Science.gov

Sample records for early afterdepolarization ead

  1. Influence of electrical coupling on early afterdepolarizations in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Saiz, J; Ferrero, J M; Monserrat, M; Ferrero, J M; Thakor, N V

    1999-02-01

    Computer modeling is used to study the effect of electrical coupling between a myocardial zone where early afterdepolarizations (EAD's) can develop and the normal neighboring tissue. The effects of such coupling on EAD development and on the likelihood of EAD propagation as an ectopic beat are studied. The influence on EAD formation is investigated by approximating two partially coupled myocardial zones modeled as two active elements coupled by a junctional resistance R. For R values lower than 800 omega cm2, the action potentials are transmitted to the coupled element, and for R values higher than 850 omega cm2 they are blocked. In both ranges of R, when the electrical coupling increases, the EAD's appear at more negative takeoff potentials with higher amplitudes and upstrokes. The EAD's are not elicited if the electrical coupling is too high. In a separate model of two one-dimensional cardiac fiber segments partially coupled by a resistance R, critical R values exist, between 42 and 54 omega cm2, that facilitate EAD propagation. These results demonstrate that in myocardial zones favorable to the formation of EAD, the electrical coupling dramatically affects initiation of EAD and its spread to the neighboring tissue.

  2. Carvedilol analogue inhibits triggered activities evoked by both early and delayed afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Mitsunori; Xiao, Jianmin; Zhou, Qiang; Vembaiyan, Kannan; Chua, Su-Kiat; Rubart-von der Lohe, Michael; Lin, Shien-Fong; Back, Thomas G; Chen, S R Wayne; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Carvedilol and its analogues suppress delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias by direct action on the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2). To test a hypothesis that carvedilol analogue may also prevent triggered activities (TAs) through the suppression of early afterdepolarizations (EADs). Intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane voltage were simultaneously recorded by using optical mapping technique in Langendorff-perfused mouse and rabbit hearts to study the effect of carvedilol analogue VK-II-36, which does not have significant beta-blocking effects. Spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) elevations (SCaEs) during diastole were induced by rapid ventricular pacing and isoproterenol infusion in intact rabbit ventricles. Systolic and diastolic SCaEs were simultaneously noted in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 R4496(+/-) mouse hearts after creating atrioventricular block. VK-II-36 effectively suppressed SCaEs and eliminated TAs observed in both mouse and rabbit ventricles. We tested the effect of VK-II-36 on EADs by using a rabbit model of acquired long QT syndrome, in which phase 2 and phase 3 EADs were observed in association with systolic SCaEs. VK-II-36 abolished the systolic SCaEs and phase 2 EADs, and greatly decreased the dispersion of repolarization and the amplitude of phase 3 EADs. VK-II-36 completely prevented EAD-mediated TAs in all ventricles studied. A carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36, inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in intact mouse and rabbit ventricles by the suppression of SCaEs, independent of beta-blocking activity. The RyR2 may be a potential target for treating focal ventricular arrhythmias triggered by either EADs or DADs. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study of Early Afterdepolarizations in a Model for Human Ventricular Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vandersickel, Nele; Kazbanov, Ivan V.; Nuitermans, Anita; Weise, Louis D.; Pandit, Rahul; Panfilov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is often caused by cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, special attention has been given to a certain arrhythmogenic condition, the long-QT syndrome, which occurs as a result of genetic mutations or drug toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias, caused by the long-QT syndrome, are not fully understood. However, arrhythmias are often connected to special excitations of cardiac cells, called early afterdepolarizations (EADs), which are depolarizations during the repolarizing phase of the action potential. So far, EADs have been studied mainly in isolated cardiac cells. However, the question on how EADs at the single-cell level can result in fibrillation at the tissue level, especially in human cell models, has not been widely studied yet. In this paper, we study wave patterns that result from single-cell EAD dynamics in a mathematical model for human ventricular cardiac tissue. We induce EADs by modeling experimental conditions which have been shown to evoke EADs at a single-cell level: by an increase of L-type Ca currents and a decrease of the delayed rectifier potassium currents. We show that, at the tissue level and depending on these parameters, three types of abnormal wave patterns emerge. We classify them into two types of spiral fibrillation and one type of oscillatory dynamics. Moreover, we find that the emergent wave patterns can be driven by calcium or sodium currents and we find phase waves in the oscillatory excitation regime. From our simulations we predict that arrhythmias caused by EADs can occur during normal wave propagation and do not require tissue heterogeneities. Experimental verification of our results is possible for experiments at the cell-culture level, where EADs can be induced by an increase of the L-type calcium conductance and by the application of I blockers, and the properties of the emergent patterns can be studied by optical mapping of the voltage and calcium. PMID:24427289

  4. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  5. Early afterdepolarizations promote transmural reentry in ischemic human ventricles with reduced repolarization reserve

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Zacur, Ernesto; Quinn, T. Alexander; Taggart, Peter; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    Aims Acute ischemia is a major cause of sudden arrhythmic death, further promoted by potassium current blockers. Macro-reentry around the ischemic region and early afterdepolarizations (EADs) caused by electrotonic current have been suggested as potential mechanisms in animal and isolated cell studies. However, ventricular and human-specific arrhythmia mechanisms and their modulation by repolarization reserve remain unclear. The goal of this paper is to unravel multiscale mechanisms underlying the modulation of arrhythmic risk by potassium current (IKr) block in human ventricles with acute regional ischemia. Methods and results A human ventricular biophysically-detailed model, with acute regional ischemia is constructed by integrating experimental knowledge on the electrophysiological ionic alterations caused by coronary occlusion. Arrhythmic risk is evaluated by determining the vulnerable window (VW) for reentry following ectopy at the ischemic border zone. Macro-reentry around the ischemic region is the main reentrant mechanism in the ischemic human ventricle with increased repolarization reserve due to the ATP-sensitive potassium current (IK(ATP)) activation. Prolongation of refractoriness by 4% caused by 30% IKr reduction counteracts the establishment of macro-reentry and reduces the VW for reentry (by 23.5%). However, a further decrease in repolarization reserve (50% IKr reduction) is less anti-arrhythmic despite further prolongation of refractoriness. This is due to the establishment of transmural reentry enabled by electrotonically-triggered EADs in the ischemic border zone. EADs are produced by L-type calcium current (ICaL) reactivation due to prolonged low amplitude electrotonic current injected during the repolarization phase. Conclusions Electrotonically-triggered EADs are identified as a potential mechanism facilitating intramural reentry in a regionally-ischemic human ventricles model with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:26850675

  6. Paradoxical Effects of Sodium-Calcium Exchanger Inhibition on Torsade de Pointes and Early Afterdepolarization in a Heart Failure Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Cheng; Lu, Yu-Ying; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chu, Yen; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chou, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-03

    Calcium homeostasis plays an important role in development of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and torsade de pointes (TdP). The role of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) inhibition in genesis secondary Ca rise and EADs-TdP is still debated. Dual voltage and intracellular Ca optical mapping were conducted in 6 control and 9 failing rabbit hearts. After baseline electrophysiological and optical mapping studies, E4031 was given to simulate long QT syndrome. ORM-10103 was then administrated to examine the electrophysiological effects on EAD-TdP development. E4031 enhanced secondary Ca rise, EADs development and TdP inducibility in both control and failing hearts. The results showed that ORM-10103 reduced premature ventricular beats (PVBs) but was unable to suppress the inducibility of TdP or EADs. The electrophysiological effects of ORM-10103 included prolongation of action potential duration (APD) and increased APD heterogeneity in failing hearts. ORM10103 had a neutral effect on the amplitude of secondary Cai rise in control and HF groups. In this model, most EADs generated from the long-short APD junction area. In conclusion, highly selective NCX inhibition with ORM-10103 reduced PVB burden but was unable to suppress secondary Ca rise, EADs development nor inducibility of TdP. The possible electrophysiological mechanisms include APD prolongation and increased APD heterogeneity.

  7. Effects of early afterdepolarizations on excitation patterns in an accurate model of the human ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Seemann, Gunnar; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Vandersickel, Nele

    2017-01-01

    Early Afterdepolarizations, EADs, are defined as the reversal of the action potential before completion of the repolarization phase, which can result in ectopic beats. However, the series of mechanisms of EADs leading to these ectopic beats and related cardiac arrhythmias are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of this single cell behavior on the whole heart level. For this study we used a modified version of the Ten Tusscher-Panfilov model of human ventricular cells (TP06) which we implemented in a 3D ventricle model including realistic fiber orientations. To increase the likelihood of EAD formation at the single cell level, we reduced the repolarization reserve (RR) by reducing the rapid delayed rectifier Potassium current and raising the L-type Calcium current. Varying these parameters defined a 2D parametric space where different excitation patterns could be classified. Depending on the initial conditions, by either exciting the ventricles with a spiral formation or burst pacing protocol, we found multiple different spatio-temporal excitation patterns. The spiral formation protocol resulted in the categorization of a stable spiral (S), a meandering spiral (MS), a spiral break-up regime (SB), spiral fibrillation type B (B), spiral fibrillation type A (A) and an oscillatory excitation type (O). The last three patterns are a 3D generalization of previously found patterns in 2D. First, the spiral fibrillation type B showed waves determined by a chaotic bi-excitable regime, i.e. mediated by both Sodium and Calcium waves at the same time and in same tissue settings. In the parameter region governed by the B pattern, single cells were able to repolarize completely and different (spiral) waves chaotically burst into each other without finishing a 360 degree rotation. Second, spiral fibrillation type A patterns consisted of multiple small rotating spirals. Single cells failed to repolarize to the resting membrane potential hence

  8. So little source, so much sink: requirements for afterdepolarizations to propagate in tissue.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanfang; Sato, Daisuke; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N

    2010-09-08

    How early (EADs) and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) overcome electrotonic source-sink mismatches in tissue to trigger premature ventricular complexes remains incompletely understood. To study this question, we used a rabbit ventricular action potential model to simulate tissues in which a central area of contiguous myocytes susceptible to EADs or DADs was surrounded by unsusceptible tissue. In 1D tissue with normal longitudinal conduction velocity (0.55 m/s), the numbers of contiguous susceptible myocytes required for an EAD and a barely suprathreshold DAD to trigger a propagating action potential were 70 and 80, respectively. In 2D tissue, these numbers increased to 6940 and 7854, and in 3D tissue to 696,910 and 817,280. These numbers were significantly decreased by reduced gap junction conductance, simulated fibrosis, reduced repolarization reserve and heart failure electrical remodeling. In conclusion, the source-sink mismatch in well-coupled cardiac tissue powerfully protects the heart from arrhythmias due to sporadic afterdepolarizations. Structural and electrophysiological remodeling decrease these numbers significantly but still require synchronization mechanisms for EADs and DADs to overcome the robust protective effects of source-sink mismatch. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low extracellular potassium prolongs repolarization and evokes early afterdepolarization in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, Jukka; Larsson, Kim; Shah, Disheet; Prajapati, Chandra; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina

    2017-06-15

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by a prolonged QT-interval on electrocardiogram and by increased risk of sudden death. One of the most common and potentially life-threatening electrolyte disturbances is hypokalemia, characterized by low concentrations of K + Using a multielectrode array platform and current clamp technique, we investigated the effect of low extracellular K + concentration ([K + ] Ex ) on the electrophysiological properties of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) generated from a healthy control subject (WT) and from two symptomatic patients with type 1 of LQTS carrying G589D (LQT1A) or IVS7-2A>G mutation (LQT1B) in KCNQ1 The baseline prolongations of field potential durations (FPDs) and action potential durations (APDs) were longer in LQT1-CMs than in WT-CMs. Exposure to low [K + ] Ex prolonged FPDs and APDs in a concentration-dependent fashion. LQT1-CMs were found to be more sensitive to low [K + ] Ex compared to WT-CMs. At baseline, LQT1A-CMs had more prolonged APDs than LQT1B-CMs, but low [K + ] Ex caused more pronounced APD prolongation in LQT1B-CMs. Early afterdepolarizations in the action potentials were observed in a subset of LQT1A-CMs with further prolonged baseline APDs and triangular phase 2 profiles. This work demonstrates that the hiPSC-derived CMs are sensitive to low [K + ] Ex and provide a platform to study acquired LQTS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. A key role for peroxynitrite-mediated inhibition of cardiac ERG (Kv11.1) K+ channels in carbon monoxide–induced proarrhythmic early afterdepolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Al-Owais, Moza M.; Hettiarachchi, Nishani T.; Kirton, Hannah M.; Hardy, Matthew E.; Boyle, John P.; Scragg, Jason L.; Steele, Derek S.; Peers, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to CO causes early afterdepolarization arrhythmias. Previous studies in rats have indicated that arrhythmias arose as a result of augmentation of the late Na+ current. The purpose of the present study was to examine the basis for CO-induced arrhythmias in guinea pig myocytes in which action potentials (APs) more closely resemble those of human myocytes. Whole-cell current- and voltage-clamp recordings were made from isolated guinea pig myocytes as well as from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells that express wild-type or a C723S mutant form of ether-a-go-go–related gene (ERG; Kv11.1). We also monitored the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in HEK293 cells fluorimetrically. CO—applied as the CO-releasing molecule, CORM-2—prolonged the APs and induced early afterdepolarizations in guinea pig myocytes. In HEK293 cells, CO inhibited wild-type, but not C723S mutant, Kv11.1 K+ currents. Inhibition was prevented by an antioxidant, mitochondrial inhibitors, or inhibition of NO formation. CO also raised ONOO− levels, an effect that was reversed by the ONOO− scavenger, FeTPPS [5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinato-iron(III)], which also prevented the CO inhibition of Kv11.1 currents and abolished the effects of CO on Kv11.1 tail currents and APs in guinea pig myocytes. Our data suggest that CO induces arrhythmias in guinea pig cardiac myocytes via the ONOO−-mediated inhibition of Kv11.1 K+ channels.—Al-Owais, M. M., Hettiarachchi, N. T., Kirton, H. M., Hardy, M. E., Boyle, J. P., Scragg, J. L., Steele, D. S., Peers, C. A key role for peroxynitrite-mediated inhibition of cardiac ERG (Kv11.1) K+ channels in carbon monoxide–induced proarrhythmic early afterdepolarizations. PMID:28743763

  11. ISER - Energy Assurance Daily (EAD)

    Science.gov Websites

    can search online for information and the availability of free customizable news alerts, the EAD is section of the OE website. Download the free adobe acrobat reader to view PDFs You will need the Adobe

  12. Caisson disease during the construction of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges: A review.

    PubMed

    Butler, W P

    2004-01-01

    The Eads Bridge (St. Louis) and the Brooklyn Bridge (New York City) were testing grounds for caisson construction. These caissons were enormous compressed air boxes used to build riverine piers and abutments anchoring the bridges. Caisson meant faster and cheaper construction, but there was a hidden cost---caisson disease (decompression sickness). Within caissons, workers labored at pressures as high as 55 psig and caisson disease was common. This discourse is a brief history of the caisson, a brief discussion of the illness as viewed in the mid 1800's, and an abbreviated history of the Eads and Brooklyn Bridges. It also provides a detailed description and evaluation of the observations, countermeasures, and recommendations of Dr. Alphonse Jaminet, the Eads Bridge physician, and Dr. Andrew Smith, the Brooklyn Bridge physician, who published reports of their experience in 1871 and 1873, respectively. These and other primary sources permit a detailed examination of early caisson disease and Jaminet's and Smith's thinking also serve as good examples from which to study and learn.

  13. ELECTRICAL AEROSOL DETECTOR (EAD) MEASUREMENTS AT THE ST. LOUIS SUPERSITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Model 3070A Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD) measures a unique aerosol parameter called total aerosol length. Reported as mm/cm3, aerosol length can be thought of as a number concentration times average diameter, or simply as d1 weighting. This measurement falls between nu...

  14. The "Metrica Regni" Project: The Polish Experience of EAD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajs, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The fonds of Crown Chancery Public Register ("Metrica Regni") was chosen for the pilot project to introduce Encoded Archival Description (EAD) because of its historical value, typical archival structure and existing finding aids. The rights and privileges granted by Polish kings were recorded in the Register. The oldest books in the…

  15. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists potentiate a slow afterdepolarization in CNS neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, F.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that, in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN), metabotropic glutamate receptor (met-GluR) agonists evoked a slow depolarization accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance and burst firing. We have speculated that the burst firing elicited by met-GluR agonists may be due to activation or enhancement of a non-specific cation current, which exists in some DLSN neurons. Now we report that a slow afterdepolarization (sADP) mediated by a non-specific cation current was potentiated by both 1S,3R-ACPD and quisqualate. In addition, met-GluR agonists unmask a sADP in DLSN neurons which did not show a sADP under control conditions. Our data suggest that a non-specific cation current can be potentiated by activation of the met-GluR.

  16. Optimization of Supercomputer Use on EADS II System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Ardsher

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to optimize supercomputer use to achieve better throughput and utilization of supercomputers and to help facilitate the movement of non-supercomputing (inappropriate for supercomputer) codes to mid-range systems for better use of Government resources at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work involved the survey of architectures available on EADS II and monitoring customer (user) applications running on a CRAY T90 system.

  17. Confirmatory/release survey of the property at 71 Pearce Avenue (Former EAD Building) in Tonawanda, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Salame-Alfie, A.; Alibozek, R.

    1995-12-31

    EAD Metallurgical, Inc., operated a facility in Tonawanda, New York, in which it utilized Americium 241 (Am-241) for the production of foil sources for use in smoke detectors. EAD was in operation between 1977 and 1983. By 1983, the company started losing money, and decided to relocate to Mexico. Before closing down its Tonawanda operation, however, it was required by the New York State Department of Labor (DOL) to decontaminate its facility to limits specified by DOL. No records of discharges to the sewer system were kept during this decontamination effort. Unsuccessful decontamination efforts by several EAD employees and contractorsmore » left the building contaminated, in particular the concrete floors and walls. To determine the scope of work for the decontamination project, staff from the New York State Departments of Health (DOH) and Environmental Conservation (DEC) conducted a Characterization Survey of the facility in 1993. This survey identified contamination levels of Am-241 in excess of release limits throughout the building, in the soil outside the facility, in pipes for sewage and interior drainage, and in an 8 x 8 x 11 foot sump pit in the building. DOH issued a request for proposals in early 1994 for the decontamination and subsequent decommissioning of the former EAD building, and NES/IES Inc. (NES) was awarded the contract to perform the remediation. DOH`s assignment was to provide an on-site presence to insure the completion of all agreed upon tasks, according to the terms of the contract and work plans submitted by NES. Additionally, the DOH staff acted as a liaison between NES, DOH, DEC and DOL central offices to review, comment and approve all changes or modifications to NES`s approach to the decontamination efforts. The assigned staff was also responsible for conducting confirmatory sampling and surveys of all areas deemed releasable to DOL and DEC criteria by NES.« less

  18. 78 FR 76050 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A... Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A.) Model C-212-CB, C-212-CC, C-212-CD, C... changed paragraph (c) of this AD to remove EADS CASA (Type Certificate previously held by Construcciones...

  19. An Electronic Finding Aid Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Encoded Archival Description (EAD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, May

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of electronic finding aids for archives at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign that used XML (extensible markup language) and EAD (encoded archival description) to enable more flexible information management and retrieval than using MARC or a relational database management system. EAD template is appended.…

  20. Improved electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) belt press for food products. Phase 3, Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Battelle`s electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering processes for several food products (such as corn fiber) by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. EAD has the potential to save 0.027 to 0.035 quad/yr energy by 1995 in the food processing industry, which consumed 0.15 to 0.18 quad in 1986. This report covers Phase III for demonstrating the EAD prototype on corn wet milling products (corn fiber and gluten); only Task 1 (prototype preparation and planning) was completed. EAD performance was examined in the laboratory; availability of a test site was examined. The single-roll, postdewatering EAD belt pressmore » prototype can accept material predewatered by a screw press, centrifuge, or any other mechanical dewatering device. The two-belt system, utilizing a copper-polymer cathode belt, performed as well as the three-belt system used in Phase II.« less

  1. Attitudes of Veterinary Teaching Staff and Exposure of Veterinary Students to Early-Age Desexing, with Review of Current Early-Age Desexing Literature.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Alannah; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Fleming, Sophie

    2017-12-25

    Approximately 50% of cats admitted to Australian shelters are kittens, and 26% of dogs are puppies, and, particularly for cats, euthanasia rates are often high. Cats can be pregnant by 4 months of age, yet the traditional desexing age is 5-6 months, and studies in Australasia and Nth America reveal that only a minority of veterinarians routinely perform early age desexing (EAD) of cats or dogs, suggesting they are not graduating with these skills. This study aimed to describe the attitudes of veterinary teaching staff in Australian and New Zealand universities towards EAD, and to determine if these changed from 2008 to 2015. It also aimed to identify students' practical exposure to EAD. Most (64%) of the 25 participants in 2015 did not advocate EAD in their teaching and, in their personal opinion, only 32% advocated it for cats. Concerns related to EAD cited by staff included anesthetic risk, orthopedic problems, hypoglycemia, and, in female dogs, urinary incontinence. Those who advocated EAD cited benefits of population control, ease of surgery and behavioral benefits. Only three of the eight universities provided a majority of students with an opportunity to gain exposure to EAD procedures before graduation, and in two of these, most students had an opportunity to perform EAD. In conclusion, most veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand are not graduating with the knowledge or skills to perform EAD, and have little opportunity while at university to gain practical exposure. Welfare agencies could partner with universities to enable students to experience EAD.

  2. Performance evaluation of the Engineering Analysis and Data Systems (EADS) 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debrunner, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    The Engineering Analysis and Data System (EADS)II (1) was installed in March 1993 to provide high performance computing for science and engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). EADS II increased the computing capabilities over the existing EADS facility in the areas of throughput and mass storage. EADS II includes a Vector Processor Compute System (VPCS), a Virtual Memory Compute System (CFS), a Common Output System (COS), as well as Image Processing Station, Mini Super Computers, and Intelligent Workstations. These facilities are interconnected by a sophisticated network system. This work considers only the performance of the VPCS and the CFS. The VPCS is a Cray YMP. The CFS is implemented on an RS 6000 using the UniTree Mass Storage System. To better meet the science and engineering computing requirements, EADS II must be monitored, its performance analyzed, and appropriate modifications for performance improvement made. Implementing this approach requires tool(s) to assist in performance monitoring and analysis. In Spring 1994, PerfStat 2.0 was purchased to meet these needs for the VPCS and the CFS. PerfStat(2) is a set of tools that can be used to analyze both historical and real-time performance data. Its flexible design allows significant user customization. The user identifies what data is collected, how it is classified, and how it is displayed for evaluation. Both graphical and tabular displays are supported. The capability of the PerfStat tool was evaluated, appropriate modifications to EADS II to optimize throughput and enhance productivity were suggested and implemented, and the effects of these modifications on the systems performance were observed. In this paper, the PerfStat tool is described, then its use with EADS II is outlined briefly. Next, the evaluation of the VPCS, as well as the modifications made to the system are described. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations for future worked are outlined.

  3. Attitudes of Veterinary Teaching Staff and Exposure of Veterinary Students to Early-Age Desexing, with Review of Current Early-Age Desexing Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jupe, Alannah; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Fleming, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary A substantial proportion of cats and a smaller proportion of dogs entering animal shelters are juveniles. Cats are prolific breeders and can be pregnant by 4 months of age, although the traditional desexing age in veterinary practice is 6 months for dogs and cats. Understanding what veterinary students across Australia and New Zealand are being taught in regards to early age desexing (EAD) is necessary to determine the reasons why EAD is not utilized in client-owned cats and dogs more frequently. There are no current studies documenting the exposure of new veterinary graduates to EAD, nor the opinions to EAD of the academics teaching these students. Of staff teaching veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand in 2015, a majority (64%) did not advocate EAD in their teaching of students. Only three out of eight universities provided a majority of students with exposure to EAD procedures before graduation, and only two of these allowed most students to perform EAD. Abstract Approximately 50% of cats admitted to Australian shelters are kittens, and 26% of dogs are puppies, and, particularly for cats, euthanasia rates are often high. Cats can be pregnant by 4 months of age, yet the traditional desexing age is 5–6 months, and studies in Australasia and Nth America reveal that only a minority of veterinarians routinely perform early age desexing (EAD) of cats or dogs, suggesting they are not graduating with these skills. This study aimed to describe the attitudes of veterinary teaching staff in Australian and New Zealand universities towards EAD, and to determine if these changed from 2008 to 2015. It also aimed to identify students’ practical exposure to EAD. Most (64%) of the 25 participants in 2015 did not advocate EAD in their teaching and, in their personal opinion, only 32% advocated it for cats. Concerns related to EAD cited by staff included anesthetic risk, orthopedic problems, hypoglycemia, and, in female dogs, urinary incontinence

  4. 78 FR 7262 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A... Certificate previously held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A.) Model CN-235, CN-235-100, CN-235-200... Certificate previously held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A.): Amendment 39- [[Page 7264

  5. Ca2+-induced delayed afterdepolarizations are triggered by dyadic subspace Ca2+ affirming that increasing SERCA reduces aftercontractions

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Penelope J.; Noble, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+-induced delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) are depolarizations that occur after full repolarization. They have been observed across multiple species and cell types. Experimental results have indicated that the main cause of DADs is Ca2+ overload. The main hypothesis as to their initiation has been Ca2+ overflow from the overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Our results using 37 previously published mathematical models provide evidence that Ca2+-induced DADs are initiated by the same mechanism as Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, i.e., the modulation of the opening of ryanodine receptors (RyR) by Ca2+ in the dyadic subspace; an SR overflow mechanism was not necessary for the induction of DADs in any of the models. The SR Ca2+ level is better viewed as a modulator of the appearance of DADs and the magnitude of Ca2+ release. The threshold for the total Ca2+ level within the cell (not only the SR) at which Ca2+ oscillations arise in the models is close to their baseline level (∼1- to 3-fold). It is most sensitive to changes in the maximum sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump rate (directly proportional), the opening probability of RyRs, and the Ca2+ diffusion rate from the dyadic subspace into the cytosol (both indirectly proportional), indicating that the appearance of DADs is multifactorial. This shift in emphasis away from SR overload as the trigger for DADs toward a multifactorial analysis could explain why SERCA overexpression has been shown to suppress DADs (while increasing contractility) and why DADs appear during heart failure (at low SR Ca2+ levels). PMID:21666112

  6. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditi; Ringman, John M; Lee, Albert S; Juarez, Kevin O; Mendez, Mario F

    2012-10-01

    Although familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD.

  7. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ringman, John M.; Lee, Albert S.; Juarez, Kevin O.; Mendez, Mario F.

    2012-01-01

    Although familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD. PMID:22460587

  8. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Identification by GC-EAD of the two-component trail-following pheromone of Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae, Prorhinotermitinae).

    PubMed

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Kalinová, Blanka; Jiros, Pavel; Brezinová, Anna; Cvacka, Josef; Hanus, Robert; Sobotník, Jan; Bordereau, Christian; Valterová, Irena

    2009-08-01

    GC/MS analysis confirmed that neocembrene is the major component of the trail pheromone in the three species of the termite genus Prorhinotermes (P. simplex, P. canalifrons, P. inopinatus). In addition, EAG and GC-EAD experiments with P. simplex strongly suggest that dodecatrienol is a quantitatively minor component but a qualitatively important component of this trail pheromone. Trail-following bioassays confirmed the two-component nature of the trail pheromone. This is the first report of the use of the GC-EAD for the identification of trail pheromone in termites. These original results underline once again the special phylogenetic status of the Prorhinotermitinae among Rhinotermitidae.

  10. Early Allograft Dysfunction After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Short- and Long-Term Kidney Function Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wadei, H M; Lee, D D; Croome, K P; Mai, M L; Golan, E; Brotman, R; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-03-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation (LT) is related to ischemia-reperfusion injury and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response and extrahepatic organ dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of EAD on new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy within the first month and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within the first year post-LT in 1325 primary LT recipients. EAD developed in 358 (27%) of recipients. Seventy-one (5.6%) recipients developed AKI and 38 (2.9%) developed ESRD. Compared with those without EAD, recipients with EAD had a higher risk of AKI and ESRD (4% vs. 9% and 2% vs. 6%, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent relationship between EAD and AKI as well as ESRD (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.9-6.4, and odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 11.9-91.2, respectively). Patients who experienced both EAD and AKI had inferior 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year patient and graft survival compared with those with either EAD or AKI alone, while those who had neither AKI nor EAD had the best outcomes (p < 0.001). Post-LT EAD is a risk factor for both AKI and ESRD and should be considered a target for future intervention to reduce post-LT short- and long-term renal dysfunction. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Donor information based prediction of early allograft dysfunction and outcome in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dieter P; Paul, Andreas; Gallinat, Anja; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Reinhardt, Renate; Minor, Thomas; Saner, Fuat H; Canbay, Ali; Treckmann, Jürgen W; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Mathé, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Poor initial graft function was recently newly defined as early allograft dysfunction (EAD) [Olthoff KM, Kulik L, Samstein B, et al. Validation of a current definition of early allograft dysfunction in liver transplant recipients and analysis of risk factors. Liver Transpl 2010; 16: 943]. Aim of this analysis was to evaluate predictive donor information for development of EAD. Six hundred and seventy-eight consecutive adult patients (mean age 51.6 years; 60.3% men) who received a primary liver transplantation (LT) (09/2003-12/2011) were included. Standard donor data were correlated with EAD and outcome by univariable/multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards to identify prognostic donor factors after adjustment for recipient confounders. Estimates of relevant factors were utilized for construction of a new continuous risk index to develop EAD. 38.7% patients developed EAD. 30-day survival of grafts with and without EAD was 59.8% and 89.7% (P < 0.0001). 30-day survival of patients with and without EAD was 68.5% and 93.1% (P < 0.0001) respectively. Donor body mass index (P = 0.0112), gGT (P = 0.0471), macrosteatosis (P = 0.0006) and cold ischaemia time (CIT) (P = 0.0031) were predictors of EAD. Internal cross validation showed a high predictive value (c-index = 0.622). Early allograft dysfunction correlates with early results of LT and can be predicted by donor data only. The newly introduced risk index potentially optimizes individual decisions to accept/decline high risk organs. Outcome of these organs might be improved by shortening CIT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Flight Validation of the Thermal Propellant Gauging Method used at EADS Astrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandaleix, L.; Ounougha, L.; Jallade, S.

    2004-10-01

    EADS Astrium recently met a major milestone in the field of propellant gauging with the first reorbitation of an Eurostar tanks equipped satellite. It proved successful determining the remaining available propellant mass for spacecraft displacement beyond the customer specified graveyard orbit; thus demonstrating its expertness in Propellant Gauging in correlation with tank residual mass minimization. A critical parameter in satellite operational planning is indeed the accurate knowledge of the on-board remaining propellant mass; basically for the commercial telecommunication missions, where it is the major criterion for lifetime maximization. To provide an accurate and reliable process for measurement of this propellant mass throughout lifetime, EADS Astrium uses a Combination of two independent techniques: The Dead Reckoning Method (maximum accuracy at BOL), based on thrusters flow rate prediction &the Thermal Propellant Gauging Technique, deriving the propellant mass from the tank thermal capacity (Absolute gauging method, with increasing accuracy along lifetime). Then, the present article shows the recent flight validation of the Gauging method obtained for Eurostar E2000 propellant tanks including the validation of the different thermodynamic models. ABBREVIATIONS &ACRONYMS BOL, MOL, EOL: Beginning, Middle &End of Life Cempty: Empty tank thermal inertia [J/K] Chelium: Helium thermal inertia [J/K] Cpropellant: Propellant thermal inertia [J/K] Ct = C1+C2: Total tank thermal inertia (Subscript for upper node and for lower node) [J/K] CPS: Combined Propulsion System DR: Dead Reckoning FM: Flight Model LAE: Liquid Apogee Engine lsb: Least significant byte M0: TPGS Uncertainty component linked to Cempty mox, mfuel: Propellant mass of oxidiser &fuel [kg] Pox, Pfuel: Pressure of oxidiser &fuel [bar] PTA: Propellant Tank Assembly Q: Heater power [W] Qox, Qfuel: Mass flow rate of oxidiser &fuel [kg/s] RCT: Reaction Control Thrusters T0: Spacecraft platform equilibrium

  13. Activation of mGluR5 induces spike afterdepolarization and enhanced excitability in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens by modulating persistent Na+ currents

    PubMed Central

    D’Ascenzo, Marcello; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Fellin, Tommaso; Azzena, Gian Battista; Haydon, Philip; Grassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 5 (mGluR5) in drug-induced behaviours is well-established but limited information is available on their functional roles in addiction-relevant brain areas like the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This study demonstrates that pharmacological and synaptic activation of mGluR5 increases the spike discharge of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc. This effect was associated with the appearance of a slow afterdepolarization (ADP) which, in voltage-clamp experiments, was recorded as a slowly inactivating inward current. Pharmacological studies showed that ADP was elicited by mGluR5 stimulation via G-protein-dependent activation of phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Both ADP and spike aftercurrents were significantly inhibited by the Na+ channel-blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the selective blockade of persistent Na+ currents (INaP), achieved by NAc slice pre-incubation with 20 nm TTX or 10 μm riluzole, significantly reduced the ADP amplitude, indicating that this type of Na+ current is responsible for the mGluR5-dependent ADP. mGluR5 activation also produced significant increases in INaP, and the pharmacological blockade of this current prevented the mGluR5-induced enhancement of spike discharge. Collectively, these data suggest that mGluR5 activation upregulates INaP in MSNs of the NAc, thereby inducing an ADP that results in enhanced MSN excitability. Activation of mGluR5 will significantly alter spike firing in MSNs in vivo, and this effect could be an important mechanism by which these receptors mediate certain aspects of drug-induced behaviours. PMID:19433572

  14. A sharp, robust, and quantitative method by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the measurement of EAD for acute radiation syndrome and its application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwei; Li, Jian; Meng, Zhiyun; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Zheng, Ying; Wei, Jinbin; Dou, Guifang

    2017-06-15

    17-Ethinyl-3,17-dihydroxyandrost-5-ene (EAD) is an agent designed for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Given its vital role played in the prevention and mitigation of ARS, the development of a sharp, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to monitor the metabolism of EAD in vivo was crucial. A new method was constructed and validated for the determination of EAD with the internal standard of androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (5-AED). The blood samples were precipitated with methanol, centrifuged, from which the supernatant was separated on UPLC with C18 column and eluted in gradient with acetonitrile and Milli-Q water both containing 0.1% formic acid (FA). Quantification was performed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electro spray ionization (ESI) in multiple reactive monitoring (MRM) positive mode. A good linearity was obtained with R>0.99 for EAD within its calibration range from 5 to 1000ngmL -1 with a lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 5ngmL -1 . Inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision of three levels of quality control (QC) samples were within the range of 15%, while the LLOQ was within 20%. Samples were stable under the circumstances of the experiments. The method was simple, accurate and robust applied to determine the concentrations of EAD in Wistar rat after a single administration of EAD orally at the dose of 100mgkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Equations for nickel-chromium wire heaters of column transfer lines in gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD).

    PubMed

    Byers, John A

    2004-05-30

    Heating of chromatographic columns, transfer lines, and other devices is often required in neuroscience research. For example, volatile compounds passing through a capillary column of a gas chromatograph (GC) can be split, with half exiting the instrument through a heated transfer line to an insect antenna or olfactory sensillum for electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) recordings. The heated transfer line is used to prevent condensation of various chemicals in the capillary that would otherwise occur at room temperature. Construction of such a transfer line heater is described using (80/20%) nickel-chromium heating wire wrapped in a helical coil and powered by a 120/220 V ac rheostat. Algorithms were developed in a computer program to estimate the voltage at which a rheostat should be set to obtain the desired heater temperature for a specific coil. The coil attributes (radius, width, number of loops, or length of each loop) are input by the user, as well as AWG size of heating wire and desired heater temperature. The program calculates total length of wire in the helix, resistance of the wire, amperage used, and the voltage to set the rheostat. A discussion of semiochemical isolation methods using the GC-EAD and bioassays is presented.

  16. A score model for the continuous grading of early allograft dysfunction severity.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortes, Miriam; Hervás, David; Mir, José; Valdivieso, Andrés; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) dramatically influences graft and patient outcomes. A lack of consensus on an EAD definition hinders comparisons of liver transplant outcomes and management of recipients among and within centers. We sought to develop a model for the quantitative assessment of early allograft function [Model for Early Allograft Function Scoring (MEAF)] after transplantation. A retrospective study including 1026 consecutive liver transplants was performed for MEAF score development. Multivariate data analysis was used to select a small number of postoperative variables that adequately describe EAD. Then, the distribution of these variables was mathematically modeled to assign a score for each actual variable value. A model, based on easily obtainable clinical parameters (ie, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and bilirubin) and scoring liver function from 0 to 10, was built. The MEAF score showed a significant association with patient and graft survival at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Hepatic steatosis and age for donors; cold/warm ischemia times and postreperfusion syndrome for surgery; and intensive care unit and hospital stays, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh scores, body mass index, and fresh frozen plasma transfusions for recipients were factors associated significantly with EAD. The model was satisfactorily validated by its application to an independent set of 200 patients who underwent liver transplantation at a different center. In conclusion, a model for the quantitative assessment of EAD severity has been developed and validated for the first time. The MEAF provides a more accurate graft function assessment than current categorical classifications and may help clinicians to make early enough decisions on retransplantation benefits. Furthermore, the MEAF score is a predictor of recipient and graft survival. The standardization of the criteria used to define EAD may allow reliable comparisons of

  17. Impairment in proverb interpretation as an executive function deficit in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Leyhe, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Milian, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (EAD). The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD.

  18. Impairment in Proverb Interpretation as an Executive Function Deficit in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leyhe, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Milian, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. Methods We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (EAD). Results The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Conclusions Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD. PMID:22163233

  19. The combination of indocyanine green clearance test and model for end-stage liver disease score predicts early graft outcome after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yunhua, Tang; Weiqiang, Ju; Maogen, Chen; Sai, Yang; Zhiheng, Zhang; Dongping, Wang; Zhiyong, Guo; Xiaoshun, He

    2018-06-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and early postoperative complications are two important clinical endpoints when evaluating clinical outcomes of liver transplantation (LT). We developed and validated two ICGR15-MELD models in 87 liver transplant recipients for predicting EAD and early postoperative complications after LT by incorporating the quantitative liver function tests (ICGR15) into the MELD score. Eighty seven consecutive patients who underwent LT were collected and divided into a training cohort (n = 61) and an internal validation cohort (n = 26). For predicting EAD after LT, the area under curve (AUC) for ICGR15-MELD score was 0.876, with a sensitivity of 92.0% and a specificity of 75.0%, which is better than MELD score or ICGR15 alone. The recipients with a ICGR15-MELD score ≥0.243 have a higher incidence of EAD than those with a ICGR15-MELD score <0.243 (P <0.001). For predicting early postoperative complications, the AUC of ICGR15-MELD score was 0.832, with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 71.0%. Those recipients with an ICGR15-MELD score ≥0.098 have a higher incidence of early postoperative complications than those with an ICGR15-MELD score <0.098 (P < 0.001). Finally, application of the two ICGR15-MELD models in the validation cohort still gave good accuracy (AUC, 0.835 and 0.826, respectively) in predicting EAD and early postoperative complications after LT. The combination of quantitative liver function tests (ICGR15) and the preoperative MELD score is a reliable and effective predictor of EAD and early postoperative complications after LT, which is better than MELD score or ICGR15 alone.

  20. Distinguishing neurocognitive deficits in adult patients with NP-C from early onset Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Johnen, Andreas; Pawlowski, Matthias; Duning, Thomas

    2018-06-05

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. Neurocognitive deficits are common in NP-C, particularly in patients with the adolescent/adult-onset form. As a disease-specific therapy is available, it is important to distinguish clinically between the cognitive profiles in NP-C and primary dementia (e.g., early Alzheimer's disease; eAD). In a prospective observational study, we directly compared the neurocognitive profiles of patients with confirmed NP-C (n = 7) and eAD (n = 15). All patients underwent neurocognitive assessment using dementia screening tests (mini-mental status examination [MMSE] and frontal assessment battery [FAB]) and an extensive battery of tests assessing verbal memory, visuoconstructive abilities, visual memory, executive functions and verbal fluency. Overall cognitive impairment (MMSE) was significantly greater in eAD vs. NP-C (p = 0.010). The frequency of patients classified as cognitively 'impaired' was also significantly greater in eAD vs. NP-C (p = 0.025). Patients with NP-C showed relatively preserved verbal memory, but frequent impairment in visual memory, visuoconstruction, executive functions and in particular, verbal fluency. In the eAD group, a wider profile of more frequent and more severe neurocognitive deficits was seen, primarily featuring severe verbal and visual memory deficits along with major executive impairment. Delayed verbal memory recall was a particularly strong distinguishing factor between the two groups. A combination of detailed yet easy-to-apply neurocognitive tests assessing verbal memory, executive functions and verbal fluency may help distinguish NP-C cases from those with primary dementia due to eAD.

  1. Metabolomics discloses donor liver biomarkers associated with early allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Miriam; Pareja, Eugenia; García-Cañaveras, Juan C; Donato, M Teresa; Montero, Sandra; Mir, Jose; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) dramatically influences graft and patient outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation and its incidence is strongly determined by donor liver quality. Nevertheless, objective biomarkers, which can assess graft quality and anticipate organ function, are still lacking. This study aims to investigate whether there is a preoperative donor liver metabolomic biosignature associated with EAD. A comprehensive metabolomic profiling of 124 donor liver biopsies collected before transplantation was performed by mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. Donor liver grafts were classified into two groups: showing EAD and immediate graft function (IGF). Multivariate data analysis was used to search for the relationship between the metabolomic profiles present in donor livers before transplantation and their function in recipients. A set of liver graft dysfunction-associated biomarkers was identified. Key changes include significantly increased levels of bile acids, lysophospholipids, phospholipids, sphingomyelins and histidine metabolism products, all suggestive of disrupted lipid homeostasis and altered histidine pathway. Based on these biomarkers, a predictive EAD model was built and further evaluated by assessing 24 independent donor livers, yielding 91% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The model was also successfully challenged by evaluating donor livers showing primary non-function (n=4). A metabolomic biosignature that accurately differentiates donor livers, which later showed EAD or IGF, has been deciphered. The remarkable metabolomic differences between donor livers before transplant can relate to their different quality. The proposed metabolomic approach may become a clinical tool for donor liver quality assessment and for anticipating graft function before transplant. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cingulum correlates of cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion spectrum imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Chu, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Meng-Tien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) of MRI can detect neural fiber tract changes. We investigated integrity of cingulum bundle (CB) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (EAD) using DSI tractography and explored its relationship with cognitive functions. We recruited 8 patients with MCI, 9 with EAD and 15 healthy controls (HC). All subjects received a battery of neuropsychological tests to access their executive, memory and language functions. We used a 3.0-tesla MRI scanner to obtain T1- and T2-weighted images for anatomy and used a pulsed gradient twice-refocused spin-echo diffusion echo-planar imaging sequence to acquire DSI. Patients with EAD performed significantly poorer than the HC on most tests in executive and memory functions. Significantly smaller general fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were found in the posterior and inferior segments of left CB and of the anterior segment of right CB of the EAD compared with those of the HC. Spearman's correlation on the patient groups showed that GFA values of the posterior segment of the left CB were significantly negatively associated with the time used to complete Color Trails Test Part II and positively correlated with performance of the logical memory and visual reproduction. GFA values of inferior segment of bilateral CB were positively associated with the performance of visual recognition. DSI tractography demonstrates significant preferential degeneration of the CB on the left side in patients with EAD. The location-specific degeneration is associated with corresponding declines in both executive and memory functions.

  3. Identification (GC and GC-MS) of unsaturated acetates in Elasmopalpus lignosellus and their biological activity (GC-EAD and EAG).

    PubMed

    Jham, Gulab N; da Silva, Alexsandro A; Lima, Eraldo R; Viana, Paulo

    2005-02-01

    Two insect colonies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus were reared in our laboratory, the first being initiated from pupae obtained from a cornfield in the region of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais and the second from a cornfield in the region of Goiânia, Goiás. From the two colonies, two extracts were prepared from the pheromone glands of virgin E. lignosellus females. The extract obtained from the first colony was designated as extract 1 while the extract obtained from the second colony was designated as extract 2. Extract 1 was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate [(Z)-9-HDA] and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate [(Z)-11-HDA] being identified and confirmed by the formation of DMDS derivatives. In addition, a third acetate, which could be either (E)-8-hexadecenyl acetate [(E)-8-HDA] or (E)-9-hexadecenyl acetate [(E)-9-HDA] was detected by GC-MS. Extract 2 was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-electroannetography (GC-EAD) revealing the presence of (Z)-11-HDA and (Z)-9-TDA. In addition, the same compounds elicited a response with the E. lignosellus male antenna obtained from the second insect colony. Electroantennography (EAG) screening with the male E. lignosellus antenna (obtained from the second insect colony) was conducted with the 23 possible tetradecenyl acetates (TDA) and 22 hexadecenyl acetates (HDA) as standards. Out of the 23 TDA isomers evaluated, only (Z)-9-TDA elicited a response and out of the 22 HDA [(Z) and (E) isomers gamma2 to delta13] evaluated only (Z)-11-HDA elicited a response. The acetate compositions of two extracts obtained from insects originating from the two states (Minas Gerais and Goiás) of Brazil were different from one another as well as from that obtained from insects in Tifton, GA, USA. The bioactivity data (GC-EAD) of the extract 2 differed from those reported for the Tifton, GA, USA population. These data suggest polymorphism in relation to the insect populations found in

  4. Effect of myocyte-fibroblast coupling on the onset of pathological dynamics in a model of ventricular tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Vandersickel, Nele; Panfilov, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Managing lethal cardiac arrhythmias is one of the biggest challenges in modern cardiology, and hence it is very important to understand the factors underlying such arrhythmias. While early afterdepolarizations (EAD) of cardiac cells is known to be one such arrhythmogenic factor, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of tissue level arrhythmias from cellular level EADs is not fully understood. Another known arrhythmogenic condition is fibrosis of cardiac tissue that occurs both due to aging and in many types of heart diseases. In this paper we describe the results of a systematic in-silico study, using the TNNP model of human cardiac cells and MacCannell model for (myo)fibroblasts, on the possible effects of diffuse fibrosis on arrhythmias occurring via EADs. We find that depending on the resting potential of fibroblasts (VFR), M-F coupling can either increase or decrease the region of parameters showing EADs. Fibrosis increases the probability of occurrence of arrhythmias after a single focal stimulation and this effect increases with the strength of the M-F coupling. While in our simulations, arrhythmias occur due to fibrosis induced ectopic activity, we do not observe any specific fibrotic pattern that promotes the occurrence of these ectopic sources.

  5. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  6. Transient Outward K+ Current (Ito) Underlies the Right Ventricular Initiation of Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in a Transgenic Rabbit Model of Long-QT Syndrome Type 1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bum-Rak; Li, Weiyan; Terentyev, Dmitry; Kabakov, Anatoli Y; Zhong, Mingwang; Rees, Colin M; Terentyeva, Radmila; Kim, Tae Yun; Qu, Zhilin; Peng, Xuwen; Karma, Alain; Koren, Gideon

    2018-06-01

    Sudden death in long-QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1), an inherited disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1, is triggered by early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (pVT). We investigated ionic mechanisms that underlie pVT in LQT1 using a transgenic rabbit model of LQT1. Optical mapping, cellular patch clamping, and computer modeling were used to elucidate the mechanisms of EADs in transgenic LQT1 rabbits. The results showed that shorter action potential duration in the right ventricle (RV) was associated with focal activity during pVT initiation. RV cardiomyocytes demonstrated higher incidence of EADs under 50 nmol/L isoproterenol. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that the transient outward potassium current (I to ) magnitude was 28% greater in RV associated with KChiP2 but with no differences in terms of calcium-cycling kinetics and other sarcolemmal currents. Perfusing with the I to blocker 4-aminopyridine changed the initial focal sites of pVT from the RV to the left ventricle, corroborating the role of I to in pVT initiation. Computer modeling showed that EADs occur preferentially in the RV because of the larger conductance of the slow-inactivating component of I to , which repolarizes the membrane potential sufficiently rapidly to allow reactivation of I Ca,L before I Kr has had sufficient time to activate. I to heterogeneity creates both triggers and an arrhythmogenic substrate in LQT1. In the absence of I Ks , I to interactions with I Ca,L and I Kr promote EADs in the RV while prolonging action potential duration in the left ventricle. This heterogeneity of action potential enhances dispersion of refractoriness and facilitates conduction blocks that initiate pVTs. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. A model of cardiac ryanodine receptor gating predicts experimental Ca2+-dynamics and Ca2+-triggered arrhythmia in the long QT syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dan; Ermentrout, Bard; Němec, Jan; Salama, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal Ca2+ handling is well-established as the trigger of cardiac arrhythmia in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and digoxin toxicity, but its role remains controversial in Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the arrhythmia associated with the long QT syndrome (LQTS). Recent experimental results show that early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate TdP are caused by spontaneous (non-voltage-triggered) Ca2+ release from Ca2+-overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rather than the activation of the L-type Ca2+-channel window current. In bradycardia and long QT type 2 (LQT2), a second, non-voltage triggered cytosolic Ca2+ elevation increases gradually in amplitude, occurs before overt voltage instability, and then precedes the rise of EADs. Here, we used a modified Shannon-Puglisi-Bers model of rabbit ventricular myocytes to reproduce experimental Ca2+ dynamics in bradycardia and LQT2. Abnormal systolic Ca2+-oscillations and EADs caused by SR Ca2+-release are reproduced in a modified 0-dimensional model, where 3 gates in series control the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) conductance. Two gates control RyR2 activation and inactivation and sense cytosolic Ca2+ while a third gate senses luminal junctional SR Ca2+. The model predicts EADs in bradycardia and low extracellular [K+] and cessation of SR Ca2+-release terminate salvos of EADs. Ca2+-waves, systolic cell-synchronous Ca2+-release, and multifocal diastolic Ca2+ release seen in subcellular Ca2+-mapping experiments are observed in the 2-dimensional version of the model. These results support the role of SR Ca2+-overload, abnormal SR Ca2+-release, and the subsequent activation of the electrogenic Na+/Ca2+-exchanger as the mechanism of TdP. The model offers new insights into the genesis of cardiac arrhythmia and new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Triggered Firing and Atrial Fibrillation in Transgenic Mice With Selective Atrial Fibrosis Induced by Overexpression of TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Chang, Po-Cheng; Lee, Young-Soo; Lin, Shien-Fong; Zhu, Wuqiang; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Fishbein, Michael C.; Chen, Zhenhui; der Lohe, Michael Rubart-von; Field, Loren J.; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium transient triggered firing (CTTF) is induced by large intracellular calcium (Cai) transient and short action potential duration (APD). We hypothesized that CTTF underlies the mechanisms of early afterdepolarization (EAD) and spontaneous recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) in transgenic (Tx) mice with overexpression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Methods and Results MHC-TGFcys33ser Tx mice develop atrial fibrosis because of elevated levels of TGF-β1. We studied membrane potential and Cai transients of isolated superfused atria from Tx and wild-type (Wt) littermates. Short APD and persistently elevated Cai transients promoted spontaneous repetitive EADs, triggered activity and spontaneous AF after cessation of burst pacing in Tx but not Wt atria (39% vs. 0%, P=0.008). We were able to map optically 4 episodes of spontaneous AF re-initiation. All first and second beats of spontaneous AF originated from the right atrium (4/4, 100%), which is more severely fibrotic than the left atrium. Ryanodine and thapsigargin inhibited spontaneous re-initiation of AF in all 7 Tx atria tested. Western blotting showed no significant changes of calsequestrin or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a. Conclusions Spontaneous AF may occur in the Tx atrium because of CTTF, characterized by APD shortening, prolonged Cai transient, EAD and triggered activity. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum suppressed spontaneous AF. Our results indicate that CTTF is an important arrhythmogenic mechanism in TGF-β1 Tx atria. PMID:22447020

  9. Transient hyperglycemia during liver transplantation does not affect the early graft function.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Annabel; Beltran, Joan; Martin, Nuria; Martinez-Pallí, Graciela; Lozano, Juan J; Balust, Jaume; Torrents, Abigail; Taura, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background and rationale for the study. Hyperglycemia after graft reperfusion is a consistent finding in liver transplantation (LT) that remains poorly studied. We aim to describe its appearance in LT recipients of different types of grafts and its relation to the graft function. 436 LT recipients of donors after brain death (DBD), donors after cardiac death (DCD), and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) donors were reviewed. Serum glucose was measured at baseline, during the anhepatic phase, after graft reperfusion, and at the end of surgery. Early graft dysfunction (EAD) was assessed by Olthoff criteria. Caspase-3, IFN-γ, IL1β, and IL6 gene expression were measured in liver biopsy. The highest increase in glucose levels after reperfusion was observed in FAP LT recipients and the lowest in DCD LT recipients. Glucose level during the anhepatic phase was the only modifiable predictive variable of hyperglycemia after reperfusion. No relation was found between hyperglycemia after reperfusion and EAD. However, recipients with the highest glucose levels after reperfusion tended to achieve the best glucose control at the end of surgery and those who were unable to control the glucose value after reperfusion showed EAD more frequently. The highest levels of caspase-3 were found in recipients with the lowest glucose values after reperfusion. In conclusion, glucose levels increased after graft reperfusion to a different extent according to the donor type. Contrary to general belief, transient hyperglycemia after reperfusion does not appear to impact negatively on the liver graft function and could even be suggested as a marker of graft quality.

  10. SPIRALE: early warning optical space demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, D.; Carucci, A.

    2004-11-01

    Thanks to its global coverage, its peacetime capabilities and its availability, ballistic missiles Early Warning (EW) space systems are identified as a key node of a global missile defence system. Since the Gulf war in 1991, several feasibility studies of such an Early Warning system have been conducted in France. The main conclusions are first that the most appropriate concept is to use infra-red (IR) sensors on geo- stationary orbit satellites and second that the required satellite performances are achievable and accessible to European industries, even if technological developments are necessary. Besides that, it was recommended to prepare the development of the EW operational system, by demonstrating its achievable performances on the basis of collected background images and available target IR signatures. This is the objective of the "EW optical space demonstrator", also named SPIRALE (this a French acronym which stands for "Preparatory IR Program for EW"). A contract has been awarded early 2004, by DGA/SPOTI (French Armament Procurement Agency), to EADS Astrium France, with a significant participation of Alcatel Space, to perform this demonstration.

  11. Lipidomics comparing DCD and DBD liver allografts uncovers lysophospholipids elevated in recipients undergoing early allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Casas-Ferreira, Ana M; Ma, Yun; Sen, Arundhuti; Kim, Min; Proitsi, Petroula; Shkodra, Maltina; Tena, Maria; Srinivasan, Parthi; Heaton, Nigel; Jassem, Wayel; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2015-12-04

    Finding specific biomarkers of liver damage in clinical evaluations could increase the pool of available organs for transplantation. Lipids are key regulators in cell necrosis and hence this study hypothesised that lipid levels could be altered in organs suffering severe ischemia. Matched pre- and post-transplant biopsies from donation after circulatory death (DCD, n = 36, mean warm ischemia time = 2 min) and donation after brain death (DBD, n = 76, warm ischemia time = none) were collected. Lipidomic discovery and multivariate analysis (MVA) were applied. Afterwards, univariate analysis and clinical associations were conducted for selected lipids differentiating between these two groups. MVA grouped DCD vs. DBD (p = 6.20 × 10(-12)) and 12 phospholipids were selected for intact lipid measurements. Two lysophosphatidylcholines, LysoPC (16:0) and LysoPC (18:0), showed higher levels in DCD at pre-transplantation (q < 0.01). Lysophosphatidylcholines were associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 14-day post-transplantation (q < 0.05) and were more abundant in recipients undergoing early allograft dysfunction (EAD) (p < 0.05). A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve combining both lipid levels predicted EAD with 82% accuracy. These findings suggest that LysoPC (16:0) and LysoPC (18:0) might have a role in signalling liver tissue damage due to warm ischemia before transplantation.

  12. Coexistence of Bilirubin ≥10 mg/dL and Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio ≥1.6 on Day 7: A Strong Predictor of Early Graft Loss After Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yusuke; Yagi, Shintaro; Sato, Toshiya; Hata, Koichiro; Ogawa, Eri; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Kamo, Naoko; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Okajima, Hideaki; Kaido, Toshimi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-03-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) defined by serum total bilirubin (TB) of 10 mg/dL or greater or prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) of 1.6 or greater on postoperative day 7 (POD 7) or aminotransferase greater than 2000 IU/L within the first week, is associated with early graft loss after deceased-donor liver transplantation. We aimed to determine the prognostic impact of the EAD definition in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We analyzed the validity of the EAD definition and its impact on early graft survival in 260 adult recipients who underwent primary LDLT. Eighty-four (32.3%) patients met the EAD criteria; 59 (22.7%) and 46 (17.7%) patients had TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and PT-INR of 1.6 or greater on POD 7, respectively, and 22 (8.5%) patients satisfied both criteria. Graft survival differed significantly when stratified according to TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and PT-INR of 1.6 or greater (P < 0.0001). PT-INR of 1.6 or greater resulted in higher graft mortality (risk ratio [RR], 3.87; P < 0.0001 at 90 days; RR, 2.97; P < 0.0001 at 180 days), as did TB of 10 mg/dL or greater (RR, 1.89; P = 0.027 at 90 days; RR, 1.91; P = 0.006 at 180 days). Coexistence of TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and PT-INR of 1.6 or greater was strongly associated with early graft loss (59.1%, RR, 6.97 at 90 days; 68.2%; RR, 5.75 at 180 days). In Cox regression analysis, PT-INR of 1.6 or greater and TB of 10 mg/dL or greater on POD 7 were significant risk factors for early graft loss (hazard ratio, 4.10; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-7.18; P < 0.0001, and hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.24; P = 0.0018, respectively). TB of 10 mg/dL or greater and/or PT-INR of 1.6 or greater on POD 7 predicted early graft loss after LDLT, and their coexistence worsened patient outcomes.

  13. Distinct gene-specific mechanisms of arrhythmia revealed by cardiac gene transfer of two long QT disease genes, HERG and KCNE1.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, U C; Marbán, E; Johns, D C

    2001-04-24

    The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heritable disorder that predisposes to sudden cardiac death. LQTS is caused by mutations in ion channel genes including HERG and KCNE1, but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. To clarify this situation we injected adenoviral vectors expressing wild-type or LQT mutants of HERG and KCNE1 into guinea pig myocardium. End points at 48-72 h included electrophysiology in isolated myocytes and electrocardiography in vivo. HERG increased the rapid component, I(Kr), of the delayed rectifier current, thereby accelerating repolarization, increasing refractoriness, and diminishing beat-to-beat action potential variability. Conversely, HERG-G628S suppressed I(Kr) without significantly delaying repolarization. Nevertheless, HERG-G628S abbreviated refractoriness and increased beat-to-beat variability, leading to early afterdepolarizations (EADs). KCNE1 increased the slow component of the delayed rectifier, I(Ks), without clear phenotypic sequelae. In contrast, KCNE1-D76N suppressed I(Ks) and markedly slowed repolarization, leading to frequent EADs and electrocardiographic QT prolongation. Thus, the two genes predispose to sudden death by distinct mechanisms: the KCNE1 mutant flagrantly undermines cardiac repolarization, and HERG-G628S subtly facilitates the genesis and propagation of premature beats. Our ability to produce electrocardiographic long QT in vivo with a clinical KCNE1 mutation demonstrates the utility of somatic gene transfer in creating genotype-specific disease models.

  14. Availability of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in assessment of drug potential for QT prolongation

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Yumiko, E-mail: yumiko-nozaki@ds-pharma.co.jp; Honda, Yayoi, E-mail: yayoi-honda@ds-pharma.co.jp; Tsujimoto, Shinji, E-mail: shinji-tsujimoto@ds-pharma.co.jp

    2014-07-01

    Field potential duration (FPD) in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which can express QT interval in an electrocardiogram, is reported to be a useful tool to predict K{sup +} channel and Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker effects on QT interval. However, there is no report showing that this technique can be used to predict multichannel blocker potential for QT prolongation. The aim of this study is to show that FPD from MEA (Multielectrode array) of hiPS-CMs can detect QT prolongation induced by multichannel blockers. hiPS-CMs were seeded onto MEA and FPD was measured for 2 min every 10 min formore » 30 min after drug exposure for the vehicle and each drug concentration. I{sub Kr} and I{sub Ks} blockers concentration-dependently prolonged corrected FPD (FPDc), whereas Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers concentration-dependently shortened FPDc. Also, the multichannel blockers Amiodarone, Paroxetine, Terfenadine and Citalopram prolonged FPDc in a concentration dependent manner. Finally, the I{sub Kr} blockers, Terfenadine and Citalopram, which are reported to cause Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in clinical practice, produced early afterdepolarization (EAD). hiPS-CMs using MEA system and FPDc can predict the effects of drug candidates on QT interval. This study also shows that this assay can help detect EAD for drugs with TdP potential. - Highlights: • We focused on hiPS-CMs to replace in vitro assays in preclinical screening studies. • hiPS-CMs FPD is useful as an indicator to predict drug potential for QT prolongation. • MEA assay can help detect EAD for drugs with TdP potentials. • MEA assay in hiPS-CMs is useful for accurately predicting drug TdP risk in humans.« less

  15. Low proarrhythmic potential of citalopram and escitalopram in contrast to haloperidol in an experimental whole-heart model.

    PubMed

    Frommeyer, Gerrit; Brücher, Benedict; von der Ahe, Henning; Kaese, Sven; Dechering, Dirk G; Kochhäuser, Simon; Bogossian, Harilaos; Milberg, Peter; Eckardt, Lars

    2016-10-05

    In several case reports proarrhythmic effects of citalopram and escitalopram have been reported. Systematic analyses on prorarrhythmic effects of these drugs are not yet available. The aim of the present study was to investigate if application of citalopram, escitalopram or haloperidol provokes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive model of proarrhythmia. In isolated rabbit hearts monophasic action potentials and ECG showed a significant QT-prolongation after application of citalopram (2µM: +47ms, 4µM: +56ms, P<0.05) accompanied by an increase of action potential duration (APD) but not dispersion of repolarization. Reduced potassium concentration in bradycardic AV-blocked hearts provoked early afterdepolarizations (EAD) in 2 of 12 hearts but no polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (pVT). Application of escitalopram also increased QT-interval (2µM: +3ms, 4µM: +30ms, P<0.05) and APD without effects on dispersion. 3 of 10 hearts showed EAD and pVT in 2 of 10 hearts (32 episodes). The results were compared to 12 rabbits treated with haloperidol which led to an increase in QT-interval (1µM:+62ms; 2µM:+96ms; P<0.01), APD and dispersion (1µM:+15ms, 2µM:+40ms; P<0.01) and induced EAD in all 12 and pVT in 10 of 12 hearts (152 episodes). Citalopram and escitalopram demonstrated a rather safe electrophysiologic profile despite significant QT prolongation. In contrast, haloperidol led to significant increase of dispersion of repolarization while this parameter remained stable under the influence of citalopram or escitalopram. These results imply that application of citalopram or escitalopram is not as proarrhythmic as some case reports might suggest while haloperidol is torsadogenic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the acute electrophysiologic effects of intravenous dronedarone, an amiodarone-like agent, with special emphasis on ventricular repolarization and acquired torsade de pointes arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Verduyn, S C; Vos, M A; Leunissen, H D; van Opstal, J M; Wellens, H J

    1999-02-01

    In the anesthetized dog with complete chronic AV block (CAVB), we evaluated and compared the acute electrophysiologic effects of dronedarone i.v. (Dron, 2 times 2.5 mg/kg/10 min) and amiodarone i.v. (Amio, 2 times 5 mg/kg/10 min). This canine model with a high sensitivity for acquired torsade de pointes (TdP) provides an ideal substrate to evaluate ventricular repolarization abnormalities. Six ECG leads and two endocardial monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings in the left and right ventricle (LV and RV) were simultaneously recorded to measure QT time, action-potential duration (APD), interventricular dispersion (deltaAPD = LV(APD) - RV(APD)), early afterdepolarizations (EADs), ectopic beats (EBs), and TdP. Measurements were made at the spontaneous idioventricular rhythm (IVR) and 1,000-ms steady-state pacing. To investigate its short-term, antiarrhythmic properties, Dron was given after almokalant (0.12 mg/kg)-induced TdP. Furthermore, in another set of experiments, oral Dron (20 mg/kg, b.i.d) was given for 3 weeks to conscious CAVB dogs. Dron, i.v., shortened ventricular repolarization (QT, 435 +/- 60 to 360 +/- 55; LV(APD) 395 +/- 75 to 335 +/- 60 ms; p < 0.05), whereas IVR and ventricular effective refractory period (VERP, 225 +/- 30 to 230 +/- 30 ms) remained similar. Therefore the VERP/QT ratio increased (0.55 +/- 0.04 to 0.61 +/- 0.03; p < 0.05). Similar results were obtained with Amio, i.v.. Almokalant-induced TdP was characterized by an increased repolarization duration, deltaAPD, and EADs. Dron, i.v., suppressed the EADs, EBs, and TdP by a reduction and homogenization of repolarization (LV(APD), 505 +/- 110 to 455 +/- 80 ms, and deltaAPD, 110 +/- 55 to 65 +/- 40 ms). Long-term oral Dron increased the PP interval, CL-IVR, and QT(c) time. In contrast to oral treatment, Dron i.v. shortens ventricular repolarization parameters, resulting in suppression of EAD-dependent acquired TdP. The increased VERP/QT ratio after Dron i.v. may indicate an important

  17. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  18. Carbon monoxide effects on human ventricle action potential assessed by mathematical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Saiz, Javier; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Giles, Wayne R.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: (i) vasodilation, (ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions, and (iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the primary pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular arrhythmias to an increase in the slowly inactivating, or “late” component of the Na+ current in the mammalian heart. The main goal of this paper is to explore the basis of this pro-arrhythmic capability of CO by incorporating changes in CO-induced ion channel activity with intracellular signaling pathways in the mammalian heart. To do this, a quite well-documented mathematical model of the action potential and intracellular calcium transient in the human ventricular myocyte has been employed. In silico iterations based on this model provide a useful first step in illustrating the cellular electrophysiological consequences of CO that have been reported from mammalian heart experiments. Specifically, when the Grandi et al. model of the human ventricular action potential is utilized, and after the Na+ and Ca2+ currents in a single myocyte are modified based on the experimental literature, early after-depolarization (EAD) rhythm disturbances appear, and important elements of the underlying causes of these EADs are revealed/illustrated. Our modified mathematical model of the human ventricular action potential also provides a convenient digital platform for designing future experimental work and relating these changes in cellular cardiac electrophysiology to emerging clinical and epidemiological data on CO toxicity. PMID:24146650

  19. The human Nav1.5 F1486 deletion associated with long QT syndrome leads to impaired sodium channel inactivation and reduced lidocaine sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Weihua; Xiao, Yucheng; Chen, Hanying; Ashpole, Nicole M; Piekarz, Andrew D; Ma, Peilin; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R; Shou, Weinian

    2012-01-01

    The deletion of phenylalanine 1486 (F1486del) in the human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (hNav1.5) is associated with fatal long QT (LQT) syndrome. In this study we determined how F1486del impairs the functional properties of hNav1.5 and alters action potential firing in heterologous expression systems (human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells) and their native cardiomyocyte background. Cells expressing hNav1.5-F1486del exhibited a loss-of-function alteration, reflected by an 80% reduction of peak current density, and several gain-of-function alterations, including reduced channel inactivation, enlarged window current, substantial augmentation of persistent late sodium current and an increase in ramp current. We also observed substantial action potential duration (APD) prolongation and prominent early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in neonatal cardiomyocytes expressing the F1486del channels, as well as in computer simulations of myocyte activity. In addition, lidocaine sensitivity was dramatically reduced, which probably contributed to the poor therapeutic outcome observed in the patient carrying the hNav1.5-F1486del mutation. Therefore, despite the significant reduction in peak current density, the F1486del mutation also leads to substantial gain-of-function alterations that are sufficient to cause APD prolongation and EADs, the predominant characteristic of LQTs. These data demonstrate that hNav1.5 mutations can have complex functional consequences and highlight the importance of identifying the specific molecular defect when evaluating potential treatments for individuals with prolonged QT intervals. PMID:22826127

  20. The changes of potassium currents in rabbit ventricle with healed myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Niu, Huiyan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cuntai; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yanfei; Pu, Jun; Lu, Zaiying

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of arrhythmia in healed myocardial infarction (HMI), the changes of action potential duration (APD), transient outward potassium current (Ito), delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) of left ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone of HMI were investigated. Rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups: HMI group, in which animals were subjected to thoracotomy and ligation of the circumflex coronary and sham-operated group, in which rabbits underwent thoracotomy but no conorary ligation. 3 months after the operation, the whole myocyte patch clamp technique was used to record APD, Ito, IK, and IK1 of ventricular myocytes in non-infarcted zone. Our results showed that the membrane capacitance was larger in HMI group than in sham-operated group. Action potential duration was significantly lengthened in HMI group and early afterdepolarization (EAD) appeared in HMI group. The densities of Ito, I(K, tail), and IK1 were reduced significantly in HMI group, from 6.72 +/- 0.42 pA/pF, 1.54 +/- 0.13 pA/pF and 25.6 +/- 2.6 pA/pF in sham-operated group to 4.03 +/- 0.33 pA/pF, 1.14 +/- 0.11 pA/pF and 17.6 +/- 2.3 pA/pF, respectively. It is concluded that the reduced densities of Ito, I(K, tail) and IK1 in ventricular myocytes of non-infarcted zone in HMI were responsible for the prolongation of APD and the presentation of EAD which played important roles in the development of malignant arrhythmia in HMI.

  1. Bifurcation theory and cardiac arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Stepanyan, Hayk; Mandel, William J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review two types of dynamic behaviors defined by the bifurcation theory that are found to be particularly useful in describing two forms of cardiac electrical instabilities that are of considerable importance in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. The first is action potential duration (APD) alternans with an underlying dynamics consistent with the period doubling bifurcation theory. This form of electrical instability could lead to spatially discordant APD alternans leading to wavebreak and reentrant form of tachyarrhythmias. Factors that modulate the APD alternans are discussed. The second form of bifurcation of importance to cardiac arrhythmogenesis is the Hopf-homoclinic bifurcation that adequately describes the dynamics of the onset of early afterdepolarization (EAD)-mediated triggered activity (Hopf) that may cause ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF respectively). The self-termination of the triggered activity is compatible with the homoclinic bifurcation. Ionic and intracellular calcium dynamics underlying these dynamics are discussed using available experimental and simulation data. The dynamic analysis provides novel insights into the mechanisms of VT/VF, a major cause of sudden cardiac death in the US. PMID:23459417

  2. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  3. A Dynamical Threshold for Cardiac Delayed Afterdepolarization-Mediated Triggered Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michael B; Ko, Christopher Y; Song, Zhen; Garfinkel, Alan; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2016-12-06

    Ventricular myocytes are excitable cells whose voltage threshold for action potential (AP) excitation is ∼-60 mV at which I Na is activated to give rise to a fast upstroke. Therefore, for a short stimulus pulse to elicit an AP, a stronger stimulus is needed if the resting potential lies further away from the I Na threshold, such as in hypokalemia. However, for an AP elicited by a long duration stimulus or a diastolic spontaneous calcium release, we observed that the stimulus needed was lower in hypokalemia than in normokalemia in both computer simulations and experiments of rabbit ventricular myocytes. This observation provides insight into why hypokalemia promotes calcium-mediated triggered activity, despite the resting potential lying further away from the I Na threshold. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed bifurcation analyses and demonstrated that there is a dynamical threshold, resulting from a saddle-node bifurcation mainly determined by I K1 and I NCX . This threshold is close to the voltage at which I K1 is maximum, and lower than the I Na threshold. After exceeding this dynamical threshold, the membrane voltage will automatically depolarize above the I Na threshold due to the large negative slope of the I K1 -V curve. This dynamical threshold becomes much lower in hypokalemia, especially with respect to calcium, as predicted by our theory. Because of the saddle-node bifurcation, the system can automatically depolarize even in the absence of I Na to voltages higher than the I Ca,L threshold, allowing for triggered APs in single myocytes with complete I Na block. However, because I Na is important for AP propagation in tissue, blocking I Na can still suppress premature ventricular excitations in cardiac tissue caused by calcium-mediated triggered activity. This suppression is more effective in normokalemia than in hypokalemia due to the difference in dynamical thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  5. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Changsoo; Choi, Eunmi

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague–Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0 ± 14.0 to 142.1 ± 18.4 ms (p = 0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/ml for 30 min, n = 5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p = 0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5 mmol/L, n = 3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mlmore » for 20 min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5 mmol/L, n = 5), nifedipine (10 μmol/L, n = 5), and active Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1 μmol/L, n = 5), but not by thapsigargin (200 nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10 μmol/L, n = 5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1 μmol/L, n = 5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5 μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► The ambient PM consistently prolonged repolarization. ► The ambient PM induced triggered activity and ventricular arrhythmia. ► These effects were prevented by antioxidants, I{sub CaL} blockade and CaMKII blockade. ► The ambient PM can induce

  6. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  7. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  8. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  9. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  10. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  11. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  12. Multiculturalism Is D(r)ead in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2014-01-01

    There is a claim currently circulating the European Union (EU), both cynical and misleading: "multiculturalism is dead in Europe". No wonder, as the conglomerate of nation-states/EU has silently handed over one of its most important debates--that of European identity--to the left and right wing parties, recently followed by several…

  13. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  14. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  15. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  16. Gating of the late Na+ channel in normal and failing human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Undrovinas, Albertas I; Maltsev, Victor A; Kyle, John W; Silverman, Norman; Sabbah, Hani N

    2002-11-01

    We previously reported an ultraslow inactivating late Na+ current (INaL) in left ventricular cardiomyocytes (VC) isolated from normal (NVC) and failing (FVC) human hearts. This current could play a role in heart failure-induced repolarization abnormalities. To identify properties of NaCh contributing to INaL, we examined early and late openings in cell-attached patches of HEK293 cells expressing human cardiac NaCh alpha-subunit (alpha-HEK) and in VC of one normal and three failing human hearts. Two types of the late NaCh openings underlay INaL in all three preparations: scattered late (SLO) and bursts (BO). Amplitude analysis revealed that slope conductance for both SLO and BO was the same compared to the main level of early openings (EO) in both VC (21 vs 22.7pS, NVC; 22.7 vs 22.6pS, FVC) and alpha-HEK (23.2 vs 23pS), respectively. Analysis of SLO latencies revealed voltage-independent ultraslow inactivation in all preparations with tendency to be slower in FVC compared to NCV. EO and SLO render one open voltage-independent state (tau approximately 0.4ms) for NVC and FVC. One open (voltage-dependent) and two closed states (one voltage-dependent and another voltage-independent) were found in BO of both specimens. Burst duration tend to be longer in FVC ( approximately 50ms) than in NVC ( approximately 30ms). In FVC we found both modes SLO and BO at membrane potential of -10mV that is attribute for take-off voltages (from -18 to -2mV) for early afterdepolarizations (EAD's) in FVC. In conclusions, we found a novel gating mode SLO that manifest slow (hundreds of ms), voltage-independent inactivation in both NVC and FVC. We were unable to reliably demonstrate any differences in the properties of the late NaCh in failing vs a normal human heart. Accordingly, the late current appears to be generated by a single population of channels in normal and failing human ventricular myocardium. Both SLO and BO could be implicated in EADs in HF.

  17. A new method to calculate the beat-to-beat instability of QT duration in drug-induced long QT in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, H; Van de Water, A; Loots, W; Van Deuren, B; Lu, H R; Van Ammel, K; Peeters, M; Gallacher, D J

    2005-01-01

    Instability of QT duration is a marker to predict Torsade de Pointes (TdP) associated with both congenital and drug-induced long QT syndrome. We describe a new method for the quantification of instability of repolarization. Female, adult beagle dogs anesthetized with a potent morphinomimetic were treated with either solvent (n=7) or dofetilide (n=7). Poincaré plots with QT(n) versus QT(n+1) were constructed to visualize the beat-to-beat variation in QT intervals from the lead II ECG. Short-term instability (STI), long-term instability (LTI) and total instability (TI) were quantified by calculating the distances of 30 consecutive data-points from the x and y-coordinate to the "centre of gravity" of the data cluster. Dofetilide at 0.0025 to 0.04 mg/kg i.v. (plasma concentrations of 4+/-0.6 to 41+/-2.7 ng/ml), dose-dependently prolonged QT and QTcV (at 0.04 mg/kg i.v.: QT: 280+/-ms versus 236+/-5 ms with solvent; p<0.05 and QTcV: 290+/-9 ms versus 252+/-4 ms with solvent; p<0.05). Concomitantly, the compound induced an increase in the instability parameters in a similar dose-dependent manner (at 0.04 mg/kg i.v.: TI: 6.8+/-0.9 ms versus 1.7+/-0.3 ms; p<0.05, LTI: 3.6+/-0.5 ms versus 1.0+/-0.2 ms; p<0.05 and STI: 4.2+/-0.6 ms versus 1.0+/-0.2 ms; p<0.05). The increases induced by dofetilide were associated with a high incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in the endocardial monophasic action potential (in 6 out of the 7 compound-treated animals versus 0 out of the 7 solvent animals; p<0.05). Quantification of beat-to-beat QT instability by our method clearly detects changes in short-term, long-term and total instability induced by dofetilide, already at pre-arrhythmic doses. Dofetilide administration to anesthetized dogs prolongs ventricular repolarization, concomitantly increases beat-to-beat QT instability and induces early after depolarizations (EADs). As such, the use of these parameters in this in vivo model shows clear potential for risk identification

  18. ALSAT-2A power subsystem behavior during launch, early operation, and in-orbit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, N.; Attaba, M.; Beaufume, E.

    2012-09-01

    In 2006, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL) decided to design and built two optical Earth observation satellites. The first one, ALSAT-2A, was integrated and tested as a training and cooperation program with EADS Astrium. The second satellite ALSAT-2B will be integrated by ASAL engineers in the Satellite Development Center (CDS) at Oran in Algeria. On 12th July 2010, Algeria has launched ALSAT-2A onboard an Indian rocket PSLV-C15 from the Sriharikota launch base, Chennaï. ALSAT-2A is the first Earth observation satellite of the AstroSat-100 family; the design is based on the Myriade platform and comprising the first flight model of the New Astrosat Observation Modular Instrument (NAOMI). This Instrument offers a 2.5m ground resolution for the PAN channel and a 10m ground resolution for four multi-spectral channels which provides high imaging quality. The operations are performed from ALSAT-2 ground segment located in Ouargla (Algeria) and after the test phase ALSAT-2A provides successful images. ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem (EPS) is composed of a Solar Array Generator (SAG ), a Li-ion battery dedicated to power storage and energy source during eclipse or high consumption phases and a Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU). This paper focuses primarily on ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem behavior during Launch and Early OPeration (LEOP) as well as In Orbit Test (IOT). The telemetry data related to the SAG voltage, current and temperature will be analyzed in addition to battery temperature, voltage, charge and discharge current. These parameters will be studied in function of satellite power consumption.

  19. Pro-arrhythmic effects of low plasma [K+] in human ventricle: An illustrated review.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Romero, Lucia; Gomez, Juan F; Saiz, Javier; Rajamani, Sridharan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Giles, Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Potassium levels in the plasma, [K + ] o , are regulated precisely under physiological conditions. However, increases (from approx. 4.5 to 8.0mM) can occur as a consequence of, e.g., endurance exercise, ischemic insult or kidney failure. This hyperkalemic modulation of ventricular electrophysiology has been studied extensively. Hypokalemia is also common. It can occur in response to diuretic therapy, following renal dialysis, or during recovery from endurance exercise. In the human ventricle, clinical hypokalemia (e.g., [K + ] o levels of approx. 3.0mM) can cause marked changes in both the resting potential and the action potential waveform, and these may promote arrhythmias. Here, we provide essential background information concerning the main K + -sensitive ion channel mechanisms that act in concert to produce prominent short-term ventricular electrophysiological changes, and illustrate these by implementing recent mathematical models of the human ventricular action potential. Even small changes (~1mM) in [K + ] o result in significant alterations in two different K + currents, I K1 and HERG. These changes can markedly alter in resting membrane potential and/or action potential waveform in human ventricle. Specifically, a reduction in net outward transmembrane K + currents (repolarization reserve) and an increased substrate input resistance contribute to electrophysiological instability during the plateau of the action potential and may promote pro-arrhythmic early after-depolarizations (EADs). Translational settings where these insights apply include: optimal diuretic therapy, and the interpretation of data from Phase II and III trials for anti-arrhythmic drug candidates. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Optogenetic Electrophysiology Tools in Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Björk, Susann; Ojala, Elina A; Nordström, Tommy; Ahola, Antti; Liljeström, Mikko; Hyttinen, Jari; Kankuri, Esko; Mervaala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Current cardiac drug safety assessments focus on hERG channel block and QT prolongation for evaluating arrhythmic risks, whereas the optogenetic approach focuses on the action potential (AP) waveform generated by a monolayer of human cardiomyocytes beating synchronously, thus assessing the contribution of several ion channels on the overall drug effect. This novel tool provides arrhythmogenic sensitizing by light-induced pacing in combination with non-invasive, all-optical measurements of cardiomyocyte APs and will improve assessment of drug-induced electrophysiological aberrancies. With the help of patch clamp electrophysiology measurements, we aimed to investigate whether the optogenetic modifications alter human cardiomyocytes' electrophysiology and how well the optogenetic analyses perform against this gold standard. Patch clamp electrophysiology measurements of non-transduced stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes compared to cells expressing the commercially available optogenetic constructs Optopatch and CaViar revealed no significant changes in action potential duration (APD) parameters. Thus, inserting the optogenetic constructs into cardiomyocytes does not significantly affect the cardiomyocyte's electrophysiological properties. When comparing the two methods against each other (patch clamp vs. optogenetic imaging) we found no significant differences in APD parameters for the Optopatch transduced cells, whereas the CaViar transduced cells exhibited modest increases in APD-values measured with optogenetic imaging. Thus, to broaden the screen, we combined optogenetic measurements of membrane potential and calcium transients with contractile motion measured by video motion tracking. Furthermore, to assess how optogenetic measurements can predict changes in membrane potential, or early afterdepolarizations (EADs), cells were exposed to cumulating doses of E-4031, a hERG potassium channel blocker, and drug effects were measured at both spontaneous and paced beating

  1. Evaluation of Optogenetic Electrophysiology Tools in Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Susann; Ojala, Elina A.; Nordström, Tommy; Ahola, Antti; Liljeström, Mikko; Hyttinen, Jari; Kankuri, Esko; Mervaala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Current cardiac drug safety assessments focus on hERG channel block and QT prolongation for evaluating arrhythmic risks, whereas the optogenetic approach focuses on the action potential (AP) waveform generated by a monolayer of human cardiomyocytes beating synchronously, thus assessing the contribution of several ion channels on the overall drug effect. This novel tool provides arrhythmogenic sensitizing by light-induced pacing in combination with non-invasive, all-optical measurements of cardiomyocyte APs and will improve assessment of drug-induced electrophysiological aberrancies. With the help of patch clamp electrophysiology measurements, we aimed to investigate whether the optogenetic modifications alter human cardiomyocytes' electrophysiology and how well the optogenetic analyses perform against this gold standard. Patch clamp electrophysiology measurements of non-transduced stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes compared to cells expressing the commercially available optogenetic constructs Optopatch and CaViar revealed no significant changes in action potential duration (APD) parameters. Thus, inserting the optogenetic constructs into cardiomyocytes does not significantly affect the cardiomyocyte's electrophysiological properties. When comparing the two methods against each other (patch clamp vs. optogenetic imaging) we found no significant differences in APD parameters for the Optopatch transduced cells, whereas the CaViar transduced cells exhibited modest increases in APD-values measured with optogenetic imaging. Thus, to broaden the screen, we combined optogenetic measurements of membrane potential and calcium transients with contractile motion measured by video motion tracking. Furthermore, to assess how optogenetic measurements can predict changes in membrane potential, or early afterdepolarizations (EADs), cells were exposed to cumulating doses of E-4031, a hERG potassium channel blocker, and drug effects were measured at both spontaneous and paced beating

  2. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  3. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework"…

  4. Waterford Early Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  5. Early College High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  6. Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    In five sections, this paper explores dimensions of early childhood education: schooling generally construed as nonparental instruction in knowledge, values, and skills. Section 1 looks at some of the factors which have contributed to the rapid growth of early childhood education in modern times. Section 2 briefly highlights the contributions of…

  7. Rethinking Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Rethinking Early Childhood Education" is alive with the conviction that teaching young children involves values and vision. This anthology collects inspiring stories about social justice teaching with young children. Included here is outstanding writing from childcare teachers, early-grade public school teachers, scholars, and parents.…

  8. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  9. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... known pregnancies. What causes early pregnancy loss? About one half of cases of early pregnancy loss are caused by a ... do not show any signs of an infection, one option is to wait and let the ... may take longer in some cases. Another option is to take medication that helps ...

  10. Rethinking Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) says in its current policy paper that, for high-quality early education to exist outside of tiny islands across the country, the following must be addressed: (1) teacher preparation; (2) ongoing professional learning; and (3) disparity in early education teacher pay. To achieve…

  11. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  12. Supporting Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2014-02-03

    House - 06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Early Learning Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2009-10-29

    House - 12/08/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  15. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  16. Early Learning Alignment Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Altmire, Jason [D-PA-4

    2010-09-29

    House - 11/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Colorado Early Childhood Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Planning and Evaluation Unit.

    The Colorado State Board of Education allocated Title IV-V funds in 1975 for a study of the status of early childhood education in Colorado. The purposes of the study were to: (1) gather data relevant to early childhood education on the status of all children from birth through age 5; (2) identify needs of children of this age within the state;…

  18. Ranolazine improves abnormal repolarization and contraction in left ventricular myocytes of dogs with heart failure by inhibiting late sodium current

    PubMed Central

    Undrovinas, Albertas I.; Belardinelli, Luiz; Undrovinas, Nidas A.; Sabbah, Hani N.

    2005-01-01

    Background Ventricular repolarization and contractile function are frequently abnormal in ventricular myocytes from human failing hearts as well as canine hearts with experimentally induced heart failure (HF). These abnormalities have been attributed to dysfunction involving various steps of the excitation-contraction coupling process, leading to impaired intracellular sodium and calcium homeostasis. We previously reported that the slow inactivating component of the Na+ current (late INa) is augmented in myocytes from failing hearts, and this appears to play a significant role in abnormal ventricular myocytes repolarization and function. We tested the effect of ranolazine, a novel drug being developed to treat angina, on 1) action potential duration (APD), 2) peak transient and late INa (INaT and INaL respectively), 3) early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and 4) twitch contraction (TC) including aftercontractions and contracture. Methods: Myocytes were isolated from the left ventricle of normal dogs and of dogs with chronic HF caused by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. INaT and INaL were recorded using conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. APs were recorded using the β-escin perforated patch-clamp configuration at frequencies of 0.25 and 0.5 Hz. TCs were recorded using an edge movement detector at stimulation frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 Hz. Results Ranolazine significantly (p < 0.05) and reversibly shortened the APD of myocytes stimulated at either 0.5 or 0.25 Hz in a concentration-dependent manner. At a stimulation frequency of 0.5 Hz, 5, 10 and 20 μM ranolazine shortened the APD90 (APD measured at 90% repolarization) from 516 ± 51 to 304 ± 22, 212 ± 34 and 160 ± 11 ms, respectively, and markedly decreased beat-to-beat variability of APD90, EADs and dispersion of APDs. Ranolazine preferentially blocked INaL relative to INaT in a state-dependent manner; with a ~ 38-fold greater potency against INaL to produce tonic block

  19. Do defects in ion channel glycosylation set the stage for lethal cardiac arrhythmias?

    PubMed

    Fozzard, Harry A; Kyle, John W

    2002-04-30

    Many ion channels are modified by the addition of carbohydrate residues. Fozzard and Kyle discuss evidence that sialic acid residues on glycosylated cardiac sodium and potassium channels may be important for preventing early after-depolarizations that can result in cardiac arrhythmias.

  20. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  1. MicroRNA-146b-5p Identified in Porcine Liver Donation Model is Associated with Early Allograft Dysfunction in Human Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheukfai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Maogen; Ju, Weiqiang; Wu, Linwei; Han, Ming; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongping; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor transplant outcome was observed in donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD), since the donor organs suffered both cytokine storm of brain death and warm ischemia injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising disease biomarkers, so we sought to establish a miRNA signature of porcine DBCD and verify the findings in human liver transplantation. Material/Methods MiRNA expression was determined with miRNA sequencing in 3 types of the porcine model of organ donation, including donation after brain death (DBD) group, donation after circulatory death (DCD) group, and DBCD group. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal the potential regulatory behavior of target miRNA. Human liver graft biopsy samples after reperfusion detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to verify the expression of target miRNA. Results We compared miRNA expression profiles of the 3 donation types. The porcine liver graft miR-146b was significantly increased and selected in the DBCD group versus in the DBD and DCD groups. The donor liver expression of human miR-146b-5p, which is homologous to porcine miR-146b, was further examined in 42 cases of human liver transplantations. High expression of miR-146b-5p successfully predicted the post-transplant early allograft dysfunction (EAD) with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.759 (P=0.004). Conclusions Our results revealed the miRNA signature of DBCD liver grafts for the first time. The miR-146b-5p may have important clinical implications for monitoring liver graft function and predicating transplant outcomes. PMID:29227984

  2. Early cosmology constrained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Licia; Bellini, Emilio; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-04-01

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter ΩMR < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < Neff < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is rs = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to rs = 150 ± 5 Mpc.

  3. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  4. [Early flat colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Castelletto, R H; Chiarenza, C; Ottino, A; Garay, M L

    1991-01-01

    We report three cases of flat early colorectal carcinoma which were detected during the examination of 51 surgical specimens of colorectal resection. Two of them were endoscopically diagnosed, but the smallest one was not seen in the luminal instrumental examination. From the bibliographic analysis and our own experience we deduce the importance of flat lesions in the development of early colorectal carcinoma, either originated from pre-existent adenoma or de novo. Flat variants of adenoma, and presumably flush or depressed ones, must be considered as important factors in the early sequence adenoma-cancer. An appropriate endoscopic equipment with employment of additional staining techniques (such as carmine indigo and methylene blue) and the correct investigation during inflation-deflation procedures facilitates the identification of small lesions, their eradication and prevention from advanced forms of colorectal carcinoma.

  5. In vivo intratumoral Epstein-Barr virus replication is associated with XBP1 activation and early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders with prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Rovira, Jordina; Martinez, Daniel; Valera, Alexandra; Garcia-Herrera, Adriana; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sole, Carla; Roue, Gael; Colomer, Dolors; Gonzalvo, Elena; Ribera-Cortada, Imma; Araya, Monica; Lloreta, Josep; Colomo, Luis; Campo, Elias; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Martinez, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are life-threatening complications following hematopoietic or solid organ transplantation. They represent a spectrum of mostly EBV-driven lymphoplasmacytic proliferations. While the oncogenic effect of EBV is related to latent infection, lytic infection also has a role in lymphomagenesis. In vitro, EBV replication is linked to plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation, although this phenomenon has never been addressed in vivo. We analyzed for the first time latent and lytic intratumoral EBV infection in a series of 35 adult patients with a diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (26M/9F, median age 54 years). A complete EBV study was performed including the analysis of the latent EBER, latent membrane protein-11, and EBV nuclear antigens as well as the immediate-early BZLF1/ZEBRA and early BMRF1/EADE31 lytic genes. XBP1 activation was assessed by nuclear protein expression. EBV infection was observed in 28 (80%) cases being latency II and III the most frequently observed 22 (79%). Intratumoral EBV replication was detected in 17 (60%) cases. Among these, XBP1 activation was observed in 11/12 evaluable cases associated with strong cytoplasmic immunoglobulin expression consistent with plasma cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the combination of latency III infection and EBV replication identified a high-risk subgroup of patients with significantly shorter survival (overall survival at 1 year 18% vs 48%) and early-onset (median of 7 vs 26 months) post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Moreover, these patients appear to be more heavily immunosuppressed, so they exhibit lower rates of rejection and graft vs host disease but higher rates of cytomegalovirus reactivation. In conclusion, EBV replication is associated with plasma cell differentiation and XBP1 activation with prognostic implications. Both latency III and lytic EBV infection are related to aggressive and early-onset post

  6. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  7. Early College Entrance in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2015-01-01

    Early college entry is an educational intervention that is being increasingly used in Australia. Following a review of the current Australian literature on early college entry, an overview is provided of the characteristics of, and the procedures associated with, one formal Australian early college entry program (the Early Admission for…

  8. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  9. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  10. Early Screening Inventory (ESI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welge-Crow, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Early Screening Inventory is designed to identify English- or Spanish-speaking children, ages 4-6, who may need special education services. The instrument measures the ability to acquire new skills in the areas of visual-motor/adaptive, language/cognition, and gross-motor/body-awareness. This paper describes administration, summation of data,…

  11. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  12. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  13. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.

  14. Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  15. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.

  16. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  17. Creativity: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  18. Early malignant syphilis*

    PubMed Central

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  19. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  20. Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocate, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This special theme issue of the journal "The Advocate," offers articles on early interventions for preschoolers with special needs, including three articles in Spanish. Contents include: "Providing An Orientation for Life" (Galen D. Kirkland); "AFC Fights Cuts in Education at 'Speak Out' Rally" (Nadine Renazile);…

  1. Early Humour Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Akhtar, Nameera

    2012-01-01

    The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds' humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their…

  2. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  3. Early Childhood Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kathy; Zimanyi, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Recognizing the need to identify the level, nature, and impact of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs on children and their families, this theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" seeks to complement and further the international efforts at collecting information on ECCD for use at national and international levels.…

  4. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  5. Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J.H.

    2016-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also contribute to the later development of clinical symptoms through alterations in the child’s experience of his or her environment. By age 2, developmental precursors of autism symptoms can be used to diagnose children reliably, and by age 3, the diagnosis is thought to be relatively stable. The downward extension of the autism diagnosis poses important questions for therapists in designing interventions that are applicable for infants who demonstrate early risk factors. We review current knowledge of the early signs of ASD in the infancy period (0–12 months) and the manifestation of symptoms in toddlerhood (12– 36 months), noting the importance of considering the variability in onset and trajectory of ASD. Finally, we consider the implications of this emerging research for those who work or interact with young children, including the importance of early monitoring and the development and evaluation of age-appropriate interventions. PMID:28090148

  6. Early cosmology constrained

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Bellini, Emilio

    We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the ΛCDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter Ω{sub MR} < 0.006 and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species 2.3 < N {sub eff} < 3.2 when imposing flatness. Our constraintsmore » thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond ΛCDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way that does not depend on late-time Universe assumptions, but depends strongly on early-time physics and in particular on additional components that behave like radiation. We find that the standard ruler length determined in this way is r {sub s} = 147.4 ± 0.7 Mpc if the radiation and neutrino components are standard, but the uncertainty increases by an order of magnitude when non-standard dark radiation components are allowed, to r {sub s} = 150 ± 5 Mpc.« less

  7. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  8. Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries. PMID:22007218

  9. Early bioenergetic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Allen, John F.; Lane, Nick; Martin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Life is the harnessing of chemical energy in such a way that the energy-harnessing device makes a copy of itself. This paper outlines an energetically feasible path from a particular inorganic setting for the origin of life to the first free-living cells. The sources of energy available to early organic synthesis, early evolving systems and early cells stand in the foreground, as do the possible mechanisms of their conversion into harnessable chemical energy for synthetic reactions. With regard to the possible temporal sequence of events, we focus on: (i) alkaline hydrothermal vents as the far-from-equilibrium setting, (ii) the Wood–Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway as the route that could have underpinned carbon assimilation for these processes, (iii) biochemical divergence, within the naturally formed inorganic compartments at a hydrothermal mound, of geochemically confined replicating entities with a complexity below that of free-living prokaryotes, and (iv) acetogenesis and methanogenesis as the ancestral forms of carbon and energy metabolism in the first free-living ancestors of the eubacteria and archaebacteria, respectively. In terms of the main evolutionary transitions in early bioenergetic evolution, we focus on: (i) thioester-dependent substrate-level phosphorylations, (ii) harnessing of naturally existing proton gradients at the vent–ocean interface via the ATP synthase, (iii) harnessing of Na+ gradients generated by H+/Na+ antiporters, (iv) flavin-based bifurcation-dependent gradient generation, and finally (v) quinone-based (and Q-cycle-dependent) proton gradient generation. Of those five transitions, the first four are posited to have taken place at the vent. Ultimately, all of these bioenergetic processes depend, even today, upon CO2 reduction with low-potential ferredoxin (Fd), generated either chemosynthetically or photosynthetically, suggesting a reaction of the type ‘reduced iron → reduced carbon’ at the beginning of bioenergetic evolution

  10. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  11. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  13. Guideline for Early Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ) as a early mental health intervention, following mass violence and disasters, is a treatment of choice over other...village. Military operations take place under the eye of the world and are surrounded by high political attention. International missions far exceed...consistently reduce risks of later post-traumatic stress disorder or related adjustment difficulties. • There is no evidence that eye movement

  14. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8 Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  15. Early intervention for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  16. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  17. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  18. Why Recruits Separate Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  19. Early Childhood Home Visiting.

    PubMed

    Duffee, James H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Kuo, Alice A; Legano, Lori A; Earls, Marian F

    2017-09-01

    High-quality home-visiting services for infants and young children can improve family relationships, advance school readiness, reduce child maltreatment, improve maternal-infant health outcomes, and increase family economic self-sufficiency. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports unwavering federal funding of state home-visiting initiatives, the expansion of evidence-based programs, and a robust, coordinated national evaluation designed to confirm best practices and cost-efficiency. Community home visiting is most effective as a component of a comprehensive early childhood system that actively includes and enhances a family-centered medical home. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Treat early, treat appropriately.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Andreas; Rutten, Guy; Abraira, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is shifting from secondary specialist centres to the primary care setting. However, for this shift to be sustainable and successful, primary care physicians (PCPs) must effectively provide aspects of diabetes care traditionally supplied by specialists. In particular, the early and appropriate use of insulin in type 2 diabetes will increasingly become the responsibility of PCPs. This review examines how patients with type 2 diabetes are currently managed across several European countries, and explores the evidence around insulin use in type 2 diabetes and the implications for primary care. 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  2. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  3. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  4. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  5. Early Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Neil John

    2015-11-01

    Skin psoriasis is a major risk factor for the development of psoriatic arthritis. Recent studies have shown that delayed diagnosis is associated with long-term adverse outcomes. Screening questionnaires have revealed a potential burden of undiagnosed disease. Lifestyle factors and genetic and soluble biomarkers have come under scrutiny as risk factors. Imaging modalities may have an important role in detecting early change. With more effective treatments, it may be possible to prevent significant joint damage and associated disability. However, the precise nature of accurate and cost-effective screening strategies remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  7. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  8. Value-Added Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Elected state leaders often prioritize economic prosperity and competitiveness, which provides an important opportunity too rarely taken for investing in early education. In 2003, Pennsylvania recognized the connection between early education and the economy, and smartly embraced early learning as part of its economic prosperity and…

  9. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  10. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  11. Early Attrition among Suicidal Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgenor, P. W. G.; Meehan, V.; Moore, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the level of suicidal ideation in early attrition clients and their reasons for the early termination of their therapy. The cross-sectional design involved early attrition clients (C[subscript A]) who withdrew from therapy before their second session (n = 61), and continuing clients who (C[subscript C]) progressed…

  12. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  13. Early diagnosis in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Garway-Heath, David F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for the clinical application of vision function tests and imaging devices to identify early glaucoma, and sets out a scheme for the appropriate use and interpretation of test results in screening/case-finding and clinic settings. In early glaucoma, signs may be equivocal and the diagnosis is often uncertain. Either structural damage or vision function loss may be the first sign of glaucoma; neither one is consistently apparent before the other. Quantitative tests of visual function and measurements of optic-nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer anatomy are useful to either raise or lower the probability that glaucoma is present. The posttest probability for glaucoma may be calculated from the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio of the diagnostic criterion, and the output of several diagnostic devices may be combined to achieve a final probability. However, clinicians need to understand how these diagnostic devices make their measurements, so that the validity of each test result can be adequately assessed. Only then should the result be used, together with the patient history and clinical examination, to derive a diagnosis.

  14. Early Earth slab stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrusta, R.; Van Hunen, J.

    2016-12-01

    At present day, the Earth's mantle exhibits a combination of stagnant and penetrating slabs within the transition zone, indicating a intermittent convection mode between layered and whole-mantle convection. Isoviscous thermal convection calculations show that in a hotter Earth, the natural mode of convection was dominated by double-layered convection, which may imply that slabs were more prone to stagnate in the transition zone. Today, slab penetration is to a large extent controlled by trench mobility for a plausible range of lower mantle viscosity and Clapeyron slope of the mantle phase transitions. Trench mobility is, in turn, governed by slab strength and density and upper plate forcing. In this study, we systematically investigate the slab-transition zone internation in the Early Earth, using 2D self-consistent numerical subduction models. Early Earth's higher mantle temperature facilitates decoupling between the plates and the underlying asthenosphere, and may result in slab sinking almost without trench retreat. Such behaviour together with a low resistance of a weak lower mantle may allow slabs to penetrate. The ability of slab to sink into the lower mantle throughout Earth's history may have important implications for Earth's evolution: it would provide efficient mass and heat flux through the transition zone therefore provide an efficient way to cool and mix the Earth's mantle.

  15. [In-patient (early) rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, Claus-W; Lautenschläger, Sindy

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to develop the financing and hospital provision of interventions for early rehabilitation within the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. In addition to a range of partially rehabilitative complex interventions, the system recognizes three main forms of early rehabilitative interventions: geriatric, neurological/neurosurgical, and interdisciplinary and others. In this article, the appropriate definitions and cost-effectiveness of these procedures are analyzed and compared. The early rehabilitative interventions are characterized by constant cooperation in the therapeutic team, especially neurological early rehabilitation through the incorporation of nursing as a therapeutic profession. Whereas geriatric and neurological early rehabilitation are reflected in the DRG system, the former provided in many general hospitals and the latter mainly in specialized institutions, interdisciplinary early rehabilitation has only occasionally been represented in the DRG system so far. If all acute in-patients who require early rehabilitation should receive such an intervention, an additional fee must be implemented for this this interdisciplinary service.

  16. Evaluate, Analyze, Describe (EAD): Confronting Underlying Issues of Racism and Other Prejudices for Effective Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010). Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing…

  17. 77 FR 5998 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...-1091; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-037-AD; Amendment 39-16916; AD 2012-01-04] RIN 2120-AA64... contains the NPRM 2011-1091 (76 FR 65995, October 25, 2011), the regulatory evaluation, any comments.... Docket No. FAA-2011-1091; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-037-AD. (a) Effective Date This airworthiness...

  18. Helium High Pressure Tanks at EADS Space Transportation New Technology with Thermoplastic Liner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    l’art actuel pour l’application d’un liner thermoplastique sur le réservoir hélium 300 litres pour le lanceur ARIANE 5, réservoir actuellement réalisé à...L à liner thermoplastique ont complètement démontré le respect aux exigences majeures demandées pour le lanceur A5. Ces travaux finalisent la phase

  19. 78 FR 68688 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... fuel transfer system. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct damage to certain fuel booster pumps... problem with the fuel transfer system. The results of the subsequent investigation revealed damage on the... was prompted by a report of an in-flight problem with the fuel transfer system. We are issuing this AD...

  20. 78 FR 73742 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... received by the closing date and may amend this proposed AD based on those comments. We will post all... provide. We will also post a report summarizing each substantive verbal contact we receive about this... for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement with the State of Design...

  1. "Different Strokes for Different Folks": Presenting EAD in Three UK Online Catalogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Amanda; Stockting, Bill; Higgins, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses three different online services providing federated access to finding aids relating to archives found in a number of repositories: the Archives Hub, Access to Archives (A2A) and Navigational Aids for the History of Science, Technology and the Environment (NAHSTE). While the scale of the services is very different, a…

  2. From to EAd>: Nicknames, Play and Identity on Internet Relay Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechar-Israeli, Haya

    1995-01-01

    Examines nicknames of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) users, whose identities are condensed into a single line which states their nicknames, the electronic address, and a slogan or the users' real names. Demonstrates that although people play games with their nicknames, the nicknames they choose are an inherent part of their Net identity and their…

  3. 75 FR 68185 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Incorporation by reference, Safety... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2010...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We...

  4. EAD in the Department of Special Collections and Western Manuscripts at the Bodleian Library, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The strategy for conversion to electronic cataloguing of western manuscripts in the Bodleian Library has been to a large extent determined by circumstances--the size and variety of the manuscript collections, the existence of detailed published catalogues for the earlier collections, the availability of funds for specific purposes, and, above all,…

  5. Environmental Affective Dispositions Scale (EADS): The Study of Validity and Reliability and Adaptation to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettahlioglu, Pinar; Timur, Serkan; Timur, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a research under circumstances of Turkey about the validity and reliability of the Affective Tendencies towards Environmental Scale prepared by Yavetz, Goldman and Pe'er (2009). The translation of this scale to Turkish was done by the researchers and language specialists. And then, the scale was evaluated by the…

  6. 76 FR 65995 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed... Customer Services (ICS), Technical Services, Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone... not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small...

  7. 78 FR 49235 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed..., 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone +34 91 585 55 84; fax +34 91 585 55 05; email [email protected] economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small entities under the criteria of the...

  8. 77 FR 64053 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments... Customer Services (ICS), Technical Services, Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone... not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small...

  9. 75 FR 37339 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone +34 91 585 55 84; fax +34 91 585 55 05; e... the beginning of your comments. We specifically invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments received by the closing...

  10. Ongoing Capabilities and Developments of Re-Entry Plasma Ground Tests at EADS-ASTRIUM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jullien, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    During re-entry, spacecrafts are subjected to extreme thermal loads. On mars, they may go through dust storms. These external heat loads are leading the design of re-entry vehicles or are affecting it for spacecraft facing solid propellant jet stream. Sizing the Thermal Protection System require a good knowledge of such solicitations and means to model and reproduce them on earth. Through its work on European projects, ASTRIUM has developed the full range of competences to deal with such issues. For instance, we have designed and tested the heat-shield of the Huygens probe which landed on Titan. In particular, our plasma generators aim to reproduce a wide variety of re-entry conditions. Heat loads are generated by the huge speed of the probes. Such conditions cannot be fully reproduced. Ground tests focus on reproducing local aerothermal loads by using slower but hotter flows. Our inductive plasma torch enables to test little samples at low TRL. Amongst the arc-jets, one was design to test architecture design of ISS crew return system and others fit more severe re-entry such as sample returns or Venus re-entry. The last developments aimed in testing samples in seeded flows. First step was to design and test the seeding device. Special diagnostics characterizing the resulting flow enabled us to fit it to the requirements.

  11. AWBATTM: Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Victoria B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Methods: Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBATTM-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBATTM-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Results: Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, σ =1.95, with a range of 8–15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, σ =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, σ =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, σ =2.48, with a range of 5–13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, σ =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, σ =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Discussion: Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control. PMID:20361005

  12. AWBAT: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Victoria B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBAT-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBAT-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, sigma =1.95, with a range of 8-15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, sigma =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, sigma =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, sigma =2.48, with a range of 5-13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, sigma =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, sigma =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control.

  13. Human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes detect drug-mediated changes in action potentials and ion currents.

    PubMed

    Gibson, John K; Yue, Yimei; Bronson, Jared; Palmer, Cassie; Numann, Randy

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that proarrhythmia assessment for safety pharmacology testing includes the use of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) to detect drug-induced changes in cardiac electrophysiology. This study measured the actions of diverse agents on action potentials (AP) and ion currents recorded from hiPSC-CM. During AP experiments, the hiPSC-CM were paced at 1Hz during a baseline period, and when increasing concentrations of test compound were administered at 4-minute intervals. AP parameters, including duration (APD60 and APD90), resting membrane potential, rate of rise, and amplitude, were measured throughout the entire experiment. Voltage clamp experiments with E-4031 and nifedipine were similarly conducted. E-4031 produced a dose-dependent prolongation of cardiac action potential and blocked the hERG/IKr current with an IC50 of 17nM. At 3nM, dofetilide significantly increased APD90. Astemizole significantly increased APD60 and APD90 at 30nM. Terfenadine significantly increased APD90 at concentrations greater than 10nM. Fexofenadine, a metabolite of terfenadine, did not produce any electrophysiologic changes in cardiac action potentials. Flecainide produced a dose-dependent prolongation of the cardiac action potential at 1 and 3μM. Acute exposure to nifedipine significantly decreased APD60 and APD90 and produced a dose-dependent block of calcium current with an IC50 of 0.039μM. Verapamil first shortened APD60 and APD90 in a dose-dependent manner, until a compensating increase in APD90, presumably via hERG blockade, was observed at 1 and 3μM. Following a chronic exposure (20-24h) to clinically relevant levels of pentamidine, a significant increase in action potential duration was accompanied by early afterdepolarizations (EADs). These experiments show the ability of AP measured from hiPSC-CM to record the interactions of various ion channels via AP recording and avoid the limitations of using several single ion channel assays in

  14. Consequences of early childbearing.

    PubMed

    Monroy De Velasco, A

    1982-12-01

    By 2000, developing countries will have an estimated 1 billion adolescents who are physically old enough to reproduce themselves but far too young to be responsible, healthy parents of healthy children. Governments must become involved in the issues surrounding adolescent pregnancy and both custom and the laws must change to reflect the needs of young people. The consequences of early childbearing are felt by society as well as the families directly affected. The incidence of births to very young women, both married and unmarried is growing; each year approximately 13 million children are born to young mothers. The percentage of live births to mothers under the age of 20 ranges from 20% in some African and Caribbean countries, to 10-15% in many Latin American countries, 5-10% in Asia, and 1% in Japan. Increased out-of-wedlock adolescent pregnancy is due to many factors: earlier sexual maturity from better childhood health and nutrition, a trend toward later marriage, increased opportunity for opposite sex interaction in schools and in the labor force, and rapid urbanization which weakens traditional family structures and social and cultural controls. Early childbirth is especially dangerous for adolescents and their infants. Compared to women between the ages of 20-35, pregnant women under 20 are at a greater risk for death and disease including bleeding during pregnancy, toxemia, hemorrhage, prolonged and difficult labor, severe anemia, and disability. Life-long social and economic disadvantages may be a consequence of teenage birth. Educational and career opportunities may be limited, as may be opportunities for marriage. Teen mothers tend to have larger completed family sizes, shorter birth intervals resulting in both poorer health status for the family, and a more severe level of poverty. The children also suffer; teens mothers have a higher incidence of low birth weight infants which is associated with birth injuries, serious childhood illness, and mental and

  15. The Early Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  16. Biosignatures of early earths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of NASA's Origins Program is to find habitable planets around other stars and determine which might harbor life. Determining whether or not an extrasolar planet harbors life requires an understanding of what spectral features (i.e., biosignatures) might result from life's presence. Consideration of potential biosignatures has tended to focus on spectral features of gases in Earth's modern atmosphere, particularly ozone, the photolytic product of biogenically produced molecular oxygen. But life existed on Earth for about 1(1/2) billion years before the buildup of atmospheric oxygen. Inferred characteristics of Earth's earliest biosphere and studies of modern microbial ecosystems that share some of those characteristics suggest that organosulfur compounds, particularly methanethiol (CH(3)SH, the sulfur analog of methanol), may have been biogenic products on early Earth. Similar production could take place on extrasolar Earth-like planets whose biota share functional chemical characteristics with Earth life. Since methanethiol and related organosulfur compounds (as well as carbon dioxide) absorb at wavelengths near or overlapping the 9.6-microm band of ozone, there is potential ambiguity in interpreting a feature around this wavelength in an extrasolar planet spectrum.

  17. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  18. Biosignatures of early earths.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Carl B

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of NASA's Origins Program is to find habitable planets around other stars and determine which might harbor life. Determining whether or not an extrasolar planet harbors life requires an understanding of what spectral features (i.e., biosignatures) might result from life's presence. Consideration of potential biosignatures has tended to focus on spectral features of gases in Earth's modern atmosphere, particularly ozone, the photolytic product of biogenically produced molecular oxygen. But life existed on Earth for about 1(1/2) billion years before the buildup of atmospheric oxygen. Inferred characteristics of Earth's earliest biosphere and studies of modern microbial ecosystems that share some of those characteristics suggest that organosulfur compounds, particularly methanethiol (CH(3)SH, the sulfur analog of methanol), may have been biogenic products on early Earth. Similar production could take place on extrasolar Earth-like planets whose biota share functional chemical characteristics with Earth life. Since methanethiol and related organosulfur compounds (as well as carbon dioxide) absorb at wavelengths near or overlapping the 9.6-microm band of ozone, there is potential ambiguity in interpreting a feature around this wavelength in an extrasolar planet spectrum.

  19. Early Childhood Diplomacy: Policy Planning for Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…

  20. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  1. Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.

    Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…

  2. Promoting Health in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…

  3. Invest in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Reid, Jeanne L.

    2009-01-01

    The history of American early education is one of changing roles and goals. As federal engagement in early childhood has shifted in response to social, political, and economic needs, few policy efforts have focused on long-term planning or coordination. The authors identify the appropriate roles of federal, state, and local governments and make 13…

  4. Oaklahoma: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Oklahoma Early Childhood Program uses public and private funds to enhance and expand high quality early care and education opportunities for children birth through age 3. The George Kaiser Family Foundation initiated the pilot in 2006 by matching state general revenue with private donations. Since that time, other private funders and providers…

  5. Biological aspects of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Luyten, Frank P; Facchini, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Early OA primarily affects articular cartilage and involves the entire joint, including the subchondral bone, synovial membrane, menisci and periarticular structures. The aim of this review is to highlight the molecular basis and histopathological features of early OA. Selective review of literature. Risk factors for developing early OA include, but are not limited to, a genetic predisposition, mechanical factors such as axial malalignment, and aging. In early OA, the articular cartilage surface is progressively becoming discontinuous, showing fibrillation and vertical fissures that extend not deeper than into the mid-zone of the articular cartilage, reflective of OARSI grades 1.0-3.0. Early changes in the subchondral bone comprise a progressive increase in subchondral plate and subarticular spongiosa thickness. Early OA affects not only the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone but also other structures of the joint, such as the menisci, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule, ligaments, muscles and the infrapatellar fat pad. Genetic markers or marker combinations may become useful in the future to identify early OA and patients at risk. The high socioeconomic impact of OA suggests that a better insight into the mechanisms of early OA may be a key to develop more targeted reconstructive therapies at this first stage of the disease. Systematic review, Level II.

  6. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... intervention service providers and other providers of services to young children), students, technical... receive all written submissions of comments on the four early learning topics on or before 5 p.m...

  7. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  8. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  10. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  11. Arizona Early Childhood Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    In an effort to provide a sound basis for educational accountability for preschool programs, the Arizona Early Childhood Education (ECE) Standards were developed as a framework for literacy-based programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and to provide parents with a basic understanding of indicators of early learning. These standards, to be adopted by…

  12. Unlocking the Future: Early Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This newsletter of the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL)contains a collection of articles which discuss various aspects of early literacy. Articles in the newsletter are: "Introduction: Reading Instruction, a Key to the Future"; "Ensuring Early Literacy through Coherent Instruction" (Leslie Blair);…

  13. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  14. Early osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Kon, Elizaveta; Condello, Vincenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Steinwachs, Matthias; Seil, Romain; Berruto, Massimo; Engebretsen, Lars; Filardo, Giuseppe; Angele, Peter

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness on the importance in identifying early phases of the degenerative processes in knee osteoarthritis (OA), the crucial period of the disease when there might still be the possibility to initiate treatments preventing its progression. Early OA may show a diffuse and ill-defined involvement, but also originate in the cartilage surrounding a focal lesion, thus necessitating a separate assessment of these two entities. Early OA can be considered to include a maximal involvement of 50 % of the cartilage thickness based on the macroscopic ICRS classification, reflecting an OARSI grade 4. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated review of the current status of the diagnosis and definition of early knee OA, including the clinical, radiographical, histological, MRI, and arthroscopic definitions and biomarkers. Based on current evidence, practical classification criteria are presented. As new insights and technologies become available, they will further evolve to better define and treat early knee OA.

  15. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  16. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    David Storm; Govanon Nongbri; Steve Decanio

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase IImore » is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, Inc., GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I, a design basis for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis section was developed based on limited experience with the specified feed gas and operating conditions. The objective of this Task in Phase II RD&T work was to confirm the performance of the F-T reactor at the set design conditions. Although much of the research, development, and testing work were done by TES outside of this project, several

  18. Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael; Song, Mengli; Knudson, Joel; Haxton, Clarisse; Zeiser, Kristina; Hoshen, Gur; Ford, Jennifer; Stephan, Jennifer; Keating, Kaeli; Cassidy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in…

  19. Implementing Obstetric Early Warning Systems.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander M; Campbell, Mary L; Kline, Carolyn R; Wiesner, Suzanne; D'Alton, Mary E; Shields, Laurence E

    2018-04-01

    Severe maternal morbidity and mortality are often preventable and obstetric early warning systems that alert care providers of potential impending critical illness may improve maternal safety. While literature on outcomes and test characteristics of maternal early warning systems is evolving, there is limited guidance on implementation. Given current interest in early warning systems and their potential role in care, the 2017 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Annual Meeting dedicated a session to exploring early warning implementation across a wide range of hospital settings. This manuscript reports on key points from this session. While implementation experiences varied based on factors specific to individual sites, common themes relevant to all hospitals presenting were identified. Successful implementation of early warnings systems requires administrative and leadership support, dedication of resources, improved coordination between nurses, providers, and ancillary staff, optimization of information technology, effective education, evaluation of and change in hospital culture and practices, and support in provider decision-making. Evolving data on outcomes on early warning systems suggest that maternal risk may be reduced. To effectively reduce maternal, risk early warning systems that capture deterioration from a broad range of conditions may be required in addition to bundles tailored to specific conditions such as hemorrhage, thromboembolism, and hypertension.

  20. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  1. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    PubMed

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  2. Administrative Problems of Early Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Administrative problems that have been solved or accepted during eight years of early immersion programs are discussed including choosing locations, staffing, costs, logistics, and the need for suitable pupil progress reporting. (JMF)

  3. Depression at an Early Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the crisis associated with adolescent affective disorders and probes potential genetics, environmental, and physiological factors. Reviews case examples of depression, eating disorders, and suicide among youths. States clinical implications and advocates early diagnosis and treatment. (ML)

  4. Overview of Early Transfer Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To implement Congressionally mandated action, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance on the transfer of federal property contaminated with hazardous wastes, before cleanup completion. This eplains the early transfer process

  5. FAA Loran early implementation project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  6. Starting Early Starting Right Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Baldwin, Tammy [D-WI-2

    2009-12-16

    House - 02/23/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Rural Early Education Access Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hare, Phil [D-IL-17

    2009-03-26

    House - 05/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  9. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  10. Early presentation of primary glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Faguer, R; Tanguy, J-Y; Rousseau, A; Clavreul, A; Menei, P

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and neuroimaging findings of glioblastomas (GBM) at an early stage have rarely been described and those tumors are most probably under-diagnosed. Furthermore, their genetic alterations, to our knowledge, have never been previously reported. We report the clinical as well as neuroimaging findings of four early cases of patients with GBM. In our series, early stage GBM occurred at a mean age of 57 years. All patients had seizures as their first symptom. In all early stages, MRI showed a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted sequences and an enhancement on GdE-T1WI sequences. A hyperintense signal on diffusion sequences with a low ADC value was also found. These early observed occurrences of GBM developed rapidly and presented the MRI characteristics of classic GBM within a few weeks. The GBM size was multiplied by 32 in one month. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the de novo nature of these tumors, i.e. absence of mutant IDH1 R132H protein expression, which is a diagnostic marker of low-grade diffuse glioma and secondary GBM. A better knowledge of early GBM presentation would allow a more suitable management of the patients and may improve their prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural course of early COPD.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Kyungjoo; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Jee-Ae; Kim, Sang Hyun; Lee, Sang Haak; Park, Yong Bum; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Hwang, Yong Il

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the natural course of early COPD. The aim of this study was to observe the natural course of early COPD patients. We also aimed to analyze medical utilization and costs for early COPD during a 6-year period. Patients with early COPD were selected from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. We linked the KNHANES data of patients with early COPD to National Health Insurance data. A total of 2,397 patients were enrolled between 2007 and 2012. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) was 78.6%, and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) index value was 0.9. In total, 110 patients utilized health care for COPD in 2007, and this number increased to 179 in 2012. The total mean number of days used per person increased from 4.9 in 2007 to 7.8 in 2012. The total medical cost per person also increased from 248.8 US dollar (USD) in 2007 to 780.6 USD in 2013. A multiple linear regression revealed that age, lower body mass index, lower FEV 1 (%), and lower EQ-5D score were significantly associated with medical costs. Even in early COPD patients, some of them eventually progressed and utilized health care for COPD.

  12. [Autism: An early neurodevelopmental disorder].

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Brilhault, F

    2017-04-01

    With approximately 67 million individuals affected worldwide, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder (United Nations, 2011), with a prevalence estimated to be 1/100. In France ASD affects approximately 600,000 individuals (from childhood to adulthood, half of whom are also mentally retarded), who thus have a major handicap in communication and in adapting to daily life, which leads autism to be recognized as a national public health priority. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects several domains (i.e., socio-emotional, language, sensori-motor, executive functioning). These disorders are expressed early in life with an age of onset around 18 months. Despite evidence suggesting a strong genetic link with ASD, the genetic determinant remains unclear. The clinical picture is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviors (DSM-5, ICD-10). However, in addition to these two main dimensions there is significant comorbidity between ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or with genetic and medical conditions. One of the diagnostic features of ASD is its early emergence: symptoms must begin in early childhood for a diagnosis to be given. Due to brain plasticity, early interventions are essential to facilitate clinical improvement. Therefore, general practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect early signs of ASD and to guide both medical explorations and early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes currently available treatment options and treatment strategies, investigational treatments, and the importance of exercise for early Parkinson's disease. The available treatment options for early Parkinson's disease have changed little in the past decade and include carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors. However, we discuss changes in treatment strategies, including dosing and the use of combination therapy used in an attempt to reduce or delay the appearance of motor complications and other adverse events. We will also review several investigational treatments that have shown promise for the treatment of early Parkinson's disease, including a new extended release formulation of carbidopa/levodopa (IPX066), safinamide which inhibits MAO-B, dopamine uptake and glutamate and pardoprunox which is a 5HT-1A agonist and a partial dopamine agonist. Finally, we discuss recent studies focusing on exercise as an important component in the management of early Parkinson's disease. Advances in the management of early Parkinson's disease include evolving treatment strategies, new investigational treatments, and earlier implementation of various forms of exercise.

  14. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  15. [Early mobilization. Competencies, responsibilities, milestones].

    PubMed

    Nydahl, P; Dewes, M; Dubb, R; Filipovic, S; Hermes, C; Jüttner, F; Kaltwasser, A; Klarmann, S; Klas, K; Mende, H; Rothaug, O; Schuchhardt, D

    2016-03-01

    Early mobilization is an evident, interprofessional concept to improve the outcome of intensive care patients. It reduces psychocognitive deficits and delirium and attenuates a general deconditioning, including atrophy of the respiratory pump and skeletal muscles. In this regard the interdisciplinary approach of early mobilization, taking into account different levels of mobilization, appears to be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to explore opinions on collaboration and tasks between different professional groups. During the 25th Bremen Conference on Intensive Medicine and Nursing on 20 February 2015, a questionnaire survey was carried out among the 120 participants of the German Early Mobilization Network meeting. In all, 102 questionnaires were analyzed. Most participants reported on the interdisciplinarity of the approach, but none of the tasks and responsibilities concerning early mobilization can be assigned to a single professional group. The practical implementation of mobilizing orally intubated patients may require two registered nurses as well as a physical therapist. Implementation in daily practice seems to be heterogeneous. There is no consensus regarding collaboration, competencies, and responsibilities with respect to early mobilization of intensive care patients. The approach to date has been characterized by a lack of interprofessional communication, which may lead to an inefficient use of the broad and varied base of knowledge and experienceof the different professions.

  16. Early traumatic events in psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  18. Do Early Outs Work Out? Teacher Early Retirement Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herb R.; Repa, J. Theodore

    1993-01-01

    School districts offer teacher early retirement incentive plans (TERIPs) as an opportunity to hire less expensive teachers, reduce fringe benefits costs, and eliminate teaching positions. Discusses reasons for teachers to accept TERIP, and describes a computer model that allows school officials to calculate and compare costs incurred if an…

  19. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    PubMed

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  20. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  1. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  2. Early and late retirement exits.

    PubMed

    Brougham, Ruby R; Walsh, David A

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal needs fulfilled by job employment remain important in retirement. The expectation for personal need fulfillment for identity, growth, and relatedness shifts from work to retirement for those who intend to retire early. The results are discussed in terms of the need for greater study of the relationship between expectations of personal need fulfillment, worker self-concept, and retirement decisions.

  3. Early Planetary Differentiation: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    2006-01-01

    We currently have extensive data for four different terrestrial bodies of the inner solar system: Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the Eucrite Parent Body [EPB]. All formed early cores; but all(?) have mantles with elevated concentrations of highly sidero-phile elements, suggestive of the addition of a late "veneer". Two appear to have undergone extensive differentiation consistent with a global magma ocean. One appears to be inconsistent with a simple model of "low-pressure" chondritic differentiation. Thus, there seems to be no single, simple paradigm for understand-ing early differentiation.

  4. Choctaw Culture Early Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, William, Ed.; Reeves, Carolyn, Ed.; Skinner, Linda, Ed.

    An effort to better prepare Choctaw youngsters for kindergarten, the Choctaw Culture Early Education Program developed a resource of 58 activities adapted to meet the needs of Choctaw 3- and 4-year olds. The activities are divided into four sections pertaining to getting started, relating to five project publications (How the Flowers Came to Be,…

  5. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  6. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  7. Music Experiences in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andress, Barbara

    This book presents a program of music experiences for young children (3-5-year-olds) which focuses on an experiential discovery approach to music, rather than on imposing ideas and a repertoire on the child. Early sections of the book discuss the importance of the child-centered music program, its process and characteristics, and the role of the…

  8. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  9. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  10. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  11. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  12. Physical Education in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

  13. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  14. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  16. The Early Intervention Family Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanick, Roxane

    2008-01-01

    In late 2005, individuals from across the country traveled to attend the national Office of Special Education Conference on Early Childhood in Washington, DC. Connected by networking at the conference, a group of parents with children with special needs left committed to collaboratively formulate a plan to create a family-centered and…

  17. Early Lessons in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; And Others

    Restructuring schools has become a rallying cry among educators. It aims to create schools that are more centered on learner's needs for active, experiential, cooperative, and culturally connected learning opportunities supportive of individual talents and learning styles. This report is based on an early evaluation of the process of restructuring…

  18. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  19. The Early Study Abroad Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Phuong

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of South Korean students are going to an English-speaking country as teenagers to escape from the grueling, test-oriented Korean schools in hopes of gaining entry into American universities. American colleges and universities are starting to see more of these "early study abroad students," as they are called in South…

  20. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  1. Language in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazden, Courtney B., Ed.

    Eight articles about oral language education for preschool children are presented. They are: (1) a point of view on oral language education--"Suggestions from Studies of Early Language Acquisition,""Language Programs for Young Children: Notes from England and Wales," and "The Issue of Structure," by Courtney Cazden; (2) suggestions for curriculum…

  2. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    PubMed

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  3. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  4. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  5. Teaching Caregivers in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2017-01-01

    The overarching research aim of this study was to examine learning opportunities available for caregivers during early intervention sessions. Of specific interest were providers' purposeful (i.e., explicit) teaching behaviors and opportunities from which caregivers might learn incidentally. Relations between teaching behaviors, caregiver…

  6. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  7. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  8. An early Cambrian greenhouse climate.

    PubMed

    Hearing, Thomas W; Harvey, Thomas H P; Williams, Mark; Leng, Melanie J; Lamb, Angela L; Wilby, Philip R; Gabbott, Sarah E; Pohl, Alexandre; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2018-05-01

    The oceans of the early Cambrian (~541 to 509 million years ago) were the setting for a marked diversification of animal life. However, sea temperatures-a key component of the early Cambrian marine environment-remain unconstrained, in part because of a substantial time gap in the stable oxygen isotope (δ 18 O) record before the evolution of euconodonts. We show that previously overlooked sources of fossil biogenic phosphate have the potential to fill this gap. Pristine phosphatic microfossils from the Comley Limestones, UK, yield a robust δ 18 O signature, suggesting sea surface temperatures of 20° to 25°C at high southern paleolatitudes (~65°S to 70°S) between ~514 and 509 million years ago. These sea temperatures are consistent with the distribution of coeval evaporite and calcrete deposits, peak continental weathering rates, and also our climate model simulations for this interval. Our results support an early Cambrian greenhouse climate comparable to those of the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, offering a framework for exploring the interplay between biotic and environmental controls on Cambrian animal diversification.

  9. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  10. The Early Years: Integrating Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy; Nellor, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is such a common part of children's work in early childhood programs that teachers can simply look around the room to identify examples where students have engaged in engineering practices. This article presents a classroom activity that integrates engineering design by building on the everyday problems that young children encounter in…

  11. EARLY TRAINING PROJECT. INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAY, SUSAN W.; KLAUS, RUPERT A.

    THE EARLY TRAINING PROJECT ATTEMPTED TO IMPROVE THE INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING AND PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN THROUGH SPECIAL EXPERIENCES IN THE 15- OR 24-MONTHS PRECEDING FIRST GRADE AND IN THE FIRST YEAR OF SCHOOL. THE PROCEDURES OF THE PROJECT CONSISTED OF TWO TRAINING SEQUENCES. THE FIRST SEQUENCE INVOLVED TWO…

  12. The Climate of Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, Robin D.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the early martian climate is one of the major unanswered questions of planetary science. Key challenges remain, but a new wave of orbital and in situ observations and improvements in climate modeling have led to significant advances over the past decade. Multiple lines of geologic evidence now point to an episodically warm surface during the late Noachian and early Hesperian periods 3-4 Ga. The low solar flux received by Mars in its first billion years and inefficiency of plausible greenhouse gases such as CO2 mean that the steady-state early martian climate was likely cold. A denser CO2 atmosphere would have caused adiabatic cooling of the surface and hence migration of water ice to the higher-altitude equatorial and southern regions of the planet. Transient warming caused melting of snow and ice deposits and a temporarily active hydrological cycle, leading to erosion of the valley networks and other fluvial features. Precise details of the warming mechanisms remain unclear, but impacts, volcanism, and orbital forcing all likely played an important role. The lack of evidence for glaciation across much of Mars's ancient terrain suggests the late Noachian surface water inventory was not sufficient to sustain a northern ocean. Though mainly inhospitable on the surface, early Mars may nonetheless have presented significant opportunities for the development of microbial life.

  13. Curriculum in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    At a seminar on Compensatory Early Childhood Education held in Jerusalem in the fall of 1972 the idea of compensatory education and its viability in cross cultural terms was examined in conjunction with a critical review of the whole notion of social and cultural disadvantage. Twenty-two participants from international governmental organizations…

  14. The Early Years: Mixing Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…

  15. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  16. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  17. Maryland Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…

  18. Handbook of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive and authoritative, this forward-thinking book reviews the breadth of current knowledge about early education and identifies important priorities for practice and policy. Robert C. Pianta and his associates bring together foremost experts to examine what works in promoting all children's school readiness and social-emotional…

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  20. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  1. ABCs of Early Mathematics Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensen, Laurie E.

    2005-01-01

    Children begin to develop mathematical thinking before they enter school. Art, baking, playing with blocks, counting numbers, games, puzzles, singing, playing with pretend money, water play all these early mathematical experiences help the children to learn in the elementary school years.

  2. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  3. Do Schools Begin Too Early?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Finley

    2012-01-01

    School start times vary considerably, both across the nation and within individual communities, with some schools beginning earlier than 7:30 a.m. and others after 9:00 a.m. Proponents of later start times, who have received considerable media attention in recent years, argue that many students who have to wake up early for school do not get…

  4. Early Career Teacher Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Ann; Gore, Jennifer; Thomas, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Becoming a teacher requires not only the development of a professional identity but the construction of professional knowledge and practice through continued professional learning. This study tracked a sample group of 16 early career teachers through their first year of teaching. The participants were encouraged to write about their experiences in…

  5. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  6. Films in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Gary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography provides descriptions of films concerning child development and various approaches to early childhood education. Some are for classroom use, and others are intended as guides and resource materials for teachers. Attachments give addresses and phone numbers of film distributors and addresses, managers and phone number of…

  7. Creative Abilities in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Maria Dolores; Parra, Joaquin; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Sanchez, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore creativity in Spanish children during their early years and to explore differences regarding gender and age. We have used a sample of 285 children between five and seven years old. To measure their creativity we used the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). We have used the test of figured expression that…

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  9. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  10. Documentary Elements in Early Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Richard A.

    Focusing on documentary elements, this study examines the film content and film techniques of 681 motion pictures produced in the United States prior to 1904. Analysis of films by type, subject matter, and trends in subject matter shows that one-third of the early films are documentary in type and three-fourths of the films use subject matter of a…

  11. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  12. The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…

  13. [Early career of Michael Sendivogius].

    PubMed

    Prinke, Rafał T

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential alchemical authors of the early modern period was Michael Sendivogius whose early life is shrouded in mystery. He may be labelled the most famous Polish scientific writer between Copernicus and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, but because of the difficulties involved in researching the biography of any alchemist, there has been relatively little interest in him among Polish historians. The early work of Roman Bugaj (author of the still fundamental monograph) and Włodzimierz Hubicki (who made his research available to the international community) has been continued only by the English-born Zbigniew Szydło and the author of this article. The roots of many legends about Sendivogius were three mid-17th century short biographies, none of which is trustworthy, so it is crucial to verify the received myth and the version constructed in the 1960's and 1970's with primary sources and evidence from the recent "new historiography of alchemy". The present article examines them in the light of newly discovered sources and reinterpretation of the old ones. The genealogy of the Sedzimir family is discussed at length to show that Sendivogius most probably was not its member but only a pretender in order to assume (or prove) the status of a nobleman. Several possible hypotheses about his origins are presented. He is known to have studied at three universities (Leipzig, Vienna and Altdorf) but authors of early panegyrics dedicated to Sendivogius list more universities which he may have attended. The most interesting is that of Cambridge, listed as the first one, because practically no Poles or Czechs went there at the time. Finally, his marriage to Veronica Stiebar, a wealthy widow of a Franconian knightly family, and her interesting family relationships (links to Erasmus, Camerarius, Paracelsus and the original Doctor Faustus) are discussed. The period covered is that before Sendivogius moved to Prague in about 1597, having already been a courtier of Rudolf II

  14. Freshwater Fossil Pearls from the Nihewan Basin, Early Early Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ping; Yao, Pei-Yi; Li, Jin-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Min, Long-Rui; Chi, Zhen-Qing; Wang, Yong; Yao, Jian-Xin; Sha, Jin-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Fossil blister pearls attached to the shells of an Anodonta mollusk from China, early Early Pleistocene, are reported here for the first time. The pearls were investigated in detail using a variety of methods. Micro-CT scanning of the fossil pearls was carried out to discover the inner structure and the pearl nucleus. Using CTAn software, changes in the gray levels of the biggest pearl, which reflect the changing density of the material, were investigated. The results provide us with some clues on how these pearls were formed. Sand grains, shell debris or material with a similar density could have stimulated the development of these pearls. X-ray diffraction analysis of one fossil pearl and the shell to which it was attached reveals that only aragonite exists in both samples. The internal structures of our fossil shells and pearls were investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope. These investigations throw some light on pearl development in the past.

  15. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2012-01-01

    Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984–1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response. PMID:22745628

  16. Famines in Africa: is early warning early enough?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2012-01-01

    Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984-1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of acute malnutrition were documented from March 2010, and by August 2010, an impending food crisis was forecast. Despite these measures, the situation remained unrecognised, and further deteriorated causing malnutrition levels to grow in severity and scope. By the time the United Nations officially declared famine on 20 July 2011, and the humanitarian community sluggishly went into response mode, levels of malnutrition and mortality exceeded catastrophic levels. At this time, an estimated 11 million people were in desperate and immediate need for food. With warnings of food crises in the Sahel, South Sudan, and forecast of the drought returning to the Horn, there is an immediate need to institutionalize change in the health response during humanitarian emergencies. Early warning systems are only effective if they trigger an early response.

  17. "How Early Is Early?" or "How Late Is Late?": Thinking through Some Issues in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention comes in-between the lives of children, families and teachers. This article uses part of a report written by an educational psychologist about a little girl to question the nature of intervention through Rancière's writings. As children and parents are seen as put into the position of inadequacy, they require such…

  18. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    PubMed

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  20. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  1. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32−), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  3. Early Literacy Instruction and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452

  4. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVearly as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  5. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A

    2008-01-22

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO(3)(2-)), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks.

  6. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  7. Early stages of soldering reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, R.A.; Umantsev, A.

    2005-09-15

    An experiment on the early stages of intermetallic compound layer growth during soldering and its theoretical analysis were conducted with the intent to study the controlling factors of the process. An experimental technique based on fast dipping and pulling of a copper coupon in liquid solder followed by optical microscopy allowed the authors to study the temporal behavior of the sample on a single micrograph. The technique should be of value for different areas of metallurgy because many experiments on crystallization may be described as the growth of a layer of intermediate phase. Comparison of the experimental results with themore » theoretical calculations allowed one to identify the kinetics of dissolution as the rate-controlling mechanism on the early stages and measure the kinetic coefficient of dissolution. A popular model of intermetallic compound layer structure coarsening is discussed.« less

  8. [Autism and Early Neurodevelopmental Milestones].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Xavier; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder, also referred to in this study as autism, is a neurodevelopmental chronic disease that manifests early in childhood by impairment in social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior. Since there are no specific biomarkers available, the diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. The purpose of the present study is to determine which are the early psychomotor development or neurodevelopmental milestones that present a significant correlation with the severity of the main symptoms of autism, development quotients, and adaptive function. We performed a retrospective study on a sample of 1572 individuals with a diagnosis of autism that were monitored at Hospital Pediátrico do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, in the Neurodevelopment and Autism Unit. We analyzed six early psychomotor developmental milestones: age of acquisition of 'walking', 'first words', 'first phrases', 'daytime control of bladder sphincter', 'night-time control of bladder sphincter', and age of first complaints. Afterwards, we divided the sample in three subgroups regarding clinical severity, according to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and we analyzed significant differences among each other concerning the six milestones established beforehand. The milestone 'age of first phrases' was, from the six milestones, the one with a stronger correlation with the variables of clinical manifestations of autism, development/intelligence quotients, and adaptive function. In division of the sample into subgroups of clinical severity, it was the most severe that showed later ages of acquisition of the neurodevelopmental milestones and earlier ages of first complaints. This study proves the clinical utility to know the age of achievement of early psychomotor developmental skills, since they act as predictors of clinical severity of autism, cognition, and adaptive function of a wide population with autism. Therefore, this data contribute for prognostic

  9. Early neuroprotection after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Dell'anna, Antonio M; Scolletta, Sabino; Donadello, Katia; Taccone, Fabio S

    2014-06-01

    Many efforts have been made in the last decades to improve outcome in patients who are successfully resuscitated from sudden cardiac arrest. Despite some advances, postanoxic encephalopathy remains the most common cause of death among those patients and several investigations have focused on early neuroprotection in this setting. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only strategy able to provide effective neuroprotection in clinical practice. Experimental studies showed that therapeutic hypothermia was even more effective when it was started immediately after the ischemic event. In human studies, the use of prehospital hypothermia was able to reduce the time to target temperature but did not result in higher survival rate or neurological recovery in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, when compared with standard in-hospital therapeutic hypothermia. Thus, intra-arrest hypothermia (i.e., initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation) may be a valid alternative to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in this setting; however, more clinical data are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit of such intervention on neurological outcome. Together with cooling, early hemodynamic optimization should be considered to improve cerebral perfusion in cardiac arrest patients and minimize any secondary brain injury. Nevertheless, only scarce data are available on the impact of early hemodynamic optimization on the development of organ dysfunction and neurological recovery in such patients. Some new protective strategies, including inhaled gases (i.e., xenon, argon, nitric oxide) and intravenous drugs (i.e., erythropoietin) are emerging in experimental studies as promising tools to improve neuroprotection, especially when combined with therapeutic hypothermia. Early cooling may contribute to enhance neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. Hemodynamic optimization is mandatory to avoid cerebral hypoperfusion in this setting. The combination of such

  10. Early Fixation of Calcaneus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Swords, Michael P; Penny, Phillip

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of calcaneus fractures is controversial. Historically, most operatively treated fractures have been approached with a lateral extensile incision requiring delay in operative treatment until swelling has improved. There is a current trend and interest in small incision approaches allowing, and in some cases requiring, earlier operative fixation. Clinical scenarios amenable to consideration for early fixation are reviewed. The sinus tarsi surgical approach and reduction techniques are outlined in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  12. Early BHs: simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelluti, Nico; di-Matteo, Tiziana; Schawinski, Kevin; Fragos, Tassos

    We report recent investigations in the field of Early Black Holes. We summarize recent theoretical and observational efforts to understand how Black Holes formed and eventually evolved into Super Massive Black Holes at high-z. This paper makes use of state of the art computer simulations and multiwavelength surveys. Although non conclusive, we present results and hypothesis that pose exciting challenges to modern astrophysics and to future facilities.

  13. Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Becker, Georg; Müller, Antje; Braune, Stefan; Büttner, Thomas; Benecke, Reiner; Greulich, Wolfgang; Klein, Wolfgang; Mark, Günter; Rieke, Jürgen; Thümler, Reiner

    2002-10-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) approximately 60 % of the nigrostriatal neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are degenerated before neurologists can establish the diagnosis according to the widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. It is conceivable that neuroprotective therapy starting at such an 'advanced stage' of the disease will fail to stop the degenerative process. Therefore, the identification of patients at risk and at earlier stages of the disease appears to be essential for any successful neuroprotection. The discovery of several genetic mutations associated with IPD raises the possibility that these, or other biomarkers, of the disease may help to identify persons at risk of IPD. Transcranial ultrasound have shown susceptibility factors for IPD related to an increased iron load of the substantia nigra. In the early clinical phase, a number of motor and particularly non-motor signs emerge, which can be identified by the patients and physicians years before the diagnosis is made, notably olfactory dysfunction, depression, or 'soft' motor signs such as changes in handwriting, speech or reduced ambulatory arm motion. These signs of the early, prediagnostic phase of IPD can be detected by inexpensive and easy-to-administer tests. As one single instrument will not be sensitive enough, a battery of tests has to be composed measuring independent parameters of the incipient disease. Subjects with abnormal findings in this test battery should than be submitted to nuclear medicine examinations to quantify the extent of dopaminergic injury and to reach the goal of a reliable, early diagnosis.

  14. Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hamid; Safi, Sare; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Ahmadieh, Hamid

    2018-04-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes. Vascular abnormalities such as changes in the retinal vessels caliber, architectural indices, and blood flow have been investigated to evaluate the early stages of DR. The results of OCT angiography, retinal vessel oxygen saturation patterns, and elevated levels of circulating blood markers and cytokines have been suggested as early signs of DR. Light-based molecular imaging in rodents has been developed to demonstrate changes in protein expressions in the retinal microvessels as diagnostic biomarkers. Future clinical studies will examine the safety and efficacy of this approach in humans. We summarize all studies related to subclinical DR biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  16. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  17. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  18. [The early history of "Ecstasy"].

    PubMed

    Benzenhöfer, U; Passie, T

    2006-01-01

    There is no consensus in the literature regarding the early history of MDMA (Methylendioxymethamphetamine, so-called "Ecstasy"). Various authors credit the first synthesis of MDMA to the German chemist Fritz Haber, but it appears neither in his doctoral thesis (Berlin 1891) nor in his accompanying articles. The man who first synthesized MDMA was the chemist Dr. Anton Köllisch, who worked for the German pharmaceutical company Merck. He created MDMA as a by-product while trying to synthesize hydrastinin, a styptic substance. In 1912, Merck filed to patent the applied method of preparation. The patent was issued in 1914, yet no pharmaceutical testing followed at that time.

  19. Early detection of congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Rani, Bs Kavya; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K

    2014-01-01

    Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson's teeth.

  20. Early discharge hospital at home.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  1. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P [Lafayette, CA; Estacio, Pedro [Mission San Jose, CA; Chang, John [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  2. Early intervention for alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Holt, Stephen

    1983-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in clinical practice. There is increasing evidence that problem drinking can be successfully treated by brief intervention. The general practitioner is in a good position to identify patients who drink excessively, and to intervene with brief counselling at an early stage when prognosis is more favourable. A practical strategy is described for diagnosis and intervention that could be readily implemented in clinical practice. PMID:6361249

  3. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341

  4. Early Market Site Identification Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Levi Kilcher

    2016-04-01

    This data was compiled for the 'Early Market Opportunity Hot Spot Identification' project. The data and scripts included were used in the 'MHK Energy Site Identification and Ranking Methodology' Reports (Part I: Wave, NREL Report #66038; Part II: Tidal, NREL Report #66079). The Python scripts will generate a set of results--based on the Excel data files--some of which were described in the reports. The scripts depend on the 'score_site' package, and the score site package depends on a number of standard Python libraries (see the score_site install instructions).

  5. Selectivity in early prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.; O’Neill, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a “problem” when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one’s allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this “partner choice” model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior. PMID:25120526

  6. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early termination. 2.43 Section 2.43..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.43 Early... shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  7. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early termination. 2.43 Section 2.43..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.43 Early... shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  8. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Early termination. 2.43 Section 2.43..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.43 Early... shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  9. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"171","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","field_deltas":{"1":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early

  10. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  11. Perceived Stress and Canadian Early Childcare Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Forer, Barry; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Goelman, Hillel; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Wessel, Julie; Hertzman, Clyde; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational stress for early childcare educators is an area of apparent understudy in the literature. The present study attempted to address this gap and provide some updated data regarding the experiences of this occupational group. Methods: Early childhood workers across a variety of early childhood education settings (N = 69)…

  12. Evaluating and Supporting Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passe, Angèle Sancho

    2015-01-01

    There's a lot of conversation in the early childhood community on evaluating teachers to improve their performance. Raising the quality of early care and education is a priority for policymakers and practitioners on local, state, and federal levels. As a result, much attention is being focused on early childhood educators to ensure that they do a…

  13. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  14. Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Tata J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a global endeavor to prioritize early childhood care and education as a foundation for later learning and development, as evidenced by the Global Guidelines for Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century (Association for Childhood Education International/World Organization for Early Childhood, 1999). Such efforts…

  15. Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

  16. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  17. Early Childhood Services in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborn, Glennie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…

  18. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…

  19. Management of Early Carcinoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents a formidable challenge to physicians. Early symptoms are nonspecific, and are usually attributed to disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Especially important is suspicion of this neoplasm in its early stage. This article discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, evaluation, and treatment of early carcinomas of the ovary. PMID:3071612

  20. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published earlier than as set forth in § 1.211(a) at the request of the applicant. Any request for early publication...

  1. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  2. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early termination. 2.43 Section 2.43..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.43 Early... shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  3. 23 CFR 710.501 - Early acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early acquisition. 710.501 Section 710.501 Highways... REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.501 Early acquisition. (a) Real property... so based on program or project considerations. The State may undertake early acquisition for corridor...

  4. 77 FR 16551 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes a timeframe by which plan sponsors participating in the Early... Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) which provides reimbursement to eligible sponsors of employment...

  5. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Early termination. 2.43 Section 2.43..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.43 Early... shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1717.901 - Early approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Early approval. 1717.901 Section 1717.901 Agriculture... for Supplemental Financing Required by 7 CFR 1710.110 § 1717.901 Early approval. (a) Conditions. If... supplemental financing early in the process, before funding is available for the concurrent RUS insured loan...

  7. 23 CFR 710.501 - Early acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Early acquisition. 710.501 Section 710.501 Highways... REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.501 Early acquisition. (a) Real property... so based on program or project considerations. The State may undertake early acquisition for corridor...

  8. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published earlier than as set forth in § 1.211(a) at the request of the applicant. Any request for early publication...

  9. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  10. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  11. Challenges and Limitations in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at present it is unknown whether early intervention is…

  12. Early Interventions: Keys to Successful Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffreys, JoAnn; Spang, Joan

    This action research outlines an early reading intervention project for improving students' reading skills and promoting the implementation of early reading intervention programs. The targeted population includes first and second grade students in one school located in the suburbs of a major city in Illinois. The problem of early reading…

  13. Survival After Early and Normal Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Suzanne G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an epidemiological study of the patterns and correlates of survival after early (age 62 to 64) and normal retirement (age 65). Death rates were significantly elevated during the first, fourth, and fifth years after early retirement. Pre-retirement health status was the only significant predictor of survival after early retirement.…

  14. Leadership in Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Samita Berry

    2013-01-01

    With the demands of high quality early childhood special education programs within public school settings, there is a need to place emphasis on research and training regarding early childhood leaders and managers in this complex and diverse field. The focus of this research is to examine what early childhood special education (ECSE) leadership…

  15. Global Trends in Early Childhood Education: 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger; Goodeve, Emily

    2009-01-01

    As early childhood professionals from 78 countries prepare to travel to Belfast for the 2009 World Forum on Early Care and Education, these authors surveyed a sampling of those who will be attending on the current trends in early childhood education in their country. Delegates from over 40 countries responded, and in reviewing the reports from…

  16. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  17. Early Childhood Education: A Workbook for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy; Hartman, Barbara

    Business management theory and principles as applied to the administration of early childhood programs are presented in this workbook. Following a brief survey of the historical background of early childhood education and current early childhood programs, information and guidance to help plan, operate, and evaluate program facilities are provided.…

  18. Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Early Restoration Plan. On April 20, 2011 we reached an agreement with BP to start restoration planning draft plan for the third phase of early restoration in December 2013. We are considering your comments : All Phase III information and documents Phase II Useful Links: Phase II Early Restoration Plan &

  19. Teaching and Testing Early Reading. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Focus On" provides an overview of several key early literacy components: phonemic awareness, alphabet knowledge, concepts of print, oral language development, writing, family literacy, and reading aloud. Suggestions for assessing early literacy development are provided, and examples of implementation of effective early literacy…

  20. Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings…

  1. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  2. Characterizing the Early Impact Bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    The early bombardment revealed in the larger impact craters and basins on the moon was a major planetary process that affected all bodies in the inner solar system, including the Earth and Mars. Understanding the nature and timing of this bombardment is a fundamental planetary problem. The surface density of lunar impact craters within a given size range on a given lunar surface is a measure of the age of that surface relative to other lunar surfaces. When crater densities are combined with absolute radiometric ages determined on lunar rocks returned to Earth, the flux of large lunar impactors through time can be estimated. These studies suggest that the flux of impactors producing craters greater than 1 km in diameter has been approximately constant over the past approx. 3 Gyr. However, prior to 3.0 - 3.5 Gyr the impactor flux was much larger and defines an early bombardment period. Unfortunately, no lunar surface feature older than approx. 4 Gyr is accurately dated, and the surface density of craters are saturated in most of the lunar highlands. This means that such data cannot define the impactor flux between lunar formation and approx. 4 Gyr ago.

  3. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  4. Early history of scapular fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  5. Early Childhood Caries: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alazmah, Abdulfatah

    2017-08-01

    To review and update the current knowledge about early childhood caries (ECC) and its etiology, prevalence, risk factors, management, and preventive strategies. Early childhood caries is a disease affecting significantly both well-developed and industrial nations. The ECC can significantly affect the child's quality of life, as it may lead to infection, swelling, pain, and other symptoms. The ECC affects children after eruption of primary teeth until age of around 5 years. The ECC affects all parts of the tooth including the smooth surface. Upper anterior teeth and primary molars are usually affected. The lower anterior teeth are less likely affected. The risk factors for ECC are diet, bacteria, and host susceptibility. The additional factors, such as presence of enamel defect and the feeding practices also contribute to the initiation and progress of ECC. Dentists must focus on utilizing existing techniques to distinguish indications of right on time and propelled caries and give guidance on the best way to counteract and control caries in children. Approaches should be directed to preventive caries control strategies among children. Preventing and controlling the development of ECC among children is important to maintain effective eating, speech development, and formation of a positive self-image.

  6. Early warning system for aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Fischer, F.G.; Jensen, E.G.; VanSchaack, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype early warning system to provide San Francisco and Oakland, California a few tens-of-seconds warning of incoming strong ground shaking from already-occurred M ≧ 3.7 aftershocks of the magnitude 7.1 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was operational on 28 October 1989. The prototype system consisted of four components: ground motion sensors in the epicentral area, a central receiver, a radio repeater, and radio receivers. One of the radio receivers was deployed at the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) headquarters at the damaged Cypress Street section of the I-880 freeway in Oakland, California on 28 October 1989 and provided about 20 sec of warning before shaking from the M 4.5 Loma Prieta aftershock that occurred on 2 November 1989 at 0550 UTC. In its first 6 months of operation, the system generated triggers for all 12 M > 3.7 aftershocks for which trigger documentation is preserved, did not trigger on any M ≦ 3.6 aftershocks, and produced one false trigger as a result of a now-corrected single point of failure design flaw. Because the prototype system demonstrated that potentially useful warnings of strong shaking from aftershocks are feasible, the USGS has completed a portable early warning system for aftershocks that can be deployed anywhere.

  7. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  8. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  9. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  10. Early discharge hospital at home.

    PubMed

    Shepperd, Sasha; Doll, Helen; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Iliffe, Steve; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne; Martin, Finbarr; Harris, Roger

    2009-01-21

    'Early discharge hospital at home' is a service that provides active treatment by health care professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital in-patient care. If hospital at home were not available then the patient would remain in an acute hospital ward. To determine, in the context of a systematic review and meta-analysis, the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with in-patient hospital care. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Register , MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008), CINAHL (1982 to 2008) and EconLit through to January 2008. We checked the reference lists of articles identified for potentially relevant articles. Randomised controlled trials recruiting patients aged 18 years and over. Studies comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital in-patient care. Evaluations of obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes are excluded from this review. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Our statistical analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. We requested individual patient data (IPD) from trialists, and relied on published data when we did not receive trial data sets or the IPD did not include the relevant outcomes. For the IPD meta-analysis, where at least one event was reported in both study groups in a trial, Cox regression models were used to calculate the log hazard ratio and its standard error for mortality and readmission separately for each data set. The calculated log hazard ratios were combined using fixed-effect inverse variance meta-analysis. Twenty-six trials were included in this review [n = 3967]; 21 were eligible for the IPD meta-analysis and 13 of the 21 trials contributed data [1899/2872; 66%]. For patients recovering from a stroke and elderly patients with a mix of conditions there was insufficient evidence of

  11. Abusive early child rearing and early childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, R C; Russo, M J

    2001-02-01

    Childhood aggression is significant for children, their families, and the society because aggressive children often become violent adolescents. This article examines the relationship between maltreatment and early childhood aggression. Data are from a longitudinal study of maltreated and nonmaltreated children assessed as preschoolers and again at school age. The dependent variable is the child's teacher's rating of aggression at school age. The independent variables are from preschool and school age observations of the mother-child interaction and the mother's report of physical discipline practices. Using structural equation modeling, harshness of interaction at preschool age but not school age and severity of physical discipline at school age but not preschool age, relate to aggression at school age. Results suggest a difference in the developmental stage at which different features of harsh child rearing exert their influence. Strategies for intervening to prevent the development of childhood aggression are suggested.

  12. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  13. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  14. Early Number Skills Gains and Mathematics Achievement: Intervening to Establish Successful Early Mathematics Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Lina; Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline; Fien, Hank

    2017-01-01

    Early number skills, comprised of both informal and formal skills, are associated with later mathematics achievement. Thus, the development of foundational early number skills is an important aspect of early mathematics instruction. This study explored relations between early number skills gains and mathematics achievement for students at risk for…

  15. Early Earth differentiation [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2004-09-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation ( t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal-melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10-15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally

  16. Early False-Belief Understanding.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; Baillargeon, Renée

    2017-04-01

    Intense controversy surrounds the question of when children first understand that others can hold false beliefs. Results from traditional tasks suggest that false-belief understanding does not emerge until about 4 years of age and constitutes a major developmental milestone in social cognition. By contrast, results from nontraditional tasks, which have steadily accumulated over the past 10 years, suggest that false-belief understanding is already present in infants (under age 2 years) and toddlers (age 2-3 years) and thus forms an integral part of social cognition from early in life. Here we first present an overview of the findings from nontraditional tasks. We then return to traditional tasks and argue that processing difficulties, rather than limitations in false-belief understanding, account for young children's failure at these tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Autism, neurodevelopment and early detection].

    PubMed

    Martos-Pérez, J

    2006-02-13

    Autistic disorder is briefly explained and defined in the light of recent research. From the perspective offered by ontogenesis and the acquisitions that take place during normal development, we present an updated vision of the genesis of autistic disorder and also review the most significant data provided by the different studies that have been conducted on the subject. Detection of the disorder is clearly a difficult task before the age of one year and, in any case, the earliest symptoms are clearly linked to the social and communicative interaction that characteristically takes place at the end of the infant's first year of life. Early detection of the disorder is made possible precisely because of alterations in social and communicative development and, in general, the appearance of psychological functions that play a significant role in the process of humanisation. The article concludes by pointing out the need for further studies that focus on the possible alteration of earlier socio-emotional and affective manifestations.

  18. An Early Danish Computer Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.

  19. Early warnings: health care preparedness.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri

    2005-11-01

    As nurses, we represent the backbone of the health care system. It is essential that we have a core understanding of infectious disease emergencies and begin to use the strengths that characterize nursing. These strengths include the ability to evaluate situations and use evidence on which to base our actions. Early identification of an infectious disease emergency is one example of using nursing skills to strengthen emergency preparedness. During an infectious disease emergency, nurses certainly will bear the burden of patient management. Because of this, the need for infectious disease emergency preparedness has become a national priority and a moral imperative for all nurses. One topic necessary for ED and OH nurses' preparedness has been discussed in this article, but nurses must take the initiative to learn more about disaster preparedness and incorporate these skills into everyday practice.

  20. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  1. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  2. Early Localization of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, C.; Leriche, J. C.; Ikeda, N.; Palcic, B.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least 1 pack of cigarettes per day for 25 years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant, and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect significantly more areas with moderate/severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ than conventional white-light bronchoscopy with a similar specificity. Multiple foci of dysplasia or cancer were found in 13–24% of these individuals. Fluorescence bronchoscopy may be an important adjunct to conventional bronchoscopic examination to improve our ability to detect and localize premalignant and early lung cancer lesions. PMID:18493345

  3. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  5. Market Dominance, Efficiency, Innovation, and Globalization: A Case Study of the Tanker Competition Between Boeing and Northrop Grumman/EADS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    corporate practices in the post- Enron world, to more up-to- date and open government procurement practices. These trends have resulted in the coalescence of...significant risks to the global community • Shift toward more transparent processes both in corporate practices in the post- Enron world and in government ...is losing its traditional edge; and (d) the desire to have an open and fair government procurement process in which all parties are able to

  6. Early dynamics of transversally thermalized matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, A.; Chojnacki, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2008-10-01

    We argue that the idea that the parton system created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is formed in a state with transverse momenta close to thermodynamic equilibrium and its subsequent dynamics at early times is dominated by pure transverse hydrodynamics of the perfect fluid is compatible with the data collected at RHIC. This scenario of early parton dynamics may help to solve the problem of early equilibration. Quark Matter 2008, Jaipur, India, February 2008.

  7. Analysis of Early Military Attrition Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    military separation. Although hizh school graduation status is the primary single factor affecting attrition, age and previous employment stability...assignment like individual suitability and satisfaction do not significantly influence early attrition; the early attrition rate of nonhigh- school ...a recruit with a single previous employer. I I V IS BLANK vi * Various indicators of military job match had no significant impact on early attrition

  8. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  9. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke.

    PubMed

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  10. Molecular diversity of early foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Monothalamid foraminifera are a diverse group that is characterized by single-chambered agglutinated or organic test. They occur in all marine habitats and are also present in terrestrial and freshwater environments. Monothalamids branch at the base of foraminiferal tree, as a paraphyletic group with some clades branching at the base of Globothalamea and Tubothalamea. We have currently more than 1500 sequences of monothalamids in our database that can be divided in at least 20 clades among which certain are particularly well presented by sequence numbers and/or number of different species. These are members of clade BM that contain Bathysiphon and Micrometula, clade C that contains among others xenophyophorans, saccaminids, and a large variety of organic-walled or agglutinated genera, clade E that contains the genera Psammophaga, Vellaria and Nellya and four clades that contain freshwater foraminifera. In general, the monothalamid clades comprise both agglutinated and organic-walled genera. Some common genera, such as Crithionina, Saccammina, Hippocrepina, are polyphyletic. Our results clearly show that monothalamids are highly diverse and their molecular diversity by far surpasses their morphological variety. Based on phylogenomic studies, monothalamids evolved early in the evolution of eukaryotes, as a part of the supergroup of Rhizaria, comprising also radiolarians and other amoeboid protists. The monothalamids have diverged from ancestral radiolarians, probably about 1000 million years ago, but the exact time is difficult to infer because of the uncertainties concerning a calibration of a eukaryotic phylogenomic tree.

  11. Cosmology and the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhigna

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning the universe was in a hot dense state nearly 13.8 billion years ago. The thermal history of the universe was traced back to an era when the temperature was about 1012K. At this early time, the universe was filled with particles-mostly photons and leptons- whose interactions are hopefully weak enough to allow this medium to be treated as a more or less ideal gas. However, if we look back a little further, into the first 0.0001 second of cosmic history when the temperature was above 1012K. At such temperatures, there will be present in thermal equilibrium copious numbers of strongly interacting particles-mostly masons and baryons-with a mean interparticle distance less than a Compton wavelength. These particles will be in a state of continual mutual interaction, and cannot reasonably be expected to obey any simple equation of state. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10-36seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10-33and 10-32seconds. Matter and energy created in this time. Right after that space expanded exponentially with enormous rate of 74.3 +/-2.1Km per second per Mpc. Undergraduate student and researcher of the string theory, quantum gravity, cosmology and quantum biology.

  12. A supertree of early tetrapods.

    PubMed Central

    Ruta, Marcello; Jeffery, Jonathan E; Coates, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    A genus-level supertree for early tetrapods is built using a matrix representation of 50 source trees. The analysis of all combined trees delivers a long-stemmed topology in which most taxonomic groups are assigned to the tetrapod stem. A second analysis, which excludes source trees superseded by more comprehensive studies, supports a deep phylogenetic split between lissamphibian and amniote total groups. Instances of spurious groups are rare in both analyses. The results of the pruned second analysis are mostly comparable with those of a recent, character-based and large-scale phylogeny of Palaeozoic tetrapods. Outstanding areas of disagreement include the branching sequence of lepospondyls and the content of the amniote crown group, in particular the placement of diadectomorphs as stem diapsids. Supertrees are unsurpassed in their ability to summarize relationship patterns from multiple independent topologies. Therefore, they might be used as a simple test of the degree of corroboration of nodes in the contributory analyses. However, we urge caution in using them as a replacement for character-based cladograms and for inferring macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:14667343

  13. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  14. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  15. Inflation in the early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1998-04-01

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. The author calculates the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the big bang. The result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  16. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    PubMed Central

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  17. Maternal concerns during early parenthood.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, M

    2007-11-01

    Most research on maternal concerns has focused on their assessment during pregnancy and the early post-partum period. The aim of this study was to identify primary concerns of mothers later in the first post-partum year, changes over time, and factors that were associated with relatively intense concerns, including infant (difficult) temperament, hours employed out of the home and obstetrical complications during pregnancy or childbirth. Data were obtained from 366 first-time (Israeli) mothers at 3 and 6 months post-partum by employing a new tool, the Mothers' Concern Questionnaire, along with standardized questionnaires, administered by phone. Analyses revealed six dimensions of concerns (Family Health, Return to Work, Mother's Well-being, Relationships/Support, Infant Care, and Spouse). Of these, issues related to returning to work and family health were of most concern, and ratings were higher at 3 months than at 6 months post-partum. Women with higher-than-average total concern scores perceived their infant as more difficult, were more likely to have experienced an obstetric complication, and worked more hours out of the house than women with lower-than-average scores. The findings afford a first look at the profile of normative maternal concerns outside of the immediate post-partum period and identify factors that predict more intense concerns. These findings extend what we know about the issues of new mothers and can guide birth educators and help couples prepare themselves for parenthood.

  18. The Early History of Bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    Energy is most commonly defined as the potential to do work. The maintenance of the living state requires a constant flow of energy through the system. The concept of energy is not easily implemented in computational models of life and is therefore often ignored in artificial life models. Some models even regard as irrelevant the energetic problematic (dissipation, irreversibility, couplings, energy currencies), in the physical realization of a biological system" (Ruiz-Mirazo et al. 1998). Examples of such models are Rosen's (M,R)-system, Varela's autopoietic models, Kauffman's autocatalytic set, and Fontana's algorithmic chemistry (see Appendix A). However, many origin-of-life theories maintain the primordial importance of energy for early life. Although everyone accepts that energetic constraints are important when describing material-based living systems, a problem arises when we have to consider whether or not they affect the very logic of the organization (Morán et al. 1999). It is argued here that energy considerations are not only primordial, but intimately related to the essence of life as well.

  19. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  20. Early Days of SIS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    The modern era of millimeter and submillimeter spectral line observations and interferometry started at end of the 1979 with the invention of the Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer. Tom Phillips co-invented this device while working at Bell Telephone Labs (BTL) in Murray Hill, NJ. His group built the first astronomically useful SIS heterodyne receiver which was deployed on the Leighton 10.4 m telescope at the Caltech Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) in the same year. Tom Phillips joined the Caltech faculty in the early 1980s where his group continues to lead the way in developing state-of-the-art SIS receivers throughout the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength bands. The rapid progress in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy during 1980s required developments on many fronts including the theoretical understanding of the device physics, advances in device fabrication, microwave and radio frequency (RF) circuit design, mixer block construction, development of wideband low-noise intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers and the telescopes used for making the observations. Many groups around the world made important contributions to this field but the groups at Caltech and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under the leadership of Tom Phillips made major contributions in all of these areas. The end-to-end understanding and developments from the theoretical device physics to the astronomical observations and interpretation has made this group uniquely productive.

  1. Early detection of materials degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  2. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  3. Inflation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Moshe

    In this talk it will be assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time (in which the cosmic time is measured backward with respect to the present time). Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the Universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. We calculate the ratio of the volumes of the Universe at two different times T1 and T2 after the Big Bang. Under the assumptions that T2 - T1 ≈ 10-32 sec and T2 ≪ 1 sec, we find that V_{2}/V_{1} = 10^{-16}/√{T_{1}}. For T1 ≈ 10-132 sec we obtain V2/V1 ≈ 1050. This result conforms with the standard inflationary universe theory, but now it is obtained without assuming that the Universe is propelled by antigravity.

  4. CALIPSO Overview and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.

    2008-05-01

    The CALIPSO spacecraft was co-manifested with the CloudSat spacecraft and launched by a Boeing Delta~II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California on April~28,~2006. CALIPSO is the acronym for Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) is a three-channel lidar on board that uses a Nd:YAG laser emitting pulses at 1064 and 532~nm. The receiver uses a 1-meter diameter telescope and photomultipliers in the two 532~nm channels; one for parallel-polarized backscatter, and the other for perpendicular-polarized backscatter. The 1064~nm channel uses an APD for measuring the total backscatter at this wavelength. CALIPSO is in a near-circular sunsynchronous polar 705-km orbit with a 1:30~PM ascending node, and is flying in formation with CloudSat, Aura, Aqua and PARASOL. CALIPSO and CloudSat are flying 15~seconds apart in the formation. This talk will present an overview of the CALIPSO mission and details of CALIOP and the rest of the payload. It will show typical results from measurements of clouds, details on cirrus cloud statistics for the first year of data, a characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds over the Artic and Antarctic during local winters and early springs, and some general atmospheric events like hurricanes and aerosols from minor volcanic eruptions, desert dust events, and smoke from fires and their transport. The presentation will end with a look toward the future of spaceborne lidars.

  5. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  6. Near Heterophoria in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and <7 years of age; range of spherical equivalent refractive error −1.25 diopters [D] to +3.75 D) and 13 adults participated. Their eye position and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983

  7. Byler disease: early natural history.

    PubMed

    Morris, Amy L; Bukauskas, Kathryn; Sada, Rachel E; Shneider, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Byler disease, originally described in Amish kindred, results from mutations in ATPase Class I Type 8b Member 1 (ATP8b1). Specific clinical reports of Amish Byler disease were last published 40 years ago. These investigations were directed at the present detailed clinical understanding of the early course of hepatic manifestations of Byler disease. This study analyzed routine clinical practice and outcomes of children with Byler disease (defined by homozygous c.923G>T mutation in ATP8b1), who initially presented to Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC between January 2007 and October 2014. Data were analyzed to the earlier of 24 months of age or partial external biliary diversion. Six children presented between 1 and 135 days of life: 2 presented with newborn direct hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had complications of coagulopathy, 1 had failure to thrive and rickets, and 1 sibling was identified by newborn genetic testing. Intensive fat-soluble vitamin supplementation was required to prevent insufficiencies in vitamins D, E, and K. Hyperbilirubinemia was variable both over time and between children. Serum bile acid levels were elevated, whereas γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were low normal. Scratching behavior (pruritus) was intractable in 4 of 6 children with onset between 6 and 12 months of age. Features of portal hypertension were not observed. Partial external biliary diversion was used during the second year of life in 4 children. Detailed analysis of Byler disease revealed varied disease presentation and course. Nutritional issues and pruritus dominated the clinical picture in the first 2 years of life.

  8. Artist's Concept of Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is an artist's impression of how the very early universe (less than one billion years old) might have looked when it went through a voracious onset of star formation, converting primordial hydrogen into myriad stars at an unprecedented rate. The deepest views of the cosmos from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) yield clues that the very first stars may have burst into the universe as brilliantly and spectacularly as a firework finale. Except in this case, the finale came first, long before Earth, the Sun ,and the Milky Way Galaxy formed. Studies of HST's deepest views of the heavens lead to the preliminary conclusion that the universe made a significant portion of its stars in a torrential firestorm of star birth, which abruptly lit up the pitch-dark heavens just a few hundred million years after the 'big bang,' the tremendous explosion that created the cosmos. Within the starburst galaxies, bright knots of hot blue stars come and go like bursting fireworks shells. Regions of new starbirth glow intensely red under torrent of ultraviolet radiation. The most massive stars self-detonate as supernovas, which explode across the sky like a string of firecrackers. A foreground starburst galaxy at lower right is sculpted with hot bubbles from supernova explosions and torrential stellar winds. Unlike today there is very little dust in these galaxies, because the heavier elements have not yet been cooked up through nucleosynthesis in stars. Recent analysis of HST deep sky images supports the theory that the first stars in the universe appeared in an abrupt eruption of star formation, rather than at a gradual pace. Science Credit: NASA and K. Lanzetta (SUNY). Artwork Credit: Adolf Schaller for STScI.

  9. Water Emission from Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarugula, Sreevani; Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    The study of dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) is important to understand galaxy assembly in early universe. A bulk of star formation at z ˜ 2-3 takes place in DSFGs but are obscured by dust in optical/UV. However, they are extremely bright in far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter with infrared luminosities of 10^{11} - 10^{13} L_{⊙}. ALMA, with its high spatial and spectral resolution, has opened up a new window to study molecular lines, which are vital to our understanding of the excitation and physical processes in the galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) being the second most abundant and bright molecule after hydrogen (H_{2}), is an important tracer of star forming potential. Besides CO, water (H_{2}O) is also abundant and it's line strength is comparable to high-J CO lines in high redshift Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Studies have shown H_{2}O to directly trace the FIR field and hence the star forming regions. Moreover, L_{H_{2}O}/L_{IR} ratio is nearly constant for five of the most important water lines and does not depend on the presence of AGN implying that H_{2}O is one of the best tracers of star forming regions (SFRs). This incredible correlation holds for nearly five orders of magnitude in luminosity and observed in both local and high redshift luminous infrared galaxies. In this talk, I will discuss the importance of H_{2}O in tracing FIR field and show the preliminary results of resolved water emission from three high-redshift gravitationally lensed South Pole Telescope (SPT) sources obtained from ALMA cycle 3 and cycle 4. These sources are among the first H_{2}O observations with resolved spatial scales ˜ 1 kpc and will prove to be important for ALMA and galaxy evolution studies.

  10. The Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  11. Community Partnerships: Integrating Early Education with Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhead, Pat; Armistead, Jo

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on research into a Local Authority initiative in York, in North Yorkshire which aimed to establish early education and childcare partnerships between its 51 primary schools and local early-years providers from the community-voluntary and private sectors in close geographical proximity to the schools. The initiative was named…

  12. Early Childhood Practice and Refrains of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…

  13. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early...

  14. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early...

  15. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early...

  16. Graduates "Doing Gender" as Early Career Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how early career professionals "do gender" in their new professional context. Specifically, it explores how two groups of graduates, psychologists and political scientists, "do gender" as early career professionals with a particular emphasis on how they acquire legitimacy in…

  17. Computer Training for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline; Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena

    Recent research in early childhood education (ECE) centers suggests that some teacher characteristics are not at a level that would support computer learning opportunities for children. This study identified areas of support required by teachers to provide a smooth introduction of the computer into the early childhood education classroom.…

  18. Early Risers. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…

  19. Early Childhood Teachers' Sustainment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of Australian early childhood teachers' sustainment in their profession, focussing on those factors which enhance professional commitment, job satisfaction and occupational motivation. Utilizing qualitative methodology this study also identified key factors early childhood teachers consider crucial to…

  20. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  1. Ethical Behavior in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Ward, Evangeline H.

    This booklet contains two essays on ethics for early childhood educators. The first essay discusses the meaning of a code of ethics, the importance of a code of ethics for working with preschool children, ethical conflicts in day care and preschool work, and steps which may be taken to help early childhood workers resolve these conflicts. Ethical…

  2. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  3. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  4. Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stanley L.

    The report describes the Western Illinois University 0-6 Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project (WIU 0-6 Project)--a model project designed to demonstrate innovative methods to fill personnel needs for early childhood handicapped programs. The project is a 2 semester program to train professional educators in the…

  5. Early Literacy and Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    For infants and toddlers, education and care are "two sides of the same coin." The author briefly reviews current research on the importance of relationships to cognitive development and early language and literacy. Instructional strategies that are most appropriate to the early years include "intentionality" and "scaffolding." Intentionality…

  6. Nutrition Education Needs of Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Hazel; Wesley, Myrna

    This study sought to determine the needs of early childhood teachers in Kentucky for education to help them manage children's nutrition in early childhood programs. The study also sought to determine whether formal classes, self-study via computer, or site-based inservice workshops is the most desirable format for teacher nutrition education. A…

  7. Democratic Group Process in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lois C.

    This paper examines ways in which early childhood education can provide the vital foundation for lifelong attitudes and values toward the democratic process. One goal of early childhood education is to empower the social bonding which brings collaborative relationships to their full potential and gives the child a sense of connectedness to others.…

  8. Text-Bullying among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    Increased availability of cell-phones has provided new avenues through which adolescents can bully their peers. Text-bullying is an emerging form of bullying which may threaten the emotional well-being of early adolescents. In this study 565 early adolescents (10-13 years old) completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with bullying…

  9. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  10. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  11. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  12. The Development of STAR Early Literacy. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…

  13. Early Childhood Education: Training for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the future training of early childhood educators, focusing on techniques for teachers to build prosocial skills, develop aesthetic appreciation, inculcate acceptance and inclusion, and develop a curiosity for learning among children. Also discusses the political status of early childhood education. (MDM)

  14. 7 CFR 1717.901 - Early approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for Supplemental Financing Required by 7 CFR 1710.110 § 1717.901 Early approval. (a) Conditions. If... supplemental financing early in the process, before funding is available for the concurrent RUS insured loan... commitment from the private lender to provide a loan for the remaining amount of financing required, with...

  15. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  16. Early Care in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce-Meza, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the importance of early care in child development, guiding a neuropsychological perspective of development. The early care model seeks to refer to the set of interventions aimed at children and their work in conjunction with a multidisciplinary team. It presents recommendations for the implementation of programs that allow…

  17. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  18. "Dosage" Decisions for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Miriam; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 requires early intervention teams craft individualized and effective plans to meet the needs of young children with special needs and their families (Küpper, 2012). Many early intervention teams, however, may struggle to follow a process that results in…

  19. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  20. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  1. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  2. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  3. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or critical...

  4. Informing Transitions in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…

  5. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  6. Early Childhood Education: Society and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anning, Angela, Ed.; Cullen, Joy, Ed.; Fleer, Marilyn, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book aims to provide research-based evidence that links theory and research to practice in early childhood settings. Different ways of constructing learning in contrasting settings are explored through the analysis of research in early childhood contexts in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. The cross-national focus extends the…

  7. Early Childhoods in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret M., Ed.; Tucker, Stanley, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book challenges taken for granted views of early childhood across the globe. It deepens and broadens our understanding of what it means to be a child today and of the challenges children face in different parts of the world. It will be essential reading for all who work with young children or are students of early years education and…

  8. Early evolution of transversally thermalized partons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Andrzej; Chojnacki, Mikolaj; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2008-03-01

    The idea that the parton system created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (i) emerges in a state with transverse momenta close to thermodynamic equilibrium and (ii) its evolution at early times is dominated by the 2-dimensional (transverse) hydrodynamics of the ideal fluid is investigated. It is argued that this mechanism may help to solve the problem of early equilibration.

  9. Early Adolescents' Social Goals and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly

    2017-01-01

    What are the common types of social goals endorsed by early adolescents and how are they related to their school adjustment? This article discusses the importance of assessing students' social goals during the early adolescent developmental period when peers become increasingly important and youth experience tremendous changes to the school…

  10. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  11. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  12. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book examines critical issues in early childhood education across a broad range of contexts. The issues explored are not only critical in terms of being fundamental to early childhood education but they are also critical in that they present ideas and utilize frameworks which are not traditional to the field. The topics under review include…

  13. The Early Retirees of Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    Because an option for early retirement in Canadian Universities has created a need to know more about the vacancies early retirement creates and the potential to fill these vacancies, a survey of 15 representative universities was conducted. The sample included institutions of faculty numbering less than 100 to institutions of faculty numbering…

  14. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard.

  15. Early Indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of a neurological or genetic marker to aid in the early diagnosis of autism, clinicians can use infant behaviors and parental responses during the child's first year of life to determine the child's risk of an autistic disorder. The author presents 12 questions for clinicians to ask parents about their child's early development. An…

  16. Learning Partnerships in Rural Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy

    A study examined six aspects of learning communities in early childhood settings in rural New South Wales (Australia). These aspects are reflection, individual development, diversity, conversation, caring, and shared responsibility. Surveys of 15 directors of early childhood programs indicated that the reflective component of the learning…

  17. Current Issues in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    If present trends in family life and education continue into the next decade, most children under five will spend substantial proportions of their early years in various types of early childhood programs, most five- to six-year-olds will attend all-day kindergarten, and during their elementary school years they will spend much of their time before…

  18. Transforming the Early Care and Education Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiotti, Sara

    2018-01-01

    There is ample opportunity for state boards to improve outcomes for children by strengthening the early care and education workforce and thereby improving the quality of early care and education. Ensuring that ECE professionals have the knowledge, supports, and resources they need to support children's learning is one avenue to improving the…

  19. Pedagogy for Early Childhood Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Federal attention is focused currently on investing and improving the quality of early childhood education, so that children's potential and talent development can be used as a natural resource for the future of our country. This article engages readers in transitioning their thinking about early childhood gifted education from a traditional…

  20. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  1. Preschool Teachers' Constructions of Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning preschool teachers' constructions of early reading has potential to influence teachers' curricular decisions and classroom practice. Six preschool teachers in North Texas were interviewed in regard to what they think about early reading and how they develop these understandings or constructions. The systematic, inductive…

  2. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  3. Early Intervention: Key Issues from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Helen

    1998-01-01

    As the preschool and early years of schooling were becoming the focus of increasing attention, the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department commissioned a review of United Kingdom and international literature on the use of early intervention schemes for disadvantaged students. The resulting review presents evidence on the most appropriate…

  4. Early Childhood Training Workbook [and Videos].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Barrington, IL.

    This early childhood training workbook and three accompanying video series provide instruction for early childhood caregivers and teachers in the areas of guidance and discipline, math, and diversity. The video series "Guidance and Discipline" demonstrates the ways in which teachers help children become self disciplined. The three videos…

  5. Early Marriage in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Stokes, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Despite drastic changes in the American family, a significant minority of Americans marry early. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,165), this study evaluates the prevalence and antecedents of early marriage in the United States. The results indicate 25% of women and 16% of men marry before age 23, and…

  6. Handbook of Early Literacy Research. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, David K., Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Current research increasingly highlights the role of early literacy in young children's development--and informs practices and policies that promote success among diverse learners. This handbook presents cutting-edge knowledge on all aspects of literacy learning in the early years. Volume 2 provides additional perspectives on important topics…

  7. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published...

  8. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published...

  9. 37 CFR 1.219 - Early publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early publication. 1.219... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.219 Early publication. Applications that will be published under § 1.211 may be published...

  10. Early Childhood Education: Babies Are Everybody's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Kitt

    2009-01-01

    A movement is building that favors creating a national network of high-quality early education and care systems that begin at birth. It makes sense. Promoting positive early learning experiences, healthy caregivers, and a connection between families and community resources can reverse rising rates of expulsion, high school dropouts, and the need…

  11. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  12. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  13. Early Childhood Education: A Workbook for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy; Hartman, Barbara

    This text-workbook is designed to present management theories and principles as they apply to the administration of early childhood programs, and serve as a resource and discussion guide applicable to a wide range of child care situations. Following a brief historical consideration of early childhood education in the United States, information to…

  14. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  15. Brain Mechanisms Involved in Early Visual Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Bernard Z.

    This document presents an analysis of the early attending responses and orienting reactions of infants which can be observed at birth and shortly thereafter. Focus is on one specific orienting reaction, the early direction and maintenance of one's eyes and head toward certain stimuli instead of others. The physical properties of stimuli that…

  16. Publication Opportunities for Early Childhood Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    Recognizing the increasing pressure for publication for early childhood academics and the lack of current information about journals' publication practices, this study surveyed editors of Australian and international journals. The journals were selected through a survey of 43 academic staff of an institute of early childhood education and through…

  17. A Literature Review of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Melanie

    This review of the literature on early childhood intervention with special needs children provides a Canadian perspective on theory, models, program development, effects, and training. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter identifies theoretical influences on early childhood intervention, including the work of Piaget, Bronfenbrenner,…

  18. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  19. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  20. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    PubMed

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  1. Challenges facing early career academic cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Tong, Carl W; Ahmad, Tariq; Brittain, Evan L; Bunch, T Jared; Damp, Julie B; Dardas, Todd; Hijar, Amalea; Hill, Joseph A; Hilliard, Anthony A; Houser, Steven R; Jahangir, Eiman; Kates, Andrew M; Kim, Darlene; Lindman, Brian R; Ryan, John J; Rzeszut, Anne K; Sivaram, Chittur A; Valente, Anne Marie; Freeman, Andrew M

    2014-06-03

    Early career academic cardiologists currently face unprecedented challenges that threaten a highly valued career path. A team consisting of early career professionals and senior leadership members of American College of Cardiology completed this white paper to inform the cardiovascular medicine profession regarding the plight of early career cardiologists and to suggest possible solutions. This paper includes: 1) definition of categories of early career academic cardiologists; 2) general challenges to all categories and specific challenges to each category; 3) obstacles as identified by a survey of current early career members of the American College of Cardiology; 4) major reasons for the failure of physician-scientists to receive funding from National Institute of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute career development grants; 5) potential solutions; and 6) a call to action with specific recommendations. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  3. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  4. Beyond Developmentalism? Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of Multiage Grouping in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Blaise, Mindy; Hammer, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Postdevelopmental perspectives in early childhood education and care increasingly reference alternative ways of understanding learning, growth and development in early learning. Drawing on these ideas, this paper examines research findings which focused on early childhood teachers' understandings of multiage grouping. The findings suggested that…

  5. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…

  6. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  7. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citations, after duplicates were removed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and following two screening processes, 135 studies were retained for detailed abstraction and analysis. A total of 42 variables were associated with obesity in adulthood; however, of these, only seven variables may be considered as potential early markers of obesity based on the reported associations. Possible early markers of obesity included maternal smoking and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Probable early markers of obesity included maternal body mass index, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and father's employment (a proxy measure for SES in many studies). Health promotion programmes/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. PMID:22171945

  8. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  9. Exploring Equity in Early Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Heather L.; Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines how postsecondary practitioners are encouraged to work collaboratively with child welfare agencies and other community-based organizations to identify and implement culturally responsive supports for former foster youth to promote early academic achievement.

  10. Early outreach: career awareness for health professions.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, S V

    1983-01-01

    "Early outreach" may be defined as a long-term, talent-development strategy designed to prepare a well qualified pool of disadvantaged and underrepresented minority applicants for entry into health professions schools, particularly medical schools. The concept of early outreach is to prepare, motivate, and educate talented, economically disadvantaged junior high or secondary school students to gain the necessary academic qualifications to make high school graduation, college attendance, and health careers a reality. In this paper the author defines the problem to which early outreach is addressed and discussed the contextual and historical background of the concept. A number of programs at the Health Sciences Center at the University of Illinois at Chicago designed and implemented to provide a model to achieve the concept of early outreach are described.

  11. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    PubMed

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  13. Early Infantile Autism and Autistic Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Krevelen, D. Arn

    1971-01-01

    The paper tries to assign to autistic psychopathy a definite place in psychiatric nosology and to delineate sharply the differences between the essential characteristics of it and of early infantile autism. (Author)

  14. Early LROC Views of Lunar 'Heritage' Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stooke, P. J.

    2010-03-01

    Early LROC images show some old hardware locations including Apollo and Surveyor sites. The images are used to improve EVA traverse maps and to identify the discarded Surveyor 3 retro-rocket. Future opportunities to observe other items are discussed.

  15. Early caregiving and physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Lemery, Kathryn S

    2004-05-01

    Inadequate early caregiving has been associated with risks of stress-related psychological and physical illness over the life span. Dysregulated physiological stress responses may represent a mechanism linking early caregiving to health outcomes. This paper reviews evidence linking early caregiving to physiological responses that can increase vulnerability to stress-related illness. A number of high-risk family characteristics, including high conflict, divorce, abuse, and parental psychopathology, are considered in the development of stress vulnerability. Three theoretical pathways linking caregiving to physiological stress responses are outlined: genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive-affective. Exciting preliminary evidence suggests that early caregiving can impact long-term physiological stress responses. Directions for future research in this area are suggested.

  16. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E.; Bridge, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a “visual” subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. PMID:25673746

  17. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Robert F; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S; Cordasco, Frank A; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S; Myer, Gregory D; Nissen, Carl W; Philippon, Marc J; Provencher, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Think tank, roundtable discussion. The primary outcome of this think tank was that there is no evidence that young children will benefit from early sport specialization in the majority of sports. They are subject to overuse injury and burnout from concentrated activity. Early multisport participation will not deter young athletes from long-term competitive athletic success. Youth advocates, parents, clinicians, and coaches need to work together with the sport governing bodies to ensure healthy environments for play and competition that do not create long-term health issues yet support athletic competition at the highest level desired.

  18. Supporting State Systems of Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2011-11-02

    House - 11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. The Early Antiproton Work [Nobel Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, O.

    1959-12-15

    Early work on the antiproton, particularly that part which led to the first paper on the subject, is described. Conclusions that can be drawn purely from the existence of the antiproton are discussed. (W.D.M.)

  20. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  1. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  2. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  4. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  5. High School Biology: The Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)

  6. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  7. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management.

    PubMed

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  8. Early Warnings for Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matland, Marc A.

    1976-01-01

    This articles summarizes the National Planning Association's (NPA) experience in its initial efforts to develop an early warning system to anticipate job openings generated in local communities by large Federal procurement contracts. (WL)

  9. AOSSM Early Sport Specialization Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    LaPrade, Robert F.; Agel, Julie; Baker, Joseph; Brenner, Joel S.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Côté, Jean; Engebretsen, Lars; Feeley, Brian T.; Gould, Daniel; Hainline, Brian; Hewett, Timothy E.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Kocher, Mininder S.; Myer, Gregory D.; Nissen, Carl W.; Philippon, Marc J.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early sport specialization is not a requirement for success at the highest levels of competition and is believed to be unhealthy physically and mentally for young athletes. It also discourages unstructured free play, which has many benefits. Purpose: To review the available evidence on early sports specialization and identify areas where scientific data are lacking. Study Design: Think tank, roundtable discussion. Results: The primary outcome of this think tank was that there is no evidence that young children will benefit from early sport specialization in the majority of sports. They are subject to overuse injury and burnout from concentrated activity. Early multisport participation will not deter young athletes from long-term competitive athletic success. Conclusion: Youth advocates, parents, clinicians, and coaches need to work together with the sport governing bodies to ensure healthy environments for play and competition that do not create long-term health issues yet support athletic competition at the highest level desired. PMID:27169132

  10. 76 FR 77537 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP), is exercising its authority under the ERRP regulations at 45... for ERRP as of May 6, 2011. II. Provisions of This Notice CMS is exercising our authority under 45 CFR...

  11. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  12. Alchemy--A History of Early Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of alchemy including personalities and methods. Discusses the philosophy associated with various early chemists and alchemists. Attempts to show that it was not unreasonable for ancient alchemists to believe in the possibility of transmutation. (CW)

  13. Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... left the Congress and starting working as a healthcare consultant, when I finally decided to have a ...

  14. The Early Days of Polymer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, H.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes research studies made early in this century in the fields of cellulose, starch, proteins, and rubber. Included is a description of factors which give rise to the concept of very long, chain-like molecules. (CC)

  15. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    PubMed

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  16. Performance of the engineering analysis and data system 2 common file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debrunner, Linda S.

    1993-01-01

    The Engineering Analysis and Data System (EADS) was used from April 1986 to July 1993 to support large scale scientific and engineering computation (e.g. computational fluid dynamics) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The need for an updated system resulted in a RFP in June 1991, after which a contract was awarded to Cray Grumman. EADS II was installed in February 1993, and by July 1993 most users were migrated. EADS II is a network of heterogeneous computer systems supporting scientific and engineering applications. The Common File System (CFS) is a key component of this system. The CFS provides a seamless, integrated environment to the users of EADS II including both disk and tape storage. UniTree software is used to implement this hierarchical storage management system. The performance of the CFS suffered during the early months of the production system. Several of the performance problems were traced to software bugs which have been corrected. Other problems were associated with hardware. However, the use of NFS in UniTree UCFM software limits the performance of the system. The performance issues related to the CFS have led to a need to develop a greater understanding of the CFS organization. This paper will first describe the EADS II with emphasis on the CFS. Then, a discussion of mass storage systems will be presented, and methods of measuring the performance of the Common File System will be outlined. Finally, areas for further study will be identified and conclusions will be drawn.

  17. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  18. Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Archive Home Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings share Posted on December 6, 2013 | Assessment and Early Restoration Restoration Area Title: Phase III Early on the draft plan for the third phase of Early Restoration, which proposes more than $625 million in

  19. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  20. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    PubMed

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.