability could be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Parents of over 2500 twin pairs completed questionnaires assessing autistic traits when twins were aged either 9 or 12 years and again when twins were aged 18. Bivariate twin analysis assessed the degree of phenotypic and etiological stability in autistic traits across this period. Genetic overlap in autistic traits across development was also tested in individuals displaying a broad ASD phenotype, defined as scoring within the highest 5% of the sample. Autistic traits displayed moderate phenotypic stability ( r = .39). The heritability of autistic traits was 76-77% in childhood and 60-62% in adulthood. A moderate degree of genetic influences on childhood autistic traits were carried across into adulthood (genetic correlation = .49). The majority (85%) of the stability in autistic traits was attributable to genetic factors. Genetic influences on autistic traits were moderately stable from childhood to early adulthood at the extremes (genetic correlation = .64). Broad autistic traits display moderate phenotypic and etiological stability from childhood to early adulthood. Genetic factors accounted for almost all phenotypic stability, although there was some phenotypic and etiological instability in autistic traits. Thus, autistic traits in adulthood are influenced by a combination of enduring and unique genetic factors.
Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Baudry, C; Fressange-Mazda, C; Le Ruyet, P; Nadjar, A; Pallet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of partial replacement of VL by DL, supplemented or not with DHA and ARA, on post-natal inflammation and its consequence on memory. Mice were fed with diets poor in vegetal n-3 PUFA (Def VL), balanced in vegetal n-3/n-6 PUFA (Bal VL), balanced in dairy lipids (Bal DL) or enriched in DHA and ARA (Supp VL; Supp DL) from the first day of gestation until adulthood. At post-natal day 14 (PND14), pups received a single administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and brain cytokine expression, microglia phenotype and neurogenesis were measured. In a second set of experiments, memory and neurogenesis were measured at adulthood. Overall, our data showed that lipid quality of the diet modulates early life LPS effect on microglia phenotype, brain cytokine expression and neurogenesis at PND14 and memory at adulthood. In particular, Bal DL diet protects from the adverse effect of early life LPS exposure on PND14 neurogenesis and adult spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galán, Chardée A; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S
Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood. Controlling for child ethnicity, family income, and child antisocial behavior at age 12, empathy inversely predicted moral disengagement and juvenile petitions for violent crimes, while RHR was unrelated to all measures of violent behavior. Interactive effects were also evident such that among men with lower but not higher levels of RHR, lower empathy predicted increased violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile arrests for violent offenses, peer-reported violent behavior at age 17, self-reported moral disengagement at age 17, and self-reported violent behavior at age 20. Implications for prevention and intervention are considered. Specifically, targeting empathic skills among individuals at risk for violent behavior because of specific psychophysiological profiles may lead to more impactful interventions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Mason, W Alex; Chmelka, Mary B; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard L
Factors that might exacerbate or mitigate the transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to adolescents and the continuity of depressive symptoms into early adulthood are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission and stability of depressive symptoms would be stronger for girls than boys over adolescence and into early adulthood, while considering the possibility that the pattern of gender moderation might vary depending on parent gender and developmental timing. The participants were 667 rural Midwestern adolescents (52 % female) and their parents. Survey data on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms (at youth age 11) and on adolescent and young adult depressive symptoms (at youth ages 11, 18, and 21) were analyzed via multiple group structural equation modeling. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for girls but not boys, and adolescent depressive symptoms were more stable in girls. Paternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for all youth. The findings suggest the need for early, tailored interventions.
Chmelka, Mary B.; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard L.
Factors that might exacerbate or mitigate the transmission of depressive symptoms from parents to adolescents and the continuity of depressive symptoms into early adulthood are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission and stability of depressive symptoms would be stronger for girls than boys over adolescence and into early adulthood, while considering the possibility that the pattern of gender moderation might vary depending on parent gender and developmental timing. The participants were 667 rural Midwestern adolescents (52 % female) and their parents. Survey data on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms (at youth age 11) and on adolescent and young adult depressive symptoms (at youth ages 11, 18, and 21) were analyzed via multiple group structural equation modeling. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for girls but not boys, and adolescent depressive symptoms were more stable in girls. Paternal depressive symptoms predicted increased late adolescent depressive symptoms for all youth. The findings suggest the need for early, tailored interventions. PMID:27055682
Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10–15) and sexual risk-taking (ages 21–24 and 30–33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058
Zheng, Yan; Manson, JoAnn E.; Yuan, Changzheng; Liang, Matthew H.; Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.
Importance Data describing the effects of weight gain across adulthood on overall health are important for weight control. Objective To examine the association of weight gain from early to middle adulthood with health outcomes later in life. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of US women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1976-June 30, 2012) and US men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-January 31, 2012) who recalled weight during early adulthood (at age of 18 years in women; 21 years in men), and reported current weight during middle adulthood (at age of 55 years). Exposures Weight change from early to middle adulthood (age of 18 or 21 years to age of 55 years). Main Outcomes and Measures Beginning at the age of 55 years, participants were followed up to the incident disease outcomes. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were confirmed by medical records or the National Death Index. A composite healthy aging outcome was defined as being free of 11 chronic diseases and major cognitive or physical impairment. Results A total of 92 837 women (97% white; mean [SD] weight gain: 12.6 kg [12.3 kg] over 37 years) and 25 303 men (97% white; mean [SD] weight gain: 9.7 kg [9.7 kg] over 34 years) were included in the analysis. For type 2 diabetes, the adjusted incidence per 100 000 person-years was 207 among women who gained a moderate amount of weight (≥2.5 kg to <10 kg) vs 110 among women who maintained a stable weight (weight loss ≤2.5 kg or gain <2.5 kg) (absolute rate difference [ARD] per 100 000 person-years, 98; 95% CI, 72 to 127) and 258 vs 147, respectively, among men (ARD, 111; 95% CI, 58 to 179); hypertension: 3415 vs 2754 among women (ARD, 662; 95% CI, 545 to 782) and 2861 vs 2366 among men (ARD, 495; 95% CI, 281 to 726); cardiovascular disease: 309 vs 248 among women (ARD, 61; 95% CI, 38 to 87) and 383 vs 340 among men (ARD, 43; 95% CI, −14 to 109); obesity-related cancer: 452 vs 415 among women (ARD, 37; 95% CI, 4
Harmon, R J; Bender, B G; Linden, M G; Robinson, A
To investigate the adolescent and early adult adaptation of a group of 47,XXX women as compared with their siblings, addressing developmental differences in adaptation and psychiatric status. Subjects included eleven 47,XXX women and nine female sibling controls. Interviews during adolescence and during early adulthood were semistructured and included a psychiatric evaluation. Four areas of inquiry were (1) relationships with other family members, (2) sense of self-esteem, (3) sexual identity and preference, and (4) responses to life stressors. A DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis was assigned where appropriate. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime version was also administered, and assessments of overall functioning and adaptation were completed. The 47,XXX women during adolescence and young adulthood were less well adapted; had more stress; had more work, leisure, and relationship problems; had a lower IQ; and showed more psychopathology when contrasted with the comparison group. However, most of the 47,XXX women were self-sufficient and functioning reasonably well, albeit less well than their siblings. This longitudinal study has clarified that previously reported outcomes of severe psychopathology and antisocial behavior in individuals with sex chromosome anomalies are rare and variability in the behavioral phenotype is much larger than originally appreciated.
Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765
Mata, Ignacio; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Pazos, Angel; Gutierrez, Agustin; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose Luis; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, the long-term effect of its use in the brain remains controversial. In order to determine whether adolescence and early-adulthood cannabis use is associated with gross volumetric and gyrification abnormalities in the brain, we set up a cross-sectional study using structural magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of general population subjects. Thirty cannabis-using subjects (mean age, 25.7 years; mean duration of regular use, 8.4 years, range: 3-21) with no history of polydrug use or neurologic/mental disorder and 44 non-using control subjects (mean age, 25.8 years) were included. Cannabis users showed bilaterally decreased concavity of the sulci and thinner sulci in the right frontal lobe. Among non-users, age was significantly correlated with decreased gyrification (i.e., less concave sulci and more convexe gyri) and decreased cortical thickness, supporting the notion of age-related gyrification changes. However, among cannabis users gyrification indices did not show significant dependency on age, age of regular cannabis use initiation, or cumulative exposure to cannabis. These results suggest that cannabis use in adolescence and early-adulthood might involve a premature alteration in cortical gyrification similar to what is normally observed at a later age, probably through disruption of normal neurodevelopment. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nakamura, Priscila M; Mielke, Grégore I; Horta, Bernardo L; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Hallal, Pedro C
Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood. HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years. At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c. Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689
Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva
Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether these associations are mediated through the respondent's own education. Young adults aged 18-29 were used from the Health 2000 Study of the Finnish. The cross-sectional data were based on interviews and questionnaires including retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The analyses were carried out on 68% of the original sample (N = 1894). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical inactivity. Only a few of the 11 childhood adversities were related with physical activity in early adulthood. Having been bullied at school was associated with physical inactivity independently of the other childhood circumstances and the respondent's own education. Low parental education predicted leisure-time physical inactivity in men and the association was mediated by the respondent's own education. Respondents with only primary or vocational education were more likely to be physically inactive during leisure-time compared with those with secondary or higher education. There is some evidence that few specific childhood adversities, especially bullying at school, have long-lasting effects on physical activity levels.
Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.
Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…
Coenen, Pieter; Smith, Anne; Kent, Peter; Harris, Mark; Linton, Steven J; Pransky, Glenn; Beales, Darren; O'Sullivan, Peter; Straker, Leon
Objectives Spinal (ie, back and neck) pain often develops as early as during adolescence and can set a trajectory for later life. However, whether early-life spinal-pain-related behavioral responses of missing school/work are predictive of future work absenteeism is yet unknown. We assessed the association of adolescent spinal-pain-related work or school absenteeism with early adulthood work absenteeism in a prospective population-based cohort. Methods Six year follow-up data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were used (N=476; with a 54% response rate). At age 17, participants reported spinal pain (using the Nordic questionnaire) and adolescent spinal-pain-related work/school absenteeism (with a single item question). Annual total and health-related work absenteeism was assessed with the Health and Work Performance questionnaire distributed in four quarterly text messages during the 23rd year of age. We modelled the association of adolescent spinal-pain-related absenteeism with work absenteeism during early adulthood, using negative binomial regression adjusting for sex, occupation and comorbidities. Results Participants with adolescent low-back or neck pain with work/school absenteeism reported higher total work absenteeism in early adulthood [148.7, standard deviation (SD) 243.4 hours/year], than those without pain [43.7 (SD 95.2) hours/year); incidence rate ratio 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-9.2)]. Comparable findings were found when considering low-back and neck separately, and when considering health-related absenteeism. Conclusions We found a more than three-fold higher risk of work absenteeism in early adulthood among those with adolescent spinal-pain-related absenteeism, compared to those without. These findings suggest that, to keep a sustainable workforce, pain prevention and management should focus on pain-related behaviors as early as in adolescence.
Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns’ departure from their parents’ home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born children from 184, White, working and middle class families. Multilevel models revealed declines in parent-child conflict, acceptance, and sibling negativity, and increases or U-shaped patterns in sibling and parent-child intimacy over time. Birth order X leaving home interactions revealed that firstborns’ leaving home related to changes in family relationship qualities for both first- and second-borns, with relationships improving for firstborns and no changes or declines in relationship quality for second-borns. Overall, the results highlight the inter-relatedness of family subsystems. PMID:21765625
Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A
Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.
Riggs, Nathaniel R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann
The aim of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of an early adolescent substance abuse prevention program on trajectories and initiation of amphetamine use into early adulthood. Eight middle schools were assigned randomly to a program or control condition. The randomized controlled trial followed participants through 15 waves of data, from ages 11-28 years. This longitudinal study design includes four separate periods of development from early adolescence to early adulthood. The intervention took place in middle schools. A total of 1002 adolescents from one large mid-western US city were the participants in the study. The intervention was a multi-component community-based program delivered in early adolescence with a primary emphasis on tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use. At each wave of data collection participants completed a self-report survey that included questions about life-time amphetamine use. Compared to a control group, participants in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) intervention condition had reduced growth (slope) in amphetamine use in emerging adulthood, a lower amphetamine use intercept at the commencement of the early adulthood and delayed amphetamine use initiation. The pattern of results suggests that the program worked first to prevent amphetamine use, and then to maintain the preventive effect into adulthood. Study findings suggest that early adolescent substance use prevention programs that focus initially on the 'gateway' drugs have utility for long-term prevention of amphetamine use. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Park, Alison L; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie
Early-life low socioeconomic position (SEP) increases the risk of adult major depression; however, associations vary according to the measure of SEP and adults' life stage. Although maternal education often predicts offspring health better than other SEP indicators, including paternal education, it is unclear how maternal and paternal education differentially influence early-adult depression, and how early-life and adult risk factors may mediate the association. Longitudinal data come from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 1994/1995 to 2006/2007, restricted to a sample (N = 1,267) that was aged 12-24 years in 1994/1995. Past-year major depressive episode (MDE) was assessed in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form for Major Depression. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between both maternal and paternal education and MDE, adjusting for respondent's demographics, early-life adversities, adult SEP, psychosocial factors, and physical health. Offsprings of mothers with less than secondary school education had higher odds of MDE (adjusted OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.25-3.32) relative to those whose mothers had more education. Paternal education was not associated with MDE. Although adult income, student status, psychosocial stress, and several early-life adversities remained associated with MDE in the fully adjusted model, the estimate for maternal education was not reduced. Maternal education was associated with MDE in early adulthood, independent of paternal education and other early-life and early-adult risk factors.
Toth, Mate; Flandreau, Elizabeth I; Deslauriers, Jessica; Geyer, Mark A; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Risbrough, Victoria B
Although early-life stress is a significant risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is disrupted in individuals with PTSD and early-life stress and hence may mediate the effects of early-life stress on PTSD risk. We hypothesized that CRH hyper-signaling in the forebrain during early development is sufficient to increase response to trauma in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we induced transient, forebrain-specific, CRH overexpression during early-life (pre-puberty, CRHOEdev) in double-mutant mice (Camk2a-rtta2 × tetO-Crh) and tested their behavioral and gene expression responses to the predator stress model of PTSD in adulthood. In one cohort of CRHOEdev exposed and unexposed mice, avoidance and arousal behaviors were examined 7–15 days after exposure to predator stress. In another cohort, gene expression changes in Crhr1, Crhr2, and Fkbp51 in forebrain of CRHOEdev exposed and unexposed mice were examined 7 days after predator stress. CRHOEdev induced robust increases in startle reactivity and reductions in startle inhibition independently of predator stress in both male and female mice. Avoidance behaviors after predator stress were highly dependent on sex and CRHOEdev exposure. Whereas stressed females exhibited robust avoidance responses that were not altered by CRHOEdev, males developed significant avoidance only when exposed to both CRHOEdev and stress. Quantitative real-time-PCR analysis indicated that CRHOEdev unexposed males exhibit significant changes in Crhr2 expression in the amygdala and bed nucleus stria terminalis in response to stress, whereas males exposed to CRHOEdev did not. Similar to CRHOEdev males, females exhibited no significant Crhr2 gene expression changes in response to stress. Cortical Fkbp51 expression was also significantly reduced by stress and CRHOEdev exposure in males, but not in females. These
Maina, Giuseppe; Albert, Umberto; Salvi, Virginio; Pessina, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The following two subgroups of subjects were selected according to the age at onset of symptomatology: patients with an early-onset (< or =10 years), and patients with a later onset (> or =17 years). Of the 148 patients screened for the present study, 33 (22.3%) had an early onset and 1369 (46.6%) had a later onset. With regard to personality disorders, early-onset patients showed more OC personality disorders (OCPD) than later onset patients. Our finding suggests that OCD in childhood increases the risk for developing OCPD in adulthood, or that early-onset OCD and OCPD share a common pathogenesis.
Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work – family literatures, the authors hypothesized and found ample support that expectations to marry a romantic partner were linked not only to one’s own school and work-related experiences but also to those of a partner. These associations held while controlling for relationship satisfaction, general views of marriage, and other covariates that have been posited to explain racial inequalities in relationship and marriage patterns. Furthermore, the authors found that actor covariates of marital expectations differed from partner covariates, a finding that highlights the advantages of dyadic analyses in helping researchers understand marriage as both a developmental and interpersonal process. PMID:22962498
Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin
Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward. PMID:26999225
Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R
Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.
Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian M
Major depression in childhood or adolescence increases the risk off affective disorder in adulthood. The precise nature and course of the subsequent disorder remain unclear. To investigate long-term psychiatric outcome of school-age depression in community and clinic samples. A group of 113 young adults were followed up after a mean of 7.8 years (s.e.=15). Groups with persistent and recurrent depression were identified. Recurrence of affective disorder was similar in clinic and community groups. The clinic group had significantly longer index episodes; these were predicted by an early psychiatric history, longer episode duration before treatment and greater impairment. Being female, having higher self-report depression scores and comorbidity at index episode predicted earlier recurrence. Males were more likely to have persistent depression. Prognosis is similar in young people with depression from community and clinical samples. Boys from a clinical sample are at higher risk than girls of becoming persistently and severely mentally ill.
Yu, Caizheng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Zheng, Dan; Tang, Yuhan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian
To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005). Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between famine exposure in early life and metabolic syndrome risk in adults. The metabolic syndrome prevalence in non-, fetal-, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood- exposed groups were 25.2%, 26.9%, 30.3%, 32.7%, and 32.7%, respectively. Compared with non-exposed group, participants exposed to famine in the fetal (0.96, 95% CI: 0.77-1.20), early childhood (1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52), mid childhood (1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.72), and late childhood (1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.63) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk in adults after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.0001). In gender-specific analyses, women exposed to famine in early childhood (1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), mid childhood (1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), and late childhood (1.47, 95% CI: 1.18-1.84) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk than non-exposed women (P for trend < 0.0001). There was a famine-gender interaction on metabolic syndrome prevalence risk (P for interaction = 0.0001). Results in the present study indicated that exposure to famine in early life increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Sophie J.; Barker, Lynne A.; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue
Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12–16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed. PMID:26441579
Tsou, Meng-Ting; Tsou, Meng-Wen; Wu, Ming-Ping; Liu, Jin-Tan
To examine the long term effects of low birth weight on academic achievements in twins and singletons and to determine whether the academic achievement of twins in early adulthood is inferior to that of singletons. Cohort study. Taiwanese nationwide register of academic outcome. A cohort of 218 972 singletons and 1687 twins born in Taiwan, 1983-5. College attendance and test scores in the college joint entrance examinations. After adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, birth order, and sex and the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, twins were found to have significantly lower mean test scores than singletons in Chinese, mathematics, and natural science, as well as a 2.2% lower probability of attending college. Low birthweight twins had an 8.5% lower probability of college attendance than normal weight twins, while low birthweight singletons had only a 3.2% lower probability. The negative effects of low birth weight on the test scores in English and mathematics were substantially greater for twins than for singletons. The twin pair analysis showed that the association between birth weight and academic achievement scores, which existed for opposite sex twin pairs, was not discernible for same sex twin pairs, indicating that birth weight might partly reflect other underlying genetic variations. These data support the proposition that twins perform less well academically than singletons. Low birth weight has a negative association with subsequent academic achievement in early adulthood, with the effect being stronger for twins than for singletons. The association between birth weight and academic performance might be partly attributable to genetic factors.
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Seglem, Karoline B; Waaktaar, Trine; Ask, Helga; Torgersen, Svenn
To estimate genetic and environmental contributions to alcohol consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood, and test whether gender moderates these effects. Longitudinal twin cohort design. Population-based sample from Norway. A total of 2862 male and female twins, aged 14-22 years, were assessed at one (n = 881), two (n = 898) or three (n = 1083) occasions. The percentage of females was between 56 and 63 in the different age groups (in the different waves). Alcohol consumption was measured by two questionnaire items about frequency of alcohol use and frequency of being drunk. Additive genetic effects showed low to moderate contributions [proportion estimate, 95% confidence interval (CI) = range from 0.03 (0.00-0.14) to 0.49 (0.37-0.59) in males and from 0.09 (0.00-0.57) to 0.41 (0.24-0.58) in females] from adolescence to young adulthood, while environmental influences shared by twin pairs and contributing to twin similarity were moderate to highly influential during this developmental period [proportion estimate, 95% CI = range from 0.04 (0.00-0.13) to 0.45 (0.26-0.60) in males for shared environment in common with females, from 0.25 (0.09-0.42) to 0.54 (0.06-0.78) for shared environment specific to males and from 0.36 (0.20-0.52) to 0.51 (0.37-0.71) in females]. There was evidence of qualitative sex differences with shared environmental influences being largely sex-specific from middle adolescence onwards. Alcohol consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood appears to be influenced to a small to moderate degree by genetic factors and to a moderate to high degree by shared environmental factors (e.g. rearing influences, shared friends). The shared environmental factors influencing alcohol consumption appear to be largely gender-specific. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Hu, Q; Jiang, C Q; Zhang, W S; Cheng, J J; Xu, L; Jin, Y L; Shen, Z M; Zhu, F; Lam, D Q
Objective: To examine the association between weight changes during early and middle adulthood and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle aged and elderly population. Methods: Based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), 28 736 residents aged ≥50 years were included in Guangzhou. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between body weight changes during early or middle adulthood and age when the heaviest weight reaching the threshold on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age or elderly population. Adjustments on age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, education level, occupation, district of residence and body mass index etc ., were made. Results: The mean age was 64.3 (standard deviation=6.7) years in men and 61.0 (standard deviation=7.0) years in women, with the prevalence rates of diabetes as 13.1% and 13.7% in men and women, respectively. Compared to those with stable body weight, the risk of diabetes increased with weight gain during early and middle adulthood in both men and women (both P values for trend<0.01). Participants who gained more than 20 kg during early and middle adulthood were associated with the highest risk of diabetes in men ( OR =2.83, 95% CI :1.99-4.02) and women ( OR =3.13, 95% CI : 2.47-3.96). Compared to those who reached the highest weight at age 20, those who reaching the highest weight at 40 to 49 years were associated with the highest risk of diabetes, with OR being 5.32 (95% CI : 1.92-14.8) in men and 3.41 (95% CI : 2.49-4.67) in women, respectively. Weight loss in adulthood was associated with self-reported but not newly diagnosed diabetic cases in both middle and older aged men and women. Conclusion: Weight gain during early and middle adulthood may increase the risk of diabetes in middle and older aged population. The detrimental effect of obesity on diabetes might become significantly visible in the next decades.
Harding, Seeromanie; Silva, Maria João; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Cruickshank, J Kennedy
Objective To examine influences of adiposity from early adolescence to early 20s on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the multiethnic Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods In 2002–2003, 6643 11–13-year-olds from 51 London schools participated at baseline, and 4785 were seen again at 14–16 years. Recently, 665 (97% of invited) participated in pilot follow-up at 21–23 years, with biological and psychosocial measures and blood biomarkers (only at 21–23 years). Regression models examined interplay between ethnicity, adiposity and CVD. Results At 21–23 years, ∼30–40% were overweight. About half of the sample had completed a degree with little ethnic variation despite more socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence among ethnic minorities. Regardless of ethnicity, overweight increased more steeply between 14–16 years and 21–23 years than between 11–13 years and 14–16 years. More overweight among Black Caribbean and Black African females, lower systolic blood pressure (sBP) among Indian females and Pakistani/Bangladeshi males compared with White UK peers, persisted from 11–13 years. At 21–23 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher among Black Caribbean females, total cholesterol higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower among Pakistani/Bangladeshis. Overweight was associated with a ∼+2 mm Hg rise in sBP between 11–13 years and 21–23 years. Adiposity measures at 11–13 years were related to allostatic load (a cluster of several risk markers), HbA1c and HDL cholesterol at 21–23 years. Ethnic patterns in CVD biomarkers remained after adjustments. Conclusions Adolescent adiposity posed significant risks at 21–23 years, a period in the lifespan generally ignored in cardiovascular studies, when ethnic/gender variations in CVD are already apparent. PMID:27979836
Low, K. S. Douglas; Yoon, Mijung; Roberts, Brent W.; Rounds, James
The present meta-analysis examined the stability of vocational interests from early adolescence (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 40). Stability was represented by rank-order and profile correlations. Interest stability remained unchanged during much of adolescence and increased dramatically during the college years (age 18-21.9), where it…
Pavlova, Maria K.; Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
Drawing on two nationally representative German studies (N[subscript 1] = 1744, N[subscript 2] = 759), we examined correlates of early, on-time, and late curfew autonomy, a retrospective indicator of behavioural autonomy, in young and middle adulthood (19-37 years of age). Adjustment in four domains was considered: educational attainment,…
Shogren, Karrie A.; Shaw, Leslie A.
Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) were used to examine the impact of three personal factors--race/ethnicity, gender, and family income--on self-determination (i.e., autonomy, psychological empowerment, self-realization) and early adulthood outcome constructs. Findings suggest for those with high incidence disabilities,…
Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.
Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…
Gottfried, Allen W.; Clayton R. Cook; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Morris, Phillip E.
The construct of gifted motivation was examined in a contemporary, long-term, longitudinal investigation. Adolescents with extremely high academic intrinsic motivation (i.e., gifted motivation) were compared to their cohort peer comparison on a variety of educationally relevant measures from elementary school through the early adulthood years.…
Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.
In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention…
Heinonen, Erkki; Knekt, Paul; Härkänen, Tommi; Virtala, Esa; Lindfors, Olavi
Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ). They also filled self-reports on interpersonal behavior and problems, perceived competence, dispositional optimism, sense of coherence, defenses, and psychiatric history. Clinicians assessed the patients' symptomatology, personality, object relations, cognitive performance, and psychotherapy suitability. Regression analyses were conducted. Childhood adversities predicted both worse current psychological functioning (e.g., interpersonal problems), and better clinician-rated capacities for benefiting from psychotherapy (e.g. self-reflection, capacity for interaction). Parental problems had the most numerous negative associations to psychological functioning. Best capacities for psychotherapy were predicted by recollected family unhappiness. Associations with psychiatric criteria were, however, largely non-significant. In conclusion, for psychosocial treatment planning, patients' early adversities may indicate both vulnerability and resources. As childhood adversities are frequent among treatment-seekers, further studies examining how early adversities predict psychotherapy outcome are needed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Raustorp, Anders; Lindwall, Magnus
One variable that has been consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity is perceived activity competence. Perceived physical (or sport) competence is considered a sub-domain to the physical self-esteem or self-worth (i.e., a person's valuation of what is good and worthy in their self-description). This study aimed to describe levels of and inter-correlations among physical self-esteem, physical activity, and body mass index in a longitudinal design spanning adolescence to early adulthood. At mean ages of 12.7, 15.7, 17.7 and 22.7 years, we measured perceived physical self-esteem in 39 (22 boys) Swedish adolescents. Physical activity (steps/day) for four consecutive schooldays, height, and weight were also measured. No significant difference between the four time points for any variable of perceived physical self-esteem was seen, neither in boys nor girls. In general, all physical self-variables revealed non-linear trajectories across time, where the general trend was an increase during the younger ages followed by a decrease during older ages. At ages 12 and 15 years in boys and girls physical condition and physical strength as well as body attractiveness and physical strength, respectively, had the strongest correlations to physical self-esteem. At age 17 and 22 years sports competence had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in girls, while body attractiveness and physical strength had the strongest correlation to self-esteem in boys. An overall stability in physical self-esteem was found. However the impact of a sub-domain upon physical self-esteem vary during adolescence and early adulthood. Such information may be useful when creating physical activity programs that support and develop physical self-esteem.
Gonzalez, Andrea; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Duncan, Laura; Atkinson, Leslie R; MacMillan, Harriet L
Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI); however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties) and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning) on BMI in early adulthood. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4-16 years) enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21-35 years). Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood.
Austin, Anna E; Shanahan, Meghan E; Zvara, Bharathi J
Previous research has examined the association of childhood abuse with opioid misuse and dependence in adulthood. However, little research has focused specifically on prescription opioids, and no studies have examined associations with prescription opioid use, a potential pathway to later opioid misuse and dependence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse with prescription opioid use in early adulthood. We used data from Waves I (12-18years) and IV (24-32years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. At Wave IV, respondents reported experiences of childhood abuse occurring prior to age 18years and prescription opioid use in the last four weeks. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of childhood abuse with recent prescription opioid use. In multivariable models adjusted for respondent sex, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, childhood emotional abuse (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.29, 1.90), physical abuse (OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.14, 1.87), and any childhood abuse (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.24, 1.82) were significantly associated with recent prescription opioid use. Given continued increases in prescription opioid use and opioid-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S., understanding upstream social and environmental factors associated with prescription opioid use is important to strengthening and expanding current prevention and intervention strategies. Future research is needed to examine factors potentially mediating the association between childhood abuse and prescription opioid use in order to provide additional insights for prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, TienYu Owen; Cairns, Benjamin J; Kroll, Mary E; Reeves, Gillian K; Green, Jane; Beral, Valerie
Risk of adult lymphoid malignancy is associated with recent adiposity. Some have reported apparent associations with adiposity in childhood or early adulthood, but whether these associations are independent of recent adiposity is unknown. Birth weight, body size at age 10 years, clothes size at age 20 years, and recent body mass index (BMI) were recorded in 745,273 UK women, mean age 60.1 (SD 4.9) at baseline, without prior cancer. They were followed for 11 years, during which time 5,765 lymphoid malignancies occurred. Using Cox regression, a higher risk of lymphoid malignancy was strongly associated with higher recent BMI (RR=1.33, 95%CI 1.17-1.51, for BMI 35+ vs <22.5 kg/m(2)), and this association remained essentially unchanged after adjustment for birth weight and body size at 10. Higher lymphoid malignancy risk was also associated with large size at birth, at age 10, and at age 20 years, but after adjustment for recent BMI, the significance of the associations with large size at birth and at age 10 years was sufficiently reduced that residual confounding by adult BMI could not be excluded; a weak association with large size at 20 years remained (adjusted RR =1.17, 95%CI 1.10-1.24 for large size at age 20 vs. medium or small size). We found no strong evidence of histological specificity in any of these associations. In conclusion, our findings suggest a possible role of adiposity throughout adulthood in the risk of lymphoid malignancy, but the independent contribution of body size at birth and during childhood appears to be small. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.
Cutuli, J J; Raby, K Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron
Past findings on gene-by-environment (G×E) effects on depression have been mixed, leading to a debate of the plausibility of such mechanisms and methodological considerations that warrant attention. A developmental systems perspective postulates that complex, multi-level G×E effects are likely contributors to depression. Participants from families experiencing low-income status at birth were followed over 28 years. Maltreatment was recorded prospectively using multiple means and sources. Depression was measured repeatedly using well-validated interviews in middle childhood, through adolescence, and into adulthood. Findings support a G×E effect where the less efficient form of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to a vulnerability to depressogenic aspects of maltreatment in childhood and adolescence. The presence of less efficient forms of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and maltreatment together raised risk for depression. This G×E effect was present generally and also among those who reported clinical levels of depression at only one point in time. This study used a low-income sample which limits generalizability to other populations. Sample size and rates of different forms of depression and depression at individual developmental stages supported general analyses, but limited the sorts of specific sub-analyses that were possible. These findings support the plausibility of G×E effects on depression during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, key periods for the development of depression. Ongoing debates about the presence of G×E effects would be well served by additional work that was theoretically informed and employed prospective, longitudinal methodologies with well-validated measures of key constructs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Han; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jinsheng; Sun, Wei; Salvi, Richard J; Huang, Yi-Na; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin
It is known that an interruption of acoustic input in early life will result in abnormal development of the auditory system. Here, we further show that this negative impact actually spans beyond the auditory system to the hippocampus, a system critical for spatial memory. We induced a temporary conductive hearing loss (TCHL) in P14 rats by perforating the eardrum and allowing it to heal. The Morris water maze and Y-maze tests were deployed to evaluate spatial memory of the rats. Electrophysiological recordings and anatomical analysis were made to evaluate functional and structural changes in the hippocampus following TCHL. The rats with the TCHL had nearly normal hearing at P42, but had a decreased performance with the Morris water maze and Y-maze tests compared with the control group. A functional deficit in the hippocampus of the rats with the TCHL was found as revealed by the depressed long-term potentiation and the reduced NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current. A structural deficit in the hippocampus of those animals was also found as revealed the abnormal expression of the NMDA receptors, the decreased number of dendritic spines, the reduced postsynaptic density and the reduced level of neurogenesis. Our study demonstrates that even temporary auditory sensory deprivation in early life of rats results in abnormal development of the hippocampus and consequently impairs spatial memory in adulthood. © 2018 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Smart, Diana; Youssef, George J; Sanson, Ann; Prior, Margot; Toumbourou, John W; Olsson, Craig A
Reading difficulties (RDs) and behaviour problems (BPs) are two common childhood problems that have a high degree of stability and often negatively affect well-being in both the short and longer terms. The study aimed to shed light on the unique and joint consequences of these two childhood problems for educational and occupational outcomes in early adulthood. Data were drawn from a life-course longitudinal study of psychosocial development, the Australian Temperament Project. Parent and teacher reports and a standard reading test were used to define four groups of children at 7-8 years: RDs only; BPs only; both problems; and neither problem. These groups were followed forward to ascertain educational attainment and employment status at 19-20 and 23-24 years. Each childhood problem was a unique risk for poorer educational and occupational outcomes, with co-occurring problems significantly increasing the risk of poorer educational outcomes. Further analyses revealed that the effects of childhood BPs on occupational status were mediated by secondary school non-completion, but childhood RDs were not. The findings point to the importance of screening and early intervention to prevent or minimize the development of these two childhood problems, as well as continuing to support vulnerable children to increase their likelihood of secondary school completion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
The present longitudinal study examined the development of self-reported prosociality (i.e., the tendency to enact prosocial behaviors) from adolescence to early adulthood and its prediction from teacher-reported effortful control (i.e., dispositional regulation) at age 13. Participants were 573 (276 girls) Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 (M = 12.98, SD = 0.80) at the first assessment and 21 (M = 21.23, SD = 0.67) at the last assessment. The study used three different cohorts recruited across ten years (from 1994 to 2004) from a larger longitudinal project with a multiple-cohort design. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that the overall level of prosociality declined until approximately age 17 with a subsequent slight rebound until age 21. Significant inter-individual variability in developmental trends of prosociality in males and females was observed. Youths' effortful control was related to a lesser decline of prosociality in adolescence. Being able to regulate one's own emotions and behaviors in early adolescence may not only affect the tendency to behave prosocially, but also counter the self-centered tendencies observed across this phase of development. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Åse Marie
Insights into the causes of variances in physical performance are important to prevent mobility limitations in old age. We examined associations between intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance. Data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank were analyzed using linear regression. In total, 2,848 male cohort members had intelligence scores from conscription and physical performance measures from midlife. In adjusted models, a 1 SD increase in intelligence resulted in 1.10 more chair-rises (p < .001), a 1.03 cm higher jump (p < .001), a 3.69% smaller balance area (p < .001), a 0.71 kg increase in handgrip strength (p < .001), and a 5.03 N increase in back force (p < .001). Results for flexibility and abdominal force were not significant. Public health interventions should focus on addressing people with different cognitive abilities and bear in mind that prevention of mobility limitations might need to start early in life. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll
The aim of the present study was to establish if social inequalities in early childhood, particularly living in a socially and economically deprived neighbourhood, are predictive of later unemployment. A cohort was established in 1987. It consists of 8-9 year-old children living in a socially deprived suburb who were followed in national registers for all categories of welfare benefits. The follow-up covered the period when participants were 21-27 years of age. A control group with the same age and gender distribution who were living in a neighbouring, relatively privileged middle class district were also followed for the purpose of comparison. The annual unemployment rate during the seven years of follow-up was significantly higher in the deprived neighbourhood group than in the middle class neighbourhood group, whereas long-term unemployment lasting more than two years did not differ significantly between the groups. Childhood background including a mother receiving social benefit was an independent factor associated with increased risk of later unemployment, whereas gender and single parenthood were not. The present findings suggest that socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood substantially increases the risk of unemployment in early adulthood, even during a follow-up period in the first decade of the 21st century when employment opportunities in Denmark were excellent. not relevant. not relevant.
Borghuis, Jeroen; Denissen, Jaap J A; Oberski, Daniel; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Bleidorn, Wiebke
Using data from 2 large and overlapping cohorts of Dutch adolescents, containing up to 7 waves of longitudinal data each (N = 2,230), the present study examined Big Five personality trait stability, change, and codevelopment in friendship and sibling dyads from age 12 to 22. Four findings stand out. First, the 1-year rank-order stability of personality traits was already substantial at age 12, increased strongly from early through middle adolescence, and remained rather stable during late adolescence and early adulthood. Second, we found linear mean-level increases in girls' conscientiousness, in both genders' agreeableness, and in boys' openness. We also found temporal dips (i.e., U-shaped mean-level change) in boys' conscientiousness and in girls' emotional stability and extraversion. We did not find a mean-level change in boys' emotional stability and extraversion, and we found an increase followed by a decrease in girls' openness. Third, adolescents showed substantial individual differences in the degree and direction of personality trait changes, especially with respect to conscientiousness, extraversion, and emotional stability. Fourth, we found no evidence for personality trait convergence, for correlated change, or for time-lagged partner effects in dyadic friendship and sibling relationships. This lack of evidence for dyadic codevelopment suggests that adolescent friends and siblings tend to change independently from each other and that their shared experiences do not have uniform influences on their personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Branje, Susan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Meeus, Wim H J; Deković, Maja; Koot, Hans M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J
A substantive body of literature suggests that those involved in bullying as perpetrators but particularly victims are at greater risk for psychological maladjustment. In comparison, relatively little is known about associations between bullying-victimization and perpetration and mastery of early adult tasks in domains including romantic relationships, education, work, financial competence, and conduct. These links were tested using data from two Dutch cohorts (RADAR-young, n = 497, 43% girls; TRAILS, n = 2230, 51% girls) who reported on victimization and perpetration at age 11 (TRAILS) and 13 (RADAR-young) and mastery of developmental tasks in early adulthood. Unadjusted regression analyses suggested for both cohorts that perpetrators were less likely to abide the law and more likely to smoke. Victims in TRAILS were less competent in the domains of education, work, and finances, and more likely to smoke in RADAR-young. Adjusting for childhood demographics and child intelligence and including psychopathology in the prediction models substantially reduced the strength of associations between bullying involvement and later outcomes in both cohorts; although association were retained between victimization and welfare dependence and perpetration and crime involvement in TRAILS. Parental support did not buffer associations in either sample and neither were gender differences detected. Overall, findings underline that negative outcomes of bullying are not only a concern for victims but also for their perpetrators although involvement in bullying is not a stable predictor of mastery of developmental tasks when childhood demographics, child intelligence, and psychopathology are taken into account.
Felt, Barbara T.; Beard, John L.; Schallert, Timothy; Shao, Jie; Aldridge, J. Wayne; Connor, James R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Lozoff, Betsy
Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been associated with altered cognitive, motor, and social-emotional outcomes in human infants. We recently reported that rats with chronic perinatal IDA, had altered regional brain iron, monoamines, and sensorimotor skill emergence during early development. Objective To examine the long-term consequences of chronic perinatal IDA on behavior, brain iron and monoamine systems after dietary iron treatment in rats. Methods Sixty dams were randomly assigned to iron-sufficient (CN) or low-iron (EID) diets during gestation and lactation. Thereafter, all offspring were fed the iron-sufficient diet, assessed for hematology and behavior after weaning and into adulthood and for brain measures as adults (regional brain iron, monoamines, dopamine and serotonin transporters, and dopamine receptor). Behavioral assessments included sensorimotor function, general activity, response to novelty, spatial alternation, and spatial water maze performance. Results Hematology and growth were similar for EID and CN rats by postnatal day 35. In adulthood, EID thalamic iron content was lower. Monoamines, dopamine transporter, and dopamine receptor concentrations did not differ from CN. EID serotonin transporter concentration was reduced in striatum and related regions. EID rats had persisting sensorimotor deficits (delayed vibrissae-evoked forelimb placing, longer sticker removal time, and more imperfect grooming chains), were more hesitant in novel settings, and had poorer spatial water maze performance than CN. General activity and spatial alternation were similar for EID and CN. Conclusion Rats that had chronic perinatal IDA showed behavioral impairments that suggest persistent striatal dopamine and hippocampal dysfunction despite normalization of hematology, growth and most brain measures. PMID:16713640
Sullins, Donald Paul
Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss). Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p < 0.0001). Risk of mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p < 0.0001) overall. Birth was weakly associated with reduced mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3) of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:27781096
Tighe, Lauren A.; Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.
The parent-child relationship is often characterized by ambivalence, defined as the simultaneous experience of positive and negative relationship quality. This study examines reports of intergenerational ambivalence in 3 developmental periods: adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood, as well as its implications for depressive symptoms…
Wilson, K S; Tucker, C S; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Holmes, M C; Hadoke, P W F; Kenyon, C J
development in the zebrafish and that, like other species, manipulating GC status pharmacologically, physiologically or genetically in early life leads to programmable metabolic and behavioural traits in adulthood. PMID:27390302
Lee Stubbeman, Bobbie; Brown, Clifford J; Yates, Justin R; Bardgett, Mark E
Antipsychotic drug prescriptions for pediatric populations have increased over the past 20 years, particularly the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs such as risperidone. Most antipsychotic drugs target forebrain dopamine systems, and early-life antipsychotic drug exposure could conceivably reset forebrain neurotransmitter function in a permanent manner that persists into adulthood. This study determined whether chronic risperidone administration during development modified locomotor responses to the dopamine/norepinephrine agonist, D-amphetamine, in adult rats. Thirty-five male Long-Evans rats received an injection of one of four doses of risperidone (vehicle, .3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) each day from postnatal day 14 through 42. Locomotor activity was measured for 1h on postnatal days 46 and 47, and then for 24h once a week over the next two weeks. Beginning on postnatal day 75, rats received one of four doses of amphetamine (saline, .3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) once a week for four weeks. Locomotor activity was measured for 27h after amphetamine injection. Rats administered risperidone early in life demonstrated increased activity during the 1 and 24h test sessions conducted prior to postnatal day 75. Taking into account baseline group differences, these same rats exhibited significantly more locomotor activity in response to the moderate dose of amphetamine relative to controls. These results suggest that early-life treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, like risperidone, permanently alters forebrain catecholamine function and increases sensitivity to drugs that target such function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I
This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (P<0.05). Chronic pain during early life impaired short-term memory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (P<0.05). Sucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous
Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
Using prospective longitudinal data, we tested 5 hypotheses: (a) that the relation between earlier developmental experiences (peer social rejection and victimization in a romantic relationship) and adult violent behavior toward peers and romantic partners is specific to relationship domain; (b) that the relation between social-information processing (SIP) biases and subsequent violence is also specific to relational domain (romantic partner vs. peer); (c) that the relation between developmental experiences and SIP biases is domain specific; (d) that domain-specific SIP mediates the impact of earlier developmental experiences on later violent behavior; and (e) that harsh parenting early in life is a domain-general predictor of SIP and later violent behavior. Harsh parenting was assessed through interviews with parents when their children were age 5 years. Classroom sociometric assessments indexing peer rejection were completed in elementary school, and self-report of victimization by romantic partners was provided at age 18 years. SIP was assessed via interview at age 22 years, and violent behavior was measured via self-and partner report at ages 23 years and 24 years. Structural equation analyses revealed specificity in the relation between developmental experiences and violence and in the prediction to and from SIP in the peer domain, but not in the romantic-relationship domain. The impact of early harsh treatment on violence toward peers was mediated by SIP biases in the peer domain. These findings provide support for domain specificity in the peer domain but for cross-domain generality in the romantic relationship domain in the development of violent behavior in early adulthood. PMID:20085394
Farvid, Maryam S; Chen, Wendy Y; Michels, Karin B; Cho, Eunyoung; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather
To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Prospective cohort study. Health professionals in the United States. 90 476 premenopausal women aged 27-44 from the Nurses' Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991 as well as 44 223 of those women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence in 1998. Incident cases of invasive breast cancer, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. There were 3235 cases of invasive breast cancer during follow-up to 2013. Of these, 1347 cases were among women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence (ages 13-18). Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.90; P=0.01 for trend) for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake. The association for fruit intake during adolescence was independent of adult fruit intake. There was no association between risk and total fruit intake in early adulthood and total vegetable intake in either adolescence or early adulthood. Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in α carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake. The association with adolescent fruit intake was stronger for both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cancers than estrogen and progesterone receptor positive cancers (P=0.02 for heterogeneity). For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Fruit juice intake
Chen, Wendy Y; Michels, Karin B; Cho, Eunyoung; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather
Objective To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 90 476 premenopausal women aged 27-44 from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991 as well as 44 223 of those women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence in 1998. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast cancer, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results There were 3235 cases of invasive breast cancer during follow-up to 2013. Of these, 1347 cases were among women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence (ages 13-18). Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.90; P=0.01 for trend) for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake. The association for fruit intake during adolescence was independent of adult fruit intake. There was no association between risk and total fruit intake in early adulthood and total vegetable intake in either adolescence or early adulthood. Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in α carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake. The association with adolescent fruit intake was stronger for both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cancers than estrogen and progesterone receptor positive cancers (P=0.02 for heterogeneity). For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was
This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…
Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth
This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Reports of childhood behavior problems were obtained from parents and children in fall 1985 and from teachers in spring 1986. Follow-up reports of violence and DSM-III-R depression and social phobia were collected from 765 respondents using standard survey items and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule in 1996. The past-year prevalences of depressive episode and social phobia were 20% and 17%, respectively. Twenty-one percent of the respondents reported two or more violent acts in the past year at age 21 years. Several available measures of childhood behavior problems as reported by parents, teachers, and children predicted violence (e.g., conduct problems, oppositional defiance); the strongest positive predictor of young adult violence was self-reported conduct problems, whereas self-reported shyness inhibited later violence. Relatively few child behavioral problems predicted social phobia (e.g., shyness). Results showed that children who reported higher, relative to lower, levels of conduct problems were nearly four times more likely to experience a depressive episode in early adulthood. Findings suggest the potential value of intervening to reduce childhood conduct problems as a prevention strategy for not only violence but also depression.
Whittle, Sarah; Liu, Kirra; Bastin, Coralie; Harrison, Ben J; Davey, Christopher G
Investigating how brain development during adolescence and early adulthood underlies guilt- and shame-proneness may be important for understanding risk processes for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental correlates of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness in healthy adolescents and young adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). Sixty participants (age range: 15-25) completed sMRI and self-report measures of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness. Independent of interpersonal guilt, higher levels of shame-proneness were associated with thinner posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) thickness and smaller amygdala volume. Higher levels of shame-proneness were also associated with attenuated age-related reductions in thickness of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC). Our findings highlight the complexities in understanding brain-behavior relationships during the adolescent/young adult period. Results were consistent with growing evidence that accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence may be associated with superior socioemotional functioning. Further research is required to understand the implications of these findings for mental disorders characterized by higher levels of guilt and shame. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Foulds, James; Boden, Joseph; Horwood, John; Mulder, Roger
This study aimed to examine the association between novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial behaviours (age 18-35). A New Zealand general population birth cohort was studied from 1977 to 2012. Sample sizes ranged from n = 962 (age 35) to n = 1025 (age 18). NS was measured at age 16 using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Perpetration of antisocial behaviours was ascertained by self-report at ages 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35. Generalized estimating equation models investigated the association between NS and antisocial behaviours net of individual factors and correlates of NS before age 16 and alcohol and substance use disorders at age 18-35. Higher NS scores were associated with a higher unadjusted incidence of all forms of antisocial behaviour. Assault, theft, property damage and dishonesty offending remained associated with NS after adjustment for individual factors and correlates of NS before age 16. After further adjustment for alcohol and substance use disorders, NS was not associated with any antisocial behaviour outcomes, suggesting those disorders mediate the association between NS and antisocial behaviours. Alcohol and substance use disorders mediate the association between NS and antisocial behaviours in early adulthood. NS may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the causation of externalizing behaviours. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vungkhanching, Martha; Sher, Kenneth J; Jackson, Kristina M; Parra, Gilbert R
The present study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and attachment style in early adulthood and sought to determine whether attachment style might, at least partially, mediate intergenerational risk for alcoholism. The current report focuses on the cross-sectional relation between family history (FH) of alcoholism, attachment styles, and alcohol use disorders (AUD) when cohort members were, on average, 29 years old (N = 369; 46% male; 51% FH+). Results indicated that FH+ participants were more likely to have insecure attachment, characterized by fearful-avoidant and dismissed-avoidant styles. Additionally, fearful-avoidant and dismissed-avoidant attachment styles were related to the presence of an AUD even after controlling for sex and FH (P < 0.05). There was little evidence, however, that attachment style mediated the relation between paternal alcoholism and AUD in offspring; the FH-AUD association was only negligibly reduced when the effect of attachment style was controlled. Our findings suggest that insecure attachment style is a risk factor for AUD, independent of familial risk for alcoholism.
Schutter, Dennis J L G; Meuwese, Rosa; Bos, Marieke G N; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S
Previous research has found an association between a smaller cerebellar volume and higher levels of neuroticism. The steroid hormone testosterone reduces stress responses and the susceptibility to negative mood. Together with in vitro studies showing a positive effect of testosterone on cerebellar gray matter volumes, we set out to explore the role of testosterone in the relation between cerebellar gray matter and neuroticism. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and indices of neurotic personality traits were assessed by administering the depression and anxiety scale of the revised NEO personality inventory and Gray's behavioural avoidance in one hundred and forty-nine healthy volunteers between 12 and 27 years of age. Results demonstrated an inverse relation between total brain corrected cerebellar volumes and neurotic personality traits in adolescents and young adults. In males, higher endogenous testosterone levels were associated with lower scores on neurotic personality traits and larger cerebellar gray matter volumes. No such relations were observed in the female participants. Analyses showed that testosterone significantly mediated the relation between male cerebellar gray matter and measures of neuroticism. Our findings on the interrelations between endogenous testosterone, neuroticism and cerebellar morphology provide a cerebellum-oriented framework for the susceptibility to experience negative emotions and mood in adolescence and early adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costello, Darcé M.; Swendsen, Joel; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa C.
This study used semi-parametric group-based modeling to explore unconditional and conditional trajectories of self-reported depressed mood from age 12 to 25. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=11,559), four distinct trajectories were identified: no depressed mood, stable low depressed mood, early high declining depressed mood, and late escalating depressed mood. Baseline risk factors associated with greater likelihood of membership in depressed mood trajectory groups compared to the no depressed mood group included being female, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino American, or Asian American, lower SES, using alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs on a weekly basis, and delinquent behavior. Baseline protective factors associated with greater likelihood of membership in the no depressed mood group compared to the depressed mood trajectory groups included two-parent family structure, feeling connected to parents, peers, or school, and self esteem. With the exception of delinquent behavior, risk and protective factors also distinguished the likelihood of membership among several of the three depressed mood groups. The results add to basic etiologic research regarding developmental pathways of depressed mood in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:18377115
Aseltine, R H; Gore, S L
Despite evidence of a strong association between stress and level of drinking in adolescent populations, the role of stress in accounting for changes in drinking behavior throughout the adolescent years is unclear. This study uses a linear growth curve analysis to examine the determinants of within-individual changes in drinking frequency and binge drinking across five waves of data from a community sample of adolescents who were followed into young adulthood. Predictors of drinking include: stressful life events, parental and peer social support, and parental and peer relationship problems. Findings indicate significant effects of stressful life events and parental support and conflict on both the frequency and intensity of alcohol use. Although age-related changes in these variables coincide with changes in drinking behavior, they do not account for drinking variability over this period. Results from conditional models demonstrate that the impact of the stress is contingent on age, and that the strong associations between drinking and stress evidenced during the high school years weaken considerably as individuals move into their late teens and early twenties. Discussion centers on the complex motivations for and facilitators of drinking as young people mature and change environments over the adolescent years.
Turanovic, Jillian J; Pratt, Travis C
Native American youth are at an elevated risk of violent victimization. And because of their vulnerable position in society, they may also be at risk of experiencing a host of adverse consequences as a result of being victimized. Accordingly, using a subsample of 558 Native American youth and two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (49.8 % female; 12-19 years at Wave I; 19-26 years at Wave III), we examined the effects of violent victimization during adolescence on a range of outcomes in early adulthood (poor health, depressive symptoms, suicidality, financial hardship, violent and property offending, alcohol problems, hard drug use, and marijuana use). We also assessed whether youth's attachments to family and to school moderate the effects of victimization on these outcomes. The results showed that adolescent victimization is linked to a small number of outcomes-poor health, depressive symptoms, and violent offending-and that the protective effects of social attachments are not widespread. Specifically, family attachments moderated the effects of victimization on poor health and depressive symptoms, and school attachments moderated the effects of victimization on property offending. These findings suggest that the consequences of victimization and the protective effects of social attachments may differ for Native American youth, and that further quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to understand these patterns.
Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella
This study explores the development of theory of mind, operationalized as recursive thinking ability, from adolescence to early adulthood (N = 110; young adolescents = 47; adolescents = 43; young adults = 20). The construct of theory of mind has been operationalized in two different ways: as the ability to recognize the correct mental state of a character, and as the ability to attribute the correct mental state in order to predict the character’s behaviour. The Imposing Memory Task, with five recursive thinking levels, and a third-order false-belief task with three recursive thinking levels (devised for this study) have been used. The relationship among working memory, executive functions, and linguistic skills are also analysed. Results show that subjects exhibit less understanding of elevated recursive thinking levels (third, fourth, and fifth) compared to the first and second levels. Working memory is correlated with total recursive thinking, whereas performance on the linguistic comprehension task is related to third level recursive thinking in both theory of mind tasks. An effect of age on third-order false-belief task performance was also found. A key finding of the present study is that the third-order false-belief task shows significant age differences in the application of recursive thinking that involves the prediction of others’ behaviour. In contrast, such an age effect is not observed in the Imposing Memory Task. These results may support the extension of the investigation of the third order false belief after childhood. PMID:27247645
Henry, Kimberly L; Knight, Kelly E; Thornberry, Terence P
Over the past 5 years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of early warning systems for dropout prevention. These warning systems use a set of indicators based on official school records to identify youth at risk for dropout and then appropriately target intervention. The current study builds on this work by assessing the extent to which a school disengagement warning index predicts not only dropout but also other problem behaviors during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (N = 911, 73% male, 68% African American, and 17% Latino) were used to examine the effects of a school disengagement warning index based on official 8th and 9th grade school records on subsequent dropout, as well as serious delinquency, official offending, and problem substance use during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Results indicate that the school disengagement warning index is robustly related to dropout as well as serious problem behaviors across the three developmental stages, even after controlling for important potential confounders. High school dropout mediates the effect of the warning index on serious problem behaviors in early adulthood.
Henry, Kimberly L.; Knight, Kelly E.; Thornberry, Terence P.
Over the past five years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of early warning systems for dropout prevention. These warning systems use a set of indicators based on official school records to identify youth at risk for dropout and then appropriately target intervention. The current study builds on this work by assessing the extent to which a school disengagement warning index predicts not only dropout but also other problem behaviors during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (n=911, 73% male, 68% African American, and 17% Latino) were used to examine the effects of a school disengagement warning index based on official 8th and 9th grade school records on subsequent dropout, as well as serious delinquency, official offending, and problem substance use during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Results indicate that the school disengagement warning index is robustly related to dropout as well as serious problem behaviors across the three developmental stages, even after controlling for important potential confounders. High school dropout mediates the effect of the warning index on serious problem behaviors in early adulthood. PMID:21523389
Vianna, Carolina Avila; Gigante, Denise P.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Yudkin, John S.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Ong, Ken K.
Early life stunting may have long-term effects on body composition, resulting in obesity-related comorbidities. We tested the hypothesis that individuals stunted in early childhood may be at higher cardiometabolic risk later in adulthood. 1753 men and 1781 women participating in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had measurements of anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and other cardiometabolic traits at age 30 years. Early stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score at age 2 years below -2 against the World Health Organization growth standards. Linear regression models were performed controlling for sex, maternal race/ethnicity, family income at birth, and birthweight. Analyses were stratified by sex when p-interaction<0.05. Stunted individuals were shorter (β = -0.71 s.d.; 95% CI: -0.78 to -0.64), had lower BMI (β = -0.14 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.25 to -0.03), fat mass (β = -0.28 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.38 to -0.17), SAFT (β = -0.16 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.26 to -0.06), systolic (β = -0.12 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.21 to -0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.11 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.22 to -0.01), and higher VFT/SAFT ratio (β = 0.15 s.d.; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.24), in comparison with non-stunted individuals. In addition, early stunting was associated with lower fat free mass in both men (β = -0.39 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.47 to -0.31) and women (β = -0.37 s.d.; 95%CI: -0.46 to -0.29) after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that early stunting has implications on attained height, body composition and blood pressure. The apparent tendency of stunted individuals to accumulate less fat-free mass and subcutaneous fat might predispose them towards increased metabolic risks in later life. PMID:29641597
Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki
Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988. The study population was prospectively followed up from 20 years of age until December 31, 2013, with respect to suicide. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2013. Register-based CAs included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminal offending, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Adolescent violent offending was defined as being convicted of a violent crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Estimates of risk of suicide after 20 years of age (from 2004 if born in 1984 and from 2008 if born in 1988) until the end of 2013 were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression analysis. Adjustments were made for demographics and psychiatric disorder. In addition, binary mediation analysis with logistic regression was used. A total of 476 103 individuals (231 699 [48.7%] female) were included in the study. Those with a conviction for violent offending had been exposed to all CAs to a greater extent than those with no violent offending. Cumulative CA was associated with risk of suicide in nonconvicted (adjusted IRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9) and convicted youths, who had a higher risk of suicide (adjusted IRR, 8.5; 95% CI, 4.6-15.7). Adolescent violent offending partly mediated the association between CA and suicide. Individuals
Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko
Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p < 0.000) standard deviations lower than first-born children. The association exists both in small (3 or less children) and large families (4 or more children), in high and low socioeconomic status families, and amongst cohorts born in the 1960s and the 1970s. While in the whole population the birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina
Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relationship with mother and father, lack of parental support in adolescent's individuation process and poor home atmosphere, and mental health was assessed using Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We analyzed the indirect effects of adolescent family relations on mental health at age 42 years old via various disadvantages (somatic and psychological symptoms, relationship/marital status, low education/unemployment and heavy drinking) at ages 22 and 32 years old. Problematic adolescent family relationships were associated with midlife psychological distress in women (0.19; 95% CI 0.11, 0.26) and men (0.13; 95% CI 0.04, 0.21). However, after adjustment for adolescent psychological symptoms, the association was only significant for women (0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.20). Poor family relationships were associated with various disadvantages in early adulthood. The association from poor family relationships (16 years old) to psychological distress (42 years old) was in part mediated via psychological symptoms in women (0.03; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04) and men (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.04) and in women also via heavy drinking in early adulthood (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.03). Adolescent family relationships have a role in determining adult mental health. Targeted support addressing psychological well-being and hazardous drinking for adolescents with problematic family relationships might prevent disadvantages in early adulthood, and further prevent poor midlife mental health.
Piehler, Timothy F.; Dishion, Thomas J.
In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16–17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PMID:24188039
Piehler, Timothy F; Dishion, Thomas J
In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16-17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Blonigen, Daniel M; Durbin, C Emily; Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Recent work has demonstrated the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics from early adolescence to young adulthood. Few studies, however, have tested whether alcohol use initiation impacts trajectories of personality over this time period. We examined the effect of alcohol use initiation on personality development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were male (nmen = 2,350) and female (nwomen = 2,618) twins and adoptees from 3 community-based longitudinal studies conducted at the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research. Data on personality traits of Positive Emotionality (PEM; Well-being), Negative Emotionality (NEM; Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Aggression), and Constraint (CON; Control and Harm Avoidance)-assessed via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)-and age of first drink were collected for up to 4 waves spanning ages 10 to 32. Alcohol use initiation was associated with significant decreases in levels of Well-being and CON traits, most notably Control; and significant increases in levels of all NEM traits, particularly Aggression. In general, the effects of alcohol use initiation on personality traits were moderated by gender and enhanced among those with earlier age of first drink. From early adolescence to young adulthood, alcohol use initiation predicts deviations from normative patterns of personality maturation. Such findings offer a potential mechanism underlying the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics during this formative period of development. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.
findings provide evidence that early childhood lead exposure results in sexdependent and gene-specific DNA methylation differences in the DMRs of PEG3, IGF2/H19, and PLAGL1/HYMAI in adulthood.« less
Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.; ...
findings provide evidence that early childhood lead exposure results in sexdependent and gene-specific DNA methylation differences in the DMRs of PEG3, IGF2/H19, and PLAGL1/HYMAI in adulthood.« less
Albor, Yesica C; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Medina-Mora, María Elena
Specific phobia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the general population, begins at a younger age, and has high comorbidity. However, it receives less treatment than other disorders, perhaps because it is circumscribed to a specific object or situation that can be avoided or is difficult to differentiate from developmentally adaptive fear. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify its clinical significance, risk factors, and course. This study was designed to determine the persistence of specific phobia in participants during an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood and its predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1,071 respondents from a representative 2-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. DSM-IV disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Of adolescents with specific phobia at baseline, 17.46% persisted into adulthood. Persistence of specific phobia was predicted by an age of onset of disorder in adolescence (risk ratio [RR] = 2.83, 95% CI, 1.30-6.13), parental neglect (RR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.35-5.65), a first-degree relative with specific phobia (RR = 2.69, 95% CI, 1.34-5.39) and economic adversities (RR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.21-3.53). Noncomorbid specific phobia in adolescence predicted incidence of other anxiety and substance use disorders in early adulthood (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.11-3.54 and RR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.69, respectively). While many adolescents with specific phobia remit in adulthood, there are early adult consequences of adolescent phobia and identifiable risk factors for persistence that suggest a group of adolescents that might benefit from early intervention. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J
Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.
Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J
This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.
Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J
While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) survivors (N = 179) and normal birth weight controls (N = 145) in the world, born between 1977 and 1982. Motor skills were measured using a performance-based assessment at age 8 and a retrospective self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.
Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Joiner, Thomas E; Cougle, Jesse R; Stanley, Ian H; Sheffler, Julia L
Combat is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, less is known about how exposure to combat in early adulthood may contribute to the development of PTSD as the individual ages. Prior exposure to trauma may "sensitize" people to respond more intensely to subsequent stressors. Further, aging initiates new challenges that may undermine previous coping strategies. Over the life course combat veterans may be more reactive to new stressors and thus be more vulnerable to PTSD. This study draws on the two waves of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS-1) and NCS-2 (10-year follow-up). Participants were male (noncombat N = 620 and combat N = 107) and 50-65 years of age at Wave-2. At baseline, participants were assessed for exposure to wartime combat, number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnoses in the past year, and life-time PTSD. At follow-up, PTSD occurring between waves was determined. A measure of recent life stressors was also obtained. Using logistic regression analyses, combat predicted PTSD at follow-up (controlling for baseline demographics, number of DSM diagnoses in the past year, life-time PTSD). Recent life stressors were also associated with PTSD. Importantly, the effect of combat on PTSD was significant at high levels, but not low levels, of recent life stress. Veterans who have experienced combat may be more reactive to new stressors, and in turn be more vulnerable to PTSD. Combat veterans should be regularly assessed for current stressors and PTSD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McIntyre, Lynn; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott
Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage. Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation. The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3). A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power. Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Webb, Roger T; Pickles, Andrew R; Appleby, Louis; Mortensen, Preben B; Abel, Kathryn M
Offspring of psychiatric inpatients are at higher risk of death from all causes, but their cause-specific risks have not been quantified. To investigate cause-specific deaths at 1 to 25 years in offspring of parents previously admitted as psychiatric inpatients. Population-based cohort study. The entire Danish population. All singleton births (N = 1.38 million) from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1997, with follow-up to January 1, 1999. Linkage to the national psychiatric register identified all previous parental admissions. Deaths from all natural causes and all unnatural causes, specifically, accidents, homicides, suicides, and undetermined causes. The highest observed relative risk (RR) was for homicide in young and older children with affected mothers or fathers. Homicides were between 5 and 10 times more likely to occur in this group, according to child's age and whether the mother or father had been admitted. There was previous parental admission in approximately one third of all child homicides. We found no evidence of increased risk of homicide in exposed young adults, but this group had a 2-fold to 3-fold higher risk of suicide. In almost one fourth of the suicides, there was a history of parental admission. Young adults with 2 previously admitted parents were 6 times more likely to kill themselves than were their peers in the general population. Relative risk of suicide or open-verdict deaths by poisoning were higher than for such deaths occurring by other means. Almost 99% of children studied survived to their mid-20s. However, they were more vulnerable to death from unnatural causes, notably, homicide during childhood and suicide in early adulthood. Further research is needed to establish how parental psychopathology contributes to increased risk of premature death in these offspring.
Kestilä, Laura; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Pensola, Tiina; Pirkola, Sami; Patja, Kristiina; Aromaa, Arpo
To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N = 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29, in 2000, in Finland. The outcome measure is daily smoking. Parental smoking and the respondent's own education had the strongest effects on daily smoking. If both parents of the respondent were smokers, then the respondent was most likely to be a smoker too (for men OR (odds ratio) = 3.01, for women OR = 2.41 after all adjustments). Young adults in the lowest educational category had a much higher risk of daily smoking than those in the highest category (OR = 5.88 for women, 4.48 for men). For women parental divorce (OR = 2.31) and current family structure also determined daily smoking. Parental education had a strong gradient in daily smoking and the effect appeared to be mediated largely by the respondent's own educational level. Childhood living conditions are strong determinants of daily smoking. Much of their influence seems to be mediated through current living conditions, which are also determined by childhood conditions. Determinants of smoking behaviour are developed throughout the life course. The findings stress the importance of the respondent's education and parental smoking as determinants of smoking behaviour. Our results support the notion that intervention on smoking initiation and cessation should be considered throughout the life course. Parental involvement in fostering non-smoking would be important.
Leist, Anja K; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/2009 and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b=-0.06, CI -0.11 to -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34=-0.03, CI -0.04 to -0.01; b35-44=-0.02, CI -0.04 to -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly through more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function.
Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Sewart, Amy; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Bobova, Lyuba; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.
Childhood and adolescent adversity have been shown to predict later mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding which aspects and developmental timings of adversity are important, and the mechanisms by which they have their impact may help guide intervention approaches. A large subset of adolescents (N = 457; Female 68.9%) from the 10-year longitudinal Youth Emotion Project was examined to better understand the associations among childhood/adolescent adversity, substance use disorder, and later health quality. Adolescent (but not childhood) adversities were associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood, adolescent adversities were associated with subsequent onset of substance use disorder, and adolescent adversities continued to be associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood after accounting for the variance explained by substance use disorder onset. These associations were observed after statistically accounting for emotional disorders and socioeconomic status. Specific domains of adversity uniquely predicted substance use disorder and poorer health outcomes. In contrast with current recent research, our findings suggest the association between childhood/adolescent adversity and poorer health outcomes in late adolescence and emerging adulthood are not entirely accounted for by substance use disorder, suggesting efforts to curtail family-based adolescent adversity may have downstream health benefits. PMID:27613006
Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Sewart, Amy; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Bobova, Lyuba; Adam, Emma K; Craske, Michelle G
Childhood and adolescent adversity have been shown to predict later mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding which aspects and developmental timings of adversity are important, and the mechanisms by which they have their impact may help guide intervention approaches. A large subset of adolescents (N = 457; Female 68.9 %) from the 10-year longitudinal Youth Emotion Project was examined to better understand the associations among childhood/adolescent adversity, substance use disorder, and later health quality. Adolescent (but not childhood) adversities were associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood, adolescent adversities were associated with subsequent onset of substance use disorder, and adolescent adversities continued to be associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood after accounting for the variance explained by substance use disorder onset. These associations were observed after statistically accounting for emotional disorders and socioeconomic status. Specific domains of adversity uniquely predicted substance use disorder and poorer health outcomes. In contrast with current recent research, our findings suggest the association between childhood/adolescent adversity and poorer health outcomes in late adolescence and emerging adulthood are not entirely accounted for by substance use disorder, suggesting efforts to curtail family-based adolescent adversity may have downstream health benefits.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Schmitt, Eric; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A
While both environmental and genetic factors are important in the etiology of psychoactive substance use (PSU), we know little of how these influences differ through development. To clarify the changing role of genes and environment in PSU from early adolescence through middle adulthood. Retrospective assessment by life history calendar, with univariate and bivariate structural modeling. General community. A total of 1796 members of male-male pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Levels of use of alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine recorded for every year of the respondent's life. For nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, familial environmental factors were critical in influencing use in early adolescence and gradually declined in importance through young adulthood. Genetic factors, by contrast, had little or no influence on PSU in early adolescence and gradually increased in their effect with increasing age. The sources of individual differences in caffeine use changed much more modestly over time. Substantial correlations were seen among levels of cannabis, nicotine, and alcohol use and specifically between caffeine and nicotine. In adolescence, those correlations were strongly influenced by shared effects from the familial environment. However, as individuals aged, more and more of the correlation in PSU resulted from genetic factors that influenced use of both substances. These results support an etiologic model for individual differences in PSU in which initiation and early patterns of use are strongly influenced by social and familial environmental factors while later levels of use are strongly influenced by genetic factors. The substantial correlations seen in levels of PSU across substances are largely the result of social environmental factors in adolescence, with genetic factors becoming progressively more important through early and middle adulthood.
Kendler, Kenneth S.; Schmitt, Eric; Aggen, Steven H.; Prescott, Carol A.
Context While both environmental and genetic factors are important in the etiology of psychoactive substance use (PSU), we know little of how these influences differ through development. Objective To clarify the changing role of genes and environment in PSU from early adolescence through middle adulthood. Design Retrospective assessment by life history calendar, with univariate and bivariate structural modeling. Setting General community. Participants A total of 1796 members of male-male pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measures Levels of use of alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine recorded for every year of the respondent's life. Results For nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, familial environmental factors were critical in influencing use in early adolescence and gradually declined in importance through young adulthood. Genetic factors, by contrast, had little or no influence on PSU in early adolescence and gradually increased in their effect with increasing age. The sources of individual differences in caffeine use changed much more modestly over time. Substantial correlations were seen among levels of cannabis, nicotine, and alcohol use and specifically between caffeine and nicotine. In adolescence, those correlations were strongly influenced by shared effects from the familial environment. However, as individuals aged, more and more of the correlation in PSU resulted from genetic factors that influenced use of both substances. Conclusions These results support an etiologic model for individual differences in PSU in which initiation and early patterns of use are strongly influenced by social and familial environmental factors while later levels of use are strongly influenced by genetic factors. The substantial correlations seen in levels of PSU across substances are largely the result of social environmental factors in adolescence, with genetic factors becoming progressively more important
Hassett-Walker, Connie; Walsemann, Katrina; Bell, Bethany; Fisk, Calley; Shadden, Mark; Zhou, Weidan
Purpose Much criminal justice research has ignored racial/ethnic and gender differences in substance use subsequent to criminal justice involvement. This paper investigated how early adulthood arrest (i.e., 18 to 21 years of age) influences individuals’ subsequent transitions from non-substance use to substance use, and substance use to non-substance use through age 30. We also consider if these relationships differ by race/ethnicity and gender. Processes proscribed by labeling theory subsequent to getting arrested are considered. Methods We analyzed 15 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed using Stata software version 14. Results We found racial/ethnic differences in the effect of arrest on subsequent substance use, particularly marijuana. Being arrested was associated with shifting non-binge drinkers and non-marijuana users into binge drinking and marijuana use; as well as shifting binge drinkers and marijuana users into non-use. This pattern was most evident among White and Black men. For Black men, the association between arrest and both becoming a binge drinker and becoming a non-binge drinker was experienced most strongly during their early twenties. Women’s patterns in substance use transitions following an arrest were less clear than for the men. Conclusion Some results, particularly transitioning into marijuana use, offer qualified support for processes proscribed through labeling theory. Findings that arrest shifts individuals into non-marijuana use suggest that factors not accounted for by labeling theory – arrest serving as a teachable moment for those using substances - may be at play. PMID:29123972
Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J.
Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20–35 years), mid (40–55 years), and later adulthood (60–75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Results: Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). Discussion: The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. PMID:27974473
Goodwin, R D; Sourander, A; Duarte, C S; Niemelä, S; Multimäki, P; Nikolakaros, G; Helenius, H; Piha, J; Kumpulainen, K; Moilanen, I; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F
Previous studies have documented associations between mental and physical health problems in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about these relationships over time or the specificity of these associations. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between mental health problems in childhood at age 8 years and physical disorders in adulthood at ages 18-23 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between childhood mental health problems, reported by child, parent and teacher, and physical disorders diagnosed by a physician in early adulthood. Significant linkages emerged between childhood mental health problems and obesity, atopic eczema, epilepsy and asthma in early adulthood. Specifically, conduct problems in childhood were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of obesity and atopic eczema; emotional problems were associated with an increased likelihood of epilepsy and asthma; and depression symptoms at age 8 were associated with an increased risk of asthma in early adulthood. Our findings provide the first evidence of an association between mental health problems during childhood and increased risk of specific physical health problems, mainly asthma and obesity, during early adulthood, in a representative sample of males over time. These data suggest that behavioral and emotional problems in childhood may signal vulnerability to chronic physical health problems during early adulthood.
Pavlova, Maria K; Haase, Claudia M; Silbereisen, Rainer K
Drawing on two nationally representative German studies (N(1) = 1744, N(2) = 759), we examined correlates of early, on-time, and late curfew autonomy, a retrospective indicator of behavioural autonomy, in young and middle adulthood (19-37 years of age). Adjustment in four domains was considered: educational attainment, externalizing problem behaviour, subjective well-being, and interpersonal relationships. The early group showed lower adjustment in multiple domains across young and middle adulthood. The late group reported a mixed pattern of adjustment at younger ages (lower externalizing problems, but lower positive affect, lower importance of peers, and lower likelihood to have a partner) and positive adjustment in all domains at older ages. Timing effects were controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and retrospective measures of early adversities, pubertal timing, disclosure to parents, and peer group affiliation in adolescence. Findings show that late behavioural autonomy in its correlates is not simply the opposite of early behavioural autonomy. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Molina, Brooke S G; Howard, Andrea L; Swanson, James M; Stehli, Annamarie; Mitchell, John T; Kennedy, Traci M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Arnold, L Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hoza, Betsy
Inconsistent findings exist regarding long-term substance use (SU) risk for children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The observational follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) provides an opportunity to assess long-term outcomes in a large, diverse sample. Five hundred forty-seven children, mean age 8.5, diagnosed with DSM-IV combined-type ADHD and 258 classmates without ADHD (local normative comparison group; LNCG) completed the Substance Use Questionnaire up to eight times from mean age 10 to mean age 25. In adulthood, weekly marijuana use (32.8% ADHD vs. 21.3% LNCG) and daily cigarette smoking (35.9% vs. 17.5%) were more prevalent in the ADHD group than the LNCG. The cumulative record also revealed more early substance users in adolescence for ADHD (57.9%) than LNCG (41.9%), including younger first use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and illicit drugs. Alcohol and nonmarijuana illicit drug use escalated slightly faster in the ADHD group in early adolescence. Early SU predicted quicker SU escalation and more SU in adulthood for both groups. Frequent SU for young adults with childhood ADHD is accompanied by greater initial exposure at a young age and slightly faster progression. Early SU prevention and screening is critical before escalation to intractable levels. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte; Herbison, Peter
There is a continuing debate about the importance of social versus biological factors in the expression of same-sex attraction. Investigation of prevalence, continuities, and changes over time among young adults growing up in a country with a relatively accepting climate to homosexuality is likely to illuminate this debate. Analyses were therefore undertaken of self-reported same-sex attraction at age 21 and 26, in a cohort of about 1000 people born in 1972/3 in one New Zealand city. Participants were also asked about same-sex behaviour and attitudes to same-sex relationships. By age 26, 10.7% of men and 24.5% of women reported being attracted to their own sex at some time. This dropped to 5.6% of men and 16.4% of women who reported some current same-sex attraction. Current attraction predominantly to their own sex or equally to both sexes (major attraction) was reported by 1.6% of men and 2.1% of women. Occasional same-sex attraction, but not major attraction, was more common among the most educated. Between age 21 and 26, slightly more men moved away from an exclusive heterosexual attraction (1.9% of all men) than moved towards it (1.0%), while for women, many more moved away (9.5%) than towards (1.3%) exclusive heterosexual attraction. These findings show that much same-sex attraction is not exclusive and is unstable in early adulthood, especially among women. The proportion of women reporting some same-sex attraction in New Zealand is high compared both to men, and to women in the UK and US. These observations, along with the variation with education, are consistent with a large role for the social environment in the acknowledgement of same-sex attraction. The smaller group with major same-sex attraction, which changed less over time, and did not differ by education, is consistent with a basic biological dimension to sexual attraction. Overall these findings argue against any single explanation for homosexual attraction.
Tanaka, Chiaki; Matsui, Mie; Uematsu, Akiko; Noguchi, Kyo; Miyawaki, Toshio
Brain development during early life in healthy individuals is rapid and dynamic, indicating that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. The frontal and temporal lobes are known to play a particularly important role in cognition. The study of healthy frontal and temporal lobe development in children is therefore of considerable importance. A better understanding of how these brain regions develop could also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Some developmental studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine infant brains, but it remains the case that relatively little is known about cortical brain development in the first few years of life. In the present study we examined whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe developmental trajectories from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals, considering gender and brain hemisphere differences. We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal morphometric MRI study of 114 healthy individuals (54 females and 60 males) aged 1 month to 25 years old (mean age ± SD 8.8 ± 6.9). We measured whole brain, temporal and frontal lobe gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes, following previously used protocols. There were significant non-linear age-related volume changes in all regions. Peak ages of whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe development occurred around pre-adolescence (9-12 years old). GM volumes for all regions increased significantly as a function of age. Peak age was nevertheless lobe specific, with a pattern of earlier peak ages for females in both temporal and frontal lobes. Growth change in whole brain GM volume was larger in males than in females. However, GM volume growth changes for the temporal and frontal lobes showed a somewhat different pattern. GM volume for both temporal and frontal lobes showed a greater increase in females until around 5-6 years old, at which point this tendency reversed (GM volume
Swartz, Teresa Toguchi
Sociologists have long recognized the relationships between family background and social class attainment. However, by neglecting the multiple ways in which families and parents provide advantages and the extent to which these advantages extend into adulthood, they may still be underestimating the role of families in the reproduction of class…
Gregory, Alice M; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Matthews, Timothy; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor sleep quality, but there is more to learn about the longitudinal association and aetiology of this association. We investigated the following: (a) Is there an association between childhood ADHD and poor sleep quality in young adulthood? (b) Is this driven by the long-term effects of childhood ADHD or concurrent associations with ADHD in young adulthood? (c) To what extent do genetic and environmental influences explain the overlap between symptoms of ADHD and poor sleep quality? Participants were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study of 2,232 twin children born in the United Kingdom in 1994-1995. We ascertained ADHD diagnoses at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18. We assessed sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at age 18. We used regression models to examine longitudinal associations and bivariate twin modelling to test genetic and environmental influences. Children with ADHD had poorer sleep quality in young adulthood, but only if their ADHD persisted. Adults with ADHD had more sleep problems than those without ADHD, over and above psychiatric comorbidity and maternal insomnia. ADHD and sleep problems in young adulthood were associated because of genetic (55%) and nonshared environmental influences (45%). Should ADHD remit, children with ADHD do not appear to have an increased risk of later sleep problems. Good quality sleep is important for multiple areas of functioning, and a better understanding of why adults with ADHD have poorer sleep quality will further the goal of improving treatments.
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Johnston, Lloyd D
Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. This time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time-invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use, and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood.
Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. Not coincidentally, this time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time- invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use; and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. PMID:20883590
Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Song, Mei; Yu, Lulu; Wang, Lan; Li, Ning; Chen, Qianqian; Li, Yunpeng; Cai, Jiajia; Wang, Xueyi
The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of 1976 Tangshan earthquake exposure in early life on performance of working memory in adulthood. A total of 907 study subjects born and raised in Tangshan were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups according to the dates of birth: infant exposure (3-12 months, n=274), prenatal exposure (n=269), and no exposure (born at least 1 year after the earthquake, n=364). The prenatal group was further divided into first, second, and third trimester subgroups based on the timing of exposure during pregnancy. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were used to measure the performance of working memory. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors for impaired working memory. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores did not show significant difference across the three groups. Compared with no exposure group, the BVMT-R scores were slightly lower in the prenatal exposure group and markedly decreased in the infant exposure group. When the BVMT-R scores were analyzed in three subgroups, the results showed that the subjects whose mothers were exposed to earthquake in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy had significantly lower BVMT-R scores compared with those in the first trimester. Education level and early-life earthquake exposure were identified as independent risk factors for reduced performance of visuospatial memory indicated by lower BVMT-R scores. Infant exposure to earthquake-related stress impairs visuospatial memory in adulthood. Fetuses in the middle and late stages of development are more vulnerable to stress-induced damage that consequently results in impaired visuospatial memory. Education and early-life trauma can also influence the performance of working memory in adulthood.
Pals, J L
Identity consolidation during early adulthood was conceptualized as a process of investing oneself in new adult roles, responsibilities, and contexts and evaluating one's ongoing experience in order to construct a coherent, grounded, and positive identity. The current study longitudinally examined (age 21 to age 27) the roles of ego-resiliency, an important personality resource, and marriage, an important identity context, in the process of identity consolidation as it unfolded in a cohort of women who experienced early adulthood during the early 1960s. Prototypes of identity in marriage were developed to reflect the different ways these women invested and evaluated their identities in the context of marriage. Results showed that ego-resiliency at age 21 and the experience of identity in marriage at age 27 were both related to identity consolidation at age 27, and findings also suggested that the relation of age 21 ego-resiliency to age 27 identity consolidation was mediated by identity in marriage. Finally, successful identity consolidation was associated with increasing ego-resiliency from age 21 to age 27. Discussion focuses on the interaction between personality and social context in the process of identity consolidation and the role of identity consolidation in personality change.
Caruthers, Allison S.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.
Adolescent study participants who engaged in a brief, family-centered intervention (the Family Check-Up; FCU) were later assessed for the intervention’s effects on high-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) in early adulthood (age 22). Participants (N = 998 adolescents and their families) were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention in 6th grade and were offered a gated, multilevel intervention that included (a) a school-based family resource center, (b) the FCU, and (c) more intensive, family-based treatment. All services were voluntary, but high-risk families were actively recruited into the FCU. Approximately 23% of the intervention families engaged in the FCU and approximately 18% engaged in more intensive treatment. Using an intent-to-treat design, we found that the direct effect of the FCU on HRSB was not significant; however, an analysis of the developmental processes indicated that intervention families demonstrated improved family relationship quality when compared to control families, which in turn resulted in lower levels of HRSB in early adulthood. Further, the significant effect of family relationship quality on HRSB was mediated by differences in parental monitoring and early sexual activity, and these effects varied as a function of gender and ethnicity. Indirect effects of the FCU on HRSB were significant via multiple different pathways. The implications of these findings for enhancing the impact of family-centered interventions are discussed. PMID:23536124
Whitley, Elise; Batty, G. David; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn
Background There is growing evidence of an inverse association between intelligence (IQ) and unintentional injuries. Methods Analyses are based on a cohort of 1,109,475 Swedish men with IQ measured in early adulthood. Men were followed-up for an average 24 years and hospital admissions for unintentional injury were recorded. Results 198,133 (17.9%) men had at least one hospital admission for any unintentional injury during follow-up. The most common cause of unintentional injury was falling, followed by road accidents, poisoning, fire and drowning. In addition, 14,637 (1.3%) men had at least one admission for complications of medical care. After adjusting for confounding variables, lower IQ scores were associated with an elevated risk of any unintentional injury (Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per standard deviation decrease in IQ: 1.15 (1.14, 1.15)), and of cause-specific injuries other than drowning (poisoning (1.53 (1.49, 1.57)), fire (1.36 (1.31, 1.41)), road traffic accidents (1.25 (1.23, 1.26)), medical complications (1.20 (1.18, 1.22)), and falling (1.17 (1.16, 1.18)). These gradients were stepwise across the full IQ range. Conclusions Low IQ scores in early adulthood were associated with a subsequently increased risk of unintentional injury. A greater understanding of mechanisms underlying these associations may provide opportunities and strategies for prevention. PMID:19955099
Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François
The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.
Womack, Sean R.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Forbes, Erika E.
Objective: Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Method: Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Results: Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Conclusions: Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:26997187
Uda, Satoshi; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Miura, Kayoko; Kawana, Izumi; Noguchi, Kyo
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the magnitude of anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, has recently been used to visualize and quantify parameters of neural tracts connecting brain regions. In order to investigate the developmental changes and sex and hemispheric differences of neural fibers in normal white matter, we used DTI to examine 52 healthy humans ranging in age from 2 months to 25 years. We extracted the following tracts of interest (TOIs) using the region of interest method: the corpus callosum (CC), cingulum hippocampus (CGH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We measured fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Approximate values and changes in growth rates of all DTI parameters at each age were calculated and analyzed using LOESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing). We found that for all TOIs, FA increased with age, whereas ADC, AD and RD values decreased with age. The turning point of growth rates was at approximately 6 years. FA in the CC was greater than that in the SLF, ILF and CGH. Moreover, FA, ADC and AD of the splenium of the CC (sCC) were greater than in the genu of the CC (gCC), whereas the RD of the sCC was lower than the RD of the gCC. The FA of right-hemisphere TOIs was significantly greater than that of left-hemisphere TOIs. In infants, growth rates of both FA and RD were larger than those of AD. Our data show that developmental patterns differ by TOIs and myelination along with the development of white matter, which can be mainly expressed as an increase in FA together with a decrease in RD. These findings clarify the long-term normal developmental characteristics of white matter microstructure from infancy to early adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Appleton, Allison A.; McCormick, Marie C.; Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
Objective Identifying interrelationships among childhood social disadvantage, emotional functioning and adult health may help illustrate how health disparities may become embedded early in life, yet few have considered how these factors are associated. We examined whether the association of child emotional functioning and adult health risk was modified by child socioeconomic status (CSES), or whether child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and adult health risk. Method We studied 430 adult offspring (mean age 42 years) of Collaborative Perinatal Project participants, a cohort of pregnant women enrolled in 1959–1966 (Broman, Nichols, & Kennedy, 1975; Niswander & Gordon, 1972). Child emotional functioning was assessed by psychologist ratings at age 7 and included inappropriate self regulation (ISR) and distress proneness. CSES measures included parental education, household income, and parental occupation. Adult health risk was measured by the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Hypotheses were tested with multiple linear regression. Effect modification was evaluated via interaction terms and stratification of fully adjusted models by CSES. Mediation by child emotional functioning was evaluated via coefficient changes. Results There was no evidence that child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and CRP. Significant interactions were observed for ISR and low income (b = 1.67, SE = 0.70, p < .05), and distress proneness and low (b = 3.14, SE = 1.47, p < .05) and middle (b = 3.52, SE = 1.46, p < .05) income. Stratified models indicated that associations of child emotion with CRP varied significantly by level of parental education, household income and occupation. Conclusion The highest levels of adult inflammation were observed among those with childhood emotional problems who were also exposed to low socioeconomic status as children. This study suggests adulthood disparities in CRP may have developmental origins in
Anderson, Kristen G.; Briggs, Kristen E.L.; White, Helene R.
Background Adolescent selective intervention programs for alcohol have focused on the identification of youth at risk as a function of personality and associated alcohol-related cognitions. Research into the role of personality, drinking motivations, and alcohol-related outcomes has generally focused exclusively on motives to drink. We expand on this literature by focusing on both motives to drink and motives not drink across time from adolescence to early adulthood in a community sample. Methods Using three waves of data from three cohorts from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project (n = 1380; 49.4% women), we modeled the influence of baseline alcohol consumption, disinhibition and harm avoidance (ages 15, 18 and 21 years) on drinking motives and motives not to drink three years later (ages 18, 21 and 24 years) and alcohol use and drinking-related problems seven years subsequently (ages 25, 28, 31 years). Results Path analytic models were relatively invariant across cohort. Across cohorts, disinhibition and baseline alcohol consumption related to later positive reinforcement drinking motives, but less consistency was found for the prediction of negative reinforcement motives to drink. While positive reinforcement motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems seven years later, negative reinforcement motives were generally associated with problems alone. Positive reinforcement motives for drinking mediated relations between baseline consumption and later consumption. However, results were mixed when considering disinhibition as a predictor and drinking problems as an outcome. Similarly, personality and baseline consumption related to later motives not to drink and such motives predicted subsequent alcohol-related problems. However, mediation was not generally supported for pathways through motives to abstain. Conclusions The results of this study replicate and extend previous longitudinal findings with youth and add to the growing
Lima, Manoel C. S.; Barbosa, Maurício F.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Codogno, Jamile S.; Freitas, Ismael F.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.
Background: It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. Method: The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Results: Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Conclusion: Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity. PMID:25372009
Choi, Tai Kiu; Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Howard, David; Brown, Sandra A; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Wall, Tamara L
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and frequently comorbid psychiatric disorder. This study evaluates the development of depressive symptoms, MDD diagnosis, and suicidal ideation in a high-risk sample (N=524) diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms as youth and re-assessed approximately 6.5 years later. Dual trajectory classes of both alcohol and other drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB), previously identified using latent class growth analyses (LCGA), were used to predict depression outcomes. The Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, and Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB classes had higher past-week depression scores, more past-year MDD symptoms, and were more likely to have past-year MDD than the Resolved class. The Dual Chronic and Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB classes also had more past-year MDD symptoms than the Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB class. Youth at highest risk for developing or maintaining depression in adulthood had the common characteristic of persistent antisocial behavior. This suggests young adulthood depression is associated more with persistent antisocial behavior than with persistent substance use in comorbid youth. As such, interventions targeting high-risk youth, particularly those with persistent antisocial behavior, are needed to help reduce the risk of severe psychosocial consequences (including risk for suicide) in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Allchin, Adelyn; Melchior, Maria; Fombonne, Eric; Surkan, Pamela J
Little is known on how parental social relationships may affect their children's mental health. We sought to examine the relation between parental social relationship characteristics and subsequent offspring depression in young adulthood. We used 2009 Trajectoires Épidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study data from 1087 French young adults ages 22 to 35 and parental data from the corresponding Gaz et Eléctricité (GAZEL) study in 1991. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine parental social networks, quality of parental relationships, and reciprocity of parental social support measured in 1991 in relation to offspring depression in young adulthood measured using the Adult Self Report in 2009. Analyses were stratified by participant sex. In adjusted models, daughters of parents who reported giving more support to others than they received had 1.72 higher odds (95% CI, 1.09-2.70) of depression in young adulthood. Daughters of parents who were unsatisfied with their social relationships had 2.14 (95% CI, 1.22-3.76) higher odds of depression. Among male participants, there was no statistically significant association between parental relationship satisfaction, reciprocity of parental exchanges, and depression. Parental relationships during mid-childhood have long-term associations with offspring depression. Results suggest that enhancing social support for parents may have positive implications for their children's mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pampel, Fred C.; Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth M.
A huge literature has documented adult socioeconomic disparities in smoking but says less about how these disparities emerge over the life course. Building on findings that smoking among adolescents differs only modestly by parental SES, we utilize a life course perspective on social differentiation to help explain the widening disparities in smoking in young adulthood. Our theory suggests that achieved socioeconomic status and the nature and timing of adult role transitions affect age-based trajectories of smoking and widen disparities in adult smoking. The analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which follows a representative national sample over four waves from ages 11–17 in 1994/95 to 26–34 in 2007/08. The results show divergent age trajectories in smoking by parental education and that achieved socioeconomic status and life course roles in young adulthood account in good part for differences in the age trajectories. The findings demonstrate the value of the life course perspective in understanding processes of increasing stratification in health behavior and health during the transition to adulthood. PMID:24267752
Siervo, Mario; Horta, Bernardo L; Stephan, Blossom C M; Victora, Cesar G; Wells, Jonathan C K
Birth order has been associated with early growth variability and subsequent increased adiposity, but the consequent effects of increased fat mass on metabolic risk during adulthood have not been assessed. We aimed to quantify the metabolic risk in young adulthood of being first-born relative to those born second or subsequently. Body composition and metabolic risk were assessed in 2,249 men, aged 17-19 years, from a birth cohort in southern Brazil. Metabolic risk was assessed using a composite z-score integrating standardized measurements of blood pressure, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides and fat mass. First-borns had lower birth weight z-score (Δ = -0.25, 95%CI -0.35, -0.15,p<0.001) but showed greater weight gain during infancy (change in weight z-score from birth to 20 months: Δ = 0.39, 95%CI 0.28-0.50, p<0.0001) and had greater mean height (Δ = 1.2 cm, 95%CI: 0.7-1.6, p<0.0001) and weight (Δ = 0.34 kg, 95%CI: 0.13-0.55, p<0.002) at 43 months. This greater weight and height tracked into early adulthood, with first-borns being significantly taller, heavier and with significantly higher fat mass than later-borns. The metabolic risk z-score was significantly higher in first-borns. First-born status is associated with significantly elevated adiposity and metabolic risk in young adult men in Brazil. Our results, linking cardiovascular risk with life history variables, suggest that metabolic risk may be associated with the worldwide trend to smaller family size and it may interact with changes in behavioural or environmental risk factors.
Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kaneko, Noriyo
In this study, we identified the factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing among Japanese and Korean women in early adulthood. Their behavioral intentions were compared in this cross-sectional descriptive study. In total, 887 women (Japanese = 498, Korean = 389) aged 20-39 years participated in this study. Using a self-report questionnaire, knowledge, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention were surveyed. There were significant differences between Japanese and Korean women's scores on all main variables. For Japanese women, all the variables moderately correlated with behavioral intention. In comparison, for Korean women, all independent variables, except for knowledge, moderately correlated with behavioral intention. Through a multiple regression analysis, age, undergoing Papanicolaou testing, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were identified as significant predictors of behavioral intention among Japanese women. Among Korean women, job status, undergoing a Papanicolaou test, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were demonstrated as significant predictors of behavioral intention. Health professionals should consider these factors to encourage Papanicolaou testing in women in early adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.
Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent–child closeness, parental control/monitoring of adolescent behaviors and parent–child communication about sex, assessed in adolescence, were related to condom use in late adolescence/early adulthood among African American (n = 1,986), Chinese American (n = 163), Mexican American (n = 1,011) and White (n = 6,971) youth. Controlling for demographic variables and number of sex partners, the results showed that family support was positively related and parent-child communication was negatively related to condom use for the sample as a whole and for the white sample, but not for the other groups. Parent–child communication about sex and parental control were negatively related to condom use in the Chinese American sample. None of the family factors was related to condom use in the African American or Mexican American samples. Overall, parents talked more with daughters than sons about sexual matters. Condom use was most common among African Americans and among males. Greater attention to cultural expectations regarding sex and gender roles, as well as the causal ordering of effects, are important directions for future research. PMID:21279676
Wright, Melecia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda
No study has analysed how protein intake from early childhood to young adulthood relate to adult BMI in a single cohort. To estimate the association of protein intake at 2, 11, 15, 19 and 22 years with age- and sex-standardised BMI at 22 years (early adulthood), we used linear regression models with dietary and anthropometric data from a Filipino birth cohort (1985-2005, n 2586). We used latent growth curve analysis to identify trajectories of protein intake relative to age-specific recommended daily allowance (intake in g/kg body weight) from 2 to 22 years, then related trajectory membership to early adulthood BMI using linear regression models. Lean mass and fat mass were secondary outcomes. Regression models included socioeconomic, dietary and anthropometric confounders from early life and adulthood. Protein intake relative to needs at age 2 years was positively associated with BMI and lean mass at age 22 years, but intakes at ages 11, 15 and 22 years were inversely associated with early adulthood BMI. Individuals were classified into four mutually exclusive trajectories: (i) normal consumers (referent trajectory, 58 % of cohort), (ii) high protein consumers in infancy (20 %), (iii) usually high consumers (18 %) and (iv) always high consumers (5 %). Compared with the normal consumers, 'usually high' consumption was inversely associated with BMI, lean mass and fat mass at age 22 years whereas 'always high' consumption was inversely associated with male lean mass in males. Proximal protein intakes were more important contributors to early adult BMI relative to early-childhood protein intake; protein intake history was differentially associated with adulthood body size.
Sominsky, Luba; Ziko, Ilvana; Nguyen, Thai-Xinh; Andrews, Zane B; Spencer, Sarah J
Early life overweight is a significant risk factor for developmental programming of adult obesity due to changes in the availability of metabolic factors crucial for the maturation of brain appetite-regulatory circuitry. The appetite-stimulating hormone, ghrelin, has been recently identified as a major regulator of the establishment of hypothalamic feeding pathways. Ghrelin exists in circulation in two major forms, as acylated and des-acylated ghrelin. While most research has focused on acyl ghrelin, the role of neonatal des-acyl ghrelin in metabolic programming is currently unknown. Here we assessed the influences of early life overfeeding on the ghrelin system, including acyl and des-acyl ghrelin's ability to access the hypothalamus in male rats. Our data show that early life overfeeding influences the ghrelin system short-term, leading to an acute reduction in circulating des-acyl ghrelin and increased expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). These changes are associated with increased neuronal activation in response to exogenous acyl, but not des-acyl, ghrelin in the ARC and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Interestingly, while we observed no differences in the accessibility of the ARC to acyl or des-acyl ghrelin, less exogenous acyl ghrelin reaches the PVN in the neonatally overfed. Importantly, the influences of neonatal overfeeding on the ghrelin system were not maintained into adulthood. Therefore, while early life overfeeding results in excess body weight and stimulates acute changes in the brain's sensitivity to metabolic signals, this developmental mal-programming is at least partially alleviated in adulthood. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asghari, Golaleh; Eftekharzadeh, Anita; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Ghareh, Sahar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun
There are substantial controversies about the clinical utility of adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study examined the stability of adolescent MetS by assessing the agreement and discriminative abilities of four different definitions of adolescent MetS and the adult MetS definition during a 10.4-yr follow up. For this study, 1424 adolescents (55.2% female), who participated in the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were included. Kappa was calculated for agreement between adolescent MetS definitions [Cook, de Ferranti, pediatric National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and pediatric International Diabetes Federation (IDF)] and the adulthood MetS definition defined by the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. MetS persistence, instability, and incidence were assessed, and for each of the four adolescent definitions, sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) for the counting of categorical adulthood MetS components was evaluated. The agreement between the four adolescent MetS definitions and JIS was poor (κ = 0.094-0.255). All definitions showed low sensitivity and high specificity, except for de Ferranti's, which contrary to other definitions, had higher sensitivity and lower specificity. All four adolescent definitions revealed generally low AUCs (0.601-0.647). Compared with the pubertal group (11-14 yr), the predictive power was slightly higher in the late-pubertal group (15-18 yr). Cook's and de Ferranti's definitions showed fairly better predictive powers (0.647 and 0.644, respectively). Across all definitions, instability ranged between 5.4 and 19.6%. The adolescent definitions show considerable amount of instability defined as poor agreement and low discriminative abilities tracked into early adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hardee, Jillian E.; Benson, Brenda E.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Chen, Gang; Britton, Jennifer C.; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
Background Biased attention to threat is found in both individuals with anxiety symptoms and children with the childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). Although perturbed fronto-amygdala function is implicated in biased attention among anxious individuals, no work has examined the neural correlates of attention biases in BI. Work in this area may clarify underlying mechanisms for anxiety in a sample at risk for internalizing disorders. We examined the relations among early childhood BI, fronto-amygdala connectivity during an attention bias task in young adulthood, and internalizing symptoms, assessed in young adulthood. Methods Children were assessed for BI at multiple age points from infancy through age seven. Based on a composite of observational and maternal report data, we selected 21 young adults classified as having a history of BI and 23 classified as non-BI for this study (N=44). Participants completed an event-related fMRI attention-bias task involving threat (angry faces) and neutral trials. Internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and diagnostic interviews. Results The young adults characterized in childhood with BI exhibited greater strength in threat-related connectivity than non-behaviorally inhibited young adults. Between-group differences manifested in connections between the amygdala and two frontal regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Amygdala-insula connectivity also interacted with childhood BI to predict young adult internalizing symptoms. Conclusions BI during early childhood predicts differences as young adults in threat and attention-related fronto-amygdala connectivity. Connectivity strength, in turn, moderated the relations between early BI and later psychopathology. PMID:23489415
Gardner, Katherine L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Plotsky, Paul M.; Lowry, Christopher A.
Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA expression, we investigated in rats the effects of maternal separation (180 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS180), neonatal handing (15 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS15), or normal animal facility rearing control conditions (AFR) with or without subsequent exposure to adult social defeat on slc6a4 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and caudal linear nucleus. At the level of specific subdivisions of the DR, there were no differences in slc6a4 mRNA expression between MS15 and AFR rats. Among rats exposed to a novel cage control condition, increased slc6a4 mRNA expression was observed in the dorsal part of the DR in MS180 rats, relative to AFR control rats. In contrast, MS180 rats exposed to social defeat as adults had increased slc6a4 mRNA expression throughout the DR compared to both MS15 and AFR controls. Social defeat increased slc6a4 mRNA expression, but only in MS180 rats and only in the “lateral wings” of the DR. Overall these data demonstrate that early life experience and stressful experience during adulthood interact to determine slc6a4 mRNA expression. These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19781533
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. © The Author(s) 2015.
McDade, Thomas W.; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J.; Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Doane, Leah D.; Adam, Emma K.
Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.—perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college—are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health. PMID:21764487
McDade, Thomas W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K
Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.-perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college-are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Philip R.; Laursen, Thomas M.; Mortensen, Preben B.
It has been suggested that infection during perinatal life may lie at the etiological root of schizophrenia. It has thus been hypothesized that the origin of schizophrenia may lie either in direct fetal infection and/or in a generally increased familial susceptibility to infections, some of which may occur during pregnancy. We explored these 2 hypotheses by assessing maternal infection during pregnancy and maternal as well as paternal infection in general as predictors of schizophrenia in their offspring. We found a slightly increased risk to be associated with prenatal infection exposure. However, the effect of prenatal infection exposure was not statistically significantly different from the effect of infection exposure in general. Parental infection appeared to be associated with development of schizophrenia in adolescence and early adulthood. Our study does not exclude a specific effect of infection during fetal life; yet, it does suggest that schizophrenia is associated with an increased familial liability to develop severe infection. PMID:22021661
Alexopoulos, Cassandra; Cho, Jaeho
The relationship between risk-taking personality and health-risk behaviors has been widely established, where people who like to take risks are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors such as having multiple casual partners and having unprotected sex. Drawing on a national U.S. sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the present study examined the relationship between risk-taking personality and sexual experience among adults in early adulthood, and the role of family (parent-child) communication in moderating this relationship. Findings indicated that, for both males and females, the effect of risk taking on sexual experience through alcohol use dissipated at high levels of father-child communication. However, mother-child communication did not have such moderating effects. Implications for the way in which we study parent-child communication are discussed.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Panerai, Laura; Eggum, Natalie D.; Cohen, Adam B.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
Little is known about changes in religious coping and their relations to adolescents’ and young adults’ functioning. In 686 Italian youths, trajectories of religious coping were identified from age 16–17 years to age 22–23 years; cohorts of youths reported at three of the four assessments. Four trajectories of religious coping were identified: decreasing, low stable, high stable, and increasing. A decline in religious coping was associated with high levels of externalizing problems at age 16–17, whereas an increase in religious coping was associated with higher externalizing problems at ages 18–19 and 20–21 years, and with relatively high involvement with deviant peers. High stable religious copers were high in prosocial behavior at three ages; low stable religious copers were higher than people undergoing change in their religious coping from mid-adolescence into early adulthood. These results can expand our current thinking about religious coping and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21682728
Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Hooimeijer, Pieter
We studied how personality moderates the effect of neighbourhood disadvantage on work commitment and unemployment in early adulthood. Using a personality typology of resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers, we hypothesised that the association between neighbourhood poverty and both work commitment and unemployment would be stronger for overcontrollers and undercontrollers than for resilients. We used longitudinal data (N = 249) to test whether the length of exposure to neighbourhood poverty between age 16 and 21 predicts work commitment and unemployment at age 25. In line with our hypothesis, the findings showed that longer exposure was related to weaker work commitment among undercontrollers and overcontrollers and to higher unemployment among undercontrollers. Resilients’ work commitment and unemployment were not predicted by neighbourhood poverty. PMID:27936132
Feingold, Alan; Washburn, Isaac J.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.
The hypothesis that the disinhibitory effects induced by alcohol consumption contribute to domestic violence has gained support from meta-analyses of mainly cross-sectional studies that examined the association between alcohol abuse and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, findings from multilevel analyses of longitudinal data investigating the time-varying effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) on physical IPV have been equivocal. This 12-year prospective study used multilevel analysis to examine the effects of HED and illicit drug use on perpetration of both physical and psychological IPV during early adulthood. Participants were 157 romantic couples who were assessed biennially 2 to 6 times for substance misuse and IPV. The analyses found no significant main effect of either HED or drug use on perpetration of IPV but there were significant interactions of both HED and drug use with age. Moreover, the developmental trends in substance use effects on IPV typically varied by gender and type of IPV. PMID:25678737
Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Hooimeijer, Pieter
We studied how personality moderates the effect of neighbourhood disadvantage on work commitment and unemployment in early adulthood. Using a personality typology of resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers, we hypothesised that the association between neighbourhood poverty and both work commitment and unemployment would be stronger for overcontrollers and undercontrollers than for resilients. We used longitudinal data (N = 249) to test whether the length of exposure to neighbourhood poverty between age 16 and 21 predicts work commitment and unemployment at age 25. In line with our hypothesis, the findings showed that longer exposure was related to weaker work commitment among undercontrollers and overcontrollers and to higher unemployment among undercontrollers. Resilients' work commitment and unemployment were not predicted by neighbourhood poverty.
Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Aluísio J; Menezes, Ana B; Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G
Background: The number of cesarean sections (CSs) is increasing in many countries, and there are concerns about their short- and long-term effects. A recent Brazilian study showed a 58% higher prevalence of obesity in young adults born by CS than in young adults born vaginally. Because CS-born individuals do not make contact at birth with maternal vaginal and intestinal bacteria, the authors proposed that this could lead to long-term changes in the gut microbiota that could contribute to obesity. Objective: We assessed whether CS births lead to increased obesity during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood in 3 birth cohorts. Design: We analyzed data from 3 birth-cohort studies started in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Subjects were assessed at different ages until 23 y of age. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios with adjustment for ≤15 socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, anthropometric, and behavioral covariates. Results: In the crude analyses, subjects born by CS had ∼50% higher prevalence of obesity at 4, 11, and 15 y of age but not at 23 y of age. After adjustment for covariates, prevalence ratios were markedly reduced and no longer significant for men or women. The only exception was an association for 4-y-old boys in the 1993 cohort, which was not observed in the other 2 cohorts or for girls. Conclusion: In these 3 birth cohorts, CSs do not seem to lead to an important increased risk of obesity during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. PMID:22237058
Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Deen, Mathijs; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W
Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mistry, Sumit; Zammit, Stanley; Price, Valentina-Escott; Jones, Hannah J; Smith, Daniel J
There is limited understanding of the symptomatic development of bipolar disorder from childhood to early adulthood. We assessed whether borderline personality disorder traits, ADHD, and emotional, behavioural and social difficulties during childhood were associated with hypomania assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), to examine associations between measures of childhood psychopathology and lifetime hypomanic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n = 3372). We also conducted a factor analysis of the HCL to identify latent constructs underlying hypomania, and the extent to which childhood psychopathology was associated with these. We identified two factors of the HCL corresponding to energy/mood and risk-taking/irritability. There was evidence of association between childhood borderline personality disorder traits and both hypomania factors, with evidence that the association was stronger with the risk-taking/irritability factor. All individual borderline traits, with the exception of fear of abandonment, were associated with hypomania. There was also evidence of association between most other measures of childhood psychopathology (ADHD, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer relationship problems and reduced prosocial behaviour) and the risk-taking/irritability factor, but much less consistent evidence of association with the energy/mood factor. The HCL cannot diagnose bipolar disorder and may be subject to reporting bias. A broad range of childhood psychopathologies may represent early markers of risk for hypomania. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations, and to inform earlier detection of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Choung, Rok Seon; Shah, Nilay D; Chitkara, Denesh; Branda, Megan E; Van Tilburg, Miranda A; Whitehead, William E; Katusic, Slavica K; Locke, G Richard; Talley, Nicholas J
Although direct medical costs for constipation-related medical visits are thought to be high, to date there have been no studies examining whether longitudinal resource use is persistently elevated in children with constipation. Our aim was to estimate the incremental direct medical costs and types of health care use associated with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. A nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incremental costs associated with constipation. The original sample consisted of 5718 children in a population-based birth cohort who were born during 1976 to 1982 in Rochester, MN. The cases included individuals who presented to medical facilities with constipation. The controls were matched and randomly selected among all noncases in the sample. Direct medical costs for cases and controls were collected from the time subjects were between 5 and 18 years of age or until the subject emigrated from the community. We identified 250 cases with a diagnosis of constipation in the birth cohort. Although the mean inpatient costs for cases were $9994 (95% Confidence interval [CI] 2538-37,201) compared with $2391 (95% CI 923-7452) for controls (P = 0.22) during the time period, the mean outpatient costs for cases were $13,927 (95% CI 11,325-16,525) compared with $3448 (95% CI 3771-4621) for controls (P < 0.001) during the same time period. The mean annual number of emergency department visits for cases was 0.66 (95% CI 0.62-0.70) compared with 0.34 (95% CI 0.32-0.35) for controls (P < 0.0001). Individuals with constipation have higher medical care use. Outpatient costs and emergency department use were significantly greater for individuals with constipation from childhood to early adulthood.
Miething, Alexander; Almquist, Ylva B; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens; Rostila, Mikael
This study explored the sex-specific associations between friendship trust and the psychological well-being of young Swedes from late adolescence to early adulthood. A random sample of native Swedes born in 1990 was surveyed at age 19 years and again at age 23 years regarding their own well-being and their relationships with a maximum of five self-named peers. The response rate was 31.3%, resulting in 782 cases to be analysed. We used sex-stratified structural equation models to explore the associations between trust and well-being. Psychological well-being was constructed as the latent variable in the measurement part. The structural part accounted for the autocorrelation of trust with respect to well-being over time and incorporated the cross-lagged effects between late adolescence and early adulthood. It was found that trust increased while well-being decreased for young men and remained stable for young women from 19 to 23 years of age. The young women reported lower well-being at both time points, whereas no sex difference was found for trust. Based on model fit comparisons, a simple model without forward or reward causation was accepted for young men, whereas reversed causation from well-being to trust was suggested for young women. Subsequent analysis based on these assumptions confirmed the reversed effect for young women. The findings suggest that young people do not benefit from trustful social relations to the same extent as adult populations. Young women who express impaired well-being run a greater risk of being members of networks characterized by low friendship trust over time.
Verweij, Karin J.H.; Creemers, H.E.; Korhonen, T.; Latvala, A.; Dick, D.M.; Rose, R. J.; Huizink, A.C.; Kaprio, J.
Aims To determine 1) the prospective associations of conduct problems during early adolescence with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use in young adulthood and 2) to what extent these associations are due to overlapping genetic versus environmental influences. Design A prospective twin study using biometric twin modelling. Setting Finland. Participants 1847 Finnish twins (943 males and 904 females) were interviewed in early adolescence, of which 73% (N=1353, 640 males and 713 females) were retained in young adulthood. Measurements Symptom counts of conduct disorder (CD) criteria were obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in early adolescence (age 14–15 years, M=14.2, SD=0.15). Frequency of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use was obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in young adulthood (age 19.9–26.6 years, M=22.4, SD=0.7). Findings We found modest to moderate phenotypic correlations (r=0.16 to 0.35) between early adolescent CD symptoms and substance use in young adulthood. In males, the phenotypic correlations of CD symptoms with all three substance use variables are largely explained by overlapping genetic influences. In females, overlapping shared environmental influences predominantly explain the phenotypic correlation between CD symptoms and tobacco and cannabis use. Conclusions Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear to moderately predict substance use in early adulthood. In males, genetic influences seem to be most important in explaining the relationship between conduct disorder symptoms and substance use whereas in females, shared environmental influences seem to be most important. PMID:26748618
Verweij, Karin J H; Creemers, Hanneke E; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Rose, Richard J; Huizink, Anja C; Kaprio, Jaakko
To determine (1) the prospective associations of conduct problems during early adolescence with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use in young adulthood and (2) to what extent these associations are due to overlapping genetic versus environmental influences. A prospective twin study using biometric twin modelling. Finland. A total of 1847 Finnish twins (943 males and 904 females) were interviewed in early adolescence, 73% of whom (n = 1353, 640 males and 713 females) were retained in young adulthood. Symptom counts of conduct disorder (CD) criteria were obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in early adolescence [age 14-15 years, mean = 14.2, standard deviation (SD) = 0.15]. Frequency of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use was obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in young adulthood (age 19.9-26.6 years, mean = 22.4, SD = 0.7). We found modest to moderate phenotypical correlations (r = 0.16-0.35) between early adolescent CD symptoms and substance use in young adulthood. In males, the phenotypical correlations of CD symptoms with all three substance use variables are explained largely by overlapping genetic influences. In females, overlapping shared environmental influences predominantly explain the phenotypical correlation between CD symptoms and tobacco and cannabis use. Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear to moderately predict substance use in early adulthood. In males, genetic influences seem to be most important in explaining the relationship between conduct disorder symptoms and substance use whereas in females, shared environmental influences seem to be most important. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Paterson, Clare; Law, Amanda J.
Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a specific ligand for ErbB4 and a neuronal-enriched neurotrophin is implicated in the genetic predisposition to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, autism and schizophrenia. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, accompanied by increased expression of prefrontal cortical NRG3. Despite our expanding knowledge of genetic involvement of NRG3 in neurological disorders, little is known about the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of risk. Here we exploited the fact that a paralog of NRG3, NRG1, readily penetrates the murine blood brain barrier (BBB). In this study we synthesized the bioactive epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain of NRG3, and using previously validated in-vivo peripheral injection methodologies in neonatal mice, demonstrate that NRG3 successfully crosses the BBB, where it activates its receptor ErbB4 and downstream Akt signaling at levels of bioactivity comparable to NRG1. To determine the impact of NRG3 overexpression during one critical developmental window, C57BL/6 male mice were subcutaneously injected daily with NRG1-EGF, NRG3-EGF or vehicle from postnatal days 2–10. Mice were tested in adulthood using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tasks relevant to neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders. In agreement with previous studies, developmental overexposure to NRG1 induced multiple non-CNS mediated peripheral effects as well as severely disrupting performance of prepulse inhibition of the startle response. In contrast, NRG3 had no effect on any peripheral measures investigated or sensorimotor gating. Specifically, developmental NRG3 overexposure produced an anxiogenic-like phenotype and deficits in social behavior in adulthood. These results provide primary data to support a role for NRG3 in brain development and function, which appears to be distinct
Krettenauer, Tobias; Asendorpf, Jens B.; Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud
The study investigated long-term relations between moral emotion attributions in childhood and adolescence and antisocial conduct in early adulthood while taking into account potentially confounding personality factors. Specifically, onset of prediction, unique and indirect effects of moral emotion attributions were examined. In a longitudinal…
Gomez, Patrick; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta
The investigation of gender differences in emotion has attracted much attention given the potential ramifications on our understanding of sexual differences in disorders involving emotion dysregulation. Yet, research on content-specific gender differences across adulthood in emotional responding is lacking. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to investigate to what extent gender differences in the self-reported emotional experience are content specific. Second, we sought to determine whether gender differences are stable across the adult lifespan. We assessed valence and arousal ratings of 14 picture series, each of a different content, in 94 men and 118 women aged 20 to 81. Compared to women, men reacted more positively to erotic images, whereas women rated low-arousing pleasant family scenes and landscapes as particularly positive. Women displayed a disposition to respond with greater defensive activation (i.e., more negative valence and higher arousal), in particular to the most arousing unpleasant contents. Importantly, significant interactions between gender and age were not found for any single content. This study makes a novel contribution by showing that gender differences in the affective experiences in response to different contents persist across the adult lifespan. These findings support the "stability hypothesis" of gender differences across age. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Berth, Hendrik; Förster, Peter; Balck, Friedrich; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve
The influence of day nursery in early childhood on later mental and social development has been controversially discussed for a long time. Opponents of day nurseries express the considerable concern that serious negative mental consequences in later life result from early separation from the mother. A sample of n=383 respondents (54.2% women, aged 34.2 years on average) from the twenty-first wave of the Saxony Longitudinal Study (2007) was analyzed regarding the impact of day nursery in early childhood on different psychological indicators measured later. By applying standardized instruments several aspects were examined such as anxiety, depression, the occurrence of common somatic symptoms, attachment, confidence towards the future, experiences of menace, and common values towards political aspects. The findings show various gender differences, e. g. women report a worse mental health. Yet, only one of the examined indicators can be explained by day nursery in early childhood: respondents who had not been in day nursery felt more threatened by potential stressful life-events, e. g. unemployment. Furthermore the analysis of variance indicates some interaction effects between gender and day nursery in early childhood. Data doesn't support the critic that day nursery in early childhood negatively influences mental health at a later age. A particular positive impact of day nursery in early childhood on the examined aspects cannot be assumed, either. Facing the ongoing political debate on the expansion of day nursery facilities, further research is needed focusing more in detail on qualitative aspects of day nursery.
Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Chi-Chen; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi
Study Objectives: To examine the longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and development of antisocial behavior from adolescence through young adulthood, and to investigate whether family functioning moderates the association being examined. Potential sex differences were also explored. Methods: A total of 2,491 adolescents participated in a prospective study spanning 2009 through 2014 in northern Taiwan. Measures included sleep problems, family functioning (parental support, family interaction, and family conflict), antisocial behavior, and other individual characteristics (sex, age, parental education, family economic stress, depressive symptoms, and stressful life events). Random coefficient growth models were used to test study hypotheses. Results: Sleep problems were significantly and positively associated with antisocial behavior (B = 0.088 and 0.038 for males and females, respectively). Sex differences further emerged in the moderating effects of family functioning. Among males, those with high family interaction had a weaker association between sleep problems and antisocial behavior; among females, the examined association was weaker in those with high parental support. For both sexes, the association between sleep problems and antisocial behavior was stronger for those with high family conflict. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the robust link between sleep problems and adolescent antisocial behavior over time. We also show for the first time that the association depends on family functioning. Prevention methods and treatment of sleep problems in youths that incorporate family functioning may yield significant benefits for decreasing antisocial behavior. Sex-specific intervention and prevention approaches should also be considered. Citation: Chang LY, Wu CC, Lin LN, Yen LL, Chang HY. The effects of sleep problems on the trajectory of antisocial behavior from adolescence through early adulthood in Taiwan: family functioning as a moderator. SLEEP
Galambos, Nancy L; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J; Johnson, Matthew D; Lachman, Margie E
Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the 30s in both samples, with a slight downturn by age 43 in the high school sample. The rise in happiness after high school and university remained after controlling for important baseline covariates (gender, parents' education, grades, self-esteem), time-varying covariates known to be associated with happiness (marital status, unemployment, self-rated physical health), and number of waves of participation. The upward trend in happiness runs counter to some previous cross-sectional research claiming a high point in happiness in the late teens, decreasing into midlife. As cross-sectional designs do not assess within-person change, longitudinal studies are necessary for drawing accurate conclusions about patterns of change in happiness across the life span. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Tseliou, Foteini; Maguire, Aideen; Donnelly, Michael; O'Reilly, Dermot
Understanding the causes of poor mental health in early childhood and adolescence is important as this can be a significant determinant of mental well-being in later years. One potential and relatively unexplored factor is residential mobility in formative years. Previous studies have been relatively small and potentially limited due to methodological issues. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early residential instability and poor mental health among adolescents and young adults in Northern Ireland. A Census-based record linkage study of 28% of children aged 0-8 years in 2001 in Northern Ireland (n=49,762) was conducted, with six monthly address change assessments from health registration data and self-reported mental health status from the 2011 Census. Logistic regression models were built adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES), household composition and marital dissolution. There was a graded relationship between the number of address changes and mental ill-health (adjusted OR 3.67, 95% CIs 2.11 to 6.39 for 5 or more moves). This relationship was not modified by SES or household composition. Marital dissolution was associated with poor mental health but did not modify the relationship between address change and mental health (p=0.206). There was some indication that movement after the age of five was associated with an increased likelihood of poor mental health. This large study clearly confirms the close relationship between address change in early years and later poor mental health. Residential mobility may be a useful marker for children at risk of poorer mental health in adolescence and early adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Lima, Manoel C S; Barbosa, Maurício F; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Fernandes, Rômulo A
It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b95%CI=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.
Alteba, Shirley; Korem, Nachshon; Akirav, Irit
Early life stress (ES) significantly increases predisposition to psychopathologies. Cannabinoids may cause cognitive deficits and exacerbate the effects of ES. Nevertheless, the endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Here we examined whether cannabinoids…
Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Burrow, Anthony L.
Feeling a sense of purpose in life appears to hold consistent benefits for positive aging and well-being. As such, it is important to consider the potential factors that promote or hinder the development of purposefulness over the lifespan. For instance, it remains unclear whether early life experiences, particularly adverse ones, may hold lasting…
Shapka, Jennifer D.; Domene, Jose F.; Keating, Daniel P.
Growth curve modelling was used to trace the trajectory of the prestige dimension of career aspirations from Grade 9 through to 3 years after high school, as a function of gender and early high school math achievement. The sample consisted of 218 university-bound adolescents (129 female, 89 male). Initial aspiration levels, the slope, and the…
Gayman, Mathew D.; Turner, R. Jay; Cislo, Andrew M.; Eliassen, A. Henry
Although the protective role of social support is well established in the health literature, antecedents of perceived social support are not well understood. Research on family experiential factors during early adolescence, an important psychosocial developmental period in the life course, represents a promising line of inquiry. Using a sample of…
Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…
Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Henriksson, Markus; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri
To test if the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test scores at 20.1 years predicted risk of organic dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). Dementia was defined as inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of organic dementia or AD risk derived from Hospital Discharge or Causes of Death Registers in 2,785 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, divided based on age at first diagnosis into early onset (<65 years) or late onset (≥65 years). The Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test comprises verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial subtests and a total score (scores transformed into a mean of 100 and SD of 15). We used Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for age at testing, childhood socioeconomic status, mother's age at delivery, parity, participant's birthweight, education, and stroke or coronary heart disease diagnosis. Lower cognitive ability total and verbal ability (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD disadvantage >1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.63) scores predicted higher early-onset any dementia risk across the statistical models; arithmetic and visuospatial ability scores were similarly associated with early-onset any dementia risk, but these associations weakened after covariate adjustments (HR per 1 SD disadvantage >1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.57). All associations were rendered nonsignificant when we adjusted for participant's education. Cognitive ability did not predict late-onset dementia risk. These findings reinforce previous suggestions that lower cognitive ability in early life is a risk factor for early-onset dementia. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.
Molina, Brooke S.G.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Pedersen, Sarah; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.
Frequent heavy drinking in early adulthood, particularly prior to age 21, is associated with multiple health and legal consequences including continued problems with drinking later into adulthood. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at risk of alcohol use disorder in adulthood, but little is known about their frequency of underage drinking as young adults or about mediational pathways that might contribute to this risky outcome. The current study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to test social impairment and delinquency pathways from childhood ADHD to heavy drinking in early adulthood for individuals with (n=148) and without (n=117) childhood ADHD. Although ADHD did not predict heavy drinking, indirect mediating effects in opposing directions were found. A delinquency pathway from childhood ADHD to increased heavy drinking included adolescent and subsequently adult delinquent behavior. A social impairment pathway from childhood ADHD to decreased heavy drinking included adolescent, but not adult, social impairment. These findings help to explain the heterogeneity of results for alcohol use among individuals with ADHD and suggest that common ADHD-related impairments may operate differently from each other and distinctly across developmental periods. PMID:24611838
Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.
Background Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. Methodology Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i) a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii) a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. Principal Findings Early rewarded experiences (either at 1–4 or 5–8 days of adult age) enhanced retention performance in 9–12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5–8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9–12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. Conclusions The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees. PMID:19956575
Choi, Kang; Im, Hyoungjune; Kim, Joohan; Choi, Kwang H; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyunju; Hong, Narei; Lee, Eunjung; Seok, Jeong-Ho
Early-life stress (ELS) may mediate adjustment problems while resilience may protect individuals against adjustment problems during military service. We investigated the relationship of ELS and resilience with adjustment problem factor scores in the Korea Military Personality Test (KMPT) in candidates for the military service. Four hundred and sixty-one candidates participated in this study. Vulnerability traits for military adjustment, ELS, and resilience were assessed using the KMPT, the Korean Early-Life Abuse Experience Questionnaire, and the Resilience Quotient Test, respectively. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The final model of the multiple linear regression analyses explained 30.2 % of the total variances of the sum of the adjustment problem factor scores of the KMPT. Neglect and exposure to domestic violence had a positive association with the total adjustment problem factor scores of the KMPT, but emotion control, impulse control, and optimism factor scores as well as education and occupational status were inversely associated with the total military adjustment problem score. ELS and resilience are important modulating factors in adjusting to military service. We suggest that neglect and exposure to domestic violence during early life may increase problem with adjustment, but capacity to control emotion and impulse as well as optimistic attitude may play protective roles in adjustment to military life. The screening procedures for ELS and the development of psychological interventions may be helpful for young adults to adjust to military service.
Gard, Arianna M; Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hariri, Ahmad R; Hyde, Luke W
Early life adversities including harsh parenting, maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and low family economic resources are more prevalent in low-income urban environments and are potent predictors of psychopathology, including, for boys, antisocial behavior (AB). However, little research has examined how these stressful experiences alter later neural function. Moreover, identifying genetic markers of greater susceptibility to adversity is critical to understanding biopsychosocial pathways from early adversity to later psychopathology. Within a sample of 310 low-income boys followed from age 1.5 to 20, multimethod assessments of adversities were examined at age 2 and age 12. At age 20, amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions was assessed using fMRI, and symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder were assessed via structured clinical interview. Genetic variability in cortisol signaling ( CRHR1 ) was examined as a moderator of pathways to amygdala reactivity. Observed parenting and neighborhood deprivation at age 2 each uniquely predicted amygdala reactivity to emotional faces at age 20 over and above other adversities measured at multiple developmental periods. Harsher parenting and greater neighborhood deprivation in toddlerhood predicted clinically-significant symptoms of AB via less amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions and this pathway was moderated by genetic variation in CRHR1 . These results elucidate a pathway linking early adversity to less amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal distress 18 years later, which in turn increased risk for serious AB. Moreover, these findings suggest a genetic marker of youth more susceptible to adversity.
Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H
Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Fonzo, Gregory A.; Ramsawh, Holly J.; Flagan, Taru M.; Simmons, Alan N.; Sullivan, Sarah G.; Allard, Carolyn B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.
Background Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) increases likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood, but the neural processes underlying conferment of this risk have not been established. Here, we test the potential for neuroimaging the adult brain to inform understanding of the mechanism linking CEM to adult anxiety symptoms. Methods One hundred eighty-two adults (148 females, 34 males) with a normal-to-clinical range of anxiety symptoms underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotion-processing paradigm with facial expressions of fear, anger, and happiness. Participants completed self-report measures of CEM and current anxiety symptoms. Voxelwise mediation analyses on gray matter volumes and activation to each emotion condition were used to identify candidate brain mechanisms relating CEM to anxiety in adulthood. Results During processing of fear and anger faces, greater amygdala and less right dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC) activation partially mediated the positive relationship between CEM and anxiety symptoms. Greater right posterior insula activation to fear also partially mediated this relationship, as did greater ventral anterior cingulate (ACC) and less dorsal ACC activation to anger. Responses to happy faces in these regions did not mediate the CEM-anxiety relationship. Smaller right dlPFC gray matter volumes also partially mediated the CEM-anxiety relationship. Conclusions Activation patterns of the adult brain demonstrate the potential to inform mechanistic accounts of the CEM conferment of anxiety symptoms. Results support the hypothesis that exaggerated limbic activation to negative valence facial emotions links CEM to anxiety symptoms, which may be consequent to a breakdown of cortical regulatory processes. PMID:26670947
Low, K S Douglas; Yoon, Mijung; Roberts, Brent W; Rounds, James
The present meta-analysis examined the stability of vocational interests from early adolescence (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 40). Stability was represented by rank-order and profile correlations. Interest stability remained unchanged during much of adolescence and increased dramatically during the college years (age 18-21.9), where it remained for the next 2 decades. Analyses of potential moderators showed that retest time interval was negatively related to interest stability and that rank-order stability was less stable than profile stability. Although cohort standings did not moderate stability, interests of the 1940s birth cohort were less stable than those of other cohorts. Furthermore, interests reflecting hands-on physical activities and self-expressive/artistic activities were more stable than scientific, social, enterprising, and clerical interests. Vocational interests showed substantial continuity over time, as evidenced by their higher longitudinal stability when compared with rank-order stability of personality traits. The findings are discussed in the context of psychosocial development.
Lee, Bo Hye; Lee, Hae Kook
Existing studies showing an association between substance use disorders and Internet addiction have been limited due their cross-sectional design. This longitudinal study investigated the association between addictive Internet use during adolescence and heavy drinking and cigarette smoking in early adulthood. We focused on middle school students from the Korea Youth Panel Study who were 15 in 2003:1804 who did not drink alcohol and 2277 who did not smoke. Multivariate logistic analysis investigated the relationships between Internet use at the age of 15, with regard to location, time spent and reason for use, and drinking and smoking at the age of 20. Using the Internet for chatting, games and adult websites at the age of 15 had a significant association with heavy drinking at the age of 20. The Internet café as the location for Internet use at the age of 15 was associated with smoking behaviour at the age of 20. This study confirmed significant associations between addictive use of the Internet at the age of 15 and heavy drinking and cigarette smoking at the age of 20. The findings demonstrated the negative effects of addictive Internet use, one of the biggest problems with adolescents. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cunningham, Miles Gregory; Bhattacharyya, Sujoy; Benes, Francine Mary
Adolescence is a critical stage for the development of emotional maturity and diverse forms of psychopathology. The posterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala is known to mediate fear and anxiety and is important in assigning emotional valence to cognitive processes. The medial prefrontal cortex, a homologue of the human anterior cingulate cortex, mediates emotional, attentional, and motivational behaviors at the cortical level. We postulate that the development of connectivity between these two corticolimbic regions contributes to an enhanced integration of emotion and cognition during the postnatal period. In order to characterize the development of this relay, injections of the anterograde tracer biocytin were stereotaxically placed within the posterior basolateral nucleus of the amygdala of rats at successive postnatal time points (postnatal days 6-120). Labeled fibers in the medial prefrontal cortex were evaluated using a combination of brightfield, confocal, and electron microscopy. We found that the density of labeled fibers originating from the posterior basolateral nucleus shows a sharp curvilinear increase within layers II and V of the anterior cingulate cortex and the infralimbic subdivisions of medial prefrontal cortex during the late postweanling period. This increase was paralleled by a linear rise in the number of axospinous and axodendritic synapses present in the neuropil. Based on these results, we propose that late maturation of amygdalo-cortical connectivity may provide an anatomical basis for the development and integration of normal and possibly abnormal emotional behavior during adolescence and early adulthood. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Verdoux, H; van Os, J; Maurice-Tison, S; Gay, B; Salamon, R; Bourgeois, M
It has been hypothesized that late adolescence and early adulthood might be a brain developmental stage favoring the clinical expression of psychotic symptoms in psychiatric or neurological diseases. The aim of the present survey was to examine the relationship between age and delusional ideation in a sample of subjects with no psychiatric disorder. The survey was carried out with the Aquitaine Sentinel Network of general practitioners. Consecutive practice attenders were invited to complete the PDI-21 (Peters Delusional Inventory 21 items), a self-report questionnaire designed to measure delusional ideation in the normal population. The study concerned 444 patients who had no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder and who completed the PDI-21. A principal component analysis of the PDI-21 items was performed in order to identify delusional dimensions. An age-related decrease in the likelihood to report delusional ideas was found, younger subjects scoring higher on most dimensions of delusional ideation, such as 'persecution', 'thought disturbance', 'grandiosity' and 'paranormal beliefs'. 'Religiosity' was the only dimension positively associated with age. The results suggest that there may be a physiological neurodevelopmental stage favouring the expression of psychosis proneness in normal subjects, and support the hypothesis that the association between age and positive psychotic symptoms in functional and organic psychoses may be linked to the interaction between normal brain maturational processes and cerebral abnormalities involved in the aetiology of functional and organic psychoses.
Gouin, J P; Zhou, Q Q; Booij, L; Boivin, M; Côté, S M; Hébert, M; Ouellet-Morin, I; Szyf, M; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G; Vitaro, F
Recent models propose deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of key neuro-regulatory genes as a molecular mechanism underlying the increased risk of mental disorder associated with early life adversity (ELA). The goal of this study was to examine the association of ELA with oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) methylation among young adults. Drawing from a 21-year longitudinal cohort, we compared adulthood OXTR methylation frequency of 46 adults (23 males and 23 females) selected for high or low ELA exposure based on childhood socioeconomic status and exposure to physical and sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence. Associations between OXTR methylation and teacher-rated childhood trajectories of anxiousness were also assessed. ELA exposure was associated with one significant CpG site in the first intron among females, but not among males. Similarly, childhood trajectories of anxiousness were related to one significant CpG site within the promoter region among females, but not among males. This study suggests that females might be more sensitive to the impact of ELA on OXTR methylation than males.
Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz
There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus. © The Author(s) 2015.
Walsemann, Katrina M; Ailshire, Jennifer A; Fisk, Calley E; Brown, Lauren L
Gender and racial/ethnic disparities in sleep duration are well documented among the U.S. adult population, but we know little about how these disparities are shaped during the early course of adult life, a period marked by substantial changes in social roles that can influence time for sleep. Prospective data was used from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a U.S.-based representative sample of persons born between 1980 and 1984, who were first interviewed in 1997. Sleep duration was assessed in 2002, 2007/2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Random-coefficient models were estimated to examine gender and racial/ethnic disparities in trajectories of sleep duration across early adulthood as a function of educational experiences, employment, and family relationships. Sleep duration declined during early adulthood. Women reported shorter sleep than men from age 18 to 22, but slept longer than men by age 28. Black Young adults reported sleep durations similar to those of White young adults until age 24, after which blacks slept less than whites. Educational experiences and employment characteristics reduced gender and racial/ethnic disparities, but family relationships exacerbated them. This study is the first to establish the emergence of gender and racial/ethnic disparities in sleep duration during early adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vaiserman, A M
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic non-communicable disease that is driven by insulin resistance as a result of increasing obesity and decreasing activity levels that occur with increasing age. This disease generally develops after the age of 40, but it is now increasingly diagnosed in children and young adults. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that T2D can originate during early development. It has been repeatedly found that malnutrition during the gestational period can result in intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight, which in combination with postnatal catch-up growth may subsequently lead to the development of T2D. There is ample evidence that T2D may also be programmed by maternal substance abuse (the harmful use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs or alcohol) during pregnancy and/or lactation. The research activity in this field is currently mainly focused on the childhood health problems following prenatal exposures to substance abuse. The delayed programming effects on adult-onset disorders, including metabolic syndrome and T2D, however, have been reported only rarely. This review provides animal and human evidence that early-life exposure to substance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, may program not only childhood health outcomes but also life-long metabolic health status, including risk of T2D and related conditions.
Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E
Past studies have identified various risk and protective factors for problem gambling (PG). However, no study has examined the interplay between these factors using a combination of person-centered and variable-centered approaches embedded within a longitudinal design. The present study aimed to (a) identify distinct profiles in early adolescence based on a set of risk factors commonly associated with PG (impulsivity, depression, anxiety, drug-alcohol use, aggressiveness, and antisociality), (b) explore the difference in reported gambling problems between these profiles during midadolescence and early adulthood, and (c) identify family- and peer-related variables that could operate as protective or compensatory factors in this context. Two samples were used: (a) a population sample (N = 1,033) living in low socioeconomic-status neighborhoods and (b) a population sample (N = 3,017) representative of students attending Quebec schools. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify at-risk profiles based on individual risk factors measured at age 12 years. Negative binomial regression models were estimated to compare profiles in terms of their reported gambling problems at ages 16 and 23. Finally, family- and peer-related variables measured at age 14 were included to test their protective or compensatory role with respect to the link between at-risk profiles and gambling problems. Four profiles were identified: well-adjusted, internalizing, externalizing, and comorbid. Compared to the well-adjusted profile, the externalizing and comorbid profiles reported more gambling problems at ages 16 and 23, but the internalizing profile did not differ significantly. Various protective and compensatory factors emerged for each profile at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gargano, Lisa M; Locke, Sean; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R
The present study examined the association between 9/11-related adolescent behavioral problems on mental health outcomes in early adulthood. Data from enrollees of the World Trade Center Health Registry, who completed at least one adolescent (2006-2007 or 2011-2012) and adult survey (2011-2012 or 2015-2016), were analyzed. Adolescent behavioral difficulties were assessed using the adolescent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Adult mental health outcomes included binge drinking, smoking status history, 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and the self-reported number of physician mental health diagnoses. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations of SDQ scores with mental health outcomes. Of the 297 enrollees, 16.8% (n = 50) had abnormal/borderline SDQ scores as an adolescent. Binge drinking was not associated with adolescent SDQ scores. Enrollees with abnormal/borderline SDQ scores as an adolescent were more likely to be a consistent smoker (odds ratio (OR): 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-25.2), have probable PTSD (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.3-9.8), depression (OR: 6.2, 95% CI: 2.7-13.9), and to have two or more self-reported physician-diagnosed mental health conditions as an adult (OR 5.6, 95% CI: 2.0-12.5). The findings of this study underscore the need to intervene early with children exposed to traumatic events so as to avert later adolescent and adult problem behaviors.
Evidence suggests that living in a socioeconomically deprived neighborhood is associated with worse health. Yet most research relies on cross-sectional data, which implicitly ignore variation in longer-term exposure that may be more consequential for health. Using data from the 1970 to 2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents’ neighborhoods (N = 1,757), this study estimates a marginal structural model with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights to examine: (1) whether cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from birth through age 17 affects self-rated health in early adulthood, and (2) the extent to which variation in such exposure helps to explain racial disparities therein. Findings reveal that prolonged exposure to neighborhood disadvantage throughout childhood and adolescence is strikingly more common among nonwhite versus white respondents and is associated with significantly greater odds of experiencing an incidence of fair or poor health in early adulthood. PMID:27799591
Soto, Christopher J
The present research pursues three major goals. First, we develop scales to measure the Little Six youth personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity. Second, we examine mean-level age and gender differences in the Little Six from early childhood into early adulthood. Third, we examine the development of more specific nuance traits. We analyze parent reports, made using the common-language California Child Q-Set (CCQ), for a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 target children ranging from 3 to 20 years old. We construct CCQ-Little Six scales that reliably measure each Little Six dimension. Using these scales, we find (a) curvilinear, U-shaped age trends for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, with declines followed by subsequent inclines; (b) monotonic, negative age trends for Extraversion and Activity; (c) higher levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness among girls than boys, as well as higher levels of Activity among boys than girls; and (d) gender-specific age trends for Neuroticism, with girls scoring higher than boys by mid-adolescence. Finally, we find that several nuance traits show distinctive developmental trends that differ from their superordinate Little Six dimension. These results highlight childhood and adolescence as key periods of personality development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meyer, Marlene; Braukmann, Ricarda; Stapel, Janny C; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine
Previous research demonstrates that from early in life, our cortical sensorimotor areas are activated both when performing and when observing actions (mirroring). Recent findings suggest that the adult motor system is also involved in detecting others' rule violations. Yet, how this translates to everyday action errors (e.g., accidentally dropping something) and how error-sensitive motor activity for others' actions emerges are still unknown. In this study, we examined the role of the motor system in error monitoring. Participants observed successful and unsuccessful pincer grasp actions while their electroencephalography was registered. We tested infants (8- and 14-month-olds) at different stages of learning the pincer grasp and adults as advanced graspers. Power in Alpha- and Beta-frequencies was analysed to assess motor and visual processing. Adults showed enhanced motor activity when observing erroneous actions. However, neither 8- nor 14-month-olds displayed this error sensitivity, despite showing motor activity for both actions. All groups did show similar visual activity, that is more Alpha-suppression, when observing correct actions. Thus, while correct and erroneous actions were processed as visually distinct in all age groups, only the adults' motor system was sensitive to action correctness. Functionality of different brain oscillations in the development of error monitoring and mirroring is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Park, Hye-Kyung
South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake.
Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Holland, Ashley S.
One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that individual differences in adult attachment styles emerge from individuals’ developmental histories. To examine this assumption empirically the authors report data from an age 18 follow-up (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2012) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a longitudinal investigation that tracked a cohort of children and their parents from birth to age 15. Analyses indicate that individual differences in adult attachment can be traced to variations in the quality of individuals’ caregiving environments, their emerging social competence, and the quality of their best friendship. Analyses also indicate that assessments of temperament and most of the specific genetic polymorphisms thus far examined in the literature on genetic correlates of attachment styles were essentially uncorrelated with adult attachment, with the exception of a polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A rs6313), which modestly predicted higher attachment anxiety and that revealed a G × E interaction such that changes in maternal sensitivity across time predicted attachment-related avoidance. The implications of these data for contemporary perspectives and debates concerning adult attachment theory are discussed. PMID:23397970
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu
The identification and understanding of alterable influences on well-being are at the nexus of developmental science and social policy. These influences span the life course but child, family, and school experiences in the first two decades are particularly instrumental to health and well-being. To investigate some of these influences, we report data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study. The study investigates the life course development of 1,539 children (93% African American and 7% Hispanic) who were born in 1979-1980, grew up in the highest-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, and attended early childhood intervention programs beginning in preschool. The goals of the study are to determine the effects of participation in the Child-Parent Center Program, document patterns of child and family well-being over time, and identify child, family, school, and community factors that can promote children’s well being. We describe major intervention findings and summarize the contributions of a variety of personal, family, and school experiences in promoting multiple domains of well-being. PMID:23858276
Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D
A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood.
Matthies, Swantje; Holzner, Sebastian; Feige, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Philipsen, Alexandra
Objective: Tobacco smoking and ADHD frequently co-occur. So far, the bulk of research on the ADHD-smoking comorbidity has been done in children with ADHD and nonclinical adult samples. To assess smoking habits in adults with ADHD, the authors used the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Method: In 60 adult outpatients, with an ADHD…
Polacek, Georgia N.; Erwin, T. Dary; Rau, Jennifer G.
Purpose: To examine the relationship of general education wellness coursework on wellness behavior and knowledge of students as undergraduates and again four years after graduation. Methods: Participants were 87 college students at a large, southeastern public university. Three administrations of the General Education Wellness Test were conducted…
Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.
Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…
Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth
Objective: This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Method: Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle.…
Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wisetborisut, Anawat; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea
Obesity and obesity related conditions, driven by processes such as urbanization and globalization, are contributing to pronounced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. There is limited evidence on the influence of living in an urban environment in early life on obesity and obesity related conditions later in life in developing countries such as Thailand. We used data from two cohort studies conducted in Thailand, the Thai Cohort Study (TCS) and the Chiang Mai University (CMU) Health Worker Study, to investigate the association between early life urban (vs rural) exposure and the later development of obesity. We additionally explored the association between early life urban exposure and impaired fasting glucose in adulthood using data from the CMU Health Worker Study. Among 48,490 adults from the TCS, 9.1 % developed obesity within 4 years of follow-up. Among 1,804 initially non-obese adults from CMU Health worker study, 13.6 % developed obesity within 5 years of follow-up. Early life urban exposure was associated with increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood in both cohorts. Adjusting for age and sex, those who spent their early lives in urban areas were 1.21 times more likely to develop obesity in the TCS (OR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.31) and 1.65 times more likely in the CMU Health Worker study (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.23 to 2.20). These associations remained significant despite adjustment for later life urban exposure and current household income. No evidence for an association was found for impaired fasting glucose. Early life urban exposure was associated with increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood. These findings support public health intervention programs to prevent obesity starting from early ages.
Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Pajala, Satu; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Oksa, Heikki; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia
Physical activity (PA) has beneficial effects on older age physical functioning, but longitudinal studies with follow-ups extending up to decades are few. We investigated the association between leisure-time PA (LTPA) and occupational PA (OPA) from early to late adulthood in relation to later life performance-based physical functioning. The study involved 1260 people aged 60 to 79 years who took part in assessments of physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] test, 10-m maximal walking test, and grip strength test). Participants' data on earlier life LTPA/OPA (age range 25 to 74 years) were received from the previous studies (average follow-up 13.4 years). Logistic, linear, and censored regression models were used to assess the associations between LTPA/OPA earlier in life and subsequent physical functioning. A high level of LTPA earlier in life was associated with a lower risk of having difficulties on the SPPB test (odds ratio [OR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.58) and especially on the chair rise test (OR: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64) in old age. Heavy manual work predicted difficulties on SPPB (OR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.22-2.98) and the chair rise test (OR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) and poorer walking speed (β = .10, P = .005). This study highlights the importance of LTPA on later life functioning, but also indicates the inverse effects that may be caused by heavy manual work.
Peeters, M W; Thomis, M A; Claessens, A L; Loos, R J F; Maes, H H M; Lysens, R; Vanden Eynde, B; Vlietinck, R; Beunen, G
Several studies with different designs have attempted to estimate the heritability of somatotype components. However they often ignore the covariation between the three components as well as possible sex and age effects. Shared environmental factors are not always controlled for. This study explores the pattern of genetic and environmental determination of the variation in Heath-Carter somatotype components from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data from the Leuven Longitudinal Twin Study, a longitudinal sample of Belgian same-aged twins followed from 10 to 18 years (n = 105 pairs, equally divided over five zygosity groups), is entered into a multivariate path analysis. Thus the covariation between the somatotype components is taken into account, gender heterogeneity can be tested, common environmental influences can be distinguished from genetic effects and age effects are controlled for. Heritability estimates from 10 to 18 years range from 0.21 to 0.88, 0.46 to 0.76 and 0.16 to 0.73 for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy in boys. In girls, heritability estimates range from 0.76 to 0.89, 0.36 to 0.57 and 0.57 to 0.76 for the respective somatotype components. Sex differences are significant from 14 years onwards. More than half of the variance in all somatotype components for both sexes at all time points is explained by factors the three components have in common. The finding of substantial genetic influence on the variability of somatotype components is further supported. The need to consider somatotype as a whole is stressed as well as the need for sex- and perhaps age-specific analyses. Further multivariate analyses are needed to confirm the present findings.
Womack, Sean R; Shaw, Daniel S; Weaver, Chelsea M; Forbes, Erika E
Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention.
Longinetti, E; Mariosa, D; Larsson, H; Almqvist, C; Lichtenstein, P; Ye, W; Fang, F
There is a clinical impression that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a higher level of physical fitness and lower body mass index (BMI) than average. However, there is a lack of literature examining the relationship between cognitive fitness and ALS risk. In this study we explored the associations of both physical and cognitive fitness with future risk of ALS. Data on physical fitness, BMI, intelligence quotient (IQ) and stress resilience were collected from 1 838 376 Swedish men aged 17-20 years at conscription during 1968-2010. Their subsequent ALS diagnoses were identified through the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs from flexible parametric models were used to assess age-specific associations of physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience with ALS. We identified 439 incident ALS cases during follow-up (mean age at diagnosis: 48 years). Individuals with physical fitness above the highest tertile tended to have a higher risk of ALS before the age of 45 years (range of HRs: 1.42-1.75; statistically significant associations at age 41-43 years) compared with others. Individuals with BMI ≥ 25 tended to have a lower risk of ALS at all ages (range of HRs: 0.42-0.80; statistically significant associations at age 42-48 years) compared with those with BMI < 25. Individuals with IQ above the highest tertile had a statistically significantly increased risk of ALS at an age of 56 years and above (range of HRs: 1.33-1.81), whereas individuals with stress resilience above the highest tertile had a lower risk of ALS at an age of 55 years and below (range of HRs: 0.47-0.73). Physical fitness, BMI, IQ and stress resilience in young adulthood might be associated with the development of ALS at an early age. © 2016 EAN.
Anderson, Kristen G; Briggs, Kristen E L; White, Helene R
Adolescent selective intervention programs for alcohol have focused on the identification of youth at risk as a function of personality and associated alcohol-related cognitions. Research into the role of personality, drinking motivations, and alcohol-related outcomes has generally focused exclusively on motives to drink. We expand on this literature by focusing on both motives to drink and motives not to drink across time from adolescence to early adulthood in a community sample. Using 3 waves of data from 3 cohorts from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project (n = 1,380; 49.4% women), we modeled the influence of baseline alcohol consumption, disinhibition (DIS), and harm avoidance (ages 15, 18, and 21 years) on drinking motives and motives not to drink 3 years later (ages 18, 21, and 24 years) and alcohol use and drinking-related problems 7 years subsequently (ages 25, 28, and 31 years). Path analytic models were relatively invariant across cohort. Across cohorts, DIS and baseline alcohol consumption related to later positive reinforcement drinking motives, but less consistency was found for the prediction of negative reinforcement motives to drink. While positive reinforcement motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems 7 years later, negative reinforcement motives were generally associated with problems alone. Positive reinforcement motives for drinking mediated relations between baseline consumption and later consumption. However, results were mixed when considering DIS as a predictor and drinking problems as an outcome. Similarly, personality and baseline consumption related to later motives not to drink and such motives predicted subsequent alcohol-related problems. However, mediation was not generally supported for pathways through motives to abstain. The results of this study replicate and extend previous longitudinal findings with youth and add to the growing literature on motivations not to engage in alcohol use
Appleton, Allison A; Buka, Stephen L; McCormick, Marie C; Koenen, Karestan C; Loucks, Eric B; Kubzansky, Laura D
Identifying interrelationships among childhood social disadvantage, emotional functioning and adult health may help illustrate how health disparities may become embedded early in life, yet few have considered how these factors are associated. We examined whether the association of child emotional functioning and adult health risk was modified by child socioeconomic status (CSES), or whether child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and adult health risk. We studied 430 adult offspring (mean age 42 years) of Collaborative Perinatal Project participants, a cohort of pregnant women enrolled in 1959-1966 (Broman, Nichols, & Kennedy, 1975; Niswander & Gordon, 1972). Child emotional functioning was assessed by psychologist ratings at age 7 and included inappropriate self regulation (ISR) and distress proneness. CSES measures included parental education, household income, and parental occupation. Adult health risk was measured by the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Hypotheses were tested with multiple linear regression. Effect modification was evaluated via interaction terms and stratification of fully adjusted models by CSES. Mediation by child emotional functioning was evaluated via coefficient changes. There was no evidence that child emotional functioning mediated the association of CSES and CRP. Significant interactions were observed for ISR and low income (b = 1.67, SE = 0.70, p < .05), and distress proneness and low (b = 3.14, SE = 1.47, p < .05) and middle (b = 3.52, SE = 1.46, p < .05) income. Stratified models indicated that associations of child emotion with CRP varied significantly by level of parental education, household income and occupation. The highest levels of adult inflammation were observed among those with childhood emotional problems who were also exposed to low socioeconomic status as children. This study suggests adulthood disparities in CRP may have developmental origins in childhood adversity.
da Silva, Flávia R M; Grassi, Tony F; Zapaterini, Joyce R; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Barbisan, Luis F
Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning. Female offspring received the same diets as their dams until postnatal day (PND) 51. At PND 51, the animals received a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg, ig) and zinc-adequate diets. At PND 180, female were euthanized, and tumor samples were processed for histological evaluation and gene expression microarray analysis. The ZnD induced a significant reduction in female offspring body weight evolution and in mammary gland development. At late in life, the ZnD or ZnS did not alter the latency, incidence, multiplicity, volume or histological types of mammary tumors in relation to the ZnA group. However, the total tumor number in ZnS group was higher than in ZnA group, accompanied by distinct expression of 4 genes up- and 15 genes down-regulated. The present findings indicate that early-in-life dietary zinc supplementation, differently to zinc deficiency, has a potential to modify the susceptibility to the development of mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E; Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Goings, Trenette Clark
Prior research has often overlooked potential cohort differences in marijuana views and use across adolescence and young adulthood. To begin to address this gap, we conduct an exploratory examination of marijuana views and use among American youth using a panel of cross-sectional surveys. Findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected annually from adolescents (ages 12-17; n=230,452) and young adults (ages 18-21; n=120,588) surveyed as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2014. For each of the birth years between 1986 and 1996, we combined a series of nationally representative cross-sections to provide multi-year data strings designed to approximate nationally representative cohorts. Compared to youth born in the mid-to-late 1980s, youth born in the mid-1990s reported significantly higher levels of marijuana disapproval during the early adolescent years (Age 14: 1988=64.7%, 1994=70.4%) but lower levels of disapproval during the young adult years (Age 19: 1988=32.0%, 1994=25.0%; Age 20: 1988=27.9%, 1994=19.7%). Moreover, the prevalence of marijuana use among youth born in 1994 was significantly lower-compared to youth born in 1988-at age 14 (1988: 11.39%, 1994: 8.19%) and significantly higher at age 18 (1988: 29.67%, 1994: 34.83%). This pattern held even when adjusting for potential confounding by demographic changes in the population across the study period. We see evidence of changes in the perceptions of marijuana use among youth born during the late twentieth century. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tian, Lixia; Ma, Lin; Wang, Linlin
In contrast to extended research interests in the maturation and aging of human brain, alterations of brain structure and function from early to middle adulthood have been much less studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent and pattern of the alterations of functional interactions between brain regions from early to middle adulthood. We carried out the study by multivariate pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) data of 63 adults aged 18 to 45 years. Specifically, using elastic net, we performed brain age estimation and age-group classification (young adults aged 18-28 years vs. middle-aged adults aged 35-45 years) based on the resting-state functional connectivities (RSFCs) between 160 regions of interest (ROIs) evaluated on the RS-fMRI data of each subject. The results indicate that the estimated brain ages were significantly correlated with the chronological age (R=0.78, MAE=4.81), and a classification rate of 94.44% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.99 were obtained when classifying the young and middle-aged adults. These results provide strong evidence that functional interactions between brain regions undergo notable alterations from early to middle adulthood. By analyzing the RSFCs that contribute to brain age estimation/age-group classification, we found that a majority of the RSFCs were inter-network, and we speculate that inter-network RSFCs might mature late but age early as compared to intra-network ones. In addition, the strengthening/weakening of the RSFCs associated with the left/right hemispheric ROIs, the weakening of cortico-cerebellar RSFCs and the strengthening of the RSFCs between the default mode network and other networks contributed much to both brain age estimation and age-group classification. All these alterations might reflect that aging of brain function is already in progress in middle adulthood. Overall, the present study indicated that the RSFCs undergo notable
Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret A; Hicks, Brian M; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Objective: This study builds on previous work delineating a hierarchical model of family environmental risk in relation to a hierarchical model of externalizing disorders (EXTs) by evaluating for gene–environment interplay in these relationships. The associations between parent–child relationship quality (conflict, bonding, and management) and substance-specific adolescent family environments (parental/sibling tobacco/alcohol use) in relation to young adult EXTs (age ∼22 years nicotine, alcohol, and other drug dependence; antisocial and risky sexual behavior) were evaluated. Method: The sample included 533 adopted offspring and 323 biological offspring. Because adopted youth do not share genes with their parents, a significant association between parent–child relationship quality and EXTs would provide evidence against passive gene–environment correlation (rGE). Significant associations between parental tobacco/alcohol use in relation to offspring nicotine/alcohol dependence in the adopted offspring support common environmental influence. Significant associations detected for the biological offspring only suggest common genetic influence. Results: For both adoptive and biological offspring, there was a significant association between parent–child relationship quality and EXTs. Parental tobacco/alcohol use was unrelated to EXTs. Sibling tobacco/alcohol use was related to EXTs, but only for the biological siblings. Parental tobacco use was associated with the residual variance in nicotine dependence in adopted offspring. Conclusions: Findings replicate a long-term influence of adolescent parent–child relationship quality on adult EXTs. Findings extend previous research by providing evidence against passive rGE in this association. The association between parental tobacco use and adult nicotine dependence appears to be environmentally mediated, but caution is warranted as we found this relationship only for adopted youth. PMID:24988261
Poidvin, Amélie; Touzé, Emmanuel; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Landier, Fabienne; Béjot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Rothwell, Peter M; Carel, Jean-Claude; Coste, Joël
We investigated the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes in a population-based cohort of patients in France treated with growth hormone (GH) for short stature in childhood. Adult morbidity data were obtained in 2008-2010 for 6,874 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency or short stature who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996. Cerebrovascular events were validated using medical reports and imaging data and classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. Case ascertainment completeness was estimated with capture-recapture methods. The incidence of stroke and of stroke subtypes was calculated and compared with population values extracted from registries in Dijon and Oxford, between 2000 and 2012. Using both Dijon and Oxford population-based registries as references, there was a significantly higher risk of stroke among patients treated with GH in childhood. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to a very substantially and significantly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (standardized incidence ratio from 3.5 to 7.0 according to the registry rates considered, and accounting or not accounting for missed cases), and particularly subarachnoid hemorrhage (standardized incidence ratio from 5.7 to 9.3). We report a strong relationship between hemorrhagic stroke and GH treatment in childhood for isolated growth hormone deficiency or childhood short stature. Patients treated with GH worldwide should be advised about this association and further studies should evaluate the potentially causal role of GH treatment in these findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F
To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), n=1 331), normal-weight (18.5 kg/m(2)≤BMI <24 kg/m(2), n=10 400), overweight (24 kg/m(2)≤BMI<28 kg/m(2), n=2 019) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m(2), n=133) groups. Weight change was defined as the difference between the body weight at the age of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into<-7.5 kg (n=903), -7.5--2.6 kg (n=1 883), -2.5-2.5 kg (n=2 573), 2.6-7.5 kg (n=2 786), 7.6-12.5 kg (n=2 674) and>12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend <0.01). The prevalence of low HDL-C for adult weight change were 8.8%(79/903), 8.0%(151/1 883), 10.5%(269/2 573), 13.4%(373/2 786), 19.1%(511/2 674), and 24.0%(735/3 064)(P for trend <0.01)for weight change of <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and>12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and
Xu, Man K.; Gaysina, Darya; Tsonaka, Roula; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B.
Very few molecular genetic studies of personality traits have used longitudinal phenotypic data, therefore molecular basis for developmental change and stability of personality remains to be explored. We examined the role of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) on extraversion and neuroticism from adolescence to adulthood, using modern latent variable methods. A sample of 1,160 male and 1,180 female participants with complete genotyping data was drawn from a British national birth cohort, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD). The predictor variable was based on a latent variable representing genetic variations of the MAOA gene measured by three SNPs (rs3788862, rs5906957, and rs979606). Latent phenotype variables were constructed using psychometric methods to represent cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypes of extraversion and neuroticism measured at ages 16 and 26. In males, the MAOA genetic latent variable (AAG) was associated with lower extraversion score at age 16 (β = −0.167; CI: −0.289, −0.045; p = 0.007, FDRp = 0.042), as well as greater increase in extraversion score from 16 to 26 years (β = 0.197; CI: 0.067, 0.328; p = 0.003, FDRp = 0.036). No genetic association was found for neuroticism after adjustment for multiple testing. Although, we did not find statistically significant associations after multiple testing correction in females, this result needs to be interpreted with caution due to issues related to x-inactivation in females. The latent variable method is an effective way of modeling phenotype- and genetic-based variances and may therefore improve the methodology of molecular genetic studies of complex psychological traits. PMID:29075213
Xu, Man K; Gaysina, Darya; Tsonaka, Roula; Morin, Alexandre J S; Croudace, Tim J; Barnett, Jennifer H; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B
Very few molecular genetic studies of personality traits have used longitudinal phenotypic data, therefore molecular basis for developmental change and stability of personality remains to be explored. We examined the role of the monoamine oxidase A gene ( MAOA ) on extraversion and neuroticism from adolescence to adulthood, using modern latent variable methods. A sample of 1,160 male and 1,180 female participants with complete genotyping data was drawn from a British national birth cohort, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD). The predictor variable was based on a latent variable representing genetic variations of the MAOA gene measured by three SNPs (rs3788862, rs5906957, and rs979606). Latent phenotype variables were constructed using psychometric methods to represent cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypes of extraversion and neuroticism measured at ages 16 and 26. In males, the MAOA genetic latent variable (AAG) was associated with lower extraversion score at age 16 (β = -0.167; CI: -0.289, -0.045; p = 0.007, FDRp = 0.042), as well as greater increase in extraversion score from 16 to 26 years (β = 0.197; CI: 0.067, 0.328; p = 0.003, FDRp = 0.036). No genetic association was found for neuroticism after adjustment for multiple testing. Although, we did not find statistically significant associations after multiple testing correction in females, this result needs to be interpreted with caution due to issues related to x-inactivation in females. The latent variable method is an effective way of modeling phenotype- and genetic-based variances and may therefore improve the methodology of molecular genetic studies of complex psychological traits.
McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.
Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life. PMID:26973537
Hill, Terrence D.; Kaplan, Lauren M.; French, Michael T.; Johnson, Robert J.
Although numerous studies have documented the long-term effects of childhood victimization on mental health in adulthood, few have directly examined potential mediators and moderators of this association. Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999)--a probability sample of 2,402 predominantly black and Hispanic low-income…
Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and…
Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Day, Jack K.; Cancel-Tirado, Doris; Driscoll, Debra Minar
This chapter explores how fatherhood prompts struggle and growth in the psychological, social, and economic changes associated with the transition to adulthood. Little is known about these connections, especially for disadvantaged Latino and White fathers who live in small and mid-sized American communities. We draw on eight in-depth focus groups…
Goldstein, Michael J.
The author conducted two studies of disturbed adolescents in an effort to specify the precursors of severe psychopathology in adulthood, particularly the schizophrenic spectrum of disorders. In the prospective study 35 disturbed adolescents were followed for a five-year period from age 16 to 21. Numerous measures were taken on the target…
Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D
A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.
Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.
A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099
Winsauer, Peter J; Sutton, Jessie L
This study examined whether chronic Δ(9)-THC during early adulthood would produce the same hormonally-dependent deficits in learning that are produced by chronic Δ(9)-THC during adolescence. To do this, either sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received daily saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ(9)-THC i.p. for 40 days during early adulthood. Following chronic administration, and a drug-free period to train both a learning and performance task, acute dose-effect curves for Δ(9)-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) were established in each of the four groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline and OVX/THC). The dependent measures of responding under the learning and performance tasks were the overall response rate and the percentage of errors. Although the history of OVX and chronic Δ(9)-THC in early adulthood did not significantly affect non-drug or baseline behavior under the tasks, acute administration of Δ(9)-THC produced both rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects on learning and performance behavior, and these effects were dependent on their hormone condition. More specifically, both intact groups were more sensitive to the rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects of Δ(9)-THC than the OVX groups irrespective of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration, as there was no significant main effect of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between chronic treatment (saline or Δ(9)-THC) and the dose of Δ(9)-THC administered as an adult. Post mortem examination of 10 brain regions also indicated there were significant differences in agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding across brain regions, but no significant effects of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between the chronic treatment and cannabinoid signaling. Thus, acute Δ(9)-THC produced hormonally-dependent effects on learning and performance behavior, but a period of chronic administration during early adulthood did not alter these effects significantly, which is contrary to what we
Kiviruusu, Olli; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Huurre, Taina
Poor childhood family conditions have a long-term effect on adult mental health, but the mechanisms behind this association are unclear. Our aim was to study the pathways from problematic family relationships in adolescence to midlife psychological distress via disadvantages in early adulthood. Participants of a Finnish cohort study at the age of 16 years old in 1983 were followed up at ages 22, 32 and 42 years old (N = 1334). Problems in family relationships were measured with poor relationship with mother and father, lack of parental support in adolescent’s individuation process and poor home atmosphere, and mental health was assessed using Kessler’s Psychological Distress Scale (K10). We analyzed the indirect effects of adolescent family relations on mental health at age 42 years old via various disadvantages (somatic and psychological symptoms, relationship/marital status, low education/unemployment and heavy drinking) at ages 22 and 32 years old. Problematic adolescent family relationships were associated with midlife psychological distress in women (0.19; 95% CI 0.11, 0.26) and men (0.13; 95% CI 0.04, 0.21). However, after adjustment for adolescent psychological symptoms, the association was only significant for women (0.12; 95% CI 0.04, 0.20). Poor family relationships were associated with various disadvantages in early adulthood. The association from poor family relationships (16 years old) to psychological distress (42 years old) was in part mediated via psychological symptoms in women (0.03; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04) and men (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.04) and in women also via heavy drinking in early adulthood (0.02; 95% CI 0.00, 0.03). Adolescent family relationships have a role in determining adult mental health. Targeted support addressing psychological well-being and hazardous drinking for adolescents with problematic family relationships might prevent disadvantages in early adulthood, and further prevent poor midlife mental health. PMID:28552985
Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A
We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.
Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Ferro, Mark A; Schmidt, Louis A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Mathewson, Karen J
Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; >2,500 g). Internalizing and externalizing data were collected over 20 years in three waves, during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. Growth models were used to compare longitudinal trajectories in a geographically based sample of 151 ELBW survivors and 137 NBW control participants born between 1977 and 1982 matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status at age 8. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic and immigrant status, and family functioning, ELBW survivors failed to show the normative, age-related decline in internalizing problems over time relative to their NBW peers (β = .21; p < .01). Both groups exhibited small declines in externalizing problems over the same period. Self-esteem (but not physical health, IQ, or maternal mood) partially mediated the association between ELBW status and internalizing problems. Extremely low birth weight survivors experienced a blunting of the expected improvement in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood. These findings suggest that altered physiological regulatory systems supporting emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the maintenance of internalizing problems in this population. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Burgner, David P; Cooper, Matthew N; Moore, Hannah C; Stanley, Fiona J; Thompson, Peter L; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Carter, Kim W
Pathogen-specific and overall infection burden may contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the effect of infection severity and timing is unknown. We investigated whether childhood infection-related hospitalisation (IRH, a marker of severity) was associated with subsequent adult CVD hospitalisation. Using longitudinal population-based statutorily-collected administrative health data from Western Australia (1970-2009), we identified adults hospitalised with CVD (ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and matched them (10:1) to population controls. We used Cox regression to assess relationships between number and type of childhood IRH and adulthood CVD hospitalisation, adjusting for sex, age, Indigenous status, socioeconomic status, and birth weight. 631 subjects with CVD-related hospitalisation in adulthood (≥ 18 years) were matched with 6310 controls. One or more childhood (< 18 years) IRH was predictive of adult CVD-related hospitalisation (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6; P < 0.001). The association showed a dose-response; ≥ 3 childhood IRH was associated with a 2.2 times increased risk of CVD-related hospitalisation in adulthood (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% CI 1.7-2.9; P < 0.001). The association was observed across all clinical diagnostic groups of infection (upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, infectious gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, and other viral infection), and individually with CVD diagnostic categories (ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease). Severe childhood infection is associated with CVD hospitalisations in adulthood in a dose-dependent manner, independent of population-level risk factors.
Lake, Amelia A; Adamson, Ashley J; Craigie, Angela M; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Mathers, John C
This paper describes the tracking of food intake from adolescence to adulthood according to location as an adult (at the time of the follow-up study) and gender. Additionally this paper explores factors associated with change in food intake. Two 3-day food diaries, demographic and socio-economic information were collected in 1980 and 2000 from the same 198 participants (81 male, 117 female). Foods consumed were assigned to the five categories in The Balance of Good Health (BGH) food model. The tracking of food intake was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses. In 2000 two questionnaires were completed. Demographic and key attributional factors, derived from closed and open-ended responses to the questionnaire, were compared with measured change using regression analysis. There was significant tracking of intake by food group from adolescence to adulthood according to location as an adult and gender. Eight combinations of descriptive variables and questionnaire factors were associated with change in intake of four of the five BGH food groups. Between adolescence and adulthood, dietary tracking is influenced by variables including gender and location. Attributions for change in food intake were associated with measured changes in food intake. In order to support healthier eating habits, it is important to be aware of factors contributing to changes in food intake, such as parental influences and perceived influences of time and work. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Harkko, Jaakko; Kouvonen, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna
We investigated whether social adversities (parents' receipt of income support and care placement) in adolescence were associated with the receipt of work disability pension (DP) in early adulthood. A further aim was to examine whether and to what extent individual educational attainment, labour market position and mental disorders during the period of transition to adulthood operate as underlying mechanisms in this relationship. This was a nationwide cohort study of a 60% representative sample of Finnish young adults born between 1983 and 1985 with no prior DP at entry to the study (N=116,788). Data from several nationwide registers were used with a follow-up time from 2004 to 2010. The age range of the cohort was 19-21 years at the beginning of the follow-up period. Hazards ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a Cox regression. Mediation analyses for educational attainment, labour market position and purchases of psychotropic drugs were performed. A total of 1597 (1.37%) people were granted a DP during the follow-up period of 687,429 years at risk. After adjustment for mediators, the HR (95% CI) of DP for those whose parents had received income support was 1.36 (1.21-1.53) for men and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for women. The corresponding figures for those with a history of care placement were 1.23 (1.00-1.51) and 1.58 (1.29-1.92), respectively. CONCLUSIONS SOCIAL ADVERSITIES IN ADOLESCENCE INCREASE THE RISK OF DP IN EARLY ADULTHOOD THE INTERGENERATIONAL SOCIAL DETERMINATION OF DISABILITY COULD BE ADDRESSED THROUGH INTERVENTIONS PROMOTING MENTAL HEALTH AND IMPROVING EDUCATIONAL AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Berry, Devon M; Bass, Colleen P
The selection of methods that purposefully reflect the norms of the target population increases the likelihood of effective recruitment, data collection, and retention. In the case of research among college students, researchers' appreciation of college student norms might be skewed by unappreciated generational and developmental differences. Our purpose in this article is to illustrate how attention to the generational and developmental characteristics of college students enhanced the methods of the Risk, Religiosity, and Emerging Adulthood study. We address the following challenges related to research with college students: recruitment, communication, data collection, and retention. Solutions incorporating Internet-based applications (e.g., Facebook) and sensitivity to the generational norms of participants (e.g., multiple means of communication) are described in detail. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gutiérrez-García, Raúl A; Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez Ríos, Enrique; Medina-Mora, María Elena
The purpose is to examine the socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood of those who as adolescents were not in education, employment or training, termed NEET, compared to their counterparts who studied, worked, or both. One thousand and seventy-one youth residing in Mexico City participated in a representative, prospective, longitudinal 8-year two-Wave cohort study. At Wave I the participants were aged 12-17 and at Wave II aged 19 and 26. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed psychiatric disorders, substance use and abuse, suicidal behavior, interpersonal relationships, employment and education. The main finding of this study is that being NEET in adolescence was associated with several socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood, above and beyond baseline socioeconomic disadvantage and mental health compared to their peers, particularly their peers who studied only or studied and worked. NEET youth were not that different from their peers who worked exclusively highlighting the protective value of keeping youth in school. The strongest differences between NEET youth and all their peer groups were their increased risks of incident suicidal behaviors. Social policies are needed for creating more educational opportunities, greater support for retention of students, and programs to facilitate the transition from school to the labor market considering cultural attitudes towards life trajectory expectations.
Dahl, Signe Kirk; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Ubbesen, Mads Bonde; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Musliner, Katherine Louise
Early adversity is a known risk factor for unipolar depression. We examined the impact of 9 types of early adversity on risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence or adulthood, and evaluated whether these effects were moderated by gender and adversity timing. We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study using Danish national registers. The sample included all individuals born in Denmark between 1980 and 1998 (N=978,647). Exposure to early adversity was assessed from ages 0-15. Types of adversity included parental illness, incarceration, death, disability, and psychiatric diagnosis; family disruption; out-of-home care; and childhood abuse. Individuals were followed from age 15 until first in- or outpatient depression diagnosis (ICD-10 codes F32, F33) in a psychiatric hospital, death, emigration, or December 31st, 2013, whichever came first. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regressions. All adversities were significantly associated with increased risk for moderate to severe adolescent/adult depression (HR range: 1.30-2.72), although the effects were attenuated after mutual adjustment (adjusted HR range: 1.06-1.70). None of the effects were moderated by gender. The effect of family disruption was strongest between ages 0-4 (HR=1.66, 95% CI=1.61-1.71), while the effect of out-of-home care was strongest between ages 10-14 (HR=2.45, 95% CI=2.28-2.64). Untreated and primary-care treated depression were not measured. Our results support past findings that multiple types of early adversity increase risk for moderate to severe unipolar depression in adolescence and adulthood. Certain adversities may be more harmful if they occur during specific developmental time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Lianyan; Yang, Guang
Background Recent studies in rodents suggest that repeated and prolonged anesthetic exposure at early stages of development leads to cognitive and behavioral impairments later in life. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we tested whether exposure to general anesthesia during early development will disrupt the maturation of synaptic circuits and compromise learning-related synaptic plasticity later in life. Methods Mice received ketamine/xylazine (20/3 mg/kg) anesthesia for one or three times, starting at either early [postnatal day 14 (P14)] or late (P21) stages of development (n=105). Control mice received saline injections (n=34). At P30, mice were subjected to rotarod motor training and fear conditioning. Motor learning-induced synaptic remodeling was examined in vivo by repeatedly imaging fluorescently-labeled postsynaptic dendritic spines in the primary motor cortex before and after training using two-photon microscopy. Results Three exposures to ketamine/xylazine anesthesia between P14–18 impair the animals’ motor learning and learning-dependent dendritic spine plasticity [new spine formation, 8.4 ± 1.3% (mean ± SD) versus 13.4 ± 1.8%, P = 0.002] without affecting fear memory and cell apoptosis. One exposure at P14 or three exposures between P21–25 has no effects on the animals’ motor learning or spine plasticity. Finally, enriched motor experience ameliorates anesthesia-induced motor learning impairment and synaptic deficits. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that repeated exposures to ketamine/xylazine during early development impair motor learning and learning-dependent dendritic spine plasticity later in life. The reduction in synaptic structural plasticity may underlie anesthesia-induced behavioral impairment. PMID:25575163
Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Karl G. Hill
Objective: Social role transitions have been linked to changes in substance use and misuse during young adulthood. This study examined how commonly observed pathways to adulthood, defined by education, employment, marriage, and parenthood, were associated with alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana misuse from ages 18 to 33. Method: Data came from a longitudinal panel of 412 men and 396 women recruited when they were in fifth grade in Seattle public schools in 1985. Participants were followed through age 33 in 2008, with 92% retention. Results: Young adults who had little postsecondary education and remained unmarried through age 30 generally had the highest rates of substance misuse. Those who were involved in postsecondary education and postponed family formation had the lowest rates, particularly with respect to daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Parenting during the young adult years was associated with lower rates of substance misuse for both men and women. However, taking on parenting responsibilities early, during the late teen years and early 20s (observed mostly for women), was associated with higher rates of tobacco misuse. Differences in substance misuse by pathways to adulthood were fairly constant across the young adulthood years and were already observed at age 18, suggesting that substance misuse patterns are established early. Conclusions: Young adults may change their substance use only partially in response to new freedoms and responsibilities in young adulthood. Preventive efforts should include a focus on early initiation of substance use and educational experiences that move people into life trajectories and associated substance misuse patterns. PMID:21906504
Whitbeck, Les B; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Crawford, Devan M; Walls, Melissa L; Gentzler, Kari C; Hoyt, Dan R
Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families.
Sloan, Frank A; Grossman, Daniel S
We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption in young adulthood to problem alcohol consumption 10 years later and to educational attainment and labor market outcomes at midlife. We considered whether these relations differ between Blacks and Whites. We classified individuals on the basis of their drinking frequency patterns with data from the 1982 to 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (respondents aged 19-27 years). We assessed alcohol consumption from the 1991 reinterview (respondents aged 26-34 years) and midlife outcomes from the 2006 reinterview (respondents aged 41-49 years). Black men who consumed 12 or more drinks per week at baseline had lower earnings at midlife, but no corresponding relation for Black women or Whites was found. Black men and Black women who consumed 12 or more drinks per week at baseline had lower occupational attainment than did White male non-drinkers and White female non-drinkers, respectively, but this result was not statistically significant. The relation between alcohol consumption in young adulthood and important outcomes at midlife differed between Blacks and Whites and between Black men and Black women, although Blacks' alcohol consumption at baseline was lower on average than was that of Whites.
Hardee, Jillian E; Benson, Brenda E; Bar-Haim, Yair; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Chen, Gang; Britton, Jennifer C; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
Biased attention to threat is found in both individuals with anxiety symptoms and children with the childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). Although perturbed fronto-amygdala function is implicated in biased attention among anxious individuals, no work has examined the neural correlates of attention biases in BI. Work in this area might clarify underlying mechanisms for anxiety in a sample at risk for internalizing disorders. We examined the relations among early childhood BI, fronto-amygdala connectivity during an attention bias task in young adulthood, and internalizing symptoms, assessed in young adulthood. Children were assessed for BI at multiple age points from infancy through age seven. On the basis of a composite of observational and maternal report data, we selected 21 young adults classified as having a history of BI and 23 classified as non-BI for this study (n = 44). Participants completed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-bias task involving threat (angry faces) and neutral trials. Internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and diagnostic interviews. The young adults characterized in childhood with BI exhibited greater strength in threat-related connectivity than non-behaviorally inhibited young adults. Between-group differences manifested in connections between the amygdala and two frontal regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Amygdala-insula connectivity also interacted with childhood BI to predict young adult internalizing symptoms. Behavioral inhibition during early childhood predicts differences as young adults in threat and attention-related fronto-amygdala connectivity. Connectivity strength, in turn, moderated the relations between early BI and later psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Jauregui-Huerta, Fernando; Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo, Yaveth; Garcia-Estrada, Joaquin; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Ramos-Zuñiga, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Luquin, Sonia
This study investigated the cognitive effect of chronic exposure to environmental noise on RAWM performance of juvenile rats, and the ability of adult rats exposed to a novel acute stress to perform in the RAWM as a function of whether or not they were exposed to environmental noise as juveniles. We examined the consequences of exposure to noise during the juvenile-early periadolescent period on adulthood stress response by assessing cognitive performance in the RAWM. Male rats were exposed to environmental noise during the childhood-prepubescent period (21-35 PND), and their RAWM performance was tested at the end of the exposure to noise, and then again two months later when they had to cope with a new stressful event. RAWM execution included a 3-day training phase and a reversal learning phase on day 4. Escape latency, reference memory errors and working memory errors were compared between experimental and control groups. In addition, body weight gain and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated. Stressed rats demonstrated spatial impairment, as evidenced by poor execution on day 4. This effect was significantly noticeable in the doubly stressed group. Noise annoyance was evidenced by reduced body weight gain and increased serum corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that environmental noise may produce potent stress-like effects in developing subjects that can persist into adulthood, affecting spatial learning abilities. This cognitive impairment may restrict the subject's ability to learn under a new spatial configuration.
Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.
Developmental changes in both alcohol use behaviors and self-reported reasons for alcohol use were investigated. Participants were surveyed every two years from ages 18 to 30 as part of the Monitoring the Future national study (analytic weighted sample size N=9,308; 53% women, 40% college attenders). Latent growth models were used to examine correlations among trajectories of binge drinking and trajectories of self-reported reasons for alcohol use across young adulthood. Results revealed developmental changes in reasons for use and correlations between the patterns of within-person change in frequency of binge drinking and within-person change in reasons for use. In particular, an increase in binge drinking between ages 18 and 22 was most positively correlated with slopes of using alcohol to get high and because of boredom. Continued binge drinking between ages 22 and 30 was most strongly correlated with using alcohol to get away from problems. Almost no moderation by gender, race, college attendance, employment, or marital status was found. Binge drinking and reasons for alcohol use traveled together, illustrating the ongoing and dynamic connections between changes in binge drinking and changes in reasons for use across late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:21219061
Zhou, Long; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng
To explore the relationship between weight status in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of 14 population samples from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology conducted in 1998 were used. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body weight at age 25 years. The body mass index (BMI) at the age 25 years was calculated. The association between body weight in early adulthood and body weight change at middle age and T2DM was examined by using logistic regression model. The incidence of T2DM in low weight group (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight group (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight group (BMI: 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese group (BMI:≥28.0 kg/m(2)) at 25 years old were 2.4%(30/1263), 2.8%(266/9562), 4.0%(70/1739) and 6.4% (7/110), respectively (P value for trend<0.01). The incidence of T2DM for adults with weight change <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and >12.5 kg at middle age were 2.5% (18/712), 1.3%(21/1629), 2.1%(48/2330), 2.3%(59/2585), 3.7%(94/2518), and 4.6% (133/2900) respectively. (P value for trend <0.01), Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight and obesity at age 25 years and subsequent weight gain were positively correlated with T2DM after adjusted other risk factors (all P values for trend <0.01). Overweight and obesity in early adulthood and weight gain at middle age were both independently associated with the increased risk of T2DM in middle-aged men and women.
Cooper, M N; de Klerk, N H; Jones, T W; Davis, E A
To calculate standardized mortality ratios and to assess the association between paediatric clinical factors and higher risk of mortality during early adulthood in a population-based cohort of subjects with Type 1 diabetes. Subjects with Type 1 diabetes were identified through the Western Australian Children's Diabetes Database and clinical data for those who reached 18 years of age (n = 1309) were extracted. An age- and sex-matched (without diabetes) comparison cohort (n = 6451) was obtained from the birth registry. Mortality records were obtained from the death registry. Participants were followed up until 31 January 2012. Associations of clinical factors (from clinic visits before 18 years of age) with mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. The standardized mortality ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.7 (95% CI 0.7-3.3) for male and 10.1 (95% CI 5.2-17.7) for female subjects with Type 1 diabetes (median age at end of study 25.6 years). The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.1) for a 1% increase in mean paediatric HbA1c level, 3.8 (95% CI 0.9-15.3) for four episodes of severe hypoglycaemia relative to zero episodes, and 6.21 (95% CI 1.4-28.4) for a low-level socio-economic background relative to a high-level background. People with childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes have higher mortality rates in early adulthood. At particularly high risk are women, those with a history of poor HbA1c levels, those with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia during paediatric management, and those from a low socio-economic background. These groups may benefit from intensified management during transition from paediatric to adult care facilities. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.
Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779
O'Mahony, S M; Felice, V D; Nally, K; Savignac, H M; Claesson, M J; Scully, P; Woznicki, J; Hyland, N P; Shanahan, F; Quigley, E M; Marchesi, J R; O'Toole, P W; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F
Disruption of bacterial colonization during the early postnatal period is increasingly being linked to adverse health outcomes. Indeed, there is a growing appreciation that the gut microbiota plays a role in neurodevelopment. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of early-life manipulations of the gut microbiota on behavior. To this end we administered an antibiotic (vancomycin) from postnatal days 4-13 to male rat pups and assessed behavioral and physiological measures across all aspects of the brain-gut axis. In addition, we sought to confirm and expand the effects of early-life antibiotic treatment using a different antibiotic strategy (a cocktail of pimaricin, bacitracin, neomycin; orally) during the same time period in both female and male rat pups. Vancomycin significantly altered the microbiota, which was restored to control levels by 8 weeks of age. Notably, vancomycin-treated animals displayed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood without any significant effect on anxiety responses as assessed in the elevated plus maze or open field tests. Moreover, cognitive performance in the Morris water maze was not affected by early-life dysbiosis. Immune and stress-related physiological responses were equally unaffected. The early-life antibiotic-induced visceral hypersensitivity was also observed in male rats given the antibiotic cocktail. Both treatments did not alter visceral pain perception in female rats. Changes in visceral pain perception in males were paralleled by distinct decreases in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, the α-2A adrenergic receptor and cholecystokinin B receptor. In conclusion, a temporary disruption of the gut microbiota in early-life results in very specific and long-lasting changes in visceral sensitivity in male rats, a hallmark of stress-related functional disorders of the brain-gut axis such as irritable bowel disorder. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A
Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.
Hatch, Stephani L; Mishra, Gita; Hotopf, Matthew; Jones, Peter B; Kuh, Diana
We examined the extent to which perceived life change following experiences of stressful life events, differentiated by type of stressor, influenced mental health during adulthood. The analytic sample of 2073 cohort members was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a sample followed since their birth in March 1946. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between stressors reported at 36 and 43 years and common mental disorder at 36, 43, and 53 years. Common mental disorder was measured using the Present State Exam at 36 years, the Psychiatric Symptom Frequency at 43 years, and the 28-item General Health Questionnaire at 53 years. Data spanning across nearly 20 years suggest that stressors perceived to have contributed to a notable life change increased the likelihood of scoring above the cut off score for common mental disorder in comparison to stressors experienced without subsequent life change. Models were adjusted for gender, educational attainment, social class, relationship status, and past episodes of common mental disorder. This relationship appears to be most evident for proximal family and economic stressors and distal interpersonal relationship stressors experienced by close friends and relatives. All study information is based on self-reports and details about the nature of the life change or cognitive attribution style were not available. Appraisals of changes following stressful life events may be more important than the occurrence of stressors alone in assessing the impact of stressful life events on adult mental health.
Lahey, Benjamin B; Class, Quetzal A; Zald, David H; Rathouz, Paul J; Applegate, Brooks; Waldman, Irwin D
The developmental propensity model of antisocial behavior posits that several dispositional characteristics of children transact with the environment to influence the likelihood of learning antisocial behavior across development. Specifically, greater dispositional negative emotionality, greater daring, and lower prosociality-operationally, the inverse of callousness- and lower cognitive abilities are each predicted to increase risk for developing antisocial behavior. Prospective tests of key predictions derived from the model were conducted in a high-risk sample of 499 twins who were assessed on dispositions at 10-17 years of age and assessed for antisocial personality disorder (APD) symptoms at 22-31 years of age. Predictions were tested separately for parent and youth informants on the dispositions using multiple regressions that adjusted for oversampling, nonresponse, and clustering within twin pairs, controlling demographic factors and time since the first assessment. Consistent with predictions, greater numbers of APD symptoms in adulthood were independently predicted over a 10-15 year span by higher youth ratings on negative emotionality and daring and lower youth ratings on prosociality, and by parent ratings of greater negative emotionality and lower prosociality. A measure of working memory did not predict APD symptoms. These findings support future research on the role of these dispositions in the development of antisocial behavior. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Robinson, Kristen E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B
This prospective study examines family predictors of distress among survivors of childhood cancer and comparison peers during the transition to emerging adulthood. Children with cancer (n = 55), comparison peers (n = 60), and parents completed measures of distress, family environment, social support, and demographic characteristics during initial treatment, as well as follow-up measures of young adult distress and demographic characteristics soon after participants turned 18 years old. Severity of initial treatment and late effects were rated by healthcare providers for participants with cancer. For all participants, mother and father report of initial parent distress was associated with their report of young adult distress at follow-up. Young adult gender moderated this association. For survivors of childhood cancer, severity of initial treatment and late effects also moderated the association between parent and young adult distress. Improving parent distress may help reduce child distress in general. For survivors specifically, ameliorating the impact of initial treatment and long-term physical problems may be beneficial. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.
Timm, Signe; Svanes, Cecilie; Janson, Christer; Sigsgaard, Torben; Johannessen, Ane; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Forsberg, Bertil; Torén, Kjell; Holm, Mathias; Bråbäck, Lennart; Schlünssen, Vivi
The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61). This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.
Korhonen, Kaarina; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka
There is inconsistent evidence for social differentials in the risk of depression in youth, and little is known about how education at this age influences the risk. We assess how parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and education predict depression from late adolescence to early adulthood, a time of major educational transitions. We followed a nationally representative 20 % sample of Finnish adolescents born in 1986-1990 (n = 60,829) over two educational transitory stages at the age of 17-19 and 20-23 covering the years 2003-2011. We identified incident depression using health care register data. We estimated the risk of depression by parental SEP and personal education using Cox regression, adjusting for family structure, parental depression and the individual's own psychiatric history. Lower parental income was associated with up to a twofold risk of depression. This effect was almost fully attributable to other parental characteristics or mediated by the individual's own education. Educational differences in risk were attenuated following adjustment for prior psychiatric history. Adjusted for all covariates, not being in education increased the risk up to 2.5-fold compared to being enrolled in general upper secondary school at the age of 17-19 and in tertiary education at the age of 20-23. Vocationally oriented women experienced a 20 % higher risk than their academically oriented counterparts in both age groups. Education constitutes a social pathway from parental SEP to the risk of depression in youth, whereby educational differences previously shown in adults are observed already before the establishment of adulthood SEP.
Berardo, Luciana R.; Fabio, María C.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.
This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) during infancy (postnatal days 1–21, PD1–21) and environmental enrichment (EE) during adolescence (PD 21–42). Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE. The interactive effects between these treatments upon ethanol’s effects and intake have yet to be explored. We assessed chronic ethanol intake and preference (12 two-bottle daily sessions, spread across 30 days, 1st session on PD46) in rats exposed to MS and EE. The main finding was that male – but not female – rats that had been exposed to EE consumed more ethanol than controls given standard housing, an effect that was not affected by MS. Subsequent experiments assessed several factors associated with heightened ethanol consumption in males exposed to MS and EE; namely taste aversive conditioning and hypnotic-sedative consequences of ethanol. We also measured anxiety response in the light-dark box and in the elevated plus maze tests; and exploratory patterns of novel stimuli and behaviors indicative of risk assessment and risk-taking, via a modified version of the concentric square field (CSF) test. Aversive conditioning, hypnosis and sleep time were similar in males exposed or not to EE. EE males, however, exhibited heightened exploration of novel stimuli and greater risk taking behaviors in the CSF test. It is likely that the promoting effect of EE upon ethanol intake was due to these effects upon exploratory and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:27790100
Poobalan, Amudha S.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S.
Background : Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were ‘self-appearance’ and having ‘variety of food’. There were mixed opinions on ‘cost’ of food and ‘taste’. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the
Poobalan, Amudha S; Aucott, Lorna S; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S
Background : Young people (18-25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18-25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods : An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Results : 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were 'self-appearance' and having 'variety of food'. There were mixed opinions on 'cost' of food and 'taste'. Conclusion : Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the community. It provides
Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Power, Chris
Physical inactivity is highly prevalent. Knowledge is needed of influences on inactive lifestyles. We aimed to establish whether early adult factors predict subsequent inactivity patterns in mid-adulthood. Leisure-time inactivity (activity frequency<1/week) was assessed at 33y and 50y in the 1958 British Birth cohort (N=12,271). We assessed associations of early adult (23-33y) physical status, mental function, social, family and neighbourhood circumstances with four 33-50y patterns (never inactive, persistently inactive, deteriorating or improving) using multinomial logistic regression with and without adjustment for childhood factors (e.g. social class). Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33y and 50y (∼31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. Factors associated with persistent vs never inactive were: limiting illness (relative risk ratio (RRR):1.21(1.04,1.42) per number of ages exposed (0,1 or 2 times across ages 23y and 33y), obesity (1.33(1.16,1.54) per number of ages exposed), height (0.93(0.89,0.98) per 5cm), depression (1.32(1.19,1.47) per number of ages exposed); education (1.28(1.20,1.38) per decrease on 5-point scale) and neighbourhood (1.59(1.37,1.86) in 'industrial/local authority housing areas' and 1.33(1.12,1.58) in 'growth/metropolitan inner areas' vs 'suburbs, service, rural or seaside areas'). Associations were broadly similar for inactivity deterioration. Industrial/local authority housing areas (0.75(0.61,0.91)) and longer obesity exposure (0.78(0.64,0.95)) were associated with lower RRRs for improvement. Number of children was associated with improvement, although associations varied by age. Associations remained after adjustment for childhood factors. Several early adult factors are associated with inactivity persistence and deterioration; fewer with improvement. Obesity duration and neighbourhood lived in during young adulthood had long-lasting associations with inactivity patterns in mid-life. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine
Liu, L; Pang, Z C; Sun, J P; Xue, B; Wang, S J; Ning, F; Qiao, Q
We aimed to evaluate the association between famine exposure during early life and obesity and obesity max (obese at the highest weight) in adulthood. Data were from two population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2006 and 2009 in Qingdao, China. A total of 8185 subjects born between 1/1/1941 and 12/31/1971 were categorized into unexposed (born between 01/01/1962 and 12/31/1971), fetal/infant exposed (born between 01/01/1959 and 12/31/1961), childhood exposed (born between 01/01/1949 and 12/31/1958) and adolescence exposed (born between 01/01/1941 and 12/31/1948) according to their age when exposed to the Chinese famine from 1959 to 1961. Obesity was defined as BMI (body mass index) ≥28.0 and obesity max was defined as BMI max (BMI at the highest weight) ≥28.0. We compared fetal/infant exposed, childhood exposed and adolescence exposed to the unexposed using logistic regression models to assess the effect of famine exposure on later obesity and obesity max . Fetal/infant exposed (OR = 1.59, P < 0.001), childhood exposed (OR = 1.42, P < 0.01) and adolescence exposed (OR = 1.86, P < 0.01) all had higher risks of obesity than the unexposed. Exposure groups were more likely to be obese at their highest weight than the unexposed, and ORs (95%CIs) for obesity max in the fetal/infant exposed, childhood exposed and adolescence exposed were 1.49(1.20-1.86), 1.24(1.02-1.49) and 1.64 (1.40-1.93), respectively. Similar results were found in both men and women. Exposure to famine in early life was associated with increased risks of obesity and obesity max in adulthood. Preventing undernutrition in early life appears beneficial to reduce the prevalence of later obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Möller, Sören; Honda, Chika; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J; Jang, Kerry L; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Christensen, Kaare; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri
Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1-19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments.
Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Möller, Sören; Honda, Chika; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ooki, Syuichi; Aaltonen, Sari; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D’Ippolito, Cristina; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, José Antonio; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Kandler, Christian; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Jang, Kerry L.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Gao, Wenjing; Yu, Canqing; Li, Liming; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Tynelius, Per; Lichtenstein, Paul; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Willemsen, Gonneke; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Christensen, Kaare; Öncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Rasmussen, Finn; Goldberg, Jack H.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri
Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1–19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments. PMID:27333805
Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R
The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU.
CASTELLANOS-RYAN, NATALIE; PINGAULT, JEAN-BAPTISTE; PARENT, SOPHIE; VITARO, FRANK; TREMBLAY, RICHARD E.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.
The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU. PMID:28031069
van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van der Beek, Eline M.
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD). Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA) or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN) day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat) until PN day 98. Body composition was monitored by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). In rats, glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT); in mice, the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. At autopsy on PN day 98, plasma lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured; organs and fat pads were collected and the adipocyte size distribution was analysed. Milk analysis in mice showed that the maternal MCT diet was not translated into milk, and pups were thus only exposed to high MCT levels from early weaning onward: PN day 16 until 42. Mice exposed to MCT showed 28% less fat accumulation vs. CTRL during WSD. The average adipocyte cell size, fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), and leptin levels were reduced in MCT mice. In rats, no effects were found on the adult body composition, but the adipocyte cell size distribution shifted towards smaller adipocytes. Particularly mice showed positive effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increased MCFA intake early-in-life protected against the detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood. PMID:28632178
Weimer, Amy A; Parault Dowds, Susan J; Fabricius, William V; Schwanenflugel, Paula J; Suh, Go Woon
Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1, a new measure was developed to assess participants' understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school. Results showed that the onset of constructivist ToM occurs between late childhood and early adolescence and that adolescents who have more advanced constructivist ToM have more prosocial reasoning about conflict, which in turn mediated the relation with fewer serious behavior problems in high school, after controlling for academic performance and sex. In both studies, girls showed more advanced constructivist ToM than boys in high school. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weimer, Amy A.; Parault Dowds, Susan J.; Fabricius, William V.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Suh, Go Woon
Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1 a new measure was developed to assess participants’ understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school. Results showed that the onset of constructivist ToM occurs between late childhood and early adolescence, and that adolescents who have more advanced constructivist ToM have more prosocial reasoning about conflict, which in turn mediated the relation with fewer serious behavior problems in high school, after controlling for academic performance and sex. In both studies, females showed more advanced constructivist ToM than males in high school. PMID:27821294
Skinner, Martie L.; Hong, Seunghye; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Brown, Eric C.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Jung, Hyunzee
Objective: This study tested a developmental model in which subtypes of childhood maltreatment were hypothesized to have direct and indirect effects on co-occurring depression, anxiety, and substance misuse in adulthood. Indirect effects involved adolescent alcohol use and depression, which were included as mediators in the tested models. Method: This prospective longitudinal study (N = 332; 52.4% male) followed the participants from childhood (18 months to 6 years of age) to adulthood (31–41 years old, M = 36.21). Maltreatment subtypes included parent-reported physical and emotional abuse and child-reported sexual abuse. Adult outcomes included measures of substance misuse and mental health (i.e., depression and anxiety). Latent class analysis and structural equation models were used to identify classes of substance misuse and mental health co-occurrence and to test mediating effects of adolescent alcohol use and depression. Results: Three classes were identified: (a) low risk of substance misuse and low mental health symptoms, (b) moderate substance misuse risk and mild depression and anxiety, and (c) moderate substance misuse risk and moderate to high depression and anxiety. Structural models showed that effects of childhood sexual abuse were fully mediated by adolescent alcohol use and depression. Physical abuse increased adolescent depression but did not have direct or indirect effects on adult outcome classes. Emotional abuse had a direct effect on the adult classes. Conclusions: Children exposed to severe emotional abuse are at higher risk for comorbid substance misuse, depression, and anxiety into their mid-30s, after taking into account evidence of alcohol use and depression during adolescence. Sexual and physical abuse have more proximal effects on adolescent alcohol use and depression, which then influence the risk of adult problems. PMID:27172579
Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B
Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomson, Annika; Tiihonen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Virkkunen, Matti; Lindberg, Nina
Aggressive and disruptive behaviours often precede the onset of serious mental illnesses. Fire-setting is a type of crime that is associated with psychotic disorders. The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to investigate if fire-setting performed in adolescence or early adulthood was associated with future diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The consecutive sample consisted of 111 Finnish 15-25-year old males with fire-setting crimes, decreed to a pre-trial forensic psychiatric examination in 1973-1998, and showing no past nor current psychosis at the time of examination. For each firesetter, four age-, gender-, and place of birth-matched controls were randomly selected from the Central Population Register. The subjects were followed until the death of the individual, until they moved abroad, or until the end of 2012. Fourteen firesetters (12.6%) and five controls (1.1%) were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder later in life, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 12.5. The delay between the fire-setting offense and the future diagnosis was on average nearly 10 years. Young male offenders undergoing a forensic psychiatric examination because of fire-setting crimes had a significant propensity for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Accurate assessments should be made both during imprisonment and later in life to detect possible psychotic signs in these individuals.
Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf
Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence of children's cognitive impulsivity on delinquency development across adolescence and early adulthood, while taking possible interactions with intelligence also into account. Delinquent behavior of 412 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study was measured annually from ages 13 to 29 years with official arrest records. Cognitive impulsivity (neurocognitive test scores) and intelligence were assessed at age 12-13. Parenting behaviors (persistence of discipline, positive reinforcement, and parental knowledge), peer delinquency, and peer conventional activities were assessed between ages 10 and 13 years. Results showed that, while controlling for intelligence, the influence of youths' cognitive impulsivity on delinquency depended on their parents' behaviors. An interaction was found among cognitive impulsivity, intelligence, and peer delinquency, but instead of cognitive impulsivity, the effect of intelligence on delinquency was particularly moderated. Overall, findings suggest that when there was moderation, high cognitive impulsivity and low intelligence were associated with an increased probability for engaging in delinquency predominantly among boys in a good social environment, but not in a poor social environment.
Rutledge, P C; Sher, K J
This study investigated the relationship between stress (defined alternatively as negative life events and emotional distress) and heavy drinking across late adolescence and early young adulthood, as well as the roles of tension-reduction drinking motives and gender as moderators of that relationship. The role of personality variables (neuroticism, behavioral undercontrol and extraversion) as moderators also was explored. The data were obtained from 485 individuals (255 women) participating in a five-wave longitudinal study that spanned 7 years. The effects on heavy drinking of stress (either negative life events or emotional distress), tension-reduction drinking motives, gender and personality were analyzed each year with hierarchical multiple regression. Stress (negative life events) was positively related to heavy drinking, but only for men with stronger tension-reduction drinking motives at Year 4 (age 21). The relationship between tension-reduction drinking motives and heavy drinking was positive, developmentally graded, and moderated by gender, after the freshman year, the role of tension-reduction drinking motives in heavy drinking became less important for women, relative to men, a trend that grew stronger after the college years. Behavioral undercontrol played a limited role in the relationship of gender and tension-reduction drinking motives to heavy drinking. The findings have implications for theories of stress-related and stress-motivated drinking. Such theories should consider developmental processes, particularly the transition to adult drinking status at age 21 and the roles of tension-reduction drinking motives, gender and behavioral undercontrol.
Guay, Frédéric; Marsh, Herbert W; Senécal, Caroline; Dowson, Martin
The literature on the determinants of academic motivation indicates that social and affective processes connected to students' interpersonal relationships are central elements in understanding students' academic motivation and other school-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Does autonomous motivation drive representations of relatedness, do representations of relatedness drive autonomous motivation, or are these constructs reciprocally related over time? The sample consists of 834 adolescents aged 18 years (SD=1.88) who participated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Results from the structural equation models provided good support for the effect of representations of relatedness with parents on autonomous academic motivation but no convincing support for the effect of motivation on representations of relatedness with parents. In addition, no significant effect in either direction was found between representations of relatedness with friends and autonomous academic motivation. It might be important to inform parents that they may still have an influence on their adolescent's representations of relatedness and subsequently on his/her autonomous academic motivation even during the late adolescence-early adulthood period, a period when some parents may be tempted to believe that they can do little to motivate their offspring.
Baker, Courtney N.; Hoerger, Michael
This study examined the association between recollected parental child-rearing strategies and individual differences in self-regulation, socio-emotional adjustment, and psychopathology in early adulthood. Undergraduate participants (N = 286) completed the EMBU – a measure of retrospective accounts of their parents’ child-rearing behaviors – as well as self-report measures of self-regulation and socio-emotional adjustment across the domains of eating disorder symptoms, physically risky behavior, interpersonal problems, personal financial problems, and academic maladjustment. A subset of participants also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Parental warmth was found to be related to overall better self-regulation and improved interpersonal and academic adjustment. In contrast, both parental rejection and overcontrol were found to be related to general deficits in self-regulation as well as adjustment difficulties and psychopathology. Parental rejection was most closely related to internalizing clinical presentations like anxiety, depression, and somatization, whereas overcontrol was most aligned with increased hypomanic activation and psychoticism. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationships between parental child-rearing strategies and socio-emotional adjustment and psychopathology were partially mediated by self-regulation. Future directions are suggested, including basic and translational research related to better understanding the roles of parental child-rearing and self-regulation in the development of internalizing symptoms, activation, and psychotic symptoms. PMID:22423172
Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan
The high prevalence of acne vulgaris in teenagers has increased comorbidities. Lasers offer alternative options for acne treatment because they have rapid action, low systemic adverse effects, and do not require everyday treatment. To study the efficacy and patients' satisfaction of 595-nm pulse dye laser (PDL) treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood, we designed a blocked-randomized, split-faced 595-nm PDL (fluence 8 J/cm 3 pulse duration 10 ms, spot size 7 mm, 2 session every 2 weeks) study in patients with mild to moderate acne by comparing the laser-treated and non-treated side. The acne lesion counts, acne erythema grading, and acne severity grading were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Thirty patients were recruited. The results showed no statistically significant difference except the papule count at week 4 which was -1.828 on the treated side and 0.103 on the non-treated side of the face, P-value 0.0018. There was no statistically significant difference of acne severity grading and acne erythema grading between both sides of the face. The mean scores of patients' satisfaction on the laser-treated side were 75, 81, and 81%, respectively. The PDL treatment in this study reveals no significant improvement in acne therapy; however, the patients were satisfied with this laser treatment. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Hills, Andrew P.; Byrne, Nuala M.; Taylor, Amy; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Wells, Jonathan C.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay
In the present study, we examined the associations of early nutrition with adult lean body mass (LBM) and muscle strength in a birth cohort that was established to assess the long-term impact of a nutrition program. Participants (n = 1,446, 32% female) were born near Hyderabad, India, in 29 villages from 1987 to 1990, during which time only intervention villages (n = 15) had a government program that offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and children. Participants’ LBM and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; grip strength and information on lifestyle indicators, including diet and physical activity level, were also obtained. Ages (mean = 20.3 years) and body mass indexes (weight (kg)/height (m)2; mean = 19.5) of participants in 2 groups were similar. Current dietary energy intake was higher in the intervention group. Unadjusted LBM and grip strength were similar in 2 groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the intervention group had lower LBM (β = −0.75; P = 0.03), appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and grip strength than did controls, but these differences were small in magnitude (<0.1 standard deviation). Multivariable regression analyses showed that current socioeconomic position, energy intake, and physical activity level had a positive association with adult LBM and muscle strength. This study could not detect a “programming” effect of early nutrition supplementation on adult LBM and muscle strength. PMID:24553777
The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex differences in physical self-concept of Turkish late adolescents and early adults. A total of 715 high school and 1,125 university students voluntarily participated and were administered the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. The findings indicate significant sex and age differences on multiple dimensions of physical self, and that males and high school students scored higher on almost all subscales of physical self. However, analysis did not reveal any significant age and sex interactions on physical self. In conclusion, males and females differ from each other on how they perceived themselves on the multiple dimensions of physical self, and developmental age changes were evident in physical self.
Clinton, Sarah M.; Glover, Matthew E.; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Mehi, Stephen J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; King, Gwendalyn D.
Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development. PMID:23838326
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating [overeating with loss of control (LOC)] predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but inter-related constructs during critical developmental transitions. Methods A population-based sample (n=1,902) completed surveys at 5-year intervals spanning adolescence and young adulthood. The trajectories of no overeating, overeating, binge eating, and binge eating disorder (BED; recurrent binge eating with associated distress) were characterized using cross-tabulations. Body mass index, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and body satisfaction were examined as risk factors for no overeating, overeating, and binge eating 5-years later using multinomial logistic regression. Results All overeating categories tended to remit to no overeating at 5-year follow-up. Although overeating had the lowest remittance rates at each time-point, binge eating and BED showed higher rates of persistence or worsening of symptoms during the transition from late adolescence/early young adulthood to early/middle young adulthood. Overeating and binge eating had similar risk factors, although for females, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, and self-esteem in late adolescence/early young adulthood differentially predicted binge eating versus overeating in early/middle young adulthood (ps<.05). Conclusions While overeating with or without LOC tends to remit over time, problematic eating persists for a subset of individuals. Greater psychosocial problems in late adolescence/early young adulthood predicted greater odds of binge eating relative to overeating in early/middle young adulthood among females, indicating that poorer psychosocial functioning in this developmental stage portends more severe eating-related psychopathology later in life. PMID:26689758
Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objective: Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method: Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences…
Deusch, Oliver; O’Flynn, Ciaran; Colyer, Alison; Swanson, Kelly S.; Allaway, David; Morris, Penelope
Companion animals provide an excellent model for studies of the gut microbiome because potential confounders such as diet and environment can be more readily controlled for than in humans. Additionally, domestic cats and dogs are typically neutered early in life, enabling an investigation into the potential effect of sex hormones on the microbiome. In a longitudinal study to investigate the potential effects of neutering, neutering age and gender on the gut microbiome during growth, the faeces of kittens (16 male, 14 female) were sampled at 18, 30 and 42 weeks of age. DNA was shotgun sequenced on the Illumina platform and sequence reads were annotated for taxonomy and function by comparison to a database of protein coding genes. In a statistical analysis of diversity, taxonomy and functional potential of the microbiomes, age was identified as the only factor with significant associations. No significant effects were detected for gender, neutering, or age when neutered (19 or 31 weeks). At 18 weeks of age the microbiome was dominated by the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (35% and 20% average abundance). Structural and functional diversity was significantly increased by week 30 but there was no further significant increase. At 42 weeks of age the most abundant genera were Bacteroides (16%), Prevotella (14%) and Megasphaera (8%). Significant differences in functional potential included an enrichment for genes in energy metabolism (carbon metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation) and depletion in cell motility (flagella and chemotaxis). We conclude that the feline faecal microbiome is predominantly determined by age when diet and environment are controlled for. We suggest this finding may also be informative for studies of the human microbiome, where control over such factors is usually limited. PMID:26659594
Meyerand, M.E.; Sutula, T.
Neural activity promotes circuit formation in developing systems and during critical periods permanently modifies circuit organization and functional properties. These observations suggest that excessive neural activity, as occurs during seizures, might influence developing neural circuitry with long-term outcomes that depend on age at the time of seizures. We systematically examined long-term structural and functional consequences of seizures induced in rats by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and hyperthermia across postnatal ages from birth through postnatal day 90 in adulthood (P90). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and electrophysiological methods at ≥P95 following seizures induced from P1 to P90 demonstrated consistent patterns of gross atrophy, microstructural abnormalities in the corpus callosum and hippocampus, and functional alterations in hippocampal circuitry at ≥P95 that were independent of the method of seizure induction and varied systematically as a function of age at the time of seizures. Three distinct epochs were observed in which seizures resulted in distinct long-term structural and functional outcomes at ≥P95. Seizures prior to P20 resulted in DTI abnormalities in corpus callosum and hippocampus in the absence of gross cerebral atrophy, and increased paired pulse inhibition (PPI) in the dentate gyrus at ≥P95. Seizures after P30 induced a different pattern of DTI abnormalities in the fimbria and hippocampus accompanied by gross cerebral atrophy with increases in lateral ventricular volume, as well as increased PPI in the dentate gyrus at ≥P95. In contrast, seizures between P20-P30 did not result in cerebral atrophy or significant imaging abnormalities in the hippocampus or white matter, but irreversibly decreased PPI in the dentate gyrus compared to normal adult controls. These age-specific long-term structural and functional outcomes identify P20-P30 as a potential critical period in hippocampal
Fuchs, Oliver; Bahmer, Thomas; Rabe, Klaus F; von Mutius, Erika
Asthma is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease both in children and adults and resembles a complex syndrome rather than a single disease. Different methods have been developed to better characterise distinct asthma phenotypes in childhood and adulthood. In studies of adults, most phenotyping relies on biomaterials from the lower airways; however, this information is missing in paediatric studies because of restricted accessibility. Few patients show symptoms throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Risk factors for this might be genetics, family history of asthma and atopy, infections early in life, allergic diseases, and lung function deficits. In turn, a large proportion of children with asthma lose their symptoms during school age and adolescence. This improved prognosis, which might also reflect a better treatment response, is associated with being male and with milder and less allergic disease. Importantly, whether clinical remission of symptoms equals the disappearance of underlying pathology is unknown. In fact, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation might remain despite the absence of overt symptoms. Additionally, a new-onset of asthma symptoms is apparent in adulthood, especially in women and in the case of impaired lung function. However, many patients do not remember childhood symptoms, which might reflect relapse rather than true initiation. Both relapse and adult-onset of asthma symptoms have been associated with allergic disease and sensitisation in addition to airway hyper-responsiveness. Thus, asthma symptoms beginning in adults might have originated in childhood. Equivocally, persistence into, relapse, and new-onset of symptoms in adulthood have all been related to active smoking. However, underlying mechanisms for the associations remain unclear, and future asthma research should therefore integrate standardised molecular approaches in identical ways in both paediatric and adult populations and in longitudinal
Dickson, N; van Roode, T; Herbison, P; Taylor, J; Cunningham, A; Paul, C
DESIGN/ SETTING: A cohort study of 1037 people born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 or 1973. At assessment at age 32 years, 884 participants (432 women and 452 men; 87.1% of the surviving cohort) provided both sera and information on sexual behaviour. The proportion of participants with antibodies to HSV-2 infection at ages 26 and 32 years was measured, and the incidence rates from first coitus to age 26 years and from age 26 to 32 years calculated, adjusting for the number of sexual partners and same-sex contact in these age periods. At age 32 years, 14.6% of men and 22.5% of women had antibodies to HSV-2. The incidence rates for men and women from first coitus to age 26 years were, respectively, 6.5 and 14.3 per 1000 person-years. The incidence rates for men and women from age 26-32 years, respectively, were 14.3 and 15.8 per 1000 person-years. When adjusted for sexual behaviour, the incidence rate ratio, comparing the older with the younger age periods, was 2.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7 to 4.9) for men and 2.0 (1.2 to 3.4) for women. The adjusted incidence rate ratio when comparing women to men from first coitus to age 26 years was 2.5 (1.6 to 4.0), and from age 26-32 years was 1.3 (0.78 to 2.2). A test for interaction indicated that men and women had different patterns of incidence over time (p = 0.039). In the general population, the risk of acquiring HSV-2 infection seems to increase with age at least to the early 30s, and differences in risk of acquisition for women compared with men become less with age. Health promotion and treatment to control HSV-2 infection should be aimed at all ages, not just at the young.
Piehler, Timothy F.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.
In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22-23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent…
Karolis, Vyacheslav; Caldinelli, Chiara; Brittain, Philip J.; Kroll, Jasmin; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Tesse, Marcello; Colquhoun, Matthew; Howes, Oliver; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Murray, Robin M.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Nosarti, Chiara
The human brain can adapt to overcome injury even years after an initial insult. One hypothesis states that early brain injury survivors, by taking advantage of critical periods of high plasticity during childhood, should recover more successfully than those who suffer injury later in life. This hypothesis has been challenged by recent studies showing worse cognitive outcome in individuals with early brain injury, compared with individuals with later brain injury, with working memory particularly affected. We invited individuals who suffered perinatal brain injury (PBI) for an fMRI/diffusion MRI tractography study of working memory and hypothesized that, 30 years after the initial injury, working memory deficits in the PBI group would remain, despite compensatory activation in areas outside the typical working memory network. Furthermore we hypothesized that the amount of functional reorganization would be related to the level of injury to the dorsal cingulum tract, which connects medial frontal and parietal working memory structures. We found that adults who suffered PBI did not significantly differ from controls in working memory performance. They exhibited less activation in classic frontoparietal working memory areas and a relative overactivation of bilateral perisylvian cortex compared with controls. Structurally, the dorsal cingulum volume and hindrance-modulated orientational anisotropy was significantly reduced in the PBI group. Furthermore there was uniquely in the PBI group a significant negative correlation between the volume of this tract and activation in the bilateral perisylvian cortex and a positive correlation between this activation and task performance. This provides the first evidence of compensatory plasticity of the working memory network following PBI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we used the example of perinatal brain injury (PBI) associated with very preterm birth to study the brain's ability to adapt to injury sustained early in life. In
Leppälahti, Suvi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Kalliala, Ilkka; Santalahti, Päivi; Gissler, Mika
Is underage abortion associated with adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood when compared with underage delivery? Underage abortion was not found to be associated with mental health problems in early adulthood, and socioeconomic outcomes were better among those who experienced abortion compared with those who gave birth. Teenage motherhood has been linked with numerous adverse outcomes in later life, including low educational levels and poor physical and mental health. Whether abortion at a young age predisposes to similar consequences is not clear. This nationwide, retrospective cohort study from Finland, included all women born in 1987 (n = 29 041) and followed until 2012. We analysed socioeconomic, psychiatric and risk-taking-related health outcomes up to 25 years of age after underage (<18 years) abortion (n = 1041, 3.6%) and after childbirth (n = 394, 1.4%). Before and after conception analyses within the study groups were performed to further examine the association between abortion and adverse health outcomes. A group with no pregnancies up to 20 years of age (n = 25 312, 88.0%) served as an external reference group. We found no significant differences between the underage abortion and the childbirth group regarding risks of psychiatric disorders (adjusted odds ratio 0.96 [0.67-1.40]) or suffering from intentional or unintentional poisoning by medications or drugs (1.06 [0.57-1.98]). Compared with those who gave birth, girls who underwent abortion were less likely to achieve only a low educational level (0.41 [95% confidence interval 0.31-0.54]) or to be welfare-dependent (0.31 [0.22-0.45]), but more likely to suffer from injuries (1.51 [1.09-2.10]). Compared with the external control group, both pregnancy groups were disadvantaged already prior to the pregnancy. Psychiatric disorders and risk-taking-related health outcomes, including injury, were increased in the abortion group and in the childbirth group similarly on both sides of the
Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Moura, Egberto G; Carvalho, Janaine C; Nobre, Jéssica L; Quitete, Fernanda T; Pinheiro, Cintia R; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia C
Non-pharmacological early weaning (NPEW) leads offspring to obesity, higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis in adulthood. Pharmacological EW (PEW) by maternal treatment with bromocriptine (BRO) causes obesity in the adult progeny but precludes hepatic injury. To test the hypothesis that BRO prevents the deleterious changes of NPEW, we injected BRO into the pups from the NPEW model in late lactation. Lactating rats were divided into two groups: dams with an adhesive bandage around the body to prevent breastfeeding on the last 3 days of lactation and dams whose pups had free suckling (C). Offspring from both groups were subdivided into two groups: pups treated with BRO (intraperitoneal (i.p.) 4 mg/kg per day) on the last 3 days of lactation (NPEW/BRO and C/BRO) or pups treated with the vehicle (NPEW and C). At PN120, offspring were challenged with a high fat diet (HFD), and food intake was recorded after 30 minutes and 12 hours. Rats were killed at PN120 and PN200. At PN120, adipocyte size was greater in the NPEW group but was normal in the NPEW/BRO group. At PN200, the NPEW group presented hyperphagia, higher adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, hyperleptinaemia, glucose intolerance and increased hepatic triglycerides. These parameters were normalized in the NPEW/BRO group. In the feeding test, BRO groups showed lower HFD intake at 30 minutes than did their controls; however, at 12 hours, the NPEW group ate more HFD. The treatment with BRO can preclude some deleterious effects of the NPEW model, which prevented the development of overweight and its comorbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Lewinsohn, Peter M
Research on hierarchical modeling of psychopathology has frequently identified 2 higher order latent factors, internalizing and externalizing. When based on the comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses, the externalizing domain has usually been modeled as a single latent factor. Multivariate studies of externalizing symptom features, however, suggest multidimensionality. To address this apparent contradiction, confirmatory factor analytic methods and information-theoretic criteria were used to evaluate 4 theoretically plausible measurement models based on lifetime comorbidity patterns of 7 putative externalizing disorders. Diagnostic information was collected at 4 assessment waves from an age-based cohort of 816 persons between the ages of 14 and 33. A 2-factor model that distinguished oppositional behavior disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) from social norm violation disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol use disorder, cannabis use disorder, hard drug use disorder) demonstrated consistently good fit and superior approximating abilities. Analyses of psychosocial outcomes measured at the last assessment wave supported the validity of this 2-factor model. Implications of this research for the theoretical understanding of domain-related disorders and the organization of classification systems are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Chang, Ling-Yin; Wu, Chi-Chen; Lin, Linen Nymphas; Yen, Lee-Lan; Chang, Hsing-Yi
To examine the longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and development of antisocial behavior from adolescence through young adulthood, and to investigate whether family functioning moderates the association being examined. Potential sex differences were also explored. A total of 2,491 adolescents participated in a prospective study spanning 2009 through 2014 in northern Taiwan. Measures included sleep problems, family functioning (parental support, family interaction, and family conflict), antisocial behavior, and other individual characteristics (sex, age, parental education, family economic stress, depressive symptoms, and stressful life events). Random coefficient growth models were used to test study hypotheses. Sleep problems were significantly and positively associated with antisocial behavior (B = 0.088 and 0.038 for males and females, respectively). Sex differences further emerged in the moderating effects of family functioning. Among males, those with high family interaction had a weaker association between sleep problems and antisocial behavior; among females, the examined association was weaker in those with high parental support. For both sexes, the association between sleep problems and antisocial behavior was stronger for those with high family conflict. Our findings highlight the robust link between sleep problems and adolescent antisocial behavior over time. We also show for the first time that the association depends on family functioning. Prevention methods and treatment of sleep problems in youths that incorporate family functioning may yield significant benefits for decreasing antisocial behavior. Sex-specific intervention and prevention approaches should also be considered. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Rottensteiner, Mirva; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.
Objective To determine the relationship between persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits and waist gain among young adults. Design and Methods Population-based cohort study among 3383 Finnish twin individuals (1578 men) from five birth cohorts (1975–1979), who answered questionnaires at mean ages of 24.4 y (SD 0.9) and 33.9 y (SD 1.2), with reported self-measured waist circumference. Persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits was defined based on thirds of activity metabolic equivalent h/day during follow-up (mean 9.5 y; SD 0.7). Results Decreased activity was linked to greater waist gain compared to increased activity (3.6 cm, P<0.001 for men; 3.1 cm, P<0.001 for women). Among same-sex activity discordant twin pairs, twins who decreased activity gained an average 2.8 cm (95%CI 0.4 to 5.1, P=0.009) more waist than their co-twins who increased activity (n=85 pairs); among MZ twin pairs (n=43), the difference was 4.2 cm (95%CI 1.2 to 7.2, P=0.008). Conclusions Among young adults, an increase in leisure-time physical activity or staying active during a decade of follow-up was associated with less waist gain, but any decrease in activity level, regardless baseline activity, led to waist gain that was similar to that associated with being persistently inactive. PMID:24839266
Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objective Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences in depressive symptoms from ages 12 through 30 years by gender nonconformity before age 11 years. We examined the prevalence of bullying victimization by gender nonconformity, then ascertained whether increased exposure to abuse and bullying accounted for possible increased risk of depressive symptoms. We further compared results stratified by sexual orientation. Results Participants in the top decile of childhood gender nonconformity were at elevated risk of depressive symptoms at ages 12 through 30 years (for females, 0.19 standard deviations more depressive symptoms than conforming females; for males, 0.34 standard deviations more symptoms than conforming males). By ages 23 to 30 years, 26% of participants in the top decile of childhood nonconformity had probable mild or moderate depression versus 18% of participants who were conforming (p < .001). Abuse and bullying victimization accounted for approximately half the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in youth who were nonconforming versus conforming. Gender-nonconforming heterosexuals and males were at particularly elevated risk for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Gender nonconformity was a strong predictor of depressive symptoms beginning in adolescence, particularly among males and heterosexuals. Physical and emotional bullying and abuse, both inside and outside the home, accounted for much of this increased risk. PMID:23357441
Stepp, Stephanie D
Recognizable symptoms and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) appear during adolescence. However, there has been resistance to diagnose or research this disorder prior to adulthood because of clinical lore that BPD is a long-standing illness and that personality traits are not stable until adulthood. This has resulted in little information regarding the development of and risk factors for BPD in youth. The goal of this special section is to examine the development of BPD in adolescence and young adulthood using a broad collection of approaches, including a theoretical review paper, two prospective studies, and a multi-method cross-sectional study. This body of work provides new insights into vulnerabilities that may transact with early attachment relationships and experiences to predict the emergence of BPD in adolescence and young adulthood. These papers also point to future research that is needed to better understand the etiology, development, and course of BPD.
Jackson, Dylan B.; Beaver, Kevin M.
A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25568969
This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.
Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…
Childhood socioeconomic position, adult socioeconomic position and social mobility in relation to markers of adiposity in early adulthood: evidence of differential effects by gender in the 1978/79 Ribeirao Preto cohort study.
Aitsi-Selmi, A; Batty, G D; Barbieri, M A; Silva, A A M; Cardoso, V C; Goldani, M Z; Marmot, M G; Bettiol, H
Longitudinal studies drawn from high-income countries demonstrate long-term associations of early childhood socioeconomic deprivation with increased adiposity in adulthood. However, there are very few data from resource-poor countries where there are reasons to anticipate different gradients. Accordingly, we sought to characterise the nature of the socioeconomic status (SES)-adiposity association in Brazil. We use data from the Ribeirao Preto Cohort Study in Brazil in which 9067 newborns were recruited via their mothers in 1978/79 and one-in-three followed up in 2002/04 (23-25years). SES, based on family income (salaries, interest on savings, pensions and so on), was assessed at birth and early adulthood, and three different adiposity measures (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) ascertained at follow-up. The association between childhood SES, adult SES and social mobility (defined as four permutations of SES in childhood and adulthood: low-low, low-high, high-low, high-high), and the adiposity measures was examined using linear regression. There was evidence that the association between SES and the three markers of adiposity was modified by gender in both adulthood (P<0.02 for all outcomes) and childhood SES (P<0.02 for WC and WHR). Thus, in an unadjusted model, linear regression analyses showed that higher childhood SES was associated with lower adiposity in women (coefficient (95% confidence intervals) BMI: -1.49 (-2.29,-0.69); WC: -3.85 (-5.73,-1.97); WHR: -0.03 (-0.04,-0.02)). However, in men, higher childhood SES was related to higher adiposity (BMI: 1.03 (0.28,-1.78); WC: 3.15 (1.20, 5.09); WHR: 0.009 (-0.001, 0.019)) although statistical significance was not seen in all analyses. There was a suggestion that adult SES (but not adult health behaviours or birthweight) accounted for these relationships in women only. Upward mobility was associated with protection against greater adiposity in women but not men. In the
Wolfe, David A.
A longitudinal study was made of a prevention-oriented early intervention program intended to help parents who had insufficient and inappropriate childrearing abilities. The program was designed for young parents with fewer than 5 years of childrearing experience; participants were referred from a child protection agency following investigation of…
An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework
Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène
This study proposes the inclusion of peer relationships in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle adolescence and childbearing by early adulthood. Specifically, 998 youth and their families were assessed at age 11 years and periodically through age 24 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that the peer-enhanced life history model provided a good fit to the longitudinal data, with deviant peer clustering strongly predicting adolescent sexual promiscuity and other correlated problem behaviors. Sexual promiscuity, as expected, also strongly predicted the number of children by age 22–24 years. Consistent with a life history perspective, family social disadvantage directly predicted deviant peer clustering and number of children in early adulthood, controlling for all other variables in the model. These data suggest that deviant peer clustering is a core dimension of a fast life history strategy, with strong links to sexual activity and childbearing. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the need to integrate an evolutionary-based model of self-organized peer groups in developmental and intervention science. PMID:22409765
An ecological analysis of the effects of deviant peer clustering on sexual promiscuity, problem behavior, and childbearing from early adolescence to adulthood: an enhancement of the life history framework.
Dishion, Thomas J; Ha, Thao; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène
The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle adolescence and childbearing by early adulthood. Specifically, 998 youths, along with their families, were assessed at age 11 years and periodically through age 24 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that the peer-enhanced life history model provided a good fit to the longitudinal data, with deviant peer clustering strongly predicting adolescent sexual promiscuity and other correlated problem behaviors. Sexual promiscuity, as expected, also strongly predicted the number of children by ages 22-24 years. Consistent with a life history perspective, family social disadvantage directly predicted deviant peer clustering and number of children in early adulthood, controlling for all other variables in the model. These data suggest that deviant peer clustering is a core dimension of a fast life history strategy, with strong links to sexual activity and childbearing. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the need to integrate an evolutionary-based model of self-organized peer groups in developmental and intervention science.
Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J; Connell, Arin M; Kavanagh, Kathryn
Substance use in adulthood compromises work, relationships, and health. Prevention strategies in early adolescence are designed to reduce substance use and progressions to problematic use by adulthood. This report examines the long-term effects of offering Family Check-up (FCU) at multiple time points in secondary education on the progression of substance use from age 11 to 23 years. Participants (N = 998; 472 females) were randomly assigned individuals to intervention or control in Grade 6 and offered a multilevel intervention that included a classroom-based intervention (universal), the FCU (selected), and tailored family management treatment (indicated). Among intervention families, 23% engaged in the selected and indicated levels during middle school. Intention to treat analyses revealed that randomization to the FCU was associated with reduced growth in marijuana use (p < .05), but not alcohol and tobacco use. We also examined whether engagement in the voluntary FCU services moderated the effect of the intervention on substance use progressions using complier average causal effect (CACE) modeling, and found that engagement in the FCU services predicted reductions in alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use by age 23. In comparing engagers with nonengagers: 70% versus 95% showed signs of alcohol abuse or dependence, 28% versus 61% showed signs of tobacco dependence, and 59% versus 84% showed signs of marijuana abuse or dependence. Family interventions that are embedded within public school systems can reach high-risk students and families and prevent progressions from exploration to problematic substance use through early adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.
This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…
Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.
Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. PMID:20700389
Pathways to prevention: protocol for the CAP (Climate and Preventure) study to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of school-based universal, selective and combined alcohol misuse prevention into early adulthood.
Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine; Slade, Tim; Champion, Katrina E; Barrett, Emma L; Chapman, Catherine; Smout, Anna; Lawler, Siobhan; Mather, Marius; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Conrod, Patricia J; Teesson, Maree
Alcohol use and associated harms are among the leading causes of burden of disease among young people, highlighting the need for effective prevention. The Climate and Preventure (CAP) study was the first trial of a combined universal and selective school-based approach to preventing alcohol misuse among adolescents. Initial results indicate that universal, selective and combined prevention were all effective in delaying the uptake of alcohol use and binge drinking for up to 3 years following the interventions. However, little is known about the sustainability of prevention effects across the transition to early adulthood, a period of increased exposure to alcohol and other drug use. This paper describes the protocol for the CAP long-term follow-up study which will determine the effectiveness of universal, selective and combined alcohol misuse prevention up to 7 years post intervention, and across the transition from adolescence into early adulthood. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2012 and 2015 with 2190 students (mean age: 13.3 yrs) from 26 Australian high schools. Participants were randomized to receive one of four conditions; universal prevention for all students (Climate); selective prevention for high-risk students (Preventure); combined universal and selective prevention (Climate and Preventure; CAP); or health education as usual (Control). The positive effect of the interventions on alcohol use at 12-, 24- and 36-month post baseline have previously been reported. This study will follow up the CAP study cohort approximately 5- and 7-years post baseline. The primary outcome will be alcohol use and related harms. Secondary outcomes will be cannabis use, alcohol and other drug harms including violent behavior, and mental health symptomatology. Analyses will be conducted using multi-level, mixed effects models within an intention-to-treat framework. This study will provide the first ever evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of
Indicates that human beings do not develop to the maturity of genuine adulthood. Adult educators must address the implications and consequences of assuming consensual collaboration to be the appropriate relationship for human beings. (JOW)
Boeck, Carina R; Marques, Virgínia B; Valvassori, Samira S; Constantino, Leandra C; Rosa, Daniela V F; Lima, Fabrício F; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Quevedo, João
Chronic ingestion of caffeine causes dependence and sleep disturbance in children and adolescents. In rodents, the administration of caffeine may produce behavioral cross-sensitization to some psychostimulants, such as dopaminergic psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is a psychostimulant used in pediatric- and adult human populations to manage the symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have suggested that dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) participate in the manifestation of behavioral activity following ingestion of caffeine or MPH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long-term administration of low doses of caffeine in rodents during their adolescence induces cross-sensitization to MPH challenge in their adulthood and investigate the involvement of DARPP-32 in this model. Young rats (P25) consumed water or caffeine (0.3 g/L; mean consumption was 7.5 mg/day/kg) for 28 days. The caffeine consumption was then suspended for 14 days (washout period) when the animals received saline solution or MPH (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg) (P67) intraperitoneally. The locomotor activity of these rats was assessed using the open-field test, following which the immunocontent of DARPP-32 was evaluated in samples of their prefrontal cortex, striatum, or hippocampus. Rats chronically exposed to caffeine in their adolescent period and to inactive doses of MPH (1mg/kg) in adulthood showed augmented locomotor activity. The behavioral effect observed was accompanied by increased levels of DARPP-32 in the striatum and prefrontal cortex compared to control groups (saline or caffeine). However, no alteration caused by these treatments was noted in the hippocampus. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure induces likely long-term cross-sensitization to MPH in a DARPP-32-dependent pathway.
Uttl, Libor; Petrasek, Tomas; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovska, Marketa; Lobellova, Veronika; Vales, Karel; Radostova, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubova, Hana; Mikulecka, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlik, Ales
The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions. However, limited evidence is available regarding the consequences of NMDA receptor blockage during periods of adolescence and early adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that a 2-week treatment of male Long-Evans and Wistar rats with dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.5 mg/kg daily) starting at postnatal days (PD) 30 and 60 would cause a long-term cognitive deficit and changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits. The working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM) and active place avoidance with reversal on a rotating arena (Carousel) requiring cognitive coordination and flexibility probed cognitive functions and an elevated-plus maze (EPM) was used to measure anxiety-like behavior. The western blot method was used to determine changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels in the hippocampus. Our results showed no significant changes in behaviors in Wistar rats. Slightly elevated anxiety-like behavior was observed in the EPM in Long-Evans rats with the onset of treatment on PD 30. Furthermore, Long-Evans rats treated from PD 60 displayed impaired working memory in the MWM. There were; however, no significant changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits because of MK-801 administration. These findings suggest that a 2-week treatment starting on PD 60 in Long-Evans rats leads to long-term changes in working memory, but this deficit is not paralleled by changes in NMDA receptor subunits. These
Uttl, Libor; Petrasek, Tomas; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovska, Marketa; Lobellova, Veronika; Vales, Karel; Radostova, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubova, Hana; Mikulecka, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlik, Ales
The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions. However, limited evidence is available regarding the consequences of NMDA receptor blockage during periods of adolescence and early adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that a 2-week treatment of male Long-Evans and Wistar rats with dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.5 mg/kg daily) starting at postnatal days (PD) 30 and 60 would cause a long-term cognitive deficit and changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits. The working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM) and active place avoidance with reversal on a rotating arena (Carousel) requiring cognitive coordination and flexibility probed cognitive functions and an elevated-plus maze (EPM) was used to measure anxiety-like behavior. The western blot method was used to determine changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels in the hippocampus. Our results showed no significant changes in behaviors in Wistar rats. Slightly elevated anxiety-like behavior was observed in the EPM in Long-Evans rats with the onset of treatment on PD 30. Furthermore, Long-Evans rats treated from PD 60 displayed impaired working memory in the MWM. There were; however, no significant changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits because of MK-801 administration. These findings suggest that a 2-week treatment starting on PD 60 in Long-Evans rats leads to long-term changes in working memory, but this deficit is not paralleled by changes in NMDA receptor subunits. These
The effects of violence exposure on the development of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood: Time-specific and generalized effects in a sample of juvenile offenders.
Monahan, Kathryn C; King, Kevin M; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie
Impulse control and future orientation increase across adolescence, but little is known about how contextual factors shape the development of these capacities. The present study investigates how stress exposure, operationalized as exposure to violence, alters the developmental pattern of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood. In a sample of 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, higher exposure to violence was associated with lower levels of future orientation at age 15 and suppressed development of future orientation from ages 15 to 25. Increases in witnessing violence or victimization were linked to declines in impulse control 1 year later, but only during adolescence. Thus, beyond previous experiences of exposure to violence, witnessing violence and victimization during adolescence conveys unique risk for suppressed development of self-regulation.
Larson, Anna M; Shinnick, Julianna E; Shaaya, Elias A; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate the primary health issues affecting adults with AS and to further characterize the natural history and genotype-phenotype correlations. Standardized phone interviews with caregivers for 110 adolescents and adults with AS were conducted. The impact of age, sex, and genotype on specific outcomes in neurology, orthopedics, internal medicine, and psychiatry were investigated. The mean age of individuals with AS was 24 years (range 16-50y). Active seizures were present in 41% of individuals, and 72% had sleep dysfunction. Significant constipation was present in 85%, and 32% were overweight or obese, with obesity disproportionately affecting women. Scoliosis affected 50% with a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years, and 24% of those diagnosed with scoliosis required surgery, an intervention disproportionately affecting men. Sixty-eight percent were able to walk independently, and 13% were able to speak 5 or more words. Self-injurious behavior was exhibited in 52% of individuals. The results of this study indicate that epilepsy severity may assume a bimodal age distribution: seizures are typically most severe in early childhood but may recur in adulthood. While late-adolescent and adult sleep patterns were improved when compared to the degree of sleep dysfunction present during infancy and childhood, the prevalence of poor sleep in adults remained quite high. Primary areas of clinical management identified include the following: seizures, sleep, aspiration risk, GERD, constipation, dental care, vision, obesity, scoliosis, bone density, mobility, communication, behavior, and anxiety. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions
Markiewicz, Katarzyna; van Til, Janine A; IJzerman, Maarten J
The aim of this study was to get an overview of current theory and practice in early assessments of medical devices, and to identify aims and uses of early assessment methods used in practice. A systematic literature review was conducted in September 2013, using computerized databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus), and references list search. Selected articles were categorized based on their type, objective, and main target audience. The methods used in the application studies were extracted and mapped throughout the early stages of development and for their particular aims. Of 1,961 articles identified, eighty-three studies passed the inclusion criteria, and thirty were included by searching reference lists. There were thirty-one theoretical papers, and eighty-two application papers included. Most studies investigated potential applications/possible improvement of medical devices, developed early assessment framework or included stakeholder perspective in early development stages. Among multiple qualitative and quantitative methods identified, only few were used more than once. The methods aim to inform strategic considerations (e.g., literature review), economic evaluation (e.g., cost-effectiveness analysis), and clinical effectiveness (e.g., clinical trials). Medical devices were often in the prototype product development stage, and the results were usually aimed at informing manufacturers. This study showed converging aims yet widely diverging methods for early assessment during medical device development. For early assessment to become an integral part of activities in the development of medical devices, methods need to be clarified and standardized, and the aims and value of assessment itself must be demonstrated to the main stakeholders for assuring effective and efficient medical device development.
Kincheloe, Teresa Scott
Reviews the early career of Margaret Mead (1928-1942) and study methods she used in Samoa, New Guinea, and Bali. Particular attention is paid to her examinations of sex roles and her own experiences as a female scientist. (Part of a theme issue on anthropological methods in educational research.) (SJL)
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Joyce
Background The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This paper examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school- and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods We analyzed longitudinal data from Waves I (1994-95), II (1996), and III (2001-02) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally-representative population-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in 1995 who were followed into young adulthood. We assessed the relationship between obesity in adolescence and young adulthood, and disadvantage (measured by low parent education in adolescence) at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level using multilevel logistic regression. Results When all levels of disadvantage were modeled simultaneously, school-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in adolescence for males and females and family-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in young adulthood for females. Conclusions Schools may serve as a primary setting for obesity prevention efforts. Because obesity in adolescence tracks into adulthood, it is important to consider prevention efforts at this stage in the life course, in addition to early childhood, particularly among disadvantaged populations. PMID:23343314
Bacon, S; Kyithar, M P; Condron, E M; Vizzard, N; Burke, M; Byrne, M M
HNF4A is an established cause of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Congenital hyperinsulinism can also be associated with mutations in the HNF4A gene. A dual phenotype is observed in HNF4A-MODY with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in the neonatal period progressing to diabetes in adulthood. The nature and timing of the transition remain poorly defined. We performed an observational study to establish changes in glycaemia and insulin secretion over a 6-year period. We investigated glycaemic variability and hypoglycaemia in HNF4A-MODY using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). An OGTT with measurement of glucose, insulin and C-peptide was performed in HNF4A participants with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 14), HNF4A-IGT (n = 7) and age- and BMI-matched MODY negative family members (n = 10). Serial assessment was performed in the HNF4A-IGT cohort. In a subset of HNF4A-MODY mutation carriers (n = 10), CGMS was applied over a 72-h period. There was no deterioration in glycaemic control in the HNF4A-IGT cohort. The fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio was significantly lower in the HNF4A-IGT cohort when compared to the normal control group (0.13 vs. 0.24, p = 0.03). CGMS profiling demonstrated prolonged periods of hypoglycaemia in the HNF4A-IGT group when compared to the HNF4A-DM group (432 vs. 138 min p = 0.04). In a young adult HNF4A-IGT cohort, we demonstrate preserved glucose, insulin and C-peptide secretory responses to oral glucose. Utilising CGMS, prolonged periods of hypoglycaemia are evident despite a median age of 21 years. We propose a prolonged hyperinsulinaemic phase into adulthood is responsible for the notable hypoglycaemic episodes.
Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J
Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey . Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.
Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Unternaehrer, Eva; Gaudreau, Hélène; Lydon, John E; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J
We examined the interactive effects of maternal childhood adversity and later adulthood depression on subsequent socioeconomic status (SES). Our community sample ranged from 230 to 243 mothers (across measures) drawn from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Maternal childhood adversity scores were derived using an integrated measure derived from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Parental Bonding Index (PBI). Maternal depression was measured in the prenatal period with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). SES measures included maternal highest level of education and family income as obtained prenatally. The analyses yielded significant interaction effects between maternal childhood adversity and prenatal depression that predicted income, prenatally. Women who reported higher levels of childhood adversity combined with higher levels of self-reported depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to live in low SES environments. Results also showed that level of education was predicted by childhood adversity independent of maternal symptoms of depression. The results suggest that SES is influenced by a life course pathway that begins in childhood and includes adversity-related mental health outcomes. Since child health and development is influenced by both maternal mental health and SES, this pathway may also contribute to the intergenerational transmission of the risk for psychopathology in the offspring. The results also emphasize the importance of studying potential precursors of low SES, a well-documented environmental risk factor for poor developmental outcomes in the offspring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.
Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey . Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593
Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Katre, Prachi A; Joshi, Suyog M; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Bhat, Dattatray S; Lubree, Himangi G; Memane, Nilam; Kinare, Arun S; Pandit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A; Bavdekar, Ashish; Fall, Caroline H D
The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.
Relevance of fruits, vegetables and flavonoids from fruits and vegetables during early life, mid-childhood and adolescence for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in young adulthood.
Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas; Penczynski, Katharina J; Bolzenius, Katja; Wudy, Stefan A; Buyken, Anette E
The growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to insulin metabolism and cancer risk. Experimental evidence indicates that the GH-IGF axis itself can be influenced by dietary flavonoids. As fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a major source of flavonoid consumption, FV's beneficial health effects may be explained via flavonoids' influence on the GH-IGF axis, but observational evidence is currently rare. We used data from Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants to analyse prospective associations between FV, fruit intake and flavonoid intake from FV (FlavFV) with IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Subjects needed to provide a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years) and at least two 3-d weighed dietary records in early life (0·5-2 years, n 191), mid-childhood (3-7 years, n 265) or adolescence (girls: 9-15 years, boys: 10-16 years, n 261). Additional analyses were conducted among those providing at least three 24-h urine samples in adolescence (n 236) to address the predictor urinary hippuric acid (HA), a biomarker of polyphenol intake. Higher fruit intake in mid-childhood and adolescence was related to higher IGFBP-2 in adulthood (P=0·03 and P=0·045). Comparable trends (P=0·045-0·09) were discernable for FV intake (but not FlavFV) in all three time windows. Similarly, higher adolescent HA excretion tended to be related (P=0·06) to higher adult IGFBP-2 levels. Regarding IGFBP-3, a marginal (P=0·08) positive association was observed with FlavFV in mid-childhood only. None of the investigated dietary factors was related to IGF-1. In conclusion, higher fruit and FV intakes during growth may be relevant for adult IGFBP-2, but probably not for IGFBP-3 or IGF-1.
Fujiura, Glenn; Johnson, Lawrence J.
The review of some recent studies on use of microcomputers in early childhood special education highlights methodological issues including the qualitative quantitative distinction and the interdependence of research design and interpretation. Imbedding qualitative methods into quasi- or true-experimental designs can provide more information than…
Kappelmann, Nils; Khandaker, Golam M; Dal, Henrik; Stochl, Jan; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B; Dalman, Christina; Karlsson, Håkan
Schizophrenia is associated with impaired neurodevelopment as indexed by lower premorbid IQ. We examined associations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, IQ, and subsequent schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses (ONAP) to elucidate the role of neurodevelopment and inflammation in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Population-based data on ESR and IQ from 638 213 Swedish men assessed during military conscription between 1969 and 1983 were linked to National Hospital Discharge Register for hospitalisation with schizophrenia and ONAP. The associations of ESR with IQ (cross-sectional) and psychoses (longitudinal) were investigated using linear and Cox-regression. The co-relative analysis was used to examine effects of shared familial confounding. We examined mediation and moderation of effect between ESR and IQ on psychosis risk. Baseline IQ was associated with subsequent risk of schizophrenia (adjusted HR per 1-point increase in IQ = 0.961; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.960-0.963) and ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.973; 95% CI 0.971-0.975). Higher ESR was associated with lower IQ in a dose-response fashion. High ESR was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (adjusted HR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.28) and decreased risk for ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.96), although these effects were specific to one ESR band (7-10 mm/hr). Familial confounding explained ESR-IQ but not ESR-psychoses associations. IQ partly mediated the ESR-psychosis relationships. Lower IQ is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and with an increased risk of schizophrenia and ONAP in adulthood. Low-grade inflammation may influence schizophrenia risk by affecting neurodevelopment. Future studies should explore the differential effects of inflammation on different types of psychosis.
Plant, Dominic T.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Sharp, Deborah; Pawlby, Susan
Background Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression. Aims To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association. Method Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring child maltreatment and offspring adulthood (18–25 years) DSM-IV depression were analysed in 103 mother–offspring dyads of the South London Child Development Study. Results Adult offspring exposed to maternal depression in pregnancy were 3.4 times more likely to have a DSM-IV depressive disorder, and 2.4 times more likely to have experienced child maltreatment, compared with non-exposed offspring. Path analysis revealed that offspring experience of child maltreatment mediated the association between exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in adulthood. Conclusions Maternal depression in pregnancy is a key vulnerability factor for offspring depression in early adulthood. PMID:26045352
Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E
Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend < 0.01). PCA identified "healthy" patterns for all periods, but none was associated with the outcomes (P trend > 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.
Cabirol, Amélie; Brooks, Rufus; Groh, Claudia; Barron, Andrew B.; Devaud, Jean-Marc
The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an…
Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen
In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.
Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Jørgine Kirkeby, Mette; Thygesen, Marianne; Danbjørg, Dorthe B; Kronborg, Hanne
Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Still length of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers' perspectives on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also to identify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers' open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Up to 40% of the mothers had experienced early breastfeeding problems. The problems were associated with the mother, the infant and to lack of support from health care professionals. Most prominent problems were infant's inability to latch on (40%) and mothers having sore, wounded and cracked nipples (38%). Pain often occurred when experiencing breastfeeding problems. Factors associated with the problems were primiparity, lower self-efficacy and lower self-perceived knowledge of breastfeeding. Mothers with no or short education reported less frequently breastfeeding problems. Breastfeeding problems occurred frequently in the early postnatal period and often caused breastfeeding to be painful. Health care professionals should prepare mothers to deal with possible breastfeeding problems. New support options should be reviewed in an early postnatal discharge setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Gao, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaopeng
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. In this paper, we propose a pulmonary nodule detection method for early screening of lung cancer based on the improved AlexNet model. In order to maintain the same image quality as the existing B/S architecture PACS system, we convert the original CT image into JPEG format image by analyzing the DICOM file firstly. Secondly, in view of the large size and complex background of CT chest images, we design the convolution neural network on basis of AlexNet model and sparse convolution structure. At last we train our models on the software named DIGITS which is provided by NVIDIA. The main contribution of this paper is to apply the convolutional neural network for the early screening of lung cancer and improve the screening accuracy by combining the AlexNet model with the sparse convolution structure. We make a series of experiments on the chest CT images using the proposed method, of which the sensitivity and specificity indicates that the method presented in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of early screening of lung cancer and it has certain clinical significance at the same time.
Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.
A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.
Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.
A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.
Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Emrich, Hinderk M; Ohlmeier, Martin D
Asperger's syndrome is one of the autism spectrum disorders. Affected individuals display considerably impaired capacity for social interaction, unusual special interests, and a tendency towards ritualized behavior. The etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of Asperger's syndrome in adulthood are outlined on the basis of a selective literature review via Medline and information in relevant reference books. Furthermore, the authors report their personal experience at a special clinic for adults. Asperger's syndrome in adulthood can be diagnosed by thorough anamnesis, heteroanamnesis-with emphasis on childhood-and painstaking clinical examination. The considerable psychosocial impairments affect the patients' professional, social, and private lives. The precise etiology is still unknown, but a multifactorial origin with genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial components appears probable. Although no specific, empirically tested treatment concepts have yet been established, psychotherapeutic elements (structuring and directive interventions) seem to be helpful, together with pharmacotherapy-if indicated-in the presence of comorbidity. Asperger's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of adults who display the corresponding symptoms. The etiopathogenesis and treatment of Asperger's syndrome in adulthood should be further investigated.
Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred
Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth. At age 25 years, voxel-based morphometry was applied to study brain volume differences. Poverty (0=non-exposed (N=134), 1=exposed (N=33)) and smoking during pregnancy were determined using a standardized parent interview, and information on maternal responsiveness was derived from videotaped mother–infant interactions at the age of 3 months. CD symptoms were assessed by diagnostic interview from 8 to 19 years of age. Information on life stress was acquired at each assessment and childhood maltreatment was measured using retrospective self-report at the age of 23 years. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental psychopathology and delinquency, obstetric adversity, parental education, and current poverty. Individuals exposed to early life poverty exhibited a lower OFC volume. Moreover, we replicated previous findings of increased CD symptoms as a consequence of childhood poverty. This effect proved statistically mediated by OFC volume and exposure to life stress and smoking during pregnancy, but not by childhood maltreatment and maternal responsiveness. These findings underline the importance of studying the impact of early life adversity on brain alterations and highlight the need for programs to decrease income-related disparities. PMID:25315195
Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred
Converging evidence has highlighted the association between poverty and conduct disorder (CD) without specifying neurobiological pathways. Neuroimaging research has emphasized structural and functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as one key mechanism underlying this disorder. The present study aimed to clarify the long-term influence of early poverty on OFC volume and its association with CD symptoms in healthy participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth. At age 25 years, voxel-based morphometry was applied to study brain volume differences. Poverty (0=non-exposed (N=134), 1=exposed (N=33)) and smoking during pregnancy were determined using a standardized parent interview, and information on maternal responsiveness was derived from videotaped mother-infant interactions at the age of 3 months. CD symptoms were assessed by diagnostic interview from 8 to 19 years of age. Information on life stress was acquired at each assessment and childhood maltreatment was measured using retrospective self-report at the age of 23 years. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental psychopathology and delinquency, obstetric adversity, parental education, and current poverty. Individuals exposed to early life poverty exhibited a lower OFC volume. Moreover, we replicated previous findings of increased CD symptoms as a consequence of childhood poverty. This effect proved statistically mediated by OFC volume and exposure to life stress and smoking during pregnancy, but not by childhood maltreatment and maternal responsiveness. These findings underline the importance of studying the impact of early life adversity on brain alterations and highlight the need for programs to decrease income-related disparities.
Clarke, Philippa J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Schulenberg, John E; Johnston, Lloyd D
The health consequences of obesity and overweight have been well documented, but less research has examined their social and economic consequences. This paper examines the long-term consequences of early adult overweight for midlife health and socioeconomic attainment using prospective nationally representative panel data from American adults in the Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2008). Growth mixture models identified 2 distinct latent classes of trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from age 19 to 35 years: a persistently overweight class (BMI >25 kg/m(2)) and a second class exhibiting more moderate growth in BMI to age 35 years. Women (odds ratio (OR) = 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39, 3.36) and those from a lower childhood socioeconomic position (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.24) were more likely to be in the persistently overweight class. Compared with those in the moderately increasing BMI class, those in the persistently overweight class were more likely to have a chronic health problem at age 40 years (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 2.20, 3.43), to have no further education beyond high school (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.69), and to have a higher odds of receiving welfare or unemployment compensation at age 40 years (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04). These findings highlight the importance of addressing persistent obesity and overweight early in the life course.
Cabirol, Amélie; Brooks, Rufus; Groh, Claudia; Barron, Andrew B; Devaud, Jean-Marc
The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an impoverished environment lacking some of the sensory and social interactions present in the hive. In parallel, the overall number of synaptic boutons increased within the MB olfactory neuropil, whose volume remained unaffected. This suggests that experience of the rich in-hive environment promotes MB maturation and the development of MB-dependent learning capacities. © 2017 Cabirol et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Etemadi, A; Golozar, A; Kamangar, F; Freedman, N D; Shakeri, R; Matthews, C; Islami, F; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Abnet, C C; Malekzadeh, R; Dawsey, S M
Little is known about the association of obesity and physical activity at young ages with subsequent risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Between 2003 and 2007, we conducted a case-control study in a high-risk population in northeastern Iran. Three hundred ESCC cases and 571 matched controls were recruited. Each individual was shown a standard pictogram, to report body size at ages 15 and 30. Demographic and health-related information, including physical activity at these ages was also collected. In the fully adjusted models, very obese body size (last two pictograms) at age 15 [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-7.7] and age 30 (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.1-8.5) were associated with ESCC in women, but not in men. Sedentary work at age 15 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.3) and 30 (OR 18.2, 95% CI 3.9-86.2) were also associated with ESCC risk in women only. The increased risk in women at age 15 remained high after later reduction in body size, while women who became very obese only at age 30 did not show a significantly increased risk. These results highlight the importance of early lifestyle modifications in the context of cancer prevention, particularly in women.
Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa
At present, nanoparticles are beginning to influence our lives in many ways and understanding the environmental health and safety aspect of nanomaterials has become a crucial issue. The aim of the work was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of 31 different nanomaterials to fish mature individuals Danio rerio with that to fish early life stages on using evaluation of the 48- and 96- hour LC50 values. A further aim was to evaluate teratogenicity of the nanoparticles tested to fish eggs. The nanoparticles tested were: 8 pure metals, 10 metal oxides, 5 other metal compounds and their mixtures, 2 silicon compounds, 3 calcium compounds, and 3 carbon compounds. Using 48-h and 96-h tests of acute toxicity (according to OECD 203), we evaluated mortality data, LC50 values, occurrence of malformations, as well as hatching time. In our study, 6 kinds of nanoparticles – calcium oxide, copper, copper in the form of oxide and CuZnFe4O4, magnesium oxide, and nickel – caused cumulative mortality. Two kinds of nanoparticles – copper and silver – were toxic for fish with LC50 values of approximately 3 mg/L. We did not observe marked differences between the 48-hour and 96-hour acute toxicity LC50 values, yet the possibility to evaluate hatching time in the 96-h acute fish toxicity test seems to be an advantage against that of the 48-hour toxicity. PMID:24179431
Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.
Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Hedges, Valerie L.; Becker, Jill B.; Mermelstein, Paul G.
After reproductive senescence or gonadectomy, changes occur in neural gene expression, ultimately altering brain function. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these changes in gene expression beyond immediate hormone loss are poorly understood. To investigate this, we measured changes in gene expression the dorsal striatum, where 17β-estradiol modulates catecholamine signaling. In human caudate, quantitative PCR determined a significant elevation in β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) expression in menopausal females when compared with similarly aged males. No differences were detected in β2-adrenergic and D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expression. Consistent with humans, adult ovariectomized female rats exhibited a similar increase in β1AR expression when compared with gonadectomized males. No sex difference in β1AR expression was detected between intact adults, prepubertal juveniles, or adults gonadectomized before puberty, indicating the necessity of pubertal development and adult ovariectomy. Additionally, increased β1AR expression in adult ovariectomized females was not observed if animals were masculinized/defeminized with testosterone injections as neonates. To generate a model system for assessing functional impact, increased β1AR expression was induced in female-derived cultured striatal neurons via exposure to and then removal of hormone-containing serum. Increased β1AR action on cAMP formation, cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and gene expression was observed. This up-regulation of β1AR action was eliminated with 17β-estradiol addition to the media, directly implicating this hormone as a regulator of β1AR expression. Beyond having implications for the known sex differences in striatal function and pathologies, these data collectively demonstrate that critical periods early in life and at puberty program adult gene responsiveness to hormone loss after gonadectomy and potentially reproductive senescence. PMID:23533220
Mayer, Susan Jean
This article analyzes the early evolution of Jean Piaget's renowned "clinical method" in order to investigate the method's strikingly original and generative character. Throughout his 1st decade in the field, Piaget frequently discussed and justified the many different approaches to data collection he used. Analysis of his methodological progression during this period reveals that Piaget's determination to access the genuine convictions of children eventually led him to combine 3 distinct traditions in which he had been trained-naturalistic observation, psychometrics, and the psychiatric clinical examination. It was in this amalgam, first evident in his 4th text, that Piaget discovered the clinical dynamic that would drive the classic experiments for which he is most well known.
Ports, Katie A; Ford, Derek C; Merrick, Melissa T
Understanding the link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and sexual victimization (SV) in adulthood may provide important information about the level of risk for adult SV and sexual re-victimization among childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors. In the present paper, we explore the relationship between ACEs, including CSA, and SV in adulthood. Data from the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study were used to examine the effect of experiences of early adversity on adult SV. Adult HMO members (n=7,272) undergoing a routine health exam provided detailed information about ACEs that occurred at age 18 or younger and their experiences of SV in adulthood. Analyses revealed that as ACE score increased, so did risk of experiencing SV in adulthood. Each of the ACE variables was significantly associated with adult SV, with CSA being the strongest predictor of adult SV. In addition, for those who reported CSA, there was a cumulative increase in adult SV risk with each additional ACE experienced. As such, early adversity is a risk factor for adult SV. In particular, CSA is a significant risk factor for sexual re-victimization in adulthood, and additional early adversities experienced by CSA survivors may heighten adult SV risk above and beyond the risk associated with CSA alone. Given the interconnectedness among various experiences of early adversity, adult SV prevention actions must consider how other violence-related and non-violence-related traumatic experiences may exacerbate the risk conferred by CSA on subsequent victimization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Hill, Karl G
Social role transitions have been linked to changes in substance use and misuse during young adulthood. This study examined how commonly observed pathways to adulthood, defined by education, employment, marriage, and parenthood, were associated with alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana misuse from ages 18 to 33. Data came from a longitudinal panel of 412 men and 396 women recruited when they were in fifth grade in Seattle public schools in 1985. Participants were followed through age 33 in 2008, with 92% retention. Young adults who had little postsecondary education and remained unmarried through age 30 generally had the highest rates of substance misuse. Those who were involved in postsecondary education and postponed family formation had the lowest rates, particularly with respect to daily smoking and nicotine dependence. Parenting during the young adult years was associated with lower rates of substance misuse for both men and women. However, taking on parenting responsibilities early, during the late teen years and early 20s (observed mostly for women), was associated with higher rates of tobacco misuse. Differences in substance misuse by pathways to adulthood were fairly constant across the young adulthood years and were already observed at age 18, suggesting that substance misuse patterns are established early. Young adults may change their substance use only partially in response to new freedoms and responsibilities in young adulthood. Preventive efforts should include a focus on early initiation of substance use and educational experiences that move people into life trajectories and associated substance misuse patterns.
Yan, Yinkun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of childhood adiposity and change in adiposity status from childhood to adulthood with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abnormal liver enzyme levels in adulthood. METHODS: Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of children aged 6 to 18 years started in 1987. From 2010 to 2014, 1350 subjects (aged 28–45 years) from the original cohort were followed. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using BMI and subscapular skinfold thickness, respectively. In adulthood, ultrasound-based NAFLD, abnormal liver enzymes, and related risk factors were assessed. Results Overweight or obese children were more likely to have adult NAFLD (males: odds ratio [OR] = 2.49 for BMI and 2.78 for subscapular skinfold thickness; females: OR = 3.34 and 3.61; all Ps < .001) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation (males: OR = 1.64 and 1.66; females: OR = 2.12 and 3.01; all Ps < .05) than children with normal weight for both sexes. Compared with subjects who had normal weight in childhood and were nonobese in adulthood, subjects who were obese in adulthood, irrespective of their childhood adiposity status, were more likely to have NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood for both sexes. However, subjects who were overweight or obese in childhood but became nonobese in adulthood had similar likelihood of having NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight or obese children are more likely to have NAFLD and ALT elevation in adulthood. However, the risk associated with increased weight during childhood can be mitigated by becoming nonobese in adulthood. PMID:28356335
Gjerde, L. C.; Czajkowski, N.; Røysamb, E.; Ystrom, E.; Tambs, K.; Aggen, S. H.; Ørstavik, R. E.; Kendler, K. S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.; Knudsen, G. P.
Background The phenotypic stability of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has previously been found to be moderate. However, little is known about the longitudinal structure of genetic and environmental factors for these disorders separately and jointly, and to what extent genetic and environmental factors contribute to their stability. Method AVPD and OCPD criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality in 2793 young adult twins (1385 pairs, 23 singletons) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel at wave 1 and 2282 (986 pairs, 310 singletons) of these on average 10 years later at wave 2. Longitudinal biometric models were fitted to AVPD and OCPD traits. Results For twins who participated at both time-points, the number of endorsed sub-threshold criteria for both personality disorders (PDs) decreased 31% from wave 1 to wave 2. Phenotypic correlations between waves were 0.54 and 0.37 for AVPD and OCPD, respectively. The heritability estimates of the stable PD liabilities were 0.67 for AVPD and 0.53 for OCPD. The genetic correlations were 1.00 for AVPD and 0.72 for OCPD, while the unique environmental influences correlated 0.26 and 0.23, respectively. The correlation between the stable AVPD and OCPD liabilities was 0.39 of which 63% was attributable to genetic influences. Shared environmental factors did not significantly contribute to PD variance at either waves 1 or 2. Conclusion Phenotypic stability was moderate for AVPD and OCPD traits, and genetic factors contributed more than unique environmental factors to the stability both within and across phenotypes. PMID:26273730
Objectives. We sought to better understand the association between early life exposure to war and trauma and older adult health status in a developing setting. Methods. We analyzed data of 405 Vietnamese men and women in 1 northern Vietnam commune who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and who are now entering late adulthood (i.e., ages 55 years and older in 2010). Results. The toll of war’s trauma in the aging northern Vietnamese population was perceptible in the association between exposure to war trauma and various measures of physical health, including negative self-reported health and somatic symptoms. Killing another person and being exposed to toxic substances in warfare was especially detrimental to health in older adulthood. War traumas were likely implicated more strongly as determinants of late adulthood health in men than in women. The weak association between trauma exposure and reported depressive symptoms raised questions about measuring mental health. Conclusions. Military service and war trauma were important determinants of older adult health beyond the US context, given the widespread waging of war and concentration of recent armed conflicts within developing societies. PMID:24922129
This paper is a presentation of landslide monitoring, early warning and remediation methods recommended for the Polish Carpathians. Instrumentation included standard and automatic on-line measurements with the real-time transfer of data to an Internet web server. The research was funded through EU Innovative Economy Programme and also by the SOPO Landslide Counteraction Project. The landslides investigated were characterized by relatively low rates of the displacements. These ranged from a few millimetres to several centimetres per year. Colluviums of clayey flysch deposits were of a soil-rock type with a very high plasticity and moisture content. The instrumentation consisted of 23 standard inclinometers set to depths of 5-21 m. The starting point of monitoring measurements was in January 2006. These were performed every 1-2 months over the period of 8 years. The measurements taken detected displacements from several millimetres to 40 cm set at a depth of 1-17 m. The modern, on-line monitoring and early warning system was installed in May 2010. The system is the first of its kind in Poland and only one of several such real-time systems in the world. The installation was working with the Local Road Authority in Gorlice. It contained three automatic field stations for investigation of landslide parameters to depths of 12-16 m and weather station. In-place tilt transducers and innovative 3D continuous inclinometer systems with sensors located every 0.5 m were used. It has the possibility of measuring a much greater range of movements compared to standard systems. The conventional and real-time data obtained provided a better recognition of the triggering parameters and the control of geohazard stabilizations. The monitoring methods chosen supplemented by numerical modelling could lead to more reliable forecasting of such landslides and could thus provide better control and landslide remediation possibilities also to stabilization works which prevent landslides.
This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…
Spottl, Georg; Windelband, Lars
Given that the early recognition procedures used to date focus on trends and the scenario technique and are less concerned with the design of VET, a research-based employment research early recognition tool was developed as part of the "EarlyBird" Leonardo Project, by means of which it is possible to identify changes at shop-floor level. What was…
Peck, Stephen C.; Vida, Mina; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Aims Use pattern-centered methods to examine how adolescents’ alcohol use and sports activities are related both to childhood sport and problem behavior and to heavy drinking in early adulthood. Design The data used in this study come from four waves of the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions (MSALT) that began in 1983, when participants were approximately age 12, and continued into early adulthood, when participants were approximately age 28. Participants Sixty per cent of the approximately 1000 MSALT youth living in south-eastern Michigan were females and 97% were European American. Approximately 28% of one or both parents held at least a college degree, and 45% held a high school diploma or lower. Findings Pattern-centered analyses revealed that the relation between adolescent sport activity and age 28 heavy alcohol use obtained primarily for sport participants who were also using more than the average amount of alcohol and other drugs at age 18. Similarly, children who were characterized by relatively high levels of sport participation, aggression and other problem behavior at age 12 were more likely than expected by chance to become sport participants who used more than the average amount of alcohol and other drugs at age 18. Conclusions The results indicate that childhood problem behavior and adolescent sport participation can, but do not necessarily, presage heavy drinking in adulthood and that pattern-centered analytical techniques are useful for revealing such theoretically generated predictions. PMID:18426541
Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Severson, Herbert H.; Barckley, Maureen
Objective To investigate whether risk factors for cigarette smoking assessed in adolescence predict the use of novel tobacco and nicotine products (hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes) in early emerging adulthood. Methods In a longitudinal study (N = 862), risk factors were measured in middle and high school and novel product use was measured in emerging adulthood (mean age 22.4 years). Structural equation modelling was used to test a model predicting lifetime use of any of hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes in early emerging adulthood from distal predictors (gender, maternal smoking through Grade 8, already tried alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana by Grade 8, and sensation seeking at Grade 8), and potential mediators (intentions to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or smoke marijuana at Grade 9, and smoking trajectory across high school). Results The most prevalent novel tobacco product was hookah (21.7%), followed by little cigars (16.8%), and e-cigarettes (6.6%). Maternal smoking, having already tried substances, and sensation seeking each predicted the use of at least one of these products via an indirect path through intentions to use substances and membership in a high school smoking trajectory. Conclusions Risk factors for cigarette smoking were found to predict novel tobacco use, suggesting that interventions to prevent cigarette smoking could be extended to include common novel tobacco products. PMID:26206439
Baumgartner, Helmut; Däbritz, Sabine
While a few decades ago only a minority of patients, particularly of those with complex congenital heart disease, could reach adulthood, progress of pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery allows now the survival of the majority. Thus, adult cardiology is faced with a new challenging patient population. Since only a few congenital heart defects can be cured, regular follow-up during adult life is of major importance. Residual as well as consequently developed lesions must be recognized. Optimal timing of surgery or catheter intervention is necessary to provide the best long-term outcome. Despite optimal treatment part of the patients will develop long-term complications such as arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension and, eventually, heart failure. Acute complications such as arrhythmias, aortic dissection or rupture, endocarditis, cerebral events due to embolism, bleeding or abscesses, and pulmonary embolism or bleeding must be recognized early and treated appropriately. Management of noncardiac surgery, pregnancy and delivery can be challenging. Another task is counseling regarding exercise and sports, choice of profession, driving and insurance issues. Finally, psychosocial issues must be taken into account for appropriate care of this special patient group.
Stafford, Catherine A.
This exploratory study investigated executive attention during nonverbal and verbal processing among adults with a range of bilingual experience. Previous research has found that bilingual children control their attention better than their monolingual peers and that superior attentional control in some processing contexts persists into adulthood…
Kulkarni, Madhur R.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Seng, Julia
Research has established that childhood violence exposure plays a considerable role in the development of deleterious outcomes in childhood and adulthood. However, important gaps remain in understanding the complex relationships between early violence exposure, adulthood trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study…
Background Optical caries detection has the potential to be incorporated in telehealth medicine for preventive dental screening. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare visible and near infrared detection methods for identifying early non-cavitated ex vivo occlusal demineralization. Methods Six blinded examiners were used to compare the accuracy of the following three examinations in detecting occlusal demineralization: Midwest Caries ID™ (MID), visual photographic examination (CAM) and Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography (CP-OCT). For each diagnostic method, two examiners assessed the extracted tooth samples 1–2 weeks apart. Teeth were then sectioned and lesion depth was confirmed (n = 42) by a blinded histological examination using a glycol based caries indicator dye. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Sp), Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUC) were calculated. Results For detecting any demineralization versus sound pit and fissure enamel, the mean Sen/Sp found was 46.9/85.0 for MID, 80.5/52.5 for CAM, and 83.4/45.0 for CP-OCT. For detecting non-cavitated demineralization that progressed into the dentin, the mean Sen/Sp found was 17.3/88.0 for MID, 48.0/57.8 for CAM, and 44.2/72.7 for CP-OCT. AUC values were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in three out of four examiner assessments when MID and CP-OCT were used to detect any demineralization. AUC values were significant for a single CAM examination. When assessing deeper non-cavitated lesions, none of the assessment methods were able to yield AUC values that were significantly different than a random ‘coin flip’ test. When examining reliability, MID demonstrated the highest ICC score (0.83) and CP-OCT had the lowest (0.49). Conclusion Although MID and CP-OCT were useful in detecting the presence of demineralization, examiners were not able to utilize these devices to adequately assess the depth of the
Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.
We assessed the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce, patterns of parent-child relationships, and adult children's subjective well-being. Parental divorce and marital conflict appeared to increase the odds that children were close to neither parent in adulthood. Parental divorce (but not marital conflict) appeared to increase…
Rynders, John E.; Horrobin, J. Margaret
This updated book provides a collection of longitudinal perspectives on experiences of individuals with Down Syndrome, from birth to adulthood. The book is an outgrowth of a federally funded early intervention study called Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education). Contents cover the following topics: historical review of…
Vaclav Vojta (1917-2000) developed an early diagnostic method of the neurodevelopmental disorder of infants and came up with therapeutic concept consisting in releasing of global motor complexes by means of the stimulation of proper areas on patients body. In the diagnostics apart from very careful observation of the spontaneous movement of the infant and examination of the reflexes that are characteristic for the first weeks of human's life, Vojta applied the examination of the 7 postural reactions. Presence of the trouble in patterns and dynamics of the postural reactions Vojta called Central Nervous Coordination Disorder--CNCD and regarded as work diagnosis or alarm signal indicating necessity of application of the therapy, especially when asymmetry of the muscle tone and primitive reflexes beyond their physiological appearance period are observed or the number of the abnormal reactions exceeds 5. Global motor complexes as reflex locomotion--crawling and rotation--consist of all the partial motion patterns, which are gradually used by healthy infant in the process of postural and motor ontogenesis. Providing the central nervous system with proper external stimulation allows to, using neuronal plasticity, recreate an access to the human's postural development program and gradually replace pathological motor patterns by those more regular. Exercises repeated several times a day rebuilt support, erectile and vertical mechanisms, improve automatic postural control and phase lower limb movement. Affecting especially on autochtonic muscles of the spine exercises balance synergic cooperation of muscle groups in the trunk and those surrounding key body joints. This way they correct body's posture and peripheral motion and pathology of the outlasted primitive reflexes gradually withdraws.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui
Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348
Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; Chakraborty, Rana; del Rio, Carlos; Malebranche, David J.
Objectives. We conducted a qualitative study of HIV-positive young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) to explore their experiences of living with HIV and adhering to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) within the developmental context of their transition to adulthood. Methods. We conducted life history interviews with 20 HIV-positive YBMSM in Atlanta, Georgia, engaged in outpatient HIV care. We addressed these questions: (1) How do YBMSM living with HIV experience the transition to adulthood? and (2) What are the important sociocontextual influences on ARV adherence for YBMSM? Results. Successful transition to adulthood and optimal ARV adherence were inextricably linked. HIV’s detrimental impact on development was moderated by the degree of physical illness at diagnosis. Many participants described resilient trajectories while coping with HIV. Adherence problems occurred primarily among participants who were not meeting their developmental goals. Conclusions. Our findings support the need for early diagnosis and linkage to care, as well as the need to develop holistic, resilience-based interventions focusing on transition to adulthood. These findings have implications for individual clinical outcomes as well as ARV-based prevention efforts among YBMSM. PMID:24922167
Brock, William A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Livina, Valerie N.; Seekell, David A.; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H.; Dakos, Vasilis
A number of ecosystems can exhibit abrupt shifts between alternative stable states. Because of their important ecological and economic consequences, recent research has focused on devising early warning signals for anticipating such abrupt ecological transitions. In particular, theoretical studies show that changes in spatial characteristics of the system could provide early warnings of approaching transitions. However, the empirical validation of these indicators lag behind their theoretical developments. Here, we summarize a range of currently available spatial early warning signals, suggest potential null models to interpret their trends, and apply them to three simulated spatial data sets of systems undergoing an abrupt transition. In addition to providing a step-by-step methodology for applying these signals to spatial data sets, we propose a statistical toolbox that may be used to help detect approaching transitions in a wide range of spatial data. We hope that our methodology together with the computer codes will stimulate the application and testing of spatial early warning signals on real spatial data. PMID:24658137
McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl
Navigating academic work as well as career possibilities during and post-Ph.D. is challenging. To better understand these challenges, since 2010, we have investigated the experiences of early career scientists longitudinally using a range of qualitative data collection formats. For this study, we examined the experiences of four students and four…
Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao
Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.
Bijnens, Esmée M; Zeegers, Maurice P; Derom, Catherine; Martens, Dries S; Gielen, Marij; Hageman, Geja J; Plusquin, Michelle; Thiery, Evert; Vlietinck, Robert; Nawrot, Tim S
Telomere attrition is extremely rapid during the first years of life, while lifestyle during adulthood exerts a minor impact. This suggests that early life is an important period in the determination of telomere length. We investigated the importance of the early-life environment on both telomere tracking and adult telomere length. Among 184 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey, telomere length in placental tissue and in buccal cells in young adulthood was measured. Residential addresses at birth and in young adulthood were geocoded and residential traffic and greenness exposure was determined. We investigated individual telomere tracking from birth over a 20 year period (mean age (SD), 22.6 (3.1) years) in association with residential exposure to traffic and greenness. Telomere length in placental tissue and in buccal cells in young adulthood correlated positively (r = 0.31, P < 0.0001). Persons with higher placental telomere length at birth were more likely to have a stronger downward shift in telomere ranking over life (P < 0.0001). Maternal residential traffic exposure correlated inversely with telomere length at birth. Independent of birth placental telomere length, telomere ranking between birth and young adulthood was negatively and significantly associated with residential traffic exposure at the birth address, while traffic exposure at the residential address at adult age was not associated with telomere length. Longitudinal evidence of telomere length tracking from birth to adulthood shows inverse associations of residential traffic exposure in association with telomere length at birth as well as accelerated telomere shortening in the first two decades of life.
Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Törmäkangas, Timo; Lahti, Jari; Wasenius, Niko; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Salonen, Minna K.; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.
Objectives Low cognitive ability is associated with subsequent functional disability. Whether this association extends across adult life has been little studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intellectual ability in young adulthood and physical functioning during a 10-year follow-up in older age. Methods 360 persons of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) male members, born between 1934- 1944 and residing in Finland in 1971, took part in The Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test during the first two weeks of their military service training between 1952- 72. Their physical functioning was assessed twice using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire at average ages of 61 and 71 years. A longitudinal path model linking Intellectual Ability Test score to the physical functioning assessments was used to explore the effect of intellectual ability in young adulthood on physical functioning in older age. Results After adjustments for age at measurement, childhood socioeconomic status and adult BMI (kg/m2), better intellectual ability total and arithmetic and verbal reasoning subtest scores in young adulthood predicted better physical functioning at age 61 years (P-values < 0.021). Intellectual ability total and arithmetic and verbal reasoning subtest scores in young adulthood had indirect effects on physical functioning at age 71 years (P-values < 0.022) through better physical functioning at age 61 years. Adjustment for main chronic diseases did not change the results materially. Conclusion Better early life intellectual ability helps in maintaining better physical functioning in older age. PMID:27189726
Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R
There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening.
Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.
Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths’ odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes. PMID:21359092
Lee, Chioun; Friedman, Elliot L.; Springer, Kristen W.
Background Accumulating evidence indicates that stress impairs sleep quality. Few studies, however, have examined the extent to which early life stress can jeopardize sleep in adulthood. Purpose Guided by a life course epidemiological perspective on health, this study examined associations between childhood abuse and adult sleep problems. Methods We used data from 835 respondents in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Self-report measures assessed the frequency of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as global and component indicators of sleep problems in adulthood. Results Having experienced all three types of childhood abuse—even infrequently—was associated with global sleep pathology, as well as specific types of sleep problems. Reports of both frequent physical and frequent emotional abuse—even in the absence of sexual abuse—were also associated with poor sleep. Conclusions Childhood abuse is a risk factor for individuals’ long-term sleep problems. PMID:21656087
Raby, K. Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron; Collins, W. Andrew
Background Longitudinal research has demonstrated that individual differences in attachment security show only modest continuity from infancy to adulthood. Recent findings based on retrospective reports suggest that individuals’ genetic variation may moderate the developmental associations between early attachment-relevant relationship experiences and adult attachment security. The purpose of this study was to use a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic contributions to continuity and changes in attachment security from infancy to young adulthood in a higher risk sample. Methods Infant attachment security was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months. Adults’ general attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview at age 19 and age 26. Romantic attachment representations were assessed with the Current Relationship Interview at ages 20–21 and ages 26–28. Individuals were genotyped for variants within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Results The continuity of attachment security from infancy into young adulthood was consistently moderated by OXTR genetic variation. Infant attachment security predicted the security of adults’ general and romantic attachment representations only for individuals with the OXTR G/G genotype. This interaction was significant when predicting adult attachment security as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview at age 19 and 26 and the Current Relationship Interview at ages 26–28. DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR genetic variation did not consistently moderate the longitudinal associations between attachment security during infancy and adulthood. Conclusions This study provides initial longitudinal evidence for genetic contributions to continuity and change in attachment security from infancy to young adulthood. Genetic variation related to the oxytocin system may moderate the
Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T
Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108
This study examines the effectiveness of an educational methods course for changing early childhood preservice teachers' instructional beliefs. The teaching methods course emphasized constructivist teaching principles. Seventy-eight of the early childhood education preservice teachers who were enrolled in this course filled out the Teacher Belief…
Lyons-Ruth, K.; Pechtel, P.; Yoon, S.A.; Anderson, C.M.; Teicher, M.H.
Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49 years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6 months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02 mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r = .679, p < .004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720
Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H
Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina
Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…
Zhao, Mingfang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Jin, Fan; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Liu, Da-Ke; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei
Low birthweight (BW) and childhood growth have been hypothesized to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension in later life. We analysed data among 13,467 women with a recalled BW from the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Cases included those with a self-reported hypertension with ('confirmed cases') or without ('possible cases') antihypertensive medication(s) use. Logistic regression was used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI. Birthweight was inversely associated with the odds of early onset (at age 20-40 years) hypertension in a dose response manner (P for trend = 0.01). This association is stronger for 'confirmed' hypertension (only OR for 'confirmed' hypertension are referred to subsequently). Being heavier or taller than average at 15 years of age were both related to elevated odds of early onset hypertension. Women who had a low BW but were heavier than average at age 15 were more than four times (OR = 4.63, 95% CI: 2.40-8.94) more likely to have an early onset hypertension, and those who had a low BW and became taller at 15 years of age had an OR of 1.87 (95% CI: 1.05-3.31). A significant interaction between BW and weight at age 15 was observed (P = 0.04). Our study suggests that low BW, particularly if accompanied by accelerated childhood growth, may increase the risk of early onset hypertension in adulthood.
Early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma has not been clear and consistent in concepts and methods. At present, according to the pathophysiology process of optic nerve damage and its detection technology, early diagnosis on the concept still belongs to the early clinical diagnosis instead of preclinical diagnosis, and on the method depends on the fundus as morphological index combined with the visual field as functional index. The direction of early clinical diagnosis mainly lies in exploring more effective diagnosis index, rather than blindly adopt new diagnostic technology.
Addo, Fenaba R
Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang
This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…
Hatakeyama, Jun; Shimamura, Kenji
Chick embryos have long been one of the favored model systems in the field of embryology and developmental biology. Recent advances in the gene manipulation technologies (Muramatsu et al., 1997; Nakamura et al., 2004) make this model system even more attractive for the developmental biologists (see review by Stern, 2005). Thanks to its two dimensional geometry, easiness in accessibility and observation, and well-established fate maps (e.g. Couly and Le Douarin, 1988; Garcia-Martinez et al., 1993; Hatada and Stern, 1994; Psychoyos and Stern, 1996; Sawada and Aoyama, 1999; Cobos et al., 2001; Lopez-Sanchez et al., 2001; Redkar et al., 2001; Fernandez-Garre et al., 2002; Kimura et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2008), it has great advantages especially for studies at the early embryonic stages, such as the processes of gastrulation, neural induction, left-right patterning, etc. For such purposes, a whole embryo culture system, originally invented by Dennis A. T. New (New, 1955), and its derivatives (Flamme, 1987; Sundin and Eichele, 1992; Stern, 1993; Chapman et al., 2001) have been widely used.
Cheney, Marshall K.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.
Background: Youth assets protect adolescents from tobacco use, but their influence in young adulthood is unknown. Purpose: To determine the prospective influence of assets possessed in young adulthood with tobacco use the following year. Methods: Data from waves 4 and 5 from the Youth Asset Study (n = 450, ages 18-22 at wave 5) were used. Logistic…
Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter
Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…
Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A; Najman, Jake M.
Objective Poor physical health in childhood is associated with a variety of negative health-related outcomes in adulthood. Psychosocial pathways contributing to the maintenance of physical health problems from childhood to young adulthood remain largely unexamined, despite evidence that factors such as negative mood and stress impact physical health. Design The current study tested the direct and indirect effects of ongoing health, chronic stress, health-related chronic stress, and depressive symptoms at age 20 on the link between health problems in childhood and young adulthood (age 21) in a longitudinal sample (n = 384). Main Outcome Measures The hypotheses were tested using a multiple mediation path analysis framework; the primary outcome measure was a composite index of health status markers in young adulthood. Results The proposed model provided an adequate fit for the data, with significant total indirect effects of the four mediators and significant specific indirect effects of health-related chronic stress and depressive symptoms in maintaining health problems from childhood into young adulthood. Conclusions Health problems are maintained from early childhood into young adulthood in part through psychosocial mechanisms. Depressive symptoms and health-related chronic stress have significant, unique effects on the relationship between health problems in early childhood and young adulthood. PMID:27329508
Mellizo, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore levels of intercultural sensitivity in a sample of fourth to eighth grade students in the United States (n = 162). "Intercultural sensitivity" was conceptualised through Bennett's Developmental Model of Sensitivity, and assessed through the Adapted Intercultural Sensitivity Index.…
Noonan, Mary Jo; McCormick, Linda
This guide provides precise, detailed descriptions of empirically validated best practices to promote learning in infants and young children with disabilities. It is designed to be a practical and comprehensive, easy-to-read introductory methods text that addresses the fundamental issues associated with implementing the legislative mandates of the…
Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Dick, Danielle M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko
Background Adolescent substance use is associated with lower educational achievement but the directionality of the association remains uncertain. We analyzed data on drinking, smoking and educational achievement to study the associations between substance use and education from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Longitudinal data from four time points (ages 12, 14, 17, and 19-27 years) from a population-based cohort study of Finnish twin individuals were used to estimate bivariate cross-lagged path models for substance use and educational achievement, adjusting for sex, parental covariates, and adolescent externalizing behavior. A total of 4,761 individuals (49.4% females) were included in the analyses. Educational achievement was assessed with teacher-reported grade point average at ages 12 and 14, and with self-reported student status and completed education at age 17 and in young adulthood. From self-reported questionnaire items, frequency of any drinking, frequency of drinking to intoxication, any smoking and daily smoking were analyzed. Results Alcohol use and smoking behaviors at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower educational achievement at later time points even after previous achievement and confounding factors were taken into account. Lower school achievement in adolescence predicted a higher likelihood of engaging in smoking behaviors but did not predict later alcohol use. Higher educational attainment at age 17 predicted more frequent drinking in young adulthood. Conclusions Adolescent drinking behaviors are associated with lower future educational achievement independently of prior achievement, whereas smoking both predicts and is predicted by lower achievement. Early substance use indexes elevated risk for poor educational outcomes. PMID:24548801
McCullough, Michael E; Enders, Craig K; Brion, Sharon L; Jain, Andrea R
The authors used growth mixture models to study religious development during adulthood (ages 27-80) in a sample of individuals who were identified during childhood as intellectually gifted. The authors identified 3 discrete trajectories of religious development: (a) 40% of participants belonged to a trajectory class characterized by increases in religiousness until midlife and declines in later adulthood; (b) 41% of participants belonged to a trajectory class characterized by very low religiousness in early adulthood and age-related decline; and (c) 19% of participants belonged to a trajectory class characterized by high religiousness in early adulthood and age-related increases. Gender, strength of religious upbringing, number of children, marrying, and agreeableness predicted membership in the trajectory classes. Results were largely consistent with the rational choice theory of religious involvement.
Carstensen, L L
This investigation explored 2 hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory: (a) Selective reductions in social interaction begin in early adulthood and (b) emotional closeness to significant others increases rather than decreases in adulthood even when rate reductions occur. Transcribed interviews with 28 women and 22 men from