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Sample records for early allergic contact

  1. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  2. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Laguna, C; de la Cuadra, J; Martín-González, B; Zaragoza, V; Martínez-Casimiro, L; Alegre, V

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common problem in the general population, although its prevalence appears to be underestimated. We reviewed cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our dermatology department over a 7-year period with a view to identifying the allergens responsible, the frequency of occurrence of these allergens, and the cosmetic products implicated. Using the database of the skin allergy department, we undertook a search of all cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our department from January 2000 through October 2007. In this period, patch tests were carried out on 2,485 patients, of whom 740 were diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and the cause was cosmetics in 202 of these patients (170 women and 32 men), who accounted for 27.3 % of all cases. A total of 315 positive results were found for 46 different allergens. Allergens most often responsible for contact dermatitis in a cosmetics user were methylisothiazolinone (19 %), paraphenylenediamine (15.2 %), and fragrance mixtures (7.8 %). Acrylates were the most common allergens in cases of occupational disease. Half of the positive results were obtained with the standard battery of the Spanish Group for Research Into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies (GEIDAC). The cosmetic products most often implicated among cosmetics users were hair dyes (18.5 %), gels/soaps (15.7 %), and moisturizers (12.7 %). Most patients affected were women. Preservatives, paraphenylenediamine, and fragrances were the most frequently detected cosmetic allergens, in line with previous reports in the literature. Finally, in order to detect new cosmetic allergens, cooperation between physicians and cosmetics producers is needed.

  6. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to nitromethane.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kelli G; Fowler, Joseph F

    2002-12-01

    Nitromethane has wide industrial and commercial application as a polar solvent for adhesives and acrylics as well as explosive fuel. Allergic contact dermatitis to this chemical has not been described previously. The authors documented allergic contact hand dermatitis in 4 coworkers who similarly handled an adhesive solvent containing nitromethane. All 4 cases were confirmed by patch testing and resolved after allergen avoidance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA)

  7. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  8. Contact allergic gastritis: an underdiagnosed entity?

    PubMed Central

    Pföhler, Claudia; Körner, Rebecca; Vogt, Thomas; Müller, Cornelia S L

    2012-01-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to bridges and crowns that had been implanted several weeks back. Since implantation, the patient had suffered from gastrointestinal complaints (including stomach pain). Gastroscopy showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to: gold sodium thiosulphate; manganese (II) chloride; nickel (II) sulphate; palladium chloride; vanadium (III) chloride and zirconium (IV) chloride. The crowns and bridge contained gold, palladium and zirconium chloride, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy against the components of artificial dentition seemed to be the cause of gastritis. PMID:23192576

  9. Allergic manifestations of contact lens wearing.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    Contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) is a common ocular allergic disease in contact lens wearers. In its more severe form, it can cause giant papillary conjunctivitis, resulting in contact lens intolerance and the need to discontinue the use of contact lenses. This review presents the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management guidelines of this common disorder. Different types of contact lenses are associated with differences in the severity of CLPC. Refitting patients with silicone hydrogel contact lenses or with daily disposable contact lenses may improve the signs and symptoms of CLPC. The recent introduction of the topical immunomodulatory agent tacrolimus in other severe allergic eye diseases may apply in suppressing the allergic inflammation in CLPC as well. CLPC is a common ocular disorder in contact lens wearers, with a significant impact on the quality of vision. It should be promptly recognized by healthcare practitioners and managed by modifications of the types and wearing schedules of contact lenses, as well as novel treatment options with topical immunomodulators.

  10. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Allergic contact hobby dermatitis from turpentine.

    PubMed

    Barchino-Ortiz, L; Cabeza-Martínez, R; Leis-Dosil, V M; Suárez-Fernández, R M; Lázaro-Ochaita, P

    2008-01-01

    Turpentine is an oleoresin obtained from various species of pine. It contains a volatile oil (oil of turpentine) which is responsible for its properties and this is the form generally used. Opportunity for contact with turpentine is widespread. It is universally used as a solvent to dissolve and thin lacquers, varnishes and paints. It is also an ingredient in many liniments and cold remedies. Turpentine is regarded as both a local irritant and a sensitizer. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis in painters, mechanics, shoe repairers and home decorators have been reported. We report a case of a non-professional painter who developed a contact allergic dermatitis due to his exposure to turpentine while doing oil-painting as a hobby. Dermatitis is one of the biggest dangers of working with art materials and occupational contact dermatitis is often detected on the hands of the painters. Solvents are indispensable and turpentine is the most important and the traditional one used in oil-painting. Contact allergy to oil of turpentine was reported to have become rare in Europe but over the last few years, increased rates of turpentine sensitization have been reported.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Mikov, Ivan; Turkalj, Ivan; Jovanović, Marina

    2011-06-01

    Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine

    2002-03-01

    We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.

  17. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    PubMed

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. An epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis due to epilating products.

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Armingaud, P; Avenel-Audran, M; Begon-Bagdassarian, I; Constandt, L; Giordano-Labadie, F; Girardin, P; Coz, C J L E; Milpied-Homsi, B; Nootens, C; Pecquet, C; Tennstedt, D; Vanhecke, E

    2002-08-01

    Over a period of 19 months, 33 cases of acute allergic contact dermatitis from Veet epilating waxes and/or the accompanying tissue (Reckitt Benckiser, Massy, France) were observed in France and Belgium. The lesions started on the legs and spread to other parts of the body, especially the face, and were sometimes so severe that hospitalization and/or systemic corticosteroids were required. Primary sensitization occurred as early as after the first application in several patients. Patch tests were performed in 26 of the patients and produced strong positive reactions to the tissue (25 times) and/or the wax (13 times). The allergenic culprits in the wax were modified-colophonium derivatives (colophonium in the standard series testing negatively in all except 4 patients), while methoxy PEG-22/dodecyl glycol copolymer and to a lesser degree lauryl alcohol turned out to be the main causal allergens in the tissue.

  20. Methotrexate use in allergic contact dermatitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Koppes, Sjors A; Engebretsen, Kristiane A; Agner, Tove; Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Berents, Teresa; Brandner, Johanna; Brans, Richard; Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Hummler, Edith; Jakasa, Ivone; Jurakić-Tončic, Ružica; John, Swen M; Khnykin, Denis; Molin, Sonja; Holm, Jan O; Suomela, Sari; Thierse, Hermann-Josef; Kezic, Sanja; Martin, Stefan F; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-07-01

    Contact sensitization is common and affects up to 20% of the general population. The clinical manifestation of contact sensitization is allergic contact dermatitis. This is a clinical expression that is sometimes difficult to distinguish from other types of dermatitis, for example irritant and atopic dermatitis. Several studies have examined the pathogenesis and severity of allergic contact dermatitis by measuring the absence or presence of various biomarkers. In this review, we provide a non-systematic overview of biomarkers that have been studied in allergic contact dermatitis. These include genetic variations and mutations, inflammatory mediators, alarmins, proteases, immunoproteomics, lipids, natural moisturizing factors, tight junctions, and antimicrobial peptides. We conclude that, despite the enormous amount of data, convincing specific biomarkers for allergic contact dermatitis are yet to be described. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  3. Chemokine Signaling in Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Toward Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2018-06-22

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that results in significant cost and morbidity. Despite its high prevalence, therapeutic options are limited. Allergic contact dermatitis is regulated primarily by T cells within the adaptive immune system, but also by natural killer and innate lymphoid cells within the innate immune system. The chemokine receptor system, consisting of chemokine peptides and chemokine G protein-coupled receptors, is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes such as ACD. Specific chemokine signaling pathways are selectively up-regulated in ACD, most prominently CXCR3 and its endogenous chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Recent research demonstrates that these 3 chemokines are not redundant and indeed activate distinct intracellular signaling profiles such as those activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestin adapter proteins. Such differential signaling provides an attractive therapeutic target for novel ACD therapies and other inflammatory diseases.

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Due to Paraphenylenediamine: An Update.

    PubMed

    Encabo Durán, B; Romero-Pérez, D; Silvestre Salvador, J F

    2018-02-26

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is an amine that is mainly used as an ingredient in hair dyes and henna tattoos. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to PPD is increasing, particularly in younger patients. In this article, we review the main sources of PPD and the substances with which it can interact and present a practical algorithm for diagnosing and treating suspected cases of PPD allergy. Copyright © 2018 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis to rubber.

    PubMed

    Fernadez, Ohalis Luanda; Canosa, Juliana Macedo; Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a healthcare professional that developed type I and IV hypersensitivity reactions to rubber. During the clinical examination the patient showed eczematous dermatitis of the hands. The patch test was positive for thiuram group and an open test with a piece of glove was positive after 20 minutes of exposure. Allergen-specific IgE test (RAST) was relevant. Reactions to rubber allergens are frequent among healthcare professionals due to constant contact with this material.

  6. [Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Kręcisz, Beata; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males) was examined in 2011-2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) were performed. Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females) showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6%) patients, including 34 (11%) females and 13 (13.4%) males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer--4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males) while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2%) were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4%) participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6%) of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group) patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Wound-Related Allergic/Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Ladizinski, Barry; Saraiya, Ami; Lee, Kachiu C; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy; Maibach, Howard

    2016-06-01

    To provide information from a literature review about the prevention, recognition, and treatment for contact dermatitis. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify signs and symptoms of and diagnostic measures for contact dermatitis.2. Identify causes and risks for contact dermatitis.3. Select appropriate treatment for contact dermatitis and its prevention. Contact dermatitis to wound care products is a common, often neglected problem. A review was conducted to identify articles relevant to contact dermatitis.A PubMed English-language literature review was conducted for appropriate articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.Contact dermatitis is both irritant (80% of cases) or allergic (20% of cases). Frequent use of potential contact allergens and impaired barrier function of the skin can lead to rising sensitization in patients with chronic wounds. Common known allergens to avoid in wound care patients include fragrances, colophony, lanolin, and topical antibiotics.Clinicians should be cognizant of the allergens in wound care products and the potential for sensitization. All medical devices, including wound dressings, adhesives, and bandages, should be labeled with their complete ingredients, and manufacturers should be encouraged to remove common allergens from wound care products, including topical creams, ointments, and dressings.

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by coconut fatty acids diethanolamide.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suuronen, Katri

    2014-03-01

    Coconut fatty acids diethanolamide [cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA)] is a surface-active derivative of coconut oil that is used in industrial, household and cosmetic products. Cocamide DEA contact allergy has been reported relatively seldom. To describe cocamide DEA-positive patients in an occupational dermatology clinic. We retrieved allergic reactions to cocamide DEA from test files, and studied the occupation, exposure, concomitant allergic reactions and diagnoses of the positive patients. Of the 2572 patients tested, 25 (1%) had an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA. Nineteen patients were occupational cases, and 11 worked in the metal industry. Hand cleansers constituted the main source of sensitization (n = 17). Other sources included two dishwashing liquids, one barrier cream, and one metalworking fluid. Three patients reacted to monoethanolamine and 2 to diethanolamine. Diethanolamine is an impurity of cocamide DEA, and can be found in cocamide DEA-containing products and in commercial patch test substances, which may explain some concomitant reactions. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively common in patients with occupational hand dermatitis, and mainly derives from hand cleansers. However, exposure to detergents, metalworking fluids and barrier creams must also be taken into account. Concomitant reactions to ethanolamines are possible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and benzocaine.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Juan Luis Anguita; Morera, Blanca Sáenz de San Pedro; Colom, Luis Palacios; Gálvez Lozano, José Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl chloride (EC) or chloroethane (C2H5Cl) is a volatile halogenated hydrocarbon. Reports of contact sensitivity to this gas are infrequent considering its widespread use as a local anesthetic, and it may have a relatively low sensitization potential. Benzocaine is another local anesthetic derivative of the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid, previously reported as a causative agent of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We present a patient who developed a generalized itching dermatitis after the application of a medical aerosol containing EC, as well as facial angioedema and tongue swelling after the local application of benzocaine. Patch-test results were positive for EC "as is" (++), benzocaine 5% in petrolatum (++), and caine mix (+++) at 96 hours (day 4). The possibility of cross-sensitization between both drugs would not have been chemically plausible. We report the first published clinical case of contact allergic dermatitis from two chemically unrelated local anesthetics (EC and benzocaine) in the same patient.

  12. Allergic airborne contact dermatitis from essential oils used in aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Korting, H C

    1995-03-01

    Contact allergy to various essential oils used in aromatherapy was demonstrated on patch testing in a 53-year-old patient suffering from relapsing eczema resistant to therapy on various uncovered parts of the skin, in particular the scalp, neck and hands. Sensitization was due to previous exposure to lavender, jasmine and rosewood. Laurel, eucalyptus and pomerance also produced positive tests, although there was no hint of previous exposure. A diagnosis of allergic airborne contact dermatitis was thus established. On topical and systemic glucocorticoid treatment (peroral methylprednisolone at an initial dose of 60 mg/day) the skin lesions eventually resolved. Due to persistence of the volatile essential oils in the patient's home after a year-long use of aroma lamps, complete renewal of the interior of the patient's flat was considered essential. Due to changing self-medication habits, with increasing orientation to 'natural' modes of treatment, increasing numbers of such sensitizations might be on the horizon.

  13. Allergic contact reaction to antiseptics in very young children.

    PubMed

    Darrigade, A S; Léauté-Labrèze, C; Boralevi, F; Taïeb, A; Milpied, B

    2018-06-19

    Contact dermatitis from topical antiseptic use has been reported mostly in adults but rare cases of chlorhexidine contact dermatitis have also been described in young children. To evaluate contact allergic dermatitis to antiseptics in young children. The children mostly referred for a misdiagnose (cellulitis) were patch tested with a selection of the European baseline series, an antiseptics series and the personal topical products used. 14 children (8 boys, 6 girls) received a diagnosis of contact dermatitis to antiseptics between May 2010 and December 2017. The mean age at diagnosis was 38 months (8 months to 8 years), 3 children only had a personal history of atopy. Chlorhexidine gluconate was positive in 7 cases, benzalkonium chloride in 8 cases, and in 4 cases both allergens were positive. This small case series confirm that both chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride are implicated in contact dermatitis from antiseptic use in the pediatric population. We emphasize the initial misdiagnose of these patients, the very young age of the children, and the allergenic potential of common antiseptics in non-atopic children. We hypothesize that the systematic use of antiseptics for umbilical cord care could be responsible for the sensitization in newborns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Acrylate and methacrylate contact allergy and allergic contact disease: a 13-year review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Ashley; Gazzani, Paul; Thompson, Donna A

    2016-09-01

    (Meth)acrylates are important causes of contact allergy and allergic contact disease, such as dermatitis and stomatitis, with new and emerging sources resulting in changing clinical presentations. To identify the (meth)acrylates that most commonly cause allergic contact disease, highlight their usefulness for screening, and examine their relationship with occupational and clinical data. A retrospective review of results from patch tests performed between July 2002 and September 2015, in one tertiary Cutaneous Allergy Unit, was performed A series of 28 (meth)acrylates was applied to 475 patients. Results were positive in 52 cases, with occupational sources being identified in 24. Industrial exposures and acrylic nails were responsible for 13 and 10 cases, respectively, with wound dressings being implicated in 7. We found that four individual (meth)acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate, and ethyl acrylate), if used as a screening tool, could have identified 47 (90.4%) of our positive cases. Our 13-year experience indicates a changing landscape of (meth)acrylate contact allergy and allergic contact disease, with an observed shift in exposures away from manufacturing and towards acrylic nail sources. Wound dressings are highlighted as emerging sources of sensitization. Larger studies are required to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the four (meth)acrylates proposed for potential screening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis to common ivy (Hedera helix L.)].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, C; Schneider, L A; Hinrichs, R; Staib, G; Weber, L; Weiss, J M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2003-10-01

    Common ivy (Hedera helix L.) is a ubiquitous plant in Europe whose major allergen falcarinol has moderate allergic potential. It is not related to poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.). There are no cross reactions between the allergens of common ivy (falcarinol) and poison ivy (urushiol). Contact with common ivy or falcarinol may lead to sensitization and then a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. There are only few cases described in the literature. We report on a male hobby gardener with appropriate clinical history and positive patch test. The pathogenic mechanism is a type IV reaction following a sensitization exposure. Gardeners and landscape architects with frequent exposure to common ivy and thus a high risk of sensitization should wear appropriate protective clothing.

  16. Pediatric "pet consort dermatitis"-Allergic contact dermatitis from transfer of bronopol from a pet cat.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Dathan; Ridpath, Alyson; Fernandez Faith, Esteban

    2018-06-26

    Consort dermatitis refers to an allergic contact dermatitis caused by transfer from an intimate contact to a sensitized patient. Although close contact with other humans most commonly provokes consort dermatitis, pets have been the source in a minority of cases. We present a unique case of transfer dermatitis from a patient's cat litter to her forearms. Pediatric dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of consort or "transfer" allergic contact dermatitis from pets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Quality of life in patients with allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kadyk, Deana L; McCarter, Kevin; Achen, Fritz; Belsito, Donald V

    2003-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a common dermatological disorder, often results in ongoing disease and disability. However, relatively little has been published quantifying the quality of life (QoL) of patients with ACD. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of ACD on QoL and explore prognostic factors that influence outcomes. A total of 428 subjects with ACD were, at varying times after diagnosis, mailed a QoL questionnaire modified from Skindex-16 to include an additional 5 items pertaining to occupational impact. The QoL scores were correlated with subject demographics, disease characteristics, and management techniques to ascertain factors that impact QoL in subjects with ACD. The response rate was 35%, with 149 subjects returning the postal survey. Responders reported being bothered most by itching, skin irritation, and persistence of the condition. Of the four scales included in the QoL questionnaire, the emotions scale had the worst composite QoL score, followed by symptoms, functioning, and occupational impact. Patients with ACD of the face were significantly more bothered by the appearance of their skin. Hand involvement and occupationally related ACD were associated with worse QoL scores within the occupational impact and functioning scales. Subjects that had changed jobs because of ACD had more severe QoL impairment than any other group analyzed, with significantly worse scores on 17 of the 21 QoL items. A history of atopic eczema seemed to impart improved outcomes on patients with ACD, and these subjects were less worried about being fired from their jobs. Subjects diagnosed by patch testing more than 36 months after disease onset seemed to have worse QoL scores than those diagnosed earlier in the natural history of the disease. Patients diagnosed by patch testing within the last 6 months had the worst QoL scores, while the best outcomes were reported in subjects patch tested 6 to 12 months ago. A slight decline in QoL was observed 12

  18. Influence of skin peeling procedure in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in patients who have previously undergone skin peeling has been rarely studied. We compared the frequency of positive patch test (PT) reactions in a patient group with a history of peeling, to that of a control group with no history of peeling. The Korean standard series and cosmetic series were performed on a total of 262 patients. 62 patients had previously undergone peeling and 200 patients did not. The frequency of positive PT reactions on Korean standard series was significantly higher in the peeling group compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05, chi-square test). However, the most commonly identified allergens were mostly cosmetic-unrelated allergens. The frequency of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the peeling group was higher than that of the control group, but lacked statistical significance. The frequency (%) of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the high-frequency peel group was higher than that of the low-frequency group, but lacked statistical significance. It appears peeling may not generally affect the development of contact sensitization. Further work is required focusing on the large-scale prospective studies by performing a PT before and after peeling.

  19. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2018-01-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation. PMID:29723367

  20. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos

    2018-03-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation.

  1. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K.; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E.; Ryan, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0–9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. PMID:26715608

  2. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Maya K; LeMasters, Grace K; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E; Assa'ad, Amal H; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E; Ryan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0-9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  4. Risk factors and common contact allergens in facial allergic contact dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Iamphonrat, Thanawan; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Facial dermatitis is commonly encountered in dermatologic practice. It is sometimes difficult to manage because its causative factors may be multiple and difficult to diagnose. This study was designed to identify the characteristics, patch test results, and final diagnoses of facial dermatitis patients who were referred to a contact dermatitis clinic and to identify factors associated with facial allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We retrospectively reviewed case records of facial dermatitis patients who underwent patch testing at the clinic during the period from July 2006 to June 2011. Of the 891 patients patch-tested, 244 (27.4%) had facial dermatitis. Female patients were 9.1 times more predominant than male patients. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 37.3 ± 14.8 years. A total of 199 (81.6%) patients demonstrated at least one positive reaction to a patch test, 66.7% of which were clinically relevant. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 45.5% of patients. Independent factors predisposing towards facial dermatitis were female sex, having a previous history of cosmetic allergy, a positive patch test reaction to hairdressing product-related allergens, and a positive allergic reaction to preservative allergens. The prevalence of facial dermatitis was 27.4%. Almost half of all patients with facial dermatitis demonstrated ACD. Factors associated with facial ACD were female gender, a history of cosmetic allergy, and positive patch test reactions to hairdressing product-related allergens and preservatives. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Polysensitization and individual susceptibility to allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Amy L; Schmotzer, Brian; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with allergic contact dermatitis to 1 antigen have been shown to be at increased risk of developing delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to additional antigens. Both environmental and genetic factors likely influence the risk of sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine whether polysensitization occurs at a higher frequency than would be expected based on chance and whether polysensitization occurs more often in subsets of patients with hand involvement and atopic dermatitis. From a database of patch test results from a single practitioner, the probability of having positive reactions to 3 or more unrelated allergens was calculated under the assumption that positive reactions are independent and compared with the observed proportion having positive reactions to 3 or more unrelated allergens. The analysis was repeated excluding patients with leg involvement as a proxy for venous insufficiency dermatitis. The proportion of patients from the polysensitized and nonpolysensitized cohorts with either hand involvement or a history of atopic dermatitis was also calculated. Polysensitization occurs more often than expected based on chance. Polysensitized patients were more likely to have hand dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis was not significantly associated with polysensitization in this analysis. Polysensitized individuals may represent a phenotype with increased genetic susceptibility to sensitization.

  6. Cement-Induced Chromate Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kridin, Khalaf; Bergman, Reuven; Khamaisi, Mogher; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Weltfriend, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium in cement is a common cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). Analysis of patch test data during 1999 to 2013 was done. Patients with cement-induced chromate OACD filled the Dermatology Life Quality Index, graded 1 to 5. Of 4846 consecutive patients who were patch tested, 146 (3%) were chromate-sensitive. Of 46 (31.5%) who presented with chromate OACD, 27 (59%) had cement-induced chromate OACD. The proportion of chromate-sensitive patients with clinically relevant cement exposure increased from 7.7% in 2002 to 2004 to 28.7% in 2011 to 2013 (P = 0.04). The median age of presentation was younger than for other chromate-sensitive patients (32 vs 42 years). Hand eczema (88.9%) was the most frequent clinical presentation. Of the 27 with cement-induced chromate OACD, 21 (77.8%) had ongoing dermatitis at the time of the review. Although 14/27 (51.9%) changed their occupation to avoid exposure to cement, symptoms persisted in 9/14 (64.3%). Prolonged exposure to cement before development of symptoms was associated with chronicity. All the symptomatic patients experienced at least a moderate effect on their quality of life (grade 3 or higher on the Dermatology Life Quality Index). We recommend the adoption of the European legislation in Israel, to reduce the prevalence of chromate OACD from cement.

  7. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Francalanci, S; Sertoli, A; Giorgini, S; Pigatto, P; Santucci, B; Valsecchi, R

    2000-10-01

    The present work reports the results of a multicentre study of toothpaste allergic contact cheilitis (TACC) conducted by GIRDCA (Gruppo Italiano Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto e Ambientali). The study examined 54 patients with eczematous lesions on the lips, the possible cause of which was suspected to be the use of toothpastes. Patch tests were conducted with a standard series, a specially-targeted series (toothpaste cheilitis series, TCS), and with suspected toothpaste(s). A stop-restart test (SRT) was carried out with these, together with a use test to identify possible alternative products. The TCS produced 17 positive reactions in 13 patients, the most frequent being to spearmint oil. Of the 54 patients, 5 displayed positive reactions only to the TCS. The patch tests with toothpaste produced positive reactions in 11/32 patients, the SRT a positive response in 10/12 cases. The diagnosis of TACC was confirmed in 15/54 patients. Alternative products were identified for 5 patients. In conclusion, the allergens most frequently responsible for TACC were the flavourings, and the additional series proved to be useful in many cases (together with patch tests with toothpastes and the SRT) for correct diagnosis and to initiate effective prevention.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from color film developers: clinical and histologic features.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, R R; Cockerell, C J; Belsito, D; Ostreicher, R

    1993-05-01

    We evaluated two patients with allergic contact dermatitis that resulted from exposure to color film developers. A lichenoid eruption developed in one patient, whereas an eruption more characteristic of an acute spongiotic dermatitis developed in the second patient. Histologic findings in the first case were those of a "lichenoid dermatitis" but with features distinct from classic lichen planus. The biopsy specimens from the second patient showed a subacute spongiotic process with a bandlike infiltrate suggestive of an evolving lichenoid process. Contact allergy to color developers may result in eruptions similar to lichen planus. This process appears to evolve from an acute spongiotic dermatitis in its early phase to a lichenoid dermatitis in fully developed and more chronic forms. Although the histologic features are those of a "lichenoid" dermatitis, some features, such as the presence of spongiosis, eosinophils, and a less intense inflammatory infiltrate, may enable distinction between lichenoid allergic contact dermatitis and true lichen planus. In addition, clinicopathologic correlation with patch test results should permit accurate diagnosis in most cases.

  9. Antigen-Specific Induction of Osteopontin Contributes to the Chronification of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Anne M.; Renkl, Andreas C.; Schulz, Guido; Uebele, Tanja; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Liaw, Lucy; Kon, Shigeyuki; Uede, Toshimitsu; Weiss, Johannes M.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a T cell-mediated immune response, which in its relapsing chronic form is of high socioeconomic impact. The phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) has chemotactic and Th1 cytokine functions and in various models is essential for robust T cell-mediated immunity. Here we demonstrate that OPN is abundantly expressed by both effector T cells and keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis lesions. T cells from nickel-allergic donors secrete high levels of OPN following antigen-specific stimulation. OPN may substitute for missing IFN-γ secretion in T effector cells because low IFN-γ-producing T cell clones secrete high levels of OPN, and OPN down-modulates their interleukin-4 expression. Furthermore, interferon-γ from T effector cells augments OPN in allergic contact dermatitis by inducing OPN in keratinocytes, which in turn polarizes dendritic cells and attracts inflammatory cells. In the murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model for allergic contact dermatitis, OPN is strongly induced in antigen-specific proliferating T cells, and OPN null mice display a reduced chronic CHS inflammatory response due to a decreased influx of effector T cells. Importantly, because of its function for chronic allergic contact dermatitis, OPN may well be a therapeutic target, because anti-OPN antibody treatment in part suppresses established chronic CHS. PMID:20008129

  10. [Main Causes of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Three Year Study in the Center of Portugal].

    PubMed

    Pestana, Catarina; Gomes, Raquel; Pinheiro, Vítor; Gouveia, Miguel; Antunes, Isabel; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2016-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis, along with irritant contact dermatitis and immediate contact reactions, contact urticarial, are the most frequent dermatological occupational disease, but seldom reported to the National authorities. We performed a 3-year retrospective study at the allergology section in the Dermatology Clinic of the University Hospital of Coimbra to evaluate the main occupations diagnosed as occupational allergic contact dermatitis, most common allergens and the effect of the modification of the work station in the evolution of the disease. During 2012 - 2014 among the 941 patch tested patients, 77 (8.2%) were diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis, with 169 positive patch tests related to occupational exposure, 55 detected within the baseline and 114 in complementary test series. In most cases allergic contact dermatitis involved the hands (88.3%), main professional activities were nail estheticians and hairdressers due to the manipulation of (meth)acrylates, the most common allergen in the study. After the diagnosis, 27.3% abandoned the work, 23.4% changed the work station, 49% avoided exposure to the responsible allergen. Contact dermatitis resolved in 39% of the patients, improved in 39% but had no change in the remaining 22%. This study, although including only patients from the center of Portugal, evaluates a large sample of patients with different occupations studied with a larger variety of allergens. Apart from classical allergens and professions responsible for occupational allergic contact dermatitis that we found in lower numbers (thiuram mix, paraphenylenodiamine, chromium and cobalt in health care workers, hairdressers and in the building industry), (meth)acrylates tested outside the European and Portuguese Baseline Series were the main cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis, namely in nail estheticians. Methylisothiazolinone, the second more frequent occupational contact allergen in the present study was

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to Grevillea robusta in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Rademaker, Marius

    2009-05-01

    There are a number of reports in the literature of allergic contact dermatitis as a result of exposure to the sawdust and plant parts of Grevillea robusta. While this tree is prevalent in New Zealand, there seems to have been no previous published accounts of contact dermatitis, although anecdotal evidence indicates that such cases may be common. Two brief case reports are provided regarding severe phytodermatitis to G. robusta among professional arborists in New Zealand. As with other common plants capable of inducing allergic contact dermatitis, greater awareness among arborists, orchardists, forestry workers, gardeners, and health professionals will likely result in a reduction of cases.

  12. Mast Cells Limit the Exacerbation of Chronic Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Response to Repeated Allergen Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Rivera, Vladimir-Andrey; Siebenhaar, Frank; Zimmermann, Carolin; Siiskonen, Hanna; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. Ear swelling chronic contact hypersensitivity responses increased markedly, up to 4-fold, in MC-deficient Kit W-sh/W-sh (Sash) and MCPT5-Cre + iDTR + mice compared with wild-type mice. Local engraftment with MCs protected Sash mice from exacerbated ear swelling after repeated oxazolone challenge. Chronic contact hypersensitivity skin of Sash mice exhibited elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-17α, and IL-23, as well as increased accumulation of Ag-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 + tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells. The CD8 + T cell mitogen IL-15, which was increased in oxazolone-challenged skin of Sash mice during the accumulation of cutaneous T RM cells, was efficiently degraded by MCs in vitro. MCs protect from the exacerbated allergic skin inflammation induced by repeated allergen challenge, at least in part, via effects on CD8 + T RM cells. MCs may notably influence the course of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. A better understanding of their role and the underlying mechanisms may lead to better approaches for the treatment of this common, disabling, and costly condition. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. 'Dermatologically tested' baby toilet tissues: a cause of allergic contact dermatitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, An; De Hertog, Sofie; Gladys, Krzysztofa; Vanacker, Hilde; Goossens, An

    2007-08-01

    We describe 4 adults with an allergic contact dermatitis for moist baby toilet tissues, being used either for their personal hygiene or for their babies (children). The allergen proved to be the preservative mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI). Allergic contact dermatitis from moist toilet paper has been infrequently reported but is probably not rare. The cases we describe here have been observed over a short period of 6 months. The question arises if the use of MCI/MI as a preservative, still often used in leave-on products, should not be abandoned from cosmetics.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by titanium screws and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Maki; Nishigawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Youji; Ohe, Go; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2016-07-01

    Titanium has been considered to be a non-allergenic material. However, several studies have reported cases of metal allergy caused by titanium-containing materials. We describe a 69-year-old male for whom significant pathologic findings around dental implants had never been observed. He exhibited allergic symptoms (eczema) after orthopedic surgery. The titanium screws used in the orthopedic surgery that he underwent were removed 1 year later, but the eczema remained. After removal of dental implants, the eczema disappeared completely. Titanium is used not only for medical applications such as plastic surgery and/or dental implants, but also for paints, white pigments, photocatalysts, and various types of everyday goods. Most of the usage of titanium is in the form of titanium dioxide. This rapid expansion of titanium-containing products has increased percutaneous and permucosal exposure of titanium to the population. In general, allergic risk of titanium material is smaller than that of other metal materials. However, we suggest that pre-implant patients should be asked about a history of hypersensitivity reactions to metals, and patch testing should be recommended to patients who have experienced such reactions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Patch testing in Israeli children with suspected allergic contact dermatitis: A retrospective study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zafrir, Yaron; Trattner, Akiva; Hodak, Emmillia; Eldar, Oren; Lapidoth, Moshe; Ben Amitai, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Childhood allergic contact dermatitis is recognized as a significant clinical problem. The objective was to evaluate the rate of positive patch tests in Israeli children with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis, identify possible sex and age differences, compare results with those in Israeli adults, and review pediatric studies in the literature. The study sample included 343 children and adolescents (197 female, 146 male; 1-18 years of age, mean age 11.8 years) with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis who underwent patch testing with a standard pediatric series of 23 allergens at a tertiary medical center from 1999 to 2012. Data on clinical characteristics and test results were collected retrospectively from the medical files. Ninety-eight subjects (28.6%) (75 girls [38.1%], 23 boys [15.8%]) had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent reactions were to nickel sulfate, followed by potassium dichromate and cobalt chloride. Nickel sulfate sensitivity was more common in girls, especially those younger than 3 years and older than 12 years. The prevalence of contact sensitization was similar in subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (50% and 51%, respectively). Nickel is the most common allergen in Israeli children, especially girls. Patch testing should be performed in children with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis regardless of atopic background. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy chemicals: occupations, sensitizing products, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Pesonen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-12-01

    Epoxy products are among the most common causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems. To describe patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy products. Patients with allergic reactions to epoxy chemicals were chosen from test files (January 1991 to June 2014). Only patients with occupational contact allergy to some component of epoxy resin systems were included. We analysed patch test results, occupation, symptoms, and exposure data. We found a total of 209 cases with occupational contact allergy to epoxy chemicals. The largest occupational groups were painters (n = 41), floor layers (n = 19), electrical industry workers (n = 19), tile setters (n = 16), and aircraft industry workers (n = 15). A total of 82% of the patients reacted to DGEBA-R. Diagnosis of the DGEBA-R-negative patients required testing with m-xylylenediamine, N,N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylenedianiline, 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F resin, N,N'-diglycidyl-4-glycidyloxyaniline, isophoronediamine, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, diethylenetriamine, and cresyl glycidyl ether. The hands/upper extremities were most commonly affected (69%), but facial symptoms were also frequent (60%). Allergic contact dermatitis caused by to epoxy products cannot always be diagnosed by the use of commercial test substances. Workplace products need to be tested. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Study of the frequency of allergens in cosmetics components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Bosco, Marcia Regina Miras; Mozer, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common dermatosis, especially in adults and professionals who handle them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to cosmetics' components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis and to identify the main sensitizers related to occupational contact dermatitis. During the period of January 2008 to June 2010, all the patients with a presumptive diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics were selected. The patients were submitted to the patch tests of cosmetics series, composed by ten substances. Among the 147 patients studied sensitization to cosmetics components occurred in 31,29% of the cases, 14 of those (19,18%) equally corresponding to BHT and triethanolamine substances, 13 (17,81%) to ammonium thioglycolate, 09 to sorbic acid (12,33%), 08 to tosilamida (10,95%), 06 to germall (8,22%). The other elements tested showed indices of 5% or less. A higher frequency of contact dermatitis to cosmetics was observed in women and the age most affected was concordant with the age range of greatest professional activity of the population. Allergic contact dermatitis was more frequently associated with Triethanolamine, BHT and ammonium thioglycolate, and the relation with occupational contact dermatitis was discreet.

  18. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and patch test results of leather workers at two Indonesian tanneries.

    PubMed

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Jungbauer, Frank; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2012-11-01

    Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Occupational skin diseases in tannery workers in newly industrialized countries have been reported, but neither the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis nor the skin-sensitizing agents were specifically examined in those studies. To assess the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesian tanneries, identify the causative allergens, and propose a tannery work series of patch test allergens. A cross-sectional study in all workers at two Indonesian tanneries was performed to assess the prevalence of occupational contact dermatitis via a questionnaire-based interview and skin examination. Workers with occupational contact dermatitis were patch tested to identify the causative allergens. Occupational contact dermatitis was suspected in 77 (16%) of the 472 workers. Thirteen (3%) of these 472 workers were confirmed to have occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Potassium dichromate (9.2%), N,N-diphenylguanidine (5.3%), benzidine (3.9%) and sodium metabisulfite (2.6%) were found to be the occupationally relevant sensitizers. The sensitization pattern showed some differences from the data in studies reported from other newly industrial countries. We compiled a 'tannery work series' of allergens for patch testing. A number of these allergens may also be considered for patch testing in patients with (leather) shoe dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents.

  20. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Knowledge of Surgery-Related Allergic Contact Dermatitis among Florida Dermatological Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Panta; Kirsner, Robert S.; Amado, Antoine; Fleming, Lora E.; Nouri, Keyvan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess knowledge base and practice habits of dermatological surgeons regarding surgery-related allergic contact dermatitis. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. The Florida Society of Dermatologic Surgery served as the study group. Participants. Cohort of dermatological surgeons. Measurements. An anonymous, close-ended survey instrument eliciting common surgical practices as well as allergic contact dermatitis knowledge. Results. Among the 45 respondents, 87 percent reported performing surgery more than 10 times per week and only 14 percent of respondents reported using latex-free gloves in their practice. Nearly two-thirds (66%) of respondents reported diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis either among themselves, their surgical staff, and/or patients. Surgeons were noted to use the TRUE Test® to screen for adhesive allergy. While colophony can be found both in adhesive products and on the TRUE Test, the main adhesives found in perisurgical products, acrylates, cannot. Similarly, the TRUE Test does not screen for antiseptics, yet this group of respondents suspected antiseptics nearly one-fourth of the time and used the TRUE Test to screen for them. Lastly, six dermatological surgeons used the TRUE Test to screen for suture allergy. While only two used chromated cat gut (the TRUE Test screens for chromium), the other surgical components are not screened. Conclusion. Education among dermatological surgeons is needed regarding exposure to a potential allergen in the surgical setting and risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:20725578

  2. EAACI position paper for practical patch testing in allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Oranje, Arnold P

    2015-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination, and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold standard diagnostic test. Based on consensus, the EAACI Task Force on Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Children produced this document to provide details on clinical aspects, the standardization of patch test methodology, and suggestions for future research in the field. We provide a baseline list of test allergens to be tested in children with suspected ACD. Additional tests should be performed only on specific indications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Eyelid Dermatitis Caused by Allergic Contact to Acrylates in Artificial Nails

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Jorge; Gonçalves, Rita; Coelho, Pedro; Maio, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increase in cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates, because of the growing popularity of artificial nails. Pathological reactions to artificial nails typically occur on or around the nail area. Eyelid contact dermatitis due to artificial nails is rarely seen, especially in a nonoccupational setting. The authors report the case of a 45-year-old female accountant who developed eyelid dermatitis due to artificial nails. PMID:28603598

  4. Eyelid Dermatitis Caused by Allergic Contact to Acrylates in Artificial Nails.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jorge; Gonçalves, Rita; Coelho, Pedro; Maio, Tiago

    2017-03-13

    Over the past few years, there has been an increase in cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates, because of the growing popularity of artificial nails. Pathological reactions to artificial nails typically occur on or around the nail area. Eyelid contact dermatitis due to artificial nails is rarely seen, especially in a nonoccupational setting. The authors report the case of a 45-year-old female accountant who developed eyelid dermatitis due to artificial nails.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis in preservatives: current standing and future options.

    PubMed

    Deza, Gustavo; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2017-08-01

    Preservatives are well known skin sensitizers and represent one of the main causes of contact allergy. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of contact sensitization induced by preservatives and point future alternatives for products' preservation. Isothiazolinones currently are the most common preservatives responsible of contact allergy in Europe and in the United States, and although some regulatory interventions have been taken place, the current contact allergy outbreak is not yet under control. Despite the ban of methyldibromo glutaronitrile from cosmetics in Europe, sensitized patients are still diagnosed, suggesting other nonregulated sources of exposure. Sensitization rates to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are lower in Europe in comparison with the United States due to stricter regulations regarding their use. Prevalence of contact allergy to parabens has remained stable over the last decades, whereas iodopropynyl butylcarbamate is an emerging allergen with an increasing prevalence. Future alternatives for products' preservation look for a broad antimicrobial spectrum, but with a better safety profile (in terms of sensitization) than the currently available compounds. Given the high rates of sensitization reported over the last years, timely regulatory actions are urgently required for some preservatives that currently represent a concern for public health.

  6. Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G; Fowler, J F; Sheretz, E F; Rietschel, R L

    1995-08-01

    Poison ivy and poison oak are the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis in North America. We investigated whether a new topical lotion containing 5% quaternium-18 bentonite prevents experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis. A single-blind, paired comparison, randomized, multicenter investigation was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of quaternium-18 bentonite lotion in preventing experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis in susceptible volunteers. One hour before both forearms were patch tested with urushiol, the allergenic resin from poison ivy and poison oak, 5% quaternium-18 bentonite lotion was applied on one forearm. The test patches were removed after 4 hours and the sites interpreted for reaction 2, 5, and 8 days later. The difference in reactions between treated and untreated patch test sites was statistically analyzed. Two hundred eleven subjects with a history of allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy and poison oak were studied. One hundred forty-four subjects had positive reactions to urushiol. The test sites pretreated with quaternium-18 bentonite lotion had absent or significantly reduced reactions to the urushiol compared with untreated control sites (p < 0.0001) on all test days. When it occurred, the reaction consistently appeared later on treated than on control sites (p < 0.0001). One occurrence of mild, transient erythema at the application site was the only side effect from the quaternium-18 bentonite lotion. Quaternium-18 bentonite lotion was effective in preventing or diminishing experimentally produced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from a paper mill slimicide containing 2-bromo-4'-hydroxyacetophenone.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-03-01

    Slimicides are biocidal products used in paper mills to inhibit the proliferation of slime-forming microorganisms that would otherwise spoil the paper products. A laboratory technician working at a paper mill had recurring dermatitis related to contact with the slimicide Busan 1130. We report the first case of allergic contact dermatitis from the slimicide Busan 1130. Diagnostic patch testing was performed with solutions of Busan 1130 and its active ingredient, 2-bromo-4'-hydroxyacetophenone (BHAP). Twenty-five controls were also tested. The patient showed a ++ reaction to 0.1% Busan 1130 aqueous solution and 0.01% BHAP in ethanol. All controls were negative. The patient had recurrent allergic contact dermatitis from exposure to BHAP contained in the slimicide Busan 1130.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints.

    PubMed

    Foulds, I S; Koh, D

    1992-02-01

    5 production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). 2 of the workers had concomitant sensitization to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitizer both in persons producing the chemical and among end-users of TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitizing alternatives should be explored.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate in a Danish cohort of 259 selected patients.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Anne; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, Torkil

    2004-08-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate is present in many plants. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate is well known but infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to allyl isothiocyanate in patients with suspected contact dermatitis from vegetables and food. 259 such patients were tested at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark, from 1994 to 2003. Only 2 patients (0.8%) had a positive reaction (+) to allyl isothiocyanate and 43 patients (16.6%) had a ?+ reaction. One of the patients with a positive reaction provided samples of margarine, salad cream, oil and mayonnaise. These were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and a moderate concentration of allyl isothiocyanate (2.5 ppm) was detected in the sample of margarine. This patient was a professional sandwich maker presenting with fingertip dermatitis mimicking 'tulip fingers' or allergic contact dermatitis from garlic and onions. In conclusion, allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate occurs in only a limited number of cases, despite frequent exposure. The large number of ?+ reactions raises the question as to whether the recommended patch test concentration is too low.

  10. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis: a repeated open-application study.

    PubMed

    Yazar, K; Lundov, M D; Faurschou, A; Matura, M; Boman, A; Johansen, J D; Lidén, C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased dramatically. Cosmetic products are one of the major sources of exposure. To examine whether allowed concentrations of MI in cosmetic rinse-off products have the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration in cosmetics, and was used by 10 allergic subjects and all controls. Another liquid soap with 50 ppm MI was used by nine allergic subjects. As the negative control, all subjects used a similar soap that did not contain MI. The repeated open applications proceeded until a positive reaction occurred or up to 21 days. The study was conducted in a randomized and blinded fashion. Ten out of 10 MI-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the soap with 100 ppm and seven out of nine reacted to the 50 ppm soap, while none of the 19 controls had a positive reaction during 21 days of application. No reactivity was seen to the soap without MI. The difference in reactivity to MI between MI-allergic subjects and controls was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test, P ˂ 0.0001). Rinse-off products preserved with 50 ppm MI or more are not safe for consumers. No safe level has yet been identified. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to indium in jewellery: diagnosis made possible through the use of the Contact Allergen Bank Australia.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Simmons, Ivan; Palmer, Amanda; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old woman from Adelaide who developed allergic contact dermatitis to the rare allergen indium in her ring. The allergen was sourced for patch testing using the Contact Allergen Bank Australia (CABA), based at the Skin and Cancer Foundation in Melbourne, and posted to Adelaide. This case illustrates the usefulness of CABA in facilitating patch testing throughout Australia, especially when rare allergens are involved. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. [When sunscreens do not help: allergic contact dermatitis to UV filters].

    PubMed

    Ludriksone, L; Tittelbach, J; Schliemann, S; Goetze, S; Elsner, P

    2018-06-07

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters may cause allergic and more frequently photoallergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a photopach test should always be performed in case of a suspected contact sensitivity to UV filters. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with a recurrent erythema of the face and décolleté after sun exposure despite application of a sunscreen. The (photo)patch test revealed a contact sensitivity to the UV filter butyl-methoxybenzoylmethane. Treatment with a topical glucocorticoid and avoidance of the particular UV filter led to a rapid improvement.

  13. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing.

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Methylisothiazolinone in Residential Wall Paint.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly C; Ljungberg, Linda; Persson, Christina; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus; Warshaw, Erin M

    A 33-year-old woman presented to our clinic for suspected photoallergic contact dermatitis with a recent episode of severe, vesicular dermatitis involving exposed skin and correlating with relocation to a new home. Biopsy results showed spongiotic and lichenoid dermatitis with eosinophils. Patch test results showed a very strong (+++) reaction to methylisothiazolinone (MI), mild (+) reaction to MI/methylchloroisothiazolinone, and no reaction to benzisothiazolinone. These allergens were found in several personal products. However, the patient was suspicious of 4 wall paints recently used in her home. Semiopen patch tests to 3 Behr interior paints showed positive results. Nine controls showed negative results. High-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated MI and benzisothiazolinone in all 4 paints at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 ppm and 290 to 340 ppm, respectively. Although MI has been reported to cause occupational airborne contact dermatitis in European household painters, to our knowledge, this is the first documented case of paint-related MI allergy in the United States.

  15. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic-based medical dressings and adhesives.

    PubMed

    Mestach, Lien; Huygens, Sara; Goossens, An; Gilissen, Liesbeth

    2018-06-11

    Acrylates and methacrylates are acrylic resin monomers that are known to induce skin sensitization as a result of their presence in different materials, such as nail cosmetics, dental materials, printing inks, and adhesives. Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from the use of modern wound dressings containing them has only rarely been reported. To describe 2 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic-based modern medical dressings and/or adhesives. The medical charts of patients observed since 1990 were retrospectively reviewed for (meth)acrylate allergy resulting from contact with such materials, and their demographic characteristics and patch test results were analysed. Two patients were observed in 2014 and 2016 who had presented with positive patch test reactions to several acrylic-based dressings and/or adhesive materials, and to several (meth)acrylates, that is, hydroxyethyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate/epoxy-acrylate, urethane diacrylate, and/or penta-erythritol acrylate. Allergic contact dermatitis needs to be considered in patients with eczematous reactions or delayed healing following the use of acrylic-based modern dressings or adhesives. However, identification of the culprit allergen is hampered by poor cooperation from the producers, so adequate labelling of medical devices is an urgent necessity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling. PMID:25386316

  18. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dubakiene, Ruta; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Butiene, Indre; Sezaite, Indre; Petronyte, Malvina; Vaicekauskaite, Dalia; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558) established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers. PMID:22606067

  19. Atypical pattern of (meth)acrylate allergic contact dermatitis in dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Prasad Hunasehally, R Y; Hughes, T M; Stone, N M

    2012-09-01

    (Meth)acrylates in dental bonding agents are a common source of allergic contact dermatitis in dental professionals. The distribution of the contact dermatitis is commonly on finger tips, but is determined by individual habits as demonstrated by the two case reports in this article. Despite the site of contact dermatitis, the bonding agents are often not suspected as a source of contact allergy due to misconception regarding the protective effect of natural rubber latex gloves. With these case reports, we endeavour to emphasize the inadequacy of the latex gloves in protecting against the (meth)acrylate induced contact allergy and also list the measures a dental professional needs to incorporate in order to minimise the risks of sensitisation to (meth)acrylates.

  20. Treatment of poison ivy/oak allergic contact dermatitis with an extract of jewelweed.

    PubMed

    Long, D; Ballentine, N H; Marks, J G

    1997-09-01

    Jewelweed (Impatiens biflora) is a plant which has been used for centuries for the treatment of poison ivy/oak allergic contact dermatitis. Numerous claims for its effectiveness exist in the lay press, and over-the-counter medicaments containing jewelweed are reputed to be an effective remedy for poison ivy/oak dermatitis. Despite these claims, few scientific studies testing the effectiveness of jewelweed have been performed. Our objective in this pilot study was to test the efficacy of an extract of jewelweed in the treatment of experimentally induced allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy/oak. A randomized, double-blinded, paired comparison investigation was performed. Ten adult volunteers were patch tested to urushiol, the allergenic resin in poison ivy/oak. For each volunteer, one patch test site was treated with an extract prepared from the fresh stems of jewelweed; the remaining site was treated with distilled water to serve as a control. Sites were examined on days 2, 3, 7, and 9 with reactions graded on a numerical scale. All subjects developed dermatitis at each patch test site. There was no statistically significant difference in the objective scores at the sites treated with jewelweed extract versus the distilled water control sites. This study demonstrated that an extract of jewelweed was not effective in the treatment of poison ivy/oak allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    PubMed

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.

  2. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products.

  3. Propolis, Colophony, and Fragrance Cross-Reactivity and Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yiwen; Nedorost, Susan; Scheman, Loren; Scheman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Colophony and propolis are among the complex plant resins used in a wide variety of medicinal and personal care products. A number of studies of colophony, propolis, and fragrance mixes suggest that contact with one of these allergens may increase the risk of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions with additional compounds of significant cross-reactivity. The aims of this study were to determine rates of cross-reactivity between propolis, colophony, and different fragrance mixes and to determine significant cross-reactivity thresholds for which to counsel patient avoidance. Rates of cross-reactivity were calculated from the databases of 2 midwestern US patch testing centers. Rates were calculated both separately and collectively. For patients allergic to colophony, fragrance and propolis may be considered significant cross-reactors. For patients allergic to propolis, fragrance and colophony may be considered significant cross-reactors. Cross-reactions between colophony, propolis, and fragrance mixes are unidirectional so, for patients allergic to fragrance, cross-reaction to propolis or colophony is not significant. Colophony allergy is found in only a small number of fragrance-allergic patients and is not a good indicator for fragrance allergy.

  4. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Kręcisz, Beata

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons). Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers). Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  5. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    PubMed

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. The combined diagnosis of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in a retrospective cohort of 1000 consecutive patients with occupational contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis is an accepted subdiagnosis for hand dermatitis, and it is often considered in a patient with contact dermatitis, a positive and relevant patch test result, and wet work exposure. We therefore hypothesize that it is arbitrary for wet work exposure to be taken into consideration in a patient with newly diagnosed relevant contact allergy. Furthermore, an overestimation of the diagnosis will probably occur if the criteria for wet work exposure are applied correctly, as many occupations have an element of wet work. To find the statistically expected number of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis cases in 1000 patients, and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. One thousand consecutive patients with occupational contact dermatitis from a hospital unit in Denmark were assessed. The expected number of cases with the diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was 0.33%, as compared with the observed number of 6.4%. Females occupied in wet occupations were often diagnosed with combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (p < 0.005). The diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis should be used critically to avoid misclassification, and possible criteria for the diagnosis are proposed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Methylisothiazolinone testing at 2000 ppm: a prevalent sensitizer for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ham, Kaiya; Posso-De Los Rios, Claudia J; Gooderham, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) have been identified as potent allergens. The optimal MI concentration for patch testing for reaction to these agents has not yet been identified, but it has been suggested that testing MI at 2000 ppm may reduce false-negative reactions. The aim of this study was to report allergic reactions to MI and MCI/MI detected in a community dermatology practice setting in Ontario, Canada. The patch test records of patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis seen between October 2007 and June 2014 were reviewed. We compared positive patch testing before and after December 2011 when a higher MI concentration was used (2000 ppm aqueous) in addition to the baseline series MCI/MI at 100 ppm. A total of 794 patient records were reviewed. There were 38 true-positive reactions to MI or MCI/MI. Of these 38 patients, 26 (68%) were female. We detected an overall increase in the rate of positive patch testing to MCI/MI, MI alone, or both from 3.13% to 7.45% when MI concentration was introduced at 2000 ppm aqueous. Occupational differences existed between sexes. The addition of MI at 2000 ppm to our screening series effectively increased the detection of MI-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  8. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  9. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  10. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  11. Pediatric Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Clinical and Epidemiological Study in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, J M; Esteve Martínez, A; Subiabre Ferrer, D; Victoria Martínez, A M; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, J; Zaragoza Ninet, V

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis in children. Underdiagnosis has been observed in some studies, with many cases in which the condition is not suspected clinically and patch tests are not performed. However, the prevalence of pediatric sensitization to allergens has been reported to be as high as 20%, and the diagnosis should therefore be contemplated as a possibility in this age group. We performed a retrospective analysis of the skin allergy database of the Dermatology Department of Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia. Children between 0 and 16 years of age diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis in the previous 15 years (between 2000 and 2015) were included in the analysis. Epidemiological (age, sex, history of atopy) and clinical (site of the lesions, allergen series applied, positive reactions, and their relevance) variables were gathered. Patch tests had been performed on 4,593 patients during the study period. Of these, 265 (6%) were children aged between 0 and 16 years. A positive reaction to at least one of the allergens tested was observed in 144 (54.3%) patients in that group. The allergens most frequently identified were the following (in decreasing order of frequency): thiomersal, cobalt chloride, colophony, paraphenylenediamine, potassium dichromate, mercury, and nickel. The sensitization was considered relevant in 177 (61.3%) cases. More than half of the children studied showed sensitization to 1 or more allergens, with a high percentage of relevant sensitizations. All children with a clinical suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis should be referred for patch testing. As no standardized test series have been developed for this age group, a high level of clinical suspicion and knowledge of the allergens most commonly involved are required when selecting the allergens to be tested. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from epoxy resin in a golf club repairman.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Möller, Halvor; Pontén, Ann

    2008-01-01

    A golfer presented with facial and hand eczema. He had exacerbations of his hand eczema prior to golf tournaments. Being an authorized golf club repairman, he had been working with a two-part glue containing an epoxy resin (ER) based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and the hardener diethylenetriamine (DETA) for approximately 4 years before he developed any skin problems. He was patch-tested with the standard, which contains an ER based on DGEBA (DGEBA-R), epoxy (containing DETA), and rubber glove series and had positive reactions to DGEBA-R only. Other work materials (a latex glove, a golf glove made of leather, and part of the handle of his own golf club "as is" and in a methyl tert-butyl ether extract) were tested, with negative results. Allergic contact dermatitis from ER affects the skin by direct contact; the dermatitis is usually localized to the hands and forearms. If the face and eyelids are involved, the dermatitis may be due to exposure to airborne hardeners or reactive diluents, exposure to airborne dust from residual monomers, or ectopic allergic reactions. Our repairman had sandpapered an old glued surface, which may have led to possible airborne dust formation, thus explaining the facial eczema. Therefore, a worker with contact allergy to ER may continue working provided the skin is protected from contamination.

  13. [Para-phenylenediamine allergic contact dermatitis due to henna tattoos in a child and adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, José María; Esteve Martínez, Altea; Subiabre Ferrer, Daniela; Victoria Martínez, Ana Mercedes; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, Jesús; Zaragoza Ninet, Violeta

    2017-03-01

    Henna tattoos are a very common practice in the adolescent population. Henna is very often admixed with para-phenylenediamine (PPDA) to improve the appearance of the tattoo. PPDA is a potent allergen, and is a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A study was conducted on the results of 726 consecutive children who had been patch tested in the University General Hospital Consortium of Valencia between 1980 and 2015. Almost half (49.7%; (361 cases) of the children had one or more positive patch test findings, with 4.7% (34) being allergic to PPDA. Mean age of patients allergic to PPDA was 12.4 years, and 44.2% were male. There were 2 cases (5.9%) of atopic dermatitis. Of the positive reactions, 73.5% were considered to be current clinically relevant. The sensitisation origin was a Henna tattoo in 50% of cases. PPDA sensitisation is relatively common in the child and adolescent population. The most frequent origin is the performing of Henna tattoos adulterated with PPDA. Adolescents are at the higher risk of developing ACD due to Henna tattoos. Henna tattooing should be strongly discouraged in children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine: the importance of concomitant positive patch test results.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Gutiérrez-Paredes, E M; Revert Fernández, Á; Jordá-Cuevas, E

    2013-03-01

    Local anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice, and adverse effects are not uncommon. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are among the most common effects, but immediate-type reactions may also occur. Patch testing should be considered in patients with hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to benzocaine that was detected incidentally by patch testing and highlight the importance of correctly interpreting patch test results when there are concomitant positive reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from the synthetic fragrances Lyral and acetyl cedrene in separate underarm deodorant preparations.

    PubMed

    Handley, J; Burrows, D

    1994-11-01

    The case is reported of a 28-year-old man who developed allergic contact dermatitis from 2 synthetic fragrance ingredients, Lyral (3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-aldehyde) and acetyl cedrene, in separate underarm deodorant preparations. The implications of the patient's negative patch test reactions to the European standard series (Trolab) and cosmetics and fragrance series (both Chemotechnique Diagnostics) are discussed. The importance is stressed of patch testing with the patient's own preparations when cosmetic dermatitis is suspected, and of identifying and reporting offending fragrance ingredients, with a view possibly to updating the European standard series and commercially available cosmetics and fragrance series.

  16. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. Severe Allergic Reactions Anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis) is a serious, life-threatening allergic ... Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI 53202-3823 (414) 272-6071 Additional Contact Information ...

  17. Chromium(III) release from chromium-tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Erfani, Behnaz; Matura, Mihály; Lidén, Carola

    2018-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not. To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals. Ten Cr-allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr-tanned and a Cr-free leather bracelet over a period of 3 weeks, for 12 h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers. Four of 10 Cr-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr-tanned bracelet within 7-21 days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr-tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin. This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals. © 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. HAIRLESS MICE (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of regulatory T cells during hyposensitization of acquired allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Kathleen; Abbas, Mariam; Hull, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that repeated intradermal steroid injections administered at weekly intervals into positive patch-test sites induce hyposensitization and desensitization. To examine changes in CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells during the attenuation of the patch-test response. Ten patients with known allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested weekly for 10 weeks. The patch-test site was injected intradermally with 2 mg triamcinolone. At weeks 1 and 7, a biopsy was performed on the patch-test site in 6 patients, and flow cytometry was performed assessing CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells. Secondary outcomes were clinical score, reaction size, erythema, and temperature. Statistical analysis included regression, correlation, and repeated-measures analysis of variance. The percentage of CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells, measured by flow cytometry, increased from week 1 to week 7 by an average of 19.2%. The average grade of patch-test reaction decreased from +++ (vesicular reaction) to ++ (palpable erythema). The mean drop in temperature following treatment was 0.28°C per week. The mean area decreased 8.6 mm/wk over 10 weeks. Intradermal steroid injections of weekly patch-test reactions resulted in hyposensitization of the allergic contact dermatitis reaction. CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells showed a tendency to increase; however, further studies are needed to determine if this is significant.

  20. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus. PMID:23661987

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate in OmniPod, an innovative tubeless insulin pump.

    PubMed

    Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Mowitz, Martin; Bonardel, Nathalie; Aerts, Olivier; Bruze, Magnus

    2018-04-10

    The frequency of allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates is increasing worldwide, and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA) has been identified as a culprit sensitizer in FreeStyle Libre, a medical device used by diabetic patients. To report on 4 patients sensitized to IBOA contained in OmniPod, a new, tubeless insulin pump, and to describe the clinical and chemical analytical work-up. Four patients with eczematous skin eruptions after using OmniPod, including 2 with previous adverse skin reactions to FreeStyle Libre, were patch tested with a baseline series and additional (meth)acrylates, including IBOA in several concentrations and/or vehicles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the presence of IBOA in OmniPod. All patients were shown to be sensitized to IBOA. GC-MS identified IBOA in OmniPod, with the highest concentrations being found in the unit itself and not in the adhesive patch. The OmniPod tubeless insulin pump is another source of IBOA, and its use may lead to primary sensitization to this acrylate, or may provoke elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in previously sensitized patients. Our cases highlight the need to obtain satisfactory cooperation from pharmaceutical companies involved in the manufacture of these widely used medical devices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relevance of the hygiene hypothesis to early vs. late onset allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Matheson, M C; Walters, E H; Simpson, J A; Wharton, C L; Ponsonby, A-L; Johns, D P; Jenkins, M A; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Abramson, M J; Dharmage, S C

    2009-03-01

    The hygiene hypothesis proposes that reduced exposure to infections in early life increases the risk of developing allergic conditions including allergic rhinitis. We examined the association between markers of the hygiene hypothesis and allergic rhinitis that developed before 7 years of age and allergic rhinitis that developed after 7 years of age. The Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) is a population-based cohort (n=8583) study of respiratory disease. Participants have been followed from 7 to 44 years of age. Information on potential risk factors, allergies and respiratory symptoms was collected longitudinally. Using multi-nomial logistic regression, exposure to siblings, infections, tonsillectomy and farm residence during childhood were examined as risk factors for allergic rhinitis that developed before or after 7 years of age. All analyses were adjusted for gender, maternal and paternal atopy, mother's age at participant's birth, paternal socio-economic status in 1968 and personal socio-economic status in 2004. Greater cumulative exposure to siblings before the age of 2 years was strongly inversely associated with early onset allergic rhinitis (<1 year sib exposure: OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.0; 1-3 years sib exposure: OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9; >3 years sib exposure: OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) less so with later onset allergic rhinitis. The risk of early onset allergic rhinitis decreased with increasing viral infections (OR=0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) during childhood. Having a tonsillectomy before 7 years of age increased the risk of early onset allergic rhinitis (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5). None of these factors was associated with later onset allergic rhinitis. Exposures relevant to the hygiene hypothesis were important predictors for the development of early onset but less so for later onset allergic rhinitis. The exact mechanisms by which siblings and infections protect against allergic rhinitis are unclear. The stronger findings for earlier onset allergic rhinitis

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis due to urethane acrylate in ultraviolet cured inks.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J R; Jakubovic, H R; Pilger, C; Smith, J W

    1983-01-01

    Seven workers exposed to ultraviolet printing inks developed contact dermatitis. Six cases were allergic and one irritant. A urethane acrylate resin accounted for five cases of sensitisation, one of which was also sensitive to pentaerythritol triacrylate and another also to an epoxy acrylate resin. One instance of allergy to trimethylpropane triacrylate accounted for the sixth case of contact dermatitis in this group of workers. An irritant reaction is presumed to account for the dermatitis in the individual not proved to have cutaneous allergy by patch tests. In this instance trimethylpropane triacrylate was thought to be the most likely irritating agent. Laboratory investigation proved urethane acrylate to be an allergen. The results of investigations of the sensitisation potentials of urethane acrylate, methylmethacrylate, epoxy acrylate resins, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, and other multifunctional acrylic monomers in the albino guinea pig are presented. The interpretation of such predictive tests is discussed. Images PMID:6223656

  4. [Relevant allergans by periorbital allergic contact dermatitis. Oxybuprocain, an underestimated allergen].

    PubMed

    Blaschke, V; Fuchs, T

    2003-08-01

    Periorbital allergic contact dermatitis is a rare disease and the main differential diagnoses are atopic and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The diagnosis is based on clinical appearance, patient history and patch testing. Current systematic overviews on contact allergens involved are lacking and with changes in medical preparations, new relevant antigens may emerge. Based on the systematic data of the information network of dermatological clinics (IVDK), patch test reactions in 48,969 patients tested between 1996 and 2000 were evaluated. A total of 763 patients suffered from periorbital dermatitis which was suspected to be due to the use of topical medication. The most common epidermal sensitizations in the general population were observed against nickel and fragrances. In the periorbital dermatitis group, sensitization against local anaesthetics and antibiotics was more frequent than in the general population. In three patients, oxybuprocain was identified as the causative agent, which has not yet been recognized as a common allergen.

  5. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreasedmore » skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.« less

  6. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinones in water-based paints: a retrospective study of 44 cases.

    PubMed

    Amsler, Emmanuelle; Aerts, Olivier; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Debons, Michèle; Milpied, Brigitte; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Waton, Julie; Ferrier-Le Bouëdec, Marie C; Lartigau, Isabelle; Pecquet, Catherine; Assier, Haudrey; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Bernier, Claire; Castelain, Florence; Collet, Evelyne; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Genillier, Nathalie; Girardin, Pascal; Pralong, Pauline; Tetart, Florence; Vital-Durand, Dominique; Soria, Angele; Barbaud, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones has been recognized as a health hazard. To collect epidemiological, clinical and patch test data on airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinone-containing paints in France and Belgium. A descriptive, retrospective study was initiated by the Dermatology and Allergy Group of the French Society of Dermatology, including methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI)- and/or MI-sensitized patients who developed airborne allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to isothiazolinone-containing paint. Forty-four cases were identified, with mostly non-occupational exposure (79.5%). Of the patients, 22.5% of also had mucosal symptoms. In several cases, the dermatitis required systemic corticosteroids (27.3%), hospitalization (9.1%), and/or sick leave (20.5%). A median delay of 5.5 weeks was necessary to enable patients to enter a freshly painted room without a flare-up of their dermatitis. Approximately one-fifth of the patients knew that they were allergic to MI and/or MCI/MI before the exposure to paints occurred. Our series confirms that airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones is not rare, and may be severe and long-lasting. Better regulation of isothiazolinone concentrations in paints, and their adequate labelling, is urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chromium(III) release from chromium‐tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Behnaz; Matura, Mihály; Lidén, Carola

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not. Objectives To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr‐tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr‐allergic individuals. Method Ten Cr‐allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr‐tanned and a Cr‐free leather bracelet over a period of 3 weeks, for 12 h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers. Results Four of 10 Cr‐allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr‐tanned bracelet within 7–21 days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr‐tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin. Conclusions This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr‐tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr‐allergic individuals. PMID:29322530

  8. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p -tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  9. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers. PMID:28396866

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  11. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Background Metal-working fluids contain complex mixtures of chemicals and metal workers constitute a potential risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis. Case presentation Two metal workers developed allergic contact dermatitis on the hands and lower arms from exposure to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin in the standard series. Conclusions These cases emphasize that well-known contact allergens may show up from unexpected sources of exposure. Further, it can be a long-lasting, laborious process to detect an occupational contact allergen and cooperation from the patient and the manufacturer of the sensitizing product is essential. PMID:12685935

  12. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    PubMed

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Hair-care practices in African American women: potential for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Alicia; Sood, Apra

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when the skin is re-exposed to a substance to which it was previously sensitized. One significant source of exposure to sensitizing chemicals is through personal grooming and beauty products. While the role of cosmetics and hair-care products in the development of ACD is well-documented, there has been very little literature that specifically addresses the role of hair-care practices of patients with tightly curled hair, such as in patients of African descent, in the development of ACD in this population. This review provides an integrated summary of the hair-care practices of female African American patients and the potential for exposure to sensitizing agents at each stage. This review will also discuss the challenges faced in recognizing and assessing ACD in these patients. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  15. Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids suppress allergic contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Mathers, A R; Carey, C D; Killeen, M E; Diaz-Perez, J A; Salvatore, S R; Schopfer, F J; Freeman, B A; Falo, L D

    2017-04-01

    Reactions between nitric oxide (NO), nitrite (NO2-), and unsaturated fatty acids give rise to electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO 2 -FAs), such as nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ) and nitro linoleic acid (LNO 2 ). Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids (EFAs) mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction reactions. Hence, there is considerable interest in employing NO 2 -FAs and other EFAs for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory disorders. Thus, we sought to determine whether OA-NO 2 , an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, has the capacity to inhibit cutaneous inflammation. We evaluated the effect of OA-NO 2 on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) using an established model of contact hypersensitivity in C57Bl/6 mice utilizing 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene as the hapten. We found that subcutaneous (SC) OA-NO 2 injections administered 18 h prior to sensitization and elicitation suppresses ACD in both preventative and therapeutic models. In vivo SC OA-NO 2 significantly inhibits pathways that lead to inflammatory cell infiltration and the production of inflammatory cytokines in the skin. Moreover, OA-NO 2 is capable of enhancing regulatory T-cell activity. Thus, OA-NO 2 treatment results in anti-inflammatory effects capable of inhibiting ACD by inducing immunosuppressive responses. Overall, these results support the development of OA-NO 2 as a promising therapeutic for ACD and provides new insights into the role of electrophilic fatty acids in the control of cutaneous immune responses potentially relevant to a broad range of allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Role of Cleaning Products in Epidemic Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Marrero-Alemán, Gabriel; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Liuti, Federica; Hernández, Noelia; López-Jiménez, Esmeralda; Borrego, Leopoldo

    Sensitivity to methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased rapidly over recent years. This increase is mainly related to the extensive use of high concentrations of MI in cosmetic products, although a growing number of cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis are caused by MCI/MI. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the increase in MCI/MI sensitization and the work performed by the patients in our area. A retrospective study was undertaken of the records of a total of 1179 patients who had undergone contact skin patch tests for MCI/MI from January 2005 to December 2015. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors independently associated with sensitivity to MCI/MI. A constant increase in MCI/MI sensitization was observed over the observation period. The only work associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of MCI/MI sensitization was cleaning, with 38.5% of the cleaning professionals with MCI/MI sensitization consulting for cosmetics-related dermatitis. Occupational sensitization to MCI/MI in cleaning professionals is worryingly increasing. This, in turn, could possibly account for many cases of cosmetics-associated contact dermatitis. Our findings suggest that a review of the regulations with regard to isothiazolinone concentrations in industrial and household detergents is necessary.

  17. Occupational dermatitis in health care workers evaluated for suspected allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Salmon; Belsito, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    Contact dermatitides occur commonly among health care workers (HCWs). To contrast the atopic status and incidence, location, and final diagnosis of skin diseases afflicting HCWs versus non-HCWs (NHCWs) evaluated for suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); and among the population diagnosed with ACD, to compare the incidence and occupational relatedness of allergens found in HCWs with the rates observed in NHCWs. Between July 1, 1994, and May 30, 2014, 2611 patients underwent patch testing by the senior author. Of these, 165 were classified as HCWs based on their primary occupation. Statistical analysis was done using a χ test. Health care workers were more likely than NHCWs to be women and to have hand dermatitis. Women, but not men, HCWs suffered more irritant contact dermatitis. Health care workers had significantly more work-related ACD, especially to formaldehyde, quaternium-15, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, cocamide diethanolamine (DEA), thiuram mix, carba mix, thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde, and bacitracin. Only patients suspected of having ACD were tested. Our population was geographically limited to metropolitan Kansas City, MO and metropolitan New York, NY. Health care workers suffer more from occupational ACD, especially of the hands, than do NHCWs, including to allergens not present on available standard allergen series.

  18. Neutral endopeptidase terminates substance P-induced inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scholzen, T E; Steinhoff, M; Bonaccorsi, P; Klein, R; Amadesi, S; Geppetti, P; Lu, B; Gerard, N P; Olerud, J E; Luger, T A; Bunnett, N W; Grady, E F; Armstrong, C A; Ansel, J C

    2001-01-15

    Sensory nerve-derived neuropeptides such as substance P demonstrate a number of proinflammatory bioactivities, but less is known about their role in inflammatory skin disease. The cell surface metalloprotease neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is the principal proteolytic substance P-degrading enzyme. This study tests the hypothesis that the absence of NEP results in dysregulated inflammatory skin responses. The effector phase of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) responses was examined in NEP(-/-) knockout and NEP(+/+) wild-type mice and compared with the irritant contact dermatitis response in these animals. NEP was found to be normally immunolocalized in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels. The ACD ear swelling response was 2.5-fold higher in animals lacking NEP and was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma extravasation and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. The augmented ACD response in NEP(-/-) animals was abrogated by either administration of a neurokinin receptor 1 antagonist or by repeated pretreatment with topical capsaicin. Similar to NEP(-/-) mice, the acute inhibition of NEP in NEP(+/+) animals resulted in an augmented ACD response. In contrast to the ACD responses, little differences were observed in the irritant contact dermatitis response of NEP(-/-) compared with NEP(+/+) animals after epicutaneous application of the skin irritants croton oil or SDS. Thus, these results indicate that NEP and cutaneous neuropeptides have a significant role in the pathogenesis of ACD.

  19. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Ove; Kaaber, Knud; Laurberg, Grete; Henrik Nielsen, Niels; Sommerlund, Mette; Thormann, Jens; Veien, Niels K; Vissing, Susanne; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-05-01

    Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic reactions than others. To determine which cosmetic product groups cause fragrance allergy among Danish eczema patients. This was a retrospective study based on data collected by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Participants (N = 17,716) were consecutively patch tested with fragrance markers from the European baseline series (2005-2009). Of the participants, 10.1% had fragrance allergy, of which 42.1% was caused by a cosmetic product: deodorants accounted for 25%, and scented lotions 24.4%. A sex difference was apparent, as deodorants were significantly more likely to be listed as the cause of fragrance allergy in men (odds ratio 2.2) than in women. Correlation was observed between deodorants listed as the cause of allergy and allergy detected with fragrance mix II (FM II) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. Deodorants were the leading causes of fragrance allergy, especially among men. Seemingly, deodorants have an 'unhealthy' composition of the fragrance chemicals present in FM II. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. [Facial allergic contact dermatitis. Data from the IVDK and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Uter, W

    2009-01-01

    The face is exposed to many foreign substances and may thus be a site of allergic contact dermatitis. Our aim is to elucidate the spectrum of factors associated with facial dermatitis by analyzing data of patients patch tested in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1995 and 2007. In 18,572 patients the main anatomical site of dermatitis was the face. Among these, the proportion of females and of patients with past or present atopic eczema was increased, while probable occupational causation was less common than in the overall group. Cosmetic allergens, as well as nickel, were significantly more common in women than men, including fragrance mix (10.8% vs. 8.3%), p-phenylenediamine (4.0% vs. 2.8%), lanolin alcohols (3.0% vs. 2.2%), Lyral(TM) (3.1% vs. 2.0%) and bufexamac (1.8% vs. 1.1%). In comparison, only epoxy resin contact allergy was diagnosed significantly more often in men than women: In patients with airborne contact dermatitis, over-represented allergens included sesquiterpene lactone mix, compositae mix, epoxy resin, (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone and oil of turpentine. In the clinical approach to patients with facial dermatitis, occupational airborne causation should be considered in addition to non-occupational (e.g., cosmetic) allergen exposure.

  1. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis associated with reactive dyes in a dark garment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Linda; Goossens, An

    2005-09-01

    In this study, we present a case of a patient who has not been occupationally exposed to reactive dyes, but did present with a dermatitis from wearing a dark cotton garment. The patient experienced reactivation of his dermatitis when rewearing a new unwashed dark T-shirt made of 100% cotton (in fact, the patient reported that it had to be washed at least 3 times before the skin reaction disappeared). He presented positive patch tests to 6 reactive dyes from Chemotechnique textile series. The clothing could not be proved as the true cause of the dermatitis, but resolution occurred upon removal of the suspected garment. This suggests that contact allergy to the reactive dyes (he did not react to any other dyes and his garment was a natural fabric) was likely responsible. With this report, we would like to emphasize that reactive dyes, as a class, should be considered as potential allergens, both occupationally and from non-occupational exposure such as garments. If garments containing reactive dyes are not properly rinsed in the manufacturing process, we believe that excess of dye can be retained that may cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). As the reactive dyes and their hydrolysis products are very water-soluble, they can be easily washed off to prevent ACD.

  3. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients.

  4. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Mundhenk, Lars; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

  5. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and risk of allergic diseases in early life.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aifen; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Jie; Xia, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects immune system and promotes allergy and asthma in mice, but findings in human studies are limited. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with increased risk of allergic diseases in infants. We measured BPA concentrations in maternal urine samples collected at delivery from 412 women in Wuhan, China. The occurrence of allergic diseases including eczema and wheeze were assessed at age 6 mo through questionnaires. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between urinary BPA levels and the risk of allergic diseases. Mothers of infants with allergic diseases had significantly higher urinary BPA levels than those of infants without allergic diseases (median: 2.35 vs. 4.55 µg/l, P = 0.03). Increased risk of infant allergic diseases was associated with creatinine-adjusted maternal urinary BPA concentrations. And this association was limited to females (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.79) rather than males. After stratification by maternal age, the association was only significant in infants of mothers who were younger than 25 y old (OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.09-3.29). Prenatal exposure to BPA may potentially increase the risk of allergic diseases at very early life in female infants.

  6. Antibiotic Use in Early Life, Rural Residence, and Allergic Diseases in Argentinean Children.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Badellino, Héctor A; Celedón, Juan C

    Little is known about differential effects of antibiotic use on allergic diseases in rural versus urban environments. To examine whether area of residence in the first year of life modifies the relation between antibiotic use in early life and allergic diseases during childhood. Cross-sectional study of allergic diseases in 1517 children (ages 6-7 years) attending 101 schools in urban and rural areas of San Francisco (Córdoba, Argentina). Current asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were defined on the basis of responses to a validated questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Multivariate logistic regression was used for the analysis of antibiotic use and allergic diseases. After adjustment for paracetamol use, bronchiolitis, and other covariates, antibiotic use in the first year of life was associated with increased odds of current wheeze (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7). After stratification by area of residence, antibiotic use was associated with current wheeze (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4) among children who lived in an urban area in their first year of life, but not among those who lived in a rural area in their first year of life. Early-life antibiotic use is associated with current wheeze and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Argentinean children who lived in urban areas during their first year of life. Exposure to a rural environment early in life may protect against the adverse effects of antibiotics on atopic diseases in children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of the risk assessment paradigm to the induction of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Felter, Susan P; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Gilmour, Nicola J; Gerberick, G Frank

    2003-02-01

    The National Academy of Science (NAS) risk assessment paradigm has been widely accepted as a framework for estimating risk from exposure to environmental chemicals (NAS, 1983). Within this framework, quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) serve as the cornerstone of health-based exposure limits, and have been used routinely for both cancer and noncancer endpoints. These methods have focused primarily on the extrapolation of data from laboratory animals to establish acceptable levels of exposure for humans. For health effects associated with a threshold, uncertainty and variability inherent in the extrapolation process is generally dealt with by the application of "uncertainty factors (UFs)." The adaptation of QRA methods to address skin sensitization is a natural and desirable extension of current practices. Based on our chemical, cellular and molecular understanding of the induction of allergic contact dermatitis, one can conduct a QRA using established methods of identifying a NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) or other point of departure, and applying appropriate UFs. This paper describes the application of the NAS paradigm to characterize risks from human exposure to skin sensitizers; consequently, this method can also be used to establish an exposure level for skin allergens that does not present an appreciable risk of sensitization. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  8. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; Maguire, Tim J.; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensitizers and irritants. The in silico approaches that have been discussed include Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and QSAR based expert models that correlate chemical molecular structure with biological activity and mechanism based read-across models that incorporate compound electrophilicity. The cell and tissue based assays rely on an assortment of mono and co-culture cell systems in conjunction with 3D skin models. Given the complexity of allergen induced immune responses, and the limited ability of existing systems to capture the entire gamut of cellular and molecular events associated with these responses, we also introduce a microfabricated platform that can capture all the key steps involved in allergic contact sensitivity. Finally, we describe the development of an integrated testing strategy comprised of two or three tier systems for evaluating sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:24741377

  9. Extract of Rhus verniciflua Bark Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Yang Gi; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV) has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse. PMID:23710240

  10. [Hapten selection for patch tests in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiologic data].

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Carosso, A; Bosio, D; Chiesa, A; Gullino, A; Turrini, A

    2003-01-01

    Aim of the study was to verify the reliability in clinical practice of patch testing with "standard" series and additional series of haptens for the diagnosis of occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis, evaluating positive reactions and relating those reactions to professional categories. A total of 392 out of 937 patients (41.8%) showed at least one positive reaction to "standard" series testing; the hapten most frequently noted as the cause of positive reaction was nickel sulphate. Professional categories that showed positive reactions to "standard" series most frequently were clerks, hairdressers and hospital auxiliary workers. Among 897 patients tested with nonstandard allergens, only 124 (13.8%) elicited at least one positive reaction, ammonium persulphate being the most frequently positive hapten. A dominant percentage of positive results was seen in hairdressers and cleaning personnel. No positive reactions were observed in a large number of haptens, tested more than 200 times. Haptens of "standard series" elicited a higher number of positive reaction than the additional series, even though there was a high specificity of few additional series haptens in some professional categories. Data suggest some caution in systematically testing additional series, despite a higher accuracy and diagnostic efficacy in some job categories.

  11. Evaluation of occupational allergic contact dermatitis and its related factors in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Nassiri-Kashani, Mohammad Hassan; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational contact dermatitis, especially in hand, is one of the most common occupational disorders. The present study aimed at evaluating patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by common allergens based on occupation type and disease history. Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the data of the patients with probable diagnosis of ACD in Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL) in Iran. In the present study, 946 patients were assessed from different regions of Iran. One hundred fifty-one cases with positive patch test and relevant exposure were entered into the study; data related to their occupation and disease activity history were evaluated and recorded. Then, factors related to disease activity history were assessed considering the occupational groups and common exposures. Results: Nickel sulphate was the most common allergen in the 151 patients. Disease activity was constant in 29.8% of the patients; it increased in 27.8%, and decreased just before doing the patch test in 42.4%. Of the patients, 52.3% were getting worse during the working days. Occupational groups were significantly different in age and gender. Disease duration was also different in the occupational groups (p=0.001). The least disease duration was observed in healthcare workers, and the most in service workers. Lesions in the foot were related to period of employment. In administrative work group, (teachers, technicians and housewives) disease activity was decreased in the most cases, while it was increased in most patients of service workers (p=0.086). Conclusion: The present study, similar to previous reports, revealed that nickel sulphate is the most common allergen in ACD cases. Moreover, it was found that the symptoms of disease activity remained constant or increased in a significant proportion of the cases during the working days. Therefore, these workers should seriously follow up on this matter

  12. The role of the early-life environment in the development of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-02-01

    A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, in Experimental Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, Stefania; Verde, Roberta; Vaia, Massimo; Allarà, Marco; Iuvone, Teresa; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2018-06-01

    Phytocannabinoids modulate inflammatory responses by regulating the production of cytokines in several experimental models of inflammation. Cannabinoid type-2 (CB 2 ) receptor activation was shown to reduce the production of the monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) chemokine in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly-(I:C)]-stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, an in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We investigated if nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), produced similar effects in this experimental model of ACD. HaCaT cells were stimulated with poly-(I:C), and the release of chemokines and cytokines was measured in the presence of CBD or other phytocannabinoids (such as cannabidiol acid, cannabidivarin, cannabidivarinic acid, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, cannabigerolic acid, cannabigevarin, tetrahydrocannabivarin, and tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid) and antagonists of CB 1 , CB 2 , or transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) receptors. HaCaT cell viability following phytocannabinoid treatment was also measured. The cellular levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol] and related molecules (palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide) were quantified in poly-(I:C)-stimulated HaCaT cells treated with CBD. We show that in poly-(I:C)-stimulated HaCaT cells, CBD elevates the levels of AEA and dose-dependently inhibits poly-(I:C)-induced release of MCP-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- α in a manner reversed by CB 2 and TRPV1 antagonists 6-iodopravadoline (AM630) and 5'-iodio-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX), respectively, with no cytotoxic effect. This is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD in an experimental model of ACD. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from medical adhesive bandages in patients who report having a reaction to medical bandages.

    PubMed

    Widman, Travis J; Oostman, Holly; Storrs, Frances J

    2008-01-01

    Medical adhesive bandages are extensively used in both inpatient and outpatient medicine. However, few reports describing proven allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from medical adhesive bandages exist in the literature. These reports do not adequately correspond to the frequency that patients report having an "allergy" to medical adhesive bandages. To determine if there is a chemical present in medical adhesive bandages that causes ACD in people who identify themselves as having an "allergy" to medical adhesive bandages. Twenty-six patients were enrolled and underwent patch testing with our standard trays (104 chemicals) and a customized adhesive tray (54 chemicals and 10 tapes and bandages in their whole form). We were able to identify an allergen in four patients that was related to their presumed adhesive allergy (Mastisol, neomycin/bacitracin [two different patients], and cortisone-10 cream, respectively). However, there were no positive allergic reactions to the tapes or bandages or any relevant allergic reactions to our customized adhesive tray. Eight (73%) of the 11 patients who had the bandage or tape left on for 7 days had an irritant reaction. We feel that the perceived reactions are not secondary to ACD but instead are due to an irritant contact dermatitis.

  15. Silkworm dropping extract ameliorate trimellitic anhydride-induced allergic contact dermatitis by regulating Th1/Th2 immune response.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Jung, Sung Keun; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Hee Soon

    2018-05-26

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by hapten-specific immune response. Silkworm droppings are known to exert beneficial effects during the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied whether topical treatment and oral administration of silkworm dropping extract (SDE) ameliorate trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced ACD. In ACD mice model, SDE treatment significantly suppressed the increase in both ear thickness and serum IgE levels. Furthermore, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were reduced by SDE. In allergic responses, SDE treatment significantly attenuated the production of the Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 in both ear tissue and draining lymph nodes. However, it increased the production of the Th1-mediated cytokine IL-12. Thus, these results showed that SDE attenuated TMA-induced ACD symptoms through regulation of Th1/Th2 immune response. Taken together, we suggest that SDE treatment might be a potential agent in the prevention or therapy of Th2-mediated inflammatory skin diseases such as ACD and atopic dermatitis. ACD: allergic contact dermatitis; AD: atopic dermatitis; APC: antigen presenting cells; CCL: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; CCR: C-C chemokine receptor; Dex: dexamethasone; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFN: interferon; Ig: immunoglobulin; IL: interleukin; OVA: ovalbumin; PS: prednisolone; SDE: silkworm dropping extract; Th: T helper; TMA: trimellitic anhydride; TNF: tumor necrosis factor.

  16. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  17. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh N; Elbert, Niels J; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Jong, Nicolette W; Moll, Henriëtte A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Jongste, Johan C; Franco, Oscar H; Duijts, Liesbeth; Voortman, Trudy

    2017-08-05

    Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child's immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0-10 or 0-15), reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.13), allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04), eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06), or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03) in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from a natural deodorant: a report of 4 cases associated with lichen acid mix allergy.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Mary; Simpson, Eric L; Law, Sandra V; Storrs, Frances J

    2006-08-01

    Botanical ingredients used in personal care products are a significant and underreported cause of allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate allergic contact dermatitis from a widely-used botanical deodorant. We conducted patch testing in four patients who were using the botanical deodorant and were referred to the contact dermatitis clinic; three patients had axillary dermatitis and one had dermatitis of the external ear. All four patients had positive patch test reactions to lichen acid mix and D-usnic acid. Of the three patients who were patch tested to the botanical deodorant, all had positive reactions. We did not test to the specific lichen used in the natural deodorant but rather used our own lichen acid mix and d-usnic acid in addition to testing to the actual product. One of the patients declined to be tested with the natural deodorant, but did test positive to the lichen acid mix and d-usnic acid. Personal care products such as deodorants may represent a new route of exposure to lichen extract, a known allergen.

  19. Predicting allergic contact dermatitis: a hierarchical structure activity relationship (SAR) approach to chemical classification using topological and quantum chemical descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.

    2008-06-01

    A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.

  20. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  1. Symptoms to pollen and fruits early in life and allergic disease at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Mai, X-M; Neuman, A; Ostblom, E; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L; Almqvist, C; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2008-11-01

    The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) > or =0.35 kU(A)/l. At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (OR(adj) = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1-9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (OR(adj) = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5-16.4). The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease.

  2. Further Evidence of Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Isobornyl Acrylate While Using a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Kamann, Stefanie; Aerts, Olivier; Heinemann, Lutz

    2018-05-01

    In the past decade, new diabetes technologies, including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, support patients with diabetes in their daily struggle with achieving a good glucose control. However, shortly after the first CGM systems appeared on the market, also the first concerns about adverse skin reactions were raised. Most patients claimed to suffer from (sometimes severe) skin irritation, or even allergy, which they related to the (acrylate-based) adhesive part of the device. For a long time the actual substance that caused these skin reactions with, for example, the Flash Glucose Monitoring system (iscCGM; Freestyle® Libre) could not be identified; however, recently Belgian and Swedish dermatologists reported that the majority of their patients that have developed a contact-allergic while using iscCGM react sensitively to a specific acrylate, that is, isobornyl acrylate (IBOA). Subsequently they showed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that this substance is present in the case of the glucose sensor attached by an adhesive to the skin. We report three additional cases from Germany, including a 10-year-old boy, suffering from severe allergic contact dermatitis to IBOA.

  3. Influence of antibiotic use in early childhood on asthma and allergic diseases at age 5.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Hanada, Kiwako; Yang, Limin; Narita, Masami; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-07-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased rapidly worldwide. At the same time, the overuse of antibiotics has been observed, especially in Japan. To elucidate the association of early childhood antibiotic use with allergic diseases in later childhood at 5 years of age. Relevant data were extracted from the hospital-based birth cohort study, the Tokyo Children's Health, Illness and Development Study. To identify signs of asthma and allergic diseases in children, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the effect of antibiotic use on outcomes in later life. Antibiotic exposure in children within the first 2 years of life was associated with current asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.70), current atopic dermatitis (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94), and current allergic rhinitis (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1. 05-2.58) at 5 years of age. Analysis of the associations by type of antibiotics showed that cephem was associated with current asthma (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.23-3.16) and current rhinitis (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.12-2.93), and macrolide was associated with current atopic dermatitis (aOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.33). Our findings suggest that antibiotic use within the first 2 years of life was a risk factor for current asthma, current atopic dermatitis, and current allergic rhinitis in 5-year-old children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early, current and past pet ownership: associations with sensitization, bronchial responsiveness and allergic symptoms in school children.

    PubMed

    Anyo, G; Brunekreef, B; de Meer, G; Aarts, F; Janssen, N A H; van Vliet, P

    2002-03-01

    Studies have suggested that early contact with pets may prevent the development of allergy and asthma. To study the association between early, current and past pet ownership and sensitization, bronchial responsiveness and allergic symptoms in school children. A population of almost 3000 primary school children was investigated using protocols of the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Allergic symptoms were measured using the parent-completed ISAAC questionnaire. Sensitization to common allergens was measured using skin prick tests (SPT)s and/or serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E determinations. Bronchial responsiveness was tested using a hypertonic saline challenge. Pet ownership was investigated by questionnaire. Current, past and early exposure to pets was documented separately for cats, dogs, rodents and birds. The data on current, past and early pet exposure were then related to allergic symptoms, sensitization and bronchial responsiveness. Among children currently exposed to pets, there was significantly less sensitization to cat (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69) and dog (OR = 0.63) allergens, indoor allergens in general (OR = 0.64), and outdoor allergens (OR = 0.60) compared to children who never had pets in the home. There was also less hayfever (OR = 0.66) and rhinitis (OR = 0.76). In contrast, wheeze, asthma and bronchial responsiveness were not associated with current pet ownership. Odds ratios associated with past pet ownership were generally above unity, and significant for asthma in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.85), suggesting selective avoidance in families with sensitized and/or symptomatic children. Pet ownership in the first two years of life only showed an inverse association with sensitization to pollen: OR = 0.71 for having had furry or feathery pets in general in the first two years of life, and OR = 0.73 for having had cats and/or dogs in the first two years of life, compared to not having had pets in the first two years of life

  5. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  6. [Occupational allergic "march". Rapid evolution of contact dermatitis to ammonium persulfate into airborne contact dermatitis with rhinitis and asthma in a hairdresser].

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, Anna; Patrini, L; Pigatto, P; Riboldi, L; Marsili, Chiara; Previdi, M; Margonari, M; Marraccini, P

    2010-01-01

    Hairdressers are exposed to irritants and allergenic compounds that may cause contact dermatitis, rhinitis and asthma. In this paper we describe the case of a female, age 33 years, who developed contact dermatitis after 10 years of exposure to ammonium persulfate. After 7 months of progressively extensive and persistent skin lesions, respiratory symptoms appeared that were related to the occupational exposure (on-off test). SIDAPA and specific occupational patch test for hairdressers and occupational challenge with ammonium persulfate were performed. Clinical parameters of inflammation, ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were detected before and after the specific bronchial challenge. The patch test was positive to ammonium persulfate (++), and bronchial challenge for ammonium persulfate showed a significant late response (FEV1 decrease--33%). Both FeNO and ECP showed a significant increase after 24 hours. Dermatitis, urticaria and angioedema occurred on the uncovered skin due to airborne contact. Topic steroids and anti-histaminic drugs resolved the clinical symptoms. Bronchial challenge is, in fact, considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of occupational asthma, although new inflammatory parameters can contribute to the diagnosis and can be useful for monitoring after a specific inhalation test with occupational agents. The described case summarizes the evolution from contact dermatitis to inhalation allergy, suggesting the occurrence of an allergic "march" for occupational allergy.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from a nonbisphenol A epoxy in a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G

    1987-09-01

    An employee of the Composites Division of an aircraft engine manufacturing firm developed dermatitis associated with the handling of a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate (epoxy prepreg). Patch test investigation demonstrated that the responsible causal agent was the nonbisphenol A epoxy binder, 4-glycidyloxy-N, N-diglycidylaniline. A patch test with bisphenol A epoxy from a standard patch test screening series was negative. Subsequent interviews with employees of the Composites Division suggested that a relative lack of awareness of the cutaneous hazards of fiber reinforced epoxy laminates, compared with liquid epoxy resin systems, may be an important risk factor for allergic sensitization to these composite materials.

  8. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  9. Severe allergic contact dermatitis resulting from occupational exposure to tincture of benzoin aerosol spray in an anesthesiologist.

    PubMed

    Klein, Thomas G; Woehlck, Harvey J; Pagel, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and management of an anesthesiologist who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis resulting from occupational exposure to tincture of benzoin aerosol spray. A previously healthy male anesthesiologist with a small laceration between his right thumb and forefinger used a tincture of benzoin aerosol spray to improve adhesion of a small bandage immediately before performing a spinal anesthetic. He had previously used benzoin for skin reinforcement on several occasions during weight-lifting. The anesthesiologist experienced severe pruritus in the affected hand 48 h after benzoin exposure. A well-demarcated, bright red erythematous confluent vesicular dermatitis with and without painful hemorrhagic bullae erupted on the palmar and dorsal surfaces, respectively, of his hand, accompanied by pronounced edema. The palmar bullae were drained with several small incisions and the anesthesiologist was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. He was unable to work for 10 days while the dermatitis gradually resolved. The case emphasizes that occupational exposure to benzoin represents a potential risk for operating room personnel who may be susceptible to cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity-mediated allergic reactions as a result of previous exposure to benzoin or chemically related cross-reacting substances.

  10. Preservation of allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy (urushiol) in late HIV disease. The implications and relevance to immunotherapy with contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Skelton, H G; Nelson, A; Wagner, K F; Hackley, B E

    1997-01-01

    Delayed hypersensitivity reactions (DTH) are lost with progression of HIV disease. This loss of DTH commonly occurs before the onset of opportunistic infections and is an independent predictor of disease progression. We wanted to determine whether patients in late HIV disease with a history of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to poison ivy continue to react to poison ivy. Twelve HIV+ patients with a past history of ACD to poison ivy were tested with an extract prepared from poison ivy leaves. All but 1 patient had CD4+ T cell counts < 200/microliters, and 5 patients had had an opportunistic infection. All 12 patients showed positive reactions ranging from mild erythema and infiltration to marked erythema with bulla formation. ACD is considered a variant of DTH, and as DTH results in a T helper 1 cytokine pattern. However, the antigen-specific effector cells in ACD may be more diverse than in DTH. This diversity could explain the continued reaction to some contact allergens in late disease and may be important in the use of contact allergens for immunotherapy.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  12. Pesticide patch test series for the assessment of allergic contact dermatitis among banana plantation workers in panama.

    PubMed

    Penagos, Homero; Ruepert, Clemens; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2004-09-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are frequent among agricultural workers and require targeted interventions. Patch testing is necessary for differential diagnosis, but patch testing with pesticides is uncommon. This study explores the frequency of ACD and sensitization to pesticides among highly exposed banana plantation workers. Frequently and recently used pesticides on banana plantations in Divala, Panama, were documented. A pesticide patch test tray specific for this population was prepared. A structured interview was administered to 366 participants, followed by a complete skin examination. The pesticide patch test series, as well as a standard patch test series, was applied to 37 workers with dermatoses likely to be pesticide related and to 23 control workers without dermatoses. The pesticide patch tests identified 15 cases (41%) of ACD (20 positive reactions) among the 37 workers diagnosed with pesticide dermatosis. Three controls had allergic reactions to pesticides (4 positive reactions). The pesticides were carbaryl (5 cases), benomyl (4 cases), ethoprophos (3), chlorothalonil (2), imazalil (2), glyphosate (2), thiabendazole (2), chlorpyrifos (1), oxyfluorfen (1), propiconazole (1), and tridemorph (1). Ethoprophos and tridemorph had not been previously identified as sensitizers. Thus, the prevalence of ACD was 0.03 (15 of 366). On the basis of observed prevalences of positive patch-test reactions among the subgroups with and without dermatoses, we estimated that > or = 16% of the entire population may be sensitized to pesticides. Sensitization to pesticides among banana plantation workers is a frequent occupational health problem. Pesticide patch test trays should be used in assessing skin diseases in highly exposed workers.

  13. Predictors of work-related sensitisation, allergic rhinitis and asthma in early work life.

    PubMed

    Kellberger, Jessica; Peters-Weist, Astrid S; Heinrich, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Susanne; Vogelberg, Christian; Roller, Diana; Genuneit, Jon; Weinmayr, Gudrun; von Mutius, Erika; Heumann, Christian; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2014-09-01

    Although work-related asthma and allergies are a huge burden for society, investigation of occupational exposures in early work life using an unexposed reference group is rare. Thus, the present analyses aimed to assess the potential impact of occupational exposure and other risk factors on the prevalence of work-related sensitisation and incidence of allergic rhinitis/asthma using a population-based approach and taking into account an unexposed reference group. In SOLAR (Study on Occupational Allergy Risks) II, German participants of ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase II were followed from childhood (9-11 years) until early adulthood (19-24 years). Data on 1570 participants were available to fit predictive models. Occupational exposure was not statistically significantly associated with disease prevalence/incidence. Sensitisation in childhood, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke exposure during puberty, sex and study location were statistically significant predictors of outcome. Our results indicate that occupational exposure is of little relevance for work-related sensitisation prevalence and allergic rhinitis/asthma incidence in early work life, while other risk factors can be used to improve career guidance for adolescents. Further research on the role of a potential healthy hire effect and the impact of longer exposure duration is needed. ©ERS 2014.

  14. Early-life antibiotic use and subsequent diagnosis of food allergy and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A G; Pollak, J; Glass, T A; Poulsen, M N; Bailey-Davis, L; Mowery, J; Schwartz, B S

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic use in early life has been linked to disruptions in the microbiome. Such changes can disturb immune system development. Differences have been observed in the microbiota of children with and without allergies, but there have been few studies on antibiotic use and allergic disease. We evaluated associations of early-life antibiotic use with subsequent occurrence of food allergy and other allergies in childhood using electronic health record data. We used longitudinal data on 30 060 children up to age 7 years from Geisinger Clinic's electronic health record to conduct a sex- and age-matched case-control study to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and milk allergy, non-milk food allergies, and other allergies. For each outcome, we estimated conditional logistic regression models adjusting for race/ethnicity, history of Medical Assistance, and mode of birth delivery. Models were repeated separately for penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides. There were 484 milk allergy cases, 598 non-milk food allergy cases and 3652 other allergy cases. Children with three or more antibiotic orders had a greater odds of milk allergy (Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence interval) (1.78; 1.28-2.48), non-milk food allergy (1.65; 1.27-2.14), and other allergies (3.07; 2.72-3.46) compared with children with no antibiotic orders. Associations were strongest at younger ages and differed by antibiotic class. We observed associations between antibiotic orders and allergic diseases, providing evidence of a potentially modifiable clinical practice associated with paediatric allergic disease. Differences by antibiotic class should be further explored, as this knowledge could inform paediatric treatment decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early Life Antibiotic Use and Subsequent Diagnosis of Food Allergy and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Annemarie G.; Pollak, Jonathan; Glass, Thomas A.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Mowery, Jacob; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic use in early life has been linked to disruptions in the microbiome. Such changes can disturb immune system development. Differences have been observed in the microbiota of children with and without allergies, but there have been few studies on antibiotic use and allergic disease. Objective We evaluated associations of early-life antibiotic use with subsequent occurrence of food allergy and other allergies in childhood using electronic health record data. Methods We used longitudinal data on 30,060 children up to age 7 years from Geisinger Clinic’s electronic health record to conduct a sex and age matched case-control study to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and milk allergy, non-milk food allergies, and other allergies. For each outcome, we estimated conditional logistic regression models adjusting for race/ethnicity, history of Medical Assistance, and mode of birth delivery. Models were repeated separately for penicillins, cephalosporins, and macrolides. Results There were 484 milk allergy cases, 598 non-milk food allergy cases, and 3652 other allergy cases. Children with three or more antibiotic orders had a greater odds of milk allergy (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) (1.78; 1.28–2.48), non-milk food allergy (1.65; 1.27–2.14), and other allergies (3.07; 2.72–3.46) compared to children with no antibiotic orders. Associations were strongest at younger ages and differed by antibiotic class. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance We observed associations between antibiotic orders and allergic diseases, providing evidence of a potentially modifiable clinical practice associated with pediatric allergic disease. Differences by antibiotic class should be further explored, as this knowledge could inform pediatric treatment decisions. PMID:27562571

  16. [Allergic contact dermatitis from colophony and turpentine in resins of untreated pine wood].

    PubMed

    Booken, D; Velten, F W; Utikal, J; Goerdt, S; Bayerl, C

    2006-11-01

    Pine wood is one of the most used raw products in furniture manufacturing in Europe. High concentrations of colophony and turpentine can be extracted from pine resins. A 45-year-old woman developed a contact dermatitis of the face and hands due to a sensitization to colophony and turpentine after she had bought untreated pine chairs. The increased use of untreated pine in the furniture industry might result in an increase of colophony and turpentine-induced contact allergies. Therefore, the slogan "untreated=harmless" should be considered critically in such cases.

  17. Immunopathologic features of allergic contact dermatitis in humans: participation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of the disease?

    PubMed

    Bangert, Christine; Friedl, Josef; Stary, Georg; Stingl, Georg; Kopp, Tamara

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to our abundant knowledge about the sensitization phase of human contact hypersensitivity, little is known about the cell types orchestrating the effector phase. In order to address this issue, we phenotypically analyzed biopsies from 72 h epicutaneous patch test reactions (n=10) and normal human skin (n=5) for the presence of various leukocyte differentiation antigens. The inflammatory infiltrate was dominated by CD3+/CD4+ T cells with approximately 30% of the cells coexpressing CD25 and CTLA-4, a phenotype consistent with either activated effector or regulatory T cells. In our search for professional antigen-presenting cells, we were surprised to find not only sizeable numbers of CD1a+ dendritic cells and CD1c+ dendritic cells, but also of CD123+, CD45RA+, BDCA-2+, CLA+, and CD62L+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Although virtually absent in normal human skin, these cells were detectable already 6 h after hapten challenge and were often found in close proximity to CD56+ natural killer cells, indicative of a functional interaction between these cell types. The detailed knowledge of the cellular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in allergic contact dermatitis and its kinetics should form the basis for the investigation of the immunologic and molecular events operative in the perpetuation and resolution of the eczematous response.

  18. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of Tryptophan and Phenylalanine Catabolism in the Remission Phase of Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Kainov, Denis; Girkontaitė, Irutė; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kvedarienė, Violeta; Fu, Yu; Anders, Simon; Velagapudi, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens. The severity and duration of this disease are associated with many different factors. Some of these factors may represent markers for monitoring disease activity and the individual response to an intervention. We used a targeted metabolomics approach to find such factors in the serum of individuals with ACD. Metabolomics profiles were examined and compared in the acute phase of the disease and also in the absence of disease activity. Our study identified a significant remission phase of ACD-associated systemic biochemical shifts in 2 metabolic pathways: tryptophan-kynurenine and phenylalanine-tyrosine. Although the responsible mechanisms are unclear, these results suggest that the remission phase of ACD is linked to tryptophan metabolism via kynurenine and phenylalanine-tyrosine pathways. However, further replication studies with a larger number of subjects and their subgroups are necessary to validate our results. These studies may provide a new perspective with which to understand the mechanism of and find potential biomarkers of ACD, as well as a new reference for personalized treatment. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Body piercing and metal allergic contact sensitivity: North American contact dermatitis group data from 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Kingsley-Loso, Jaime L; DeKoven, Joel G; Belsito, Donald V; Zug, Kathryn A; Zirwas, Matthew J; Maibach, Howard I; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; Fowler, Joseph F; Mathias, Charles Gordon Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Pratt, Melanie D; Marks, James G; Fransway, Anthony F

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between piercing and patch test sensitivity to metals (nickel, cobalt, and chromium) in North America. A retrospective analysis of 9334 patients tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group from 2007 to 2010 was conducted. Nickel sensitivity was statistically associated with at least 1 piercing (risk ratio [RR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.26-2.81; P < 0.0001) and nickel sensitivity rates increased with the number of piercings (16% for 1 piercing to 32% for ≥ 5 piercings). Prevalence of nickel sensitivity was higher in females (23.2%) than in males (7.1%), but the association with piercing was stronger in males (RR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.72-3.30; P < 0.0001) than in females (RR, 1.30; CI, 1.13-1.49; P = 0.0002). Crude analysis indicated that cobalt sensitivity was statistically associated with piercing (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.40-1.91; P < 0.0001); however, stratified analysis showed that this relationship was confounded by nickel. After adjusting for nickel sensitivity, the adjusted risk ratio for piercing and cobalt was 0.78 (not significant). Chromium sensitivity was negatively associated with piercing (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.75; P < 0.0001). Piercing was statistically associated with sensitivity to nickel. This relationship was dose dependent and stronger in males. Cobalt sensitivity was not associated with piercing when adjusted for nickel. Chromium sensitivity was negatively associated with piercing.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel: modified in vitro test protocols for better detection of allergen-specific response.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw; Moed, Heleen; von Blomberg, Brigitta Mary E; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    To date, no in vitro test is suitable for routine diagnosis of contact allergy. The aim of our study was to establish improved in vitro test protocol for the detection of antigen-specific responses of lymphocytes from patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel (Ni-ACD). Blood leucocytes from 14 Ni-ACD patients and 14 controls were cultured in the presence of 'cytokine cocktails' skewing lymphocytes towards 'type 1' [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-secreting] or 'type 2' [interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13-secreting] phenotypes. The cocktails consisted of IL-7 and, respectively, either IL-12 or IL-4. Cell responses to nickel were measured with enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT). Significant differences between patients with Ni-ACD and controls were found for the 'type 2' cytokines IL-13 and IL-5, with further increase of allergen-specific responses occurring when cultures were supplemented with IL-7 and IL-4. No significant differences were found for IFN-gamma. The best correlate to clinical diagnosis was LPT with 'type 2' skewing (r= 0.739, P < 0.001), followed by IL-13 ELISpot with 'type 2' skewing (r= 0.654, P < 0.001). The non-radioactive method that correlated best with LPT was IL-2 ELISpot (r= 0.809, P < 0.001). Overall, we conclude that combining ELISpot assay with proposed modifications of culture conditions improves detection of specific lymphocyte responses in contact allergy to nickel.

  2. Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Tobias; Schlütter-Böhmer, Brigitte; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija

    2005-07-01

    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options.

  3. Effects of Acupuncture on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuicui; Liu, Xiaozhu; Li, Yinfeng; Liang, Huankun; Li, Kangyan; Li, Jiali; Cheng, Chengwu; Liu, Xianpan; Zhong, Shuhai; Li, Laiqing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for ACD despite their significant adverse effects. Acupuncture has been widely used in the treatment of various skin diseases, but its underlying mechanism remains unrevealed. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of acupuncture treatment based on effectiveness and mechanism. BALB/c mice received 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) application to build AD-like model. Results showed that acupuncture was an effective treatment method in inhibiting inflammatory conditions, serum IgE levels, and expression of proinflammatory cytokine Th2 (IL-4, IL-6), and Th2 (IL-1β, TNF-α) mRNA compared with DNCB treatment. Acupuncture treatment also inhibited nuclear factor-κB p65, phosphorylation of IκBα, and phosphorylation of occludin proteins expression. Furthermore, it could improve the expression of epidermal growth factor in both mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that acupuncture, as an alternative therapy treatment for its no significant side effects, was effective in alleviating ACD by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and changing proteins' expression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Does allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde in clothes treated with durable-press chemical finishes exist in the USA?

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-03-01

    Recent US studies have presented case series of patient with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) allegedly caused by formaldehyde in clothes treated with durable-press chemical finishes (DPCF), which are known formaldehyde releasers. However, the amounts of formaldehyde released by modern DPCF are thought to be well below the levels previously estimated to be able to elicit ACD. The objectives of this review are (i) to investigate whether clothes sold in the USA may contain enough free formaldehyde to elicit ACD in previously sensitized individuals and (ii) to assess the validity of US reports on ACD from formaldehyde in DPCF treated clothes. Literature was examined using various resources. The threshold level for formaldehyde in clothes that may cause ACD in sensitized individuals is unknown; we present data suggesting that levels < 200 ppm will be safe for most patients and that textiles will rarely contain higher amounts. All US studies presenting patients with ACD from formaldehyde in clothes had some weaknesses and in no report was the diagnosis proven beyond doubt. Currently, there is no definite proof that textile ACD from formaldehyde in DPCF in the USA exists. Future research should be directed at establishing the elicitation threshold and the amounts of formaldehyde present in textiles.

  5. Anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory effects of oxymatrine in a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Jianhao; Yan, Yixi; Zhu, Tao; Tang, Dan; Ye, Kaihe; Paranjpe, Manish; Qu, Lintao; Nie, Hong

    2018-05-31

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease of the skin. As a result of the complex etiology in ACD, therapeutic compounds targeting refractory pruritus in ACD lack efficacy and lead to numerous side effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-pruritic effects of oxymatrine (OMT) and explored its mechanism of action in a mouse model of ACD. 72 male SPF C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, ACD model group, dexamethasone positive control group (0.08 mg kg -1 ) and 3 OMT groups (80, 40, 20 mg kg -1 ). OMT was administrated by intraperitoneal injection 1 h before video recording on day 10, 24 h after 2nd challenge with SADBE. Cheek skin fold thickness was measured before treatment and after recording. H&E staining was used for pathological observation. RT-qPCR, Immunohistochemistry and LEGENDplexTM assay were used to detect cytokines levels. The population of Treg cells in peripheral blood were detected via flow cytometry. OMT treatment significantly decreases the skin inflammation and scratching bouts. It rescues defects in epidermal keratinization and inflammatory cell infiltration in ACD mice. Administration of OMT significantly reduced levels of IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17A, TNF-α, IL-22 and mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Furthermore, it increased the percentage of Treg cells in peripheral blood of ACD mice. We have demonstrated that OMT exhibits anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory effects in ACD mice by regulating inflammatory mediators. OMT might emerge as a potential drug for the treatment of pruritus and skin inflammation in the setting of ACD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Histone deacetylases inhibitor Trichostatin A ameliorates DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis and reduces epidermal Langerhans cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu-Ling; Gu, Jun; Park, Jun-Yang; Xu, Ying-Ping; Yu, Fu-Shin; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs) influence chromatin organization, representing a key epigenetic regulatory mechanism in cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), a potent HDAC inhibitor, has anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction in skin and is regulated by epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate if TSA treatment prevents 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced ACD in mice and regulates epidermal LCs and other immune cells during ACD development. Methods ACD was induced by sensitizing and challenging with DNFB topically. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with TSA or vehicle DMSO as a control every other day before and during induction of ACD. The ear swelling response was measured and skin biopsies from sensitized skin areas were obtained for histology. Epidermal cells, thymus, spleens and skin draining lymph nodes were collected for immune staining. Results TSA treatment ameliorated skin lesion severity of DNFB-induced ACD. The percentages of epidermal LCs and splenic DCs as well as LC maturation were significantly reduced in TSA-treated mice. However, TSA treatment did not significantly affect the homeostasis of conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells in thymus, spleen and draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in IL-4 and IFN-γ-producing T cells and iNKT cells between TSA- and DMSO-treated mice. Conclusion Our findings suggest that TSA may ameliorate ACD through the regulation of epidermal LCs and HDACs could serve as potential therapeutic targets for ACD and other LCs-related skin diseases. PMID:22999682

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  8. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be “mild” and “natural” are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to “stronger” allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  9. Upregulation of the axonal growth and the expression of substance P and its NK1 receptor in human allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    El-Nour, H; Lundeberg, L; Al-Tawil, R; Granlund, A; Lonne-Rahm, S-B; Nordlind, K

    2006-01-01

    Nerve fibers and sensory neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been reported to be involved in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In the present study, we investigated the general innervation (using antibody against protein gene product 9.5, PGP 9.5), axonal growth (using antibody against growth associated protein, GAP-43), CGRP, and substance P with its receptor neurokinin 1 (NK1), in positive epicutaneous reactions to nickel sulphate from nickel-allergic patients, at the peak of inflammation, 72 hr after challenge with the antigen. There was an increased (p < 0.01) number of GAP-43 positive fibers in the eczematous compared with control skin, indicating an increased axonal growth already at 72 hr postchallenge. Double staining revealed a coexpression of CGRP and GAP-43 on dermal nerve fibers. There was no difference in the number of substance P and CGRP positive nerve fibers between eczematous and control skin. However, semiquantification analyses showed an increased expression of substance P positive inflammatory cells, being CD3, CD4, or CD8 positive, and NK1R positive inflammatory cells, being tryptase or CD3 positive. These results indicate a contribution of regenerating nerve fibers and substance P to the contact allergic reaction.

  10. Knee contact forces are not altered in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meireles, S; De Groote, F; Reeves, N D; Verschueren, S; Maganaris, C; Luyten, F; Jonkers, I

    2016-03-01

    This study calculated knee contact forces (KCF) and its relations with knee external knee adduction moments (KAM) and/or flexion moments (KFM) during the stance phase of gait in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA), classified based on early joint degeneration on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We aimed at assessing if altered KCF are already present in early structural degeneration. Three-dimensional motion and ground reaction force data in 59 subjects with medial compartment knee OA (N=23 established OA, N=16 early OA, N=20 controls) were used as input for a musculoskeletal model. KAM and KFM, and KCF were estimated using OpenSim software. No significant differences were found between controls and subjects with early OA. In early OA patients, KAM significantly explained 69% of the variance associated with the first peaks KCF but only KFM contributed to the second peaks KCF. The multiple correlation, combining KAM and KFM, showed to be higher. However, only 20% of the variance of second peak KCF was explained by both moments in established OA. KCF are not increased in patients with early OA, suggesting that knee joint overload is more a consequence of further joint degeneration in more advanced stages of OA. Additionally, our results clearly show that KAM is not sufficient to predict joint loading at the end of the stance, where KFM contributes substantially to the loading, especially in early OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC in DNFB-mediated mouse allergic contact dermatitis independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gaffal, E; Cron, M; Glodde, N; Tüting, T

    2013-08-01

    ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active constituent of Cannabis sativa, exerts its biological effects in part through the G-protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors, which were initially discovered in brain and spleen tissue, respectively. However, THC also has CB1/2 receptor-independent effects. Because of its immune-inhibitory potential, THC and related cannabinoids are being considered for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Here we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of THC and the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We evaluated the impact of topically applied THC on DNFB-mediated allergic contact dermatitis in wild-type and CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We performed immunohistochemical analyses for infiltrating immune cells and studied the influence of THC on the interaction between T cells, keratinocytes and myeloid immune cells in vitro. Topical THC application effectively decreased contact allergic ear swelling and myeloid immune cell infiltration not only in wild-type but also in CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We found that THC (1) inhibited the production of IFNγ by T cells, (2) decreased the production of CCL2 and of IFNγ-induced CCL8 and CXL10 by epidermal keratinocytes and (3) thereby limited the recruitment of myeloid immune cells in vitro in a CB1/2 receptor-independent manner. Topically applied THC can effectively attenuate contact allergic inflammation by decreasing keratinocyte-derived pro-inflammatory mediators that orchestrate myeloid immune cell infiltration independent of CB1/2 receptors. This has important implications for the future development of strategies to harness cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. General anesthesia exposure in early life reduces the risk of allergic diseases: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chen; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Jiang, Jyun-Hong; Huang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    General anesthesia (GA) has been used for second line treatment strategy for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients. The association between GA in children and risk of followed-up allergic diseases is unclear. This study aims to assess the risk of allergic diseases after GA in children.We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, including asthma (ICD-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between exposure to GA and none before 1 year of age throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model.Insurance claims data for 32,742 children younger than 1 year old from all insured children in the NHIRD. Of those, 2358 subjects were exposed to GA; 414 and 1944 children exposed to mask and intubation ventilation, respectively, served as the study cohort, whereas the remaining 30,384 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the GA group were at a lower risk of developing asthma, AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.67 (0.62-0.72, 95%CI), 0.72 (0.68-0.77, 95%CI), 0.60 (0.56-0.64, 95%CI), respectively.Children who were exposed to GA in early life before 1 year of age had reduced risk of subsequently developing allergic diseases such as asthma, AD, and AR, when compared with general population.

  13. Airborne occupational allergic contact dermatitis from triglycidyl-p-aminophenol and tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylene dianiline in preimpregnated epoxy products in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T; Henriks-Eckerman, M; Tuomi, M; Tarvainen, K

    2000-01-01

    Very little is known about allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from preimpregnated epoxy products (prepregs). To describe a patient with occupational ACD from prepregs, and report new quantitative data on the content of prepregs. A laminator developed work-related vesicular hand dermatitis. He worked in an aircraft plant assembling aircraft parts, being exposed to preimpregnated carbon fiber and fiberglass sheets (prepregs), and epoxy adhesive tapes and foams. Triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP; 1-0.25%, 2+; 0.05%, 1+) and tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylene dianiline (TGMDA; 1%, 3+; 0.5-0.05%, 2+) provoked allergic patch test reactions, whereas o-diglycidyl phthalate was negative (1-0.05% pet) and standard epoxy provoked a weak (?+) reaction. Six prepreg products provoking allergic patch test reactions were analyzed for their TGPAP, TGMDA and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) content using gas and liquid chromatographic methods, showing up to 10% of TGPAP, 19% of TGMDA and 5% of DGEBA in the prepregs. An epoxy primer contained 61% of TGPAP. TGPAP and TGMDA caused occupational ACD. These chemicals need to be used when patch testing patients are exposed to prepregs, because patch testing with DGEBA may be negative. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Early microbial contact, the breast milk microbiome and child health.

    PubMed

    Rautava, S

    2016-02-01

    The significance of contact with microbes in early life for subsequent health has been the subject of intense research during the last 2 decades. Disturbances in the establishment of the indigenous intestinal microbiome caused by cesarean section delivery or antibiotic exposure in early life have been linked to the risk of immune-mediated and inflammatory conditions such as atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity later in life. Distinct microbial populations have recently been discovered at maternal sites including the amniotic cavity and breast milk, as well as meconium, which have previously been thought to be sterile. Our understanding of the impact of fetal microbial contact on health outcomes is still rudimentary. Breast milk is known to modulate immune and metabolic programming. The breast milk microbiome is hypothesized to guide infant gut colonization and is affected by maternal health status and mode of delivery. Immunomodulatory factors in breast milk interact with the maternal and infant gut microbiome and may mediate some of the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. The intimate connection between the mother and the fetus or the infant is a potential target for microbial therapeutic interventions aiming to support healthy microbial contact and protect against disease.

  15. Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2017-07-21

    A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 ( n -6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n -6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 ( n -3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n -6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n -3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants/children of those pregnancies suggest protective associations, but the findings are inconsistent. Fish oil provision to pregnant women is associated with immunologic changes in cord blood. Studies performed to date indicate that provision of fish oil during pregnancy may reduce sensitisation to common food allergens and reduce prevalence and severity of atopic eczema in the first year of life, with a possible persistence until adolescence. A recent study reported that fish oil consumption in pregnancy reduces persistent wheeze and asthma in the offspring at ages 3 to 5 years. Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease.

  16. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the risk of childhood allergic diseases: an update from the perspective of the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chang-Hung; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Huang, Ching-Hua; Yang, San-Nan; Lee, Min-Sheng; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been growing rapidly in industrial countries during recent decades. It is postulated that growing up with less microbial exposure may render the immune system susceptible to a T helper type 2 (Th2)-predominant allergic response-also known as the hygiene hypothesis. This review delineates recent epidemiological and experimental evidence for the hygiene hypothesis, and integrates this hypothesis into the association between early life exposure to antibiotics and the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Several retrospective or prospective epidemiological studies reveal that early exposure to antibiotics may be positively associated with the development of allergic diseases and asthma. However, the conclusion is inconsistent. Experimental studies show that antibiotics may induce the Th2-skewed response by suppressing the T helper type 1 (Th1) response through inhibition of Th1 cytokines and disruption of the natural course of infection, or by disturbing the microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and therefore jeopardizing the establishment of oral tolerance and regulatory T cell immune responses. The hygiene hypothesis may not be the only explanation for the rapid increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma. Further epidemiological and experimental studies addressing the issue of the impact of environmental factors on the development of allergic diseases and the underlying mechanisms may unveil novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Early life exposure to traffic-related air pollution and allergic rhinitis in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qihong; Lu, Chan; Yu, Yichen; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-12-01

    Evidence linking long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution with allergic rhinitis (AR) in children is scare, and the role of components of air pollution and timing of exposure remains unclear. To assess the association of pre- and post-natal exposure to air pollution with life-time prevalence of AR in preschool children. We conducted a cohort study of 2598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of AR was assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents. Children's exposures to dioxide nitrogen (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ) during different pre- and post-natal timing windows were estimated using the measured concentrations at monitoring stations. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of childhood AR for exposure to different air pollutants during different timing windows were assessed by logistic regression model in terms of an interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure level. Life-time prevalence of AR in preschool children (7.3%) was associated with both pre- and post-natal exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), but only significant during the third trimester of pregnancy with adjusted OR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.08-1.82) for a 15 μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 and during the first-year of life with adjusted OR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.03-1.78) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.07-2.21) respectively for 11 and 12 μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 and PM 10 . The association of early life exposure to TRAP with childhood AR was robust by adjusting for other air pollutants and timing windows. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the association was higher in the children who are male, young, with genetic predisposition by parental atopy, and living in damp houses. Early life exposure to traffic-related air pollutant during pregnancy and first-year of life may contribute to childhood AR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  19. Friend and Family Contact and Support in Early Widowhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the relative contributions of friends and family to the social and emotional well-being of women and men in the first 2–6 months following the death of their spouse or partner. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-eight widowed men (39%) and women aged 50 and older completed self-administered questionnaires that included measures of contact and satisfaction with friends and family, as well as measures of affective (i.e., grief and depression) and self-evaluative (i.e., coping self-efficacy, mastery, self-esteem) responses to loss. Results. Regression analyses supported the positive features of social support and interaction but particularly highlight the role of friends: ease of contact and satisfaction with friendship support were associated with more positive self-evaluative aspects of loss; greater frequency of friendship help was associated with more negative affective reactions, whereas higher satisfaction with friendship support was associated with more positive affective reactions. Discussion. These analyses support the voluntary and socializing functions of friendship and social support, bolstering individuals during stressful life transitions, advancing our understanding of the underexamined and particularly distinct functions of friendship in the early phases of spousal loss. PMID:24170717

  20. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by sterile non-latex protective gloves: clinical investigation and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Hamnerius, Nils; Bruze, Magnus; Hansson, Christer; Persson, Christina; Svedman, Cecilia; Thörneby Andersson, Kirsten; Bergendorff, Ola

    2013-02-01

    An increased frequency of occupational contact hand dermatitis among surgical operating theatre personnel has been noticed. To evaluate patients with occupational contact dermatitis caused by their rubber gloves, and to describe a method for analysing the content of the allergens in the gloves. Patch tests were performed with the baseline series, a rubber chemical series, and the patients' own gloves. A method for analysing 1,3-diphenylguanidine (DPG) and cetylpyridinium chloride in the gloves was developed. Contact allergy to thiuram mix was found in 8 of 16 patients, whereas 12 of 16 patients reacted to DPG. In 7 of 8 patients, contact allergy to cetylpyridinium chloride was found. In the patients' gloves, cetylpyridinium chloride and DPG were detected at higher concentrations on the inside of the gloves than on the outside. Most patients had worked for decades in their present occupations, but their hand dermatitis had only been present for months. Contact allergy to DPG in gloves has been disputed, but, in this study, we were able to confirm the presence of DPG and cetylpyridinium chloride in the causative gloves by using a modified method for the analysis. The presence of these chemicals in gloves caused an increase in occupational contact dermatitis in surgical operating theatre personnel. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. The march from early life food sensitization to allergic disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses of birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Alduraywish, S A; Lodge, C J; Campbell, B; Allen, K J; Erbas, B; Lowe, A J; Dharmage, S C

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for an increase in food allergies. The question of whether early life food sensitization, a primary step in food allergies, leads to other allergic disease is a controversial but important issue. Birth cohorts are an ideal design to answer this question. We aimed to systematically investigate and meta-analyse the evidence for associations between early food sensitization and allergic disease in birth cohorts. MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched for birth cohorts that have investigated the association between food sensitization in the first 2 years and subsequent wheeze/asthma, eczema and/or allergic rhinitis. We performed meta-analyses using random-effects models to obtain pooled estimates, stratified by age group. The search yielded fifteen original articles representing thirteen cohorts. Early life food sensitization was associated with an increased risk of infantile eczema, childhood wheeze/asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis and young adult asthma. Meta-analyses demonstrated that early life food sensitization is related to an increased risk of wheeze/asthma (pooled OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0-4.0), eczema (pooled OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.4) and allergic rhinitis (pooled OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.9-4.9) from 4 to 8 years. Food sensitization in the first 2 years of life can identify children at high risk of subsequent allergic disease who may benefit from early life preventive strategies. However, due to potential residual confounding in the majority of studies combined with lack of follow-up into adolescence and adulthood, further research is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  4. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS) in canvas shoes: in search of the culprit allergen.

    PubMed

    Schuttelaar, Marie L; Meijer, Joost M; Engfeldt, Malin; Lapeere, Hilde; Goossens, An; Bruze, Magnus; Persson, Christina; Bergendorff, Ola

    2018-01-01

    During rubber vulcanization, new compounds can be formed. To report a case of allergic shoe dermatitis in which the search for the allergen ultimately led to the identification of dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS). A female presented with eczema on her feet after wearing Sperry Top Sider® canvas sneakers. Patch testing was performed with the European baseline series, additional series, shoe materials, and extracts of shoe materials. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed for additional patch testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectometry were used for chemical analysis. Positive reactions were found to thiuram mix (+), tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM) (+), shoe material (+), and shoe extracts in eth. (++) and acetone (+). The extracts did not contain TMTM or other components of thiuram mix. TLC strips yielded a positive reaction (+) to one spot, whereas chemical analysis gave a negative result. Thereafter, a similar sneaker from another patient with shoe dermatitis was analysed, and DMBTS was identified. New extracts of the shoe of our first patient were then also shown to contain DMTBS. DMTBS as culprit allergen was confirmed by positive patch testing with a dilution series with DMTBS. DMBTS was identified as the culprit allergen in shoe dermatitis, giving rise to compound allergy. The positive reaction to TMTM was considered to represent cross-reactivity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Allergic contact reaction to dexpanthenol: lymphocyte transformation test and evidence for microsomal-dependent metabolism of the allergen.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C; Röseler, S; Fritzsche, R; Schneider, R; Merk, H F

    1993-02-01

    In a patient with contact dermatitis, dexpanthenol was found to be the causative allergen. There was a positive reaction to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Controls did not show any positive reactions to dexpanthenol on patch testing. Additionally, an LTT was performed. After preincubation with dexpanthenol-modified microsomes, we observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation to dexpanthenol, in comparison to dexpanthenol without microsomes, suggesting that microsomal metabolism plays a rôle in the pathogenesis of dexpanthenol sensitization, because microsomes are known to possess drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450.

  8. Several cases of work-related allergic contact dermatitis caused by isocyanates at a company manufacturing heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Engfeldt, Malin; Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred by her occupational health service with suspected occupational contact dermatitis. In connection with the investigation, a workplace visit was undertaken at her company, which used an adhesive based on pre-polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate in one of its units. During the visit, we became aware of six other employees with skin problems who were then referred to our department for investigation. To investigate the seven employees complaining about skin problems. Seven employees were patch tested with a baseline series, an isocyanate series, and a series with work material. Five of seven patients had occupational contact allergy. Four reacted to isocyanate-related test preparations, and one to a cleanser used at the workplace. Workplace visits constitute an important part of an occupational investigation, as they might give a broader picture of the problems at a company. In this case, it was found that 5 of 100 employees currently had or had previously had occupation-related skin problems. Owing to 'healthy worker selection', some of these patients might have been missed if we had not performed a full-scale workplace visit. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Early gut colonization by Bifidobacterium breve and B. catenulatum differentially modulates eczema risk in children at high risk of developing allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Intan H; Boyle, Robert J; Licciardi, Paul V; Oppedisano, Frances; Lahtinen, Sampo; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Tang, Mimi L K

    2016-12-01

    An altered compositional signature and reduced diversity of early gut microbiota are linked to development of allergic disease. We investigated the relationship between dominant Bifidobacterium species during the early post-natal period and subsequent development of allergic disease in the first year of life. Faecal samples were collected at age 1 week, 1 month and 3 months from 117 infants at high risk of allergic disease. Bifidobacterium species were analysed by quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Infants were examined at 3, 6 and 12 months, and skin prick test was performed at 12 months. Eczema was diagnosed according to the UK Working Party criteria. The presence of B. catenulatum at 3 months was associated with a higher risk of developing eczema (OR adj = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.56-13.05, p adj = 0.005). Infants colonized with B. breve at 1 week (OR adj = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.95, p adj = 0.04) and 3 months (OR adj = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05-0.44, p adj = 0.00001) had a reduced risk of developing eczema. Furthermore, the presence of B. breve at 3 months was associated with a lower risk of atopic sensitization at 12 months (OR adj = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.15-0.98, p adj = 0.05). B. breve colonization patterns were influenced by maternal allergic status, household pets and number of siblings. Temporal variations in Bifidobacterium colonization patterns early in life are associated with later development of eczema and/or atopic sensitization in infants at high risk of allergic disease. Modulation of the early microbiota may provide a means to prevent eczema in high-risk infants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Indirubin, a purple 3,2- bisindole, inhibited allergic contact dermatitis via regulating T helper (Th)-mediated immune system in DNCB-induced model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Yang, Gabsik; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Nam, Dongwoo; Yang, Woong Mo

    2013-01-09

    Indirubin, isolated from Indigo naturalis (Apiaceae) is a purple 3,2- bisindole and a stable isomer of indigo. Although it is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) to induce skin inflammation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess epidermal and dermal hyperplasia, which were determined by measuring the thicknesses of the epidermis and dermis, respectively. We also evaluated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and cytokines production, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, 6 and Interferon (IFN)-gamma. In addition, we investigated nuclear factor (NF)-κB, IκB-α and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities for verifying the molecular mechanism of inflammation. Indirubin treatment suppressed skin inflammation in DNCB-exposed mice. The skin lesions were significantly thinner in the Indirubin-treated group than in untreated controls, and the hyperkeratosis disappeared. Indirubin reduced the total serum IgE level and cytokines production. In addition, it normalized NF-κB, IκB-α and MAP kinase expression. Indirubin might be a useful treatment for allergic contact dermatitis via regulating the co-expression of T helper (Th) 1 and 2 cell-mediated immune responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Octylisothiazolinone, an additional cause of allergic contact dermatitis caused by leather: case series and potential implications for the study of cross-reactivity with methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Olivier; Meert, Hans; Romaen, Elien; Leysen, Julie; Matthieu, Lucretia; Apers, Sandra; Lambert, Julien; Goossens, An

    2016-11-01

    Octylisothiazolinone (OIT) is used as an antifungal agent by the leather industry. To show sensitization to OIT from leather, and to highlight the potential implications when cross-reactivity between OIT and methylisothiazolinone (MI) is studied. Two patients with allergic contact dermatitis caused by a leather belt and shoes, respectively, were patch tested with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/MI, MI, MCI, OIT, and benzisothiazolinone (BIT). High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to detect isothiazolinone derivatives in leather goods. Additionally, files of OIT-sensitized patients, observed at the KU Leuven department during the period 1990-2015, were retrospectively analysed. Both patients had been primarily sensitized to OIT, but the diagnosis in one of them could be achieved only when a higher patch test concentration of OIT (1000 ppm pet.) was used. HPLC-UV confirmed the presence of OIT in their leather goods. Non-relevant sensitization to MI was noted in both cases. Four additional cases of OIT sensitization from leather could be retrieved from the KU Leuven database. Non-occupational sensitization to OIT from leather may occur. Patch test concentrations of >250 ppm pet. may be necessary for diagnosis, and to show cross-reactivity with MI. Safer use limits for OIT in the leather industry may be needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates in nail cosmetic products in users and nail technicians - a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Inês; Lobo, Inês; Amaro, Cristina; Lobo, Maria de Lurdes; Melo, Helena; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Teresa; Rocha, Joana; Cunha, Ana P; Baptista, Armando; Serrano, Pedro; Correia, Teresa; Travassos, Ana R; Dias, Margarida; Pereira, Fátima; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2017-12-01

    The increasing use of long-lasting nail aesthetic products has led to a growing number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by (meth)acrylates in recent years. To provide information on ACD caused by (meth)acrylates related to nail cosmetic products. We retrospectively reviewed files of patients with ACD caused by (meth)acrylates related to nail cosmetic products, who were patch tested between January 2011 and December 2015 in 13 departments of dermatology in Portugal. Two-hundred and thirty cases of ACD caused by (meth)acrylates (55 technicians, 56 consumers, and 119 with mixed exposure) had been documented, mostly as chronic hand eczema (93%). The most common sensitizers were: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), which was positive in 90% of the tested patients, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), which was positive in 64.1%, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, which was positive in 54.5%. HEMA and HPMA were the most frequent positive allergens. HEMA, which identified 90% of cases, can be considered to be a good screening allergen. The high number of cases of ACD caused by (meth)acrylates in nail cosmetic products certainly warrants better preventive measures at the occupational level, and specific regulation in the field of consumer safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish - are we facing a new epidemic in the beauty industry?

    PubMed

    Gatica-Ortega, Maria-Elena; Pastor-Nieto, Maria-Antonia; Mercader-García, Pedro; Silvestre-Salvador, Juan-Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by (meth)acrylates has been described both in occupational and in non-occupational settings. To evaluate the clinical patterns, the most frequent allergens and the prognosis in patients sensitized to (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish. The files of patients with ACD caused by (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in four dermatology departments in Spain were reviewed. Patients were followed up by telephone interview. Overall, 2353 patients were patch tested. Forty-three (1.82%) were diagnosed with ACD caused by (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish during that period; all were female, and all had hand dermatitis. Patients were mostly less than 40 years old (72.1%), non-atopic (95.4%) and had an occupational cause of their dermatitis (93%), which developed ∼10.1 months after they had started to use this technique. The most frequent positive allergens were: 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate. Eight of the 22 interviewed patients were able to improve their working technique and used 4H® protective material (fingerstalls/gloves). Long-lasting nail polishes have become widespread, and it is a matter of concern that we may be facing a new epidemic of ACD caused by these. Policies regulating their use are urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Proanthocyanidins from the bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides ameliorate allergic contact dermatitis through directly inhibiting T cells activation and Th1/Th17 responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengyang; Ye, Xiaodi; Yang, Yadong; Teng, Tianli; Li, Xiaoyu; Xu, Shifang; Ye, Yiping

    2015-04-15

    The leaves and bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides are used as anti-microbic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases in Chinese folk medicine. However, the pharmacological effects and material basis responsible for the therapeutic use of this herb have not yet been well studied. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the proanthocyanidin fraction from the bark of M. glyptostroboides (MGEB) and to elucidate its immunological mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory activity of MGEB was evaluated using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mice. Its potential mechanisms were further investigated by determining its effects on Con A-induced T cell activation and Th1/Th17 responses in vitro. Both intraperitoneal injection and oral administration of MGEB significantly reduced the ear swelling in DNFB-induced ACD mice. MGEB inhibited Con A-induced proliferation and the expression levels of cell surface molecules CD69 and CD25 of T cells in vitro. MGEB also significantly decreased the production of Th1/Th17 specific cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17) and down-regulated their mRNA expression levels in activated T-cells. MGEB could ameliorate ACD, at least in part, through directly inhibiting T cells activation and Th1/Th17 responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Is there a march from early food sensitization to later childhood allergic airway disease? Results from two prospective birth cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Alduraywish, Shatha A; Standl, Marie; Lodge, Caroline J; Abramson, Michael J; Allen, Katrina J; Erbas, Bircan; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim; Lowe, Adrian J; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-02-01

    The march from early aeroallergen sensitization to subsequent respiratory allergy is well established, but it is unclear whether early life food sensitization precedes and further increases risk of allergic airway disease. To assess the association between food sensitization in the first 2 years of life and subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis by age 10-12 years. We used data from two independent cohorts: the high-risk Melbourne Atopic Cohort Study (MACS) (n = 620) and the population-based LISAplus (n = 3094). Food sensitization was assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months in MACS and 24 months in LISAplus. Multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate associations between sensitization to food only, aeroallergen only, or both and allergic airway disease. When compared to non-sensitized children, sensitization to food only at 12 months in MACS and 24 months in LISAplus was associated with increased risk of current asthma (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.1, 4.6 in MACS and aOR = 4.9; 2.4, 10.1 in LISAplus). Similar results were seen for allergic rhinitis. Additionally, cosensitization to food and aeroallergen in both cohorts at any tested point was a stronger predictor of asthma (at 24 months, aOR = 8.3; 3.7, 18.8 in MACS and aOR = 14.4; 5.0, 41.6 in LISAplus) and allergic rhinitis (at 24 months, aOR = 3.9; 1.9, 8.1 in MACS and aOR = 7.6; 3.0, 19.6 in LISAplus). In both cohorts, food sensitization (with or without aeroallergen sensitization) in the first two years of life increased the risk of subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis. These findings support the role of early life food sensitization in the atopic march and suggest trials to prevent early onset have the potential to reduce the development of allergic airways disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Medications and Drug Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of immediate allergic reactions is anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis). Symptoms of anaphylaxis include hives, facial ... Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI 53202-3823 (414) 272-6071 Additional Contact Information ...

  17. Effects of Early Life Paracetamol Use on the Incidence of Allergic Disease and Sensitization: 5 Year Follow-Up of an Ethiopian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Amberbir, Alemayehu; Medhin, Girmay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Britton, John; Davey, Gail; Venn, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The hypothesis that paracetamol, one of the most widely used medicines, may increase the risk of asthma and allergic disease is of obvious importance but prospective cohort data looking at dose and timing of exposure are lacking. Objective The aim of the study is to investigate the role of paracetamol use in early life on the prevalence and incidence of wheeze, eczema, rhinitis and allergic sensitization, prospectively over 5 years in an Ethiopian birth cohort. Methods In 2005/6 a birth cohort of 1006 newborns was established in Butajira, Ethiopia. Questionnaire data on allergic disease symptoms, paracetamol use and numerous potential confounders were collected at ages 1, 3 and 5, and allergen skin sensitivity measured at ages 3 and 5. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent effects of paracetamol exposure on the incidence of each outcome between ages 3 and 5, and prevalence at age 5. Findings Paracetamol use in the first 3 years of life was reported in 60% of children and was associated with increased incidence of wheeze, eczema, rhinitis and allergic sensitisation between ages 3 and 5 which was statistically significant for wheeze and eczema. High exposure (reported use in the past month at age 1 and 3) was associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk of new onset wheeze (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 9.90) compared to never users. Use in the past year at age 3 but not age 1 was associated with ORs at least as large as those for use in first year of life only. Significant positive dose-response effects of early life use were seen in relation to the prevalence of all outcomes at age 5. Conclusions Use of paracetamol in early life is a strong risk factor for incident allergic disease in childhood. PMID:24718577

  18. Holding the baby: early mother-infant contact after childbirth and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Kruske, Sue

    2014-05-01

    to describe the timing, type and duration of initial infant contact and associated demographic and clinical factors in addition to investigating the impact of early contact on breastfeeding and maternal health and well being after birth. data from a recent population survey of women birthing in Queensland, Australia were used to describe the nature of the first hold and associated demographic characteristics. Initial comparisons, with subsequent adjustment for type of birthing facility and mode of childbirth, were used to assess associations between timing, type and duration of initial contact and outcomes. Further analyses were conducted to investigate a dose-response relationship between duration of first contact and outcomes. women who had an unassisted vaginal birth held their infant sooner, and for longer than women who had an assisted vaginal birth or caesarean and were more satisfied with their early contact. Multivariate models showed a number of demographic and clinical interventions contributing to timing, duration and type of first contact with type of birthing facility (public/private), area of residence, and assisted birth as prominent factors. For women who had a vaginal birth; early, skin-to-skin, and longer duration of initial contact were associated with high rates of breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding at discharge, but not breastfeeding at 13 weeks. Some aspects of early contact were associated with improved maternal well being. However, these associations were not found for women who had a caesarean birth. With longer durations of first contact, a dose-response effect was found for breastfeeding. results of the study provide a description of current practice in Queensland, Australia and factors impacting on early contact. For vaginal births, findings add to the evidence in support of early skin-to-skin contact for an extended period. It is suggested that all research in this area should consider the effects of early contact separately for

  19. Nickel, chromium and cobalt: the relevant allergens in allergic contact dermatitis. Comparative study between two periods: 1995-2002 and 2003-2015*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida; Mendonça, Rodolfo Ferreira; Korkes, Karen Levy; Lazzarini, Rosana; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva

    2018-01-01

    Background Metals are common agents of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational or not, with decreasing incidence over the last years in some countries that have regulated the amount of nickel in objects. Objectives To analyze and compare with previous studies the profile of metal sensitization between 2003-2015. Methods Patients who underwent patch testing between 2003-2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding the sensitization rates to metals, the associations between them, the relationship with profession and epidemiology. Results Of the 1,386 patients tested, 438 (32%) had positive test to some metal, similar results to the 404/1,208 (33%) of the previous study (1995-2002) performed at the same service (p=0.32). The frequency of nickel (77%), cobalt (32%) and chromium (29%) changed slightly (p=0.20). Most cases of sensitization to chromium were related to the occupation (64%), in contrast to nickel and cobalt (p<0.0001). There was a predominance of females among those sensitized to metal in both studies (p=0.63) and the age group of 20-49 years old (p=0.11); the number of fair-skinned individuals increased (p<0.001), as well as the lesions in the cephalic segment (50.5%; p<0.0001) and hands (45%; p<0.0001), which are not the most frequent location anymore. The number of cleaners decreased (39% vs. 59%; p<0.0001), which still lead in front of bricklayers/painters, which increased (14% vs. 9%; p=0.013). The frequency of wet work reduced (65% vs. 81%; p<0.0001). Study limitations The study included a single population group; only patients with positive tests to metals were considered - the others were not evaluated for the possibility of false negatives. Conclusion The sensitization to metals, occupational or not, has been significant over the last 21 years, with few epidemiological changes. PMID:29641698

  20. Nickel, chromium and cobalt: the relevant allergens in allergic contact dermatitis. Comparative study between two periods: 1995-2002 and 2003-2015.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ida; Mendonça, Rodolfo Ferreira; Korkes, Karen Levy; Lazzarini, Rosana; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva

    2018-01-01

    Metals are common agents of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational or not, with decreasing incidence over the last years in some countries that have regulated the amount of nickel in objects. To analyze and compare with previous studies the profile of metal sensitization between 2003-2015. Patients who underwent patch testing between 2003-2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding the sensitization rates to metals, the associations between them, the relationship with profession and epidemiology. Of the 1,386 patients tested, 438 (32%) had positive test to some metal, similar results to the 404/1,208 (33%) of the previous study (1995-2002) performed at the same service (p=0.32). The frequency of nickel (77%), cobalt (32%) and chromium (29%) changed slightly (p=0.20). Most cases of sensitization to chromium were related to the occupation (64%), in contrast to nickel and cobalt (p<0.0001). There was a predominance of females among those sensitized to metal in both studies (p=0.63) and the age group of 20-49 years old (p=0.11); the number of fair-skinned individuals increased (p<0.001), as well as the lesions in the cephalic segment (50.5%; p<0.0001) and hands (45%; p<0.0001), which are not the most frequent location anymore. The number of cleaners decreased (39% vs. 59%; p<0.0001), which still lead in front of bricklayers/painters, which increased (14% vs. 9%; p=0.013). The frequency of wet work reduced (65% vs. 81%; p<0.0001). The study included a single population group; only patients with positive tests to metals were considered - the others were not evaluated for the possibility of false negatives. The sensitization to metals, occupational or not, has been significant over the last 21 years, with few epidemiological changes.

  1. Natural history of allergic sensitization in infants with early-onset atopic dermatitis: results from ORCA Study.

    PubMed

    Just, Jocelyne; Deslandes-Boutmy, Emmanuelle; Amat, Flore; Desseaux, Kristell; Nemni, Ariane; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Sahraoui, Fatia; Pansé, Isabelle; Bagot, Martine; Fouéré, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset atopic dermatitis (AD) is a particular phenotype that may convey a risk of developing multiple sensitizations to allergens but little is known about the pathway of sensitization. The aims of this study were to describe the natural history of sensitization to allergens for this phenotype and to identify the most predictive marker associated with the risk of developing sensitization to inhaled allergens in a well-selected cohort of infants with AD. Infants with active AD were enrolled and prospectively explored for biological markers of atopy every year until the age of 6 yr. Allergic sensitization was defined as the presence of positive specific IgEs to allergens and multiple sensitizations as being sensitized to ≥2 allergens. Elevated blood eosinophilia was defined as an eosinophil blood count ≥470 eosinophils/mm(3) and elevated total IgE as a serum IgE level ≥45 kU/l. Two hundred and twenty-nine infants were included. Elevated blood eosinophilia was observed at baseline in 60 children (26.2%) and elevated total IgE in 85 (37.1%). When elevated at baseline, eosinophilia and IgE levels remained significantly higher during the follow-up period. Sensitization to food allergens decreased from 58% to 34%, whereas sensitization to inhaled allergens increased over time from 17% to 67%. Initial multiple sensitizations to food allergens were the most predictive factor for the risk of developing sensitization to inhaled allergens at 6 yr (OR 3.72 [1.68-8.30] p < 0.001). In the early-onset AD phenotype, multiple sensitization to food allergens conveys a higher risk of sensitization to inhaled allergens than single sensitization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Early life rhinovirus wheezing, allergic sensitization, and asthma risk at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rubner, Frederick J; Jackson, Daniel J; Evans, Michael D; Gangnon, Ronald E; Tisler, Christopher J; Pappas, Tressa E; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2017-02-01

    Early life rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses and aeroallergen sensitization increase the risk of asthma at school age. Whether these remain risk factors for the persistence of asthma out to adolescence is not established. We sought to define the relationships among specific viral illnesses and the type and timing of aeroallergen sensitization with the persistence of asthma into adolescence. A total of 217 children were followed prospectively from birth to age 13 years. The etiology and timing of viral wheezing illnesses during the first 3 years of life were assessed along with patterns of allergen sensitization. The associations between viral wheezing illnesses, presence and pattern of aeroallergen sensitization, and asthma diagnosis at age 13 years were evaluated. When adjusted for all viral etiologies, wheezing with RV (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.1), but not respiratory syncytial virus (odds ratio = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.3), was associated with asthma at age 13 years. Age of aeroallergen sensitization also influenced asthma risk; 65% of children sensitized by age 1 year had asthma at age 13 years, compared with 40% of children not sensitized at age 1 year but sensitized by age 5 years, and 17% of children not sensitized at age 5 years. Early life aeroallergen sensitization and RV wheezing had additive effects on asthma risk at adolescence. In a high-risk birth cohort, the persistence of asthma at age 13 years was most strongly associated with outpatient wheezing illnesses with RV and aeroallergen sensitization in early life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-life supplementation of vitamins A and D, in water-soluble form or in peanut oil, and allergic diseases during childhood.

    PubMed

    Kull, Inger; Bergström, Anna; Melén, Erik; Lilja, Gunnar; van Hage, Marianne; Pershagen, Göran; Wickman, Magnus

    2006-12-01

    Early vitamin supplementation is given routinely to infants in many countries, but it is unclear whether this affects the risk of allergic diseases. We sought to study the association between early-life supplementation of vitamins A and D in water-soluble form or in peanut oil and allergic diseases up to 4 years of age. A prospective birth cohort of 4089 newborn infants was followed for 4 years using parental questionnaires repeatedly to collect information on exposure and health. At 4 years, the response rate was 90%, and allergen-specific IgE levels to food and airborne allergens were measured in 2614 of the participating children. Vitamins A and D were given to 98% of the children in infancy, and vitamins based in peanut oil dominated (90%). Children supplemented with vitamins A and D in water-soluble form during the first year of life had an almost 2-fold increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [OD], 2.18; 95% CI, 1.45-3.28), food hypersensitivity (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.33-2.65), and sensitization to common food and airborne allergens (adjusted OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.34-2.64) at age 4 years compared with those receiving vitamins in peanut oil. No increased risk of IgE antibodies to peanut was seen in children receiving vitamins in peanut oil. Supplementation of vitamins A and D in water-soluble form seems to increase the risk of allergic disease up to the age of 4 years compared with supplementation with the same vitamins given in peanut oil. Vitamins A and D in oil does not seem to increase the risk of allergic disease during childhood.

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis to metals over a 20-year period in the Centre of Portugal: evaluation of the effects of the European directives].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vera; Coutinho, Inês; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Metals are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. After the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive (1994/27/CE; 2004/96/EC) and, more recently, the Cement Directive (2003/53/EC) there has been a significant decrease in sensitization to metals mainly in the Nordic countries. The applicability of these directives and their impact in the Portuguese population is unknown. A retrospective study (1992-2011) was carried out in our patch test clinic to assess the temporal trend of metal sensitization (nickel [Ni], cobalt [Co] and chromium [Cr]) along the last 20 years, particularly considering age, sex and its relation with occupational activity. Out of 5 250 consecutively patch-tested patients, 1 626 (31%) were reactive to at least one metal (26.5% to Ni; 10.0% to Co and 7.9% to Cr). Women had a higher prevalence of sensitization to Ni (34.4% vs 8.9%) whereas men were more reactive to Cr (11.5% vs 5.0%). Nickel sensitization did not decrease significantly over the years, although in recent years among women sensitized to nickel the percentage of younger patients (16-30 years-old) is significantly lower (p < 0.001). Chromium sensitization significantly decreased, particularly in men (r = -0.535), and mainly in the construction workers (r = -0.639). Chromium reactivity associated with the shoe dermatitis has remained stable. We emphasize the higher and stable percentage of nickel sensitized individuals suggesting, so far, a low impact from the EU Ni directive, although a decreasing percentage in the the younger group among Ni sensitized women may suggest a beneficial effect is becoming evident is this age group. On the contrary, the impact of the directive regarding the modification of Cr in cement seems to be effective. There is now a need to regulate chromium content in leather products, namely in shoes. The regulation of interventional measures related either to the manufacture and trade of adornments or professional use will better protect the population of

  5. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  6. Contribution of serum IL-4 and IgE to the early prediction of allergic reactions induced by chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gui Nan; Sun, Qing Ping; Chen, Hao An

    2013-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CA) is one of the active ingredients in some Chinese herbal injections, which may cause allergic reactions in clinic therapy. However, the criterion of test for allergen had not been employed in current Pharmacopeia of United States, European Pharmacopeia, Japanese Pharmacopeia and British Pharmacopeia. In order to find a new way to predict allergic reactions induced by CA earlier, the guinea pigs were sensitized successively by injecting CA intravenously once a day for three times, the results were compared that of Chinese Pharmacopeia by injecting CA intraperitoneally once every other day for three times, serum IL-4 and total IgE were detected by method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before guinea pigs were challenged once by injecting the same drug intravenously. The time-effectiveness and dose-effect of allergic reactions induced by CA were also studied. We found that contents of serum IL-4 and total IgE increased significantly before guinea pigs were challenged, either in D8 after intravenous sensitization (1.5 g/l CA, 0.5 ml) or in D14 and D21 after intraperitoneal sensitization (1.5 g/l CA, 0.5 ml), and allergic reactions occurred in all guinea pigs after challenged once by injecting CA (1.5 g/l, 1.0 ml) intravenously. It provides a new way to predict whether CA (or Chinese herbal injections contained CA) can provoke allergic reactions by detecting serum IL-4 and total IgE earlier; the examination period is reduced by 1-2 weeks. It has a good prospect of application in drug emergency test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Noninvasive Recognition and Biomarkers of Early Allergic Asthma in Cats Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of NMR Spectra of Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Yan G.; Fotso, Martial; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma. By filtering out confounding variances, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS-DA greatly improved the separation of the healthy and early asthmatic states, attaining 94% specificity and 94% sensitivity in predictions. OSC enhancement of multi-level PLS-DA boosted the specificity of the prediction to 100%. OSC-PLS-DA of the normalized spectra suggest the most promising biomarkers of allergic asthma in cats to include increased acetone, metabolite(s) with overlapped NMR peaks near 5.8 ppm, and a hydroxyphenyl-containing metabolite, as well as decreased phthalate. Acetone is elevated in the EBC of 74% of the cats with early asthma. The noninvasive detection of early experimental asthma, biomarkers in EBC, and metabolic perturbation invite further investigation of the diagnostic potential in humans. PMID:27764146

  8. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  9. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  10. Sequence of Tissue Responses in the Early Stages of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE): Immunohistochemical, Light Microscopic, and Ultrastructural Observations in the Spinal Cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAmelio, Fernando E.; Smith, Marion E.; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in adult Lewis rats with purified guinea pig CNS myelin and Freund's adjuvant. As soon as the very earliest clinical signs appeared the animals were perfused with fixatives and the spinal cord analyzed by electron microscopy, silver methods, and immunocytochemistry. Our findings suggest that in the early stages of EAE a sequence of events can be traced, although these events frequently overlap. The earliest morphological change appears to be astrocytic edema in both the cell body and processes. Increased amounts of glycogen particles and dispersion of glial filaments are prominent. These changes seem to occur just prior to the time when inflammatory cells begin to penetrate the capillary walls. Invasion of the neuropil mainly by macrophages and lymphocytes closely follows. Both macrophages and microglia seem to participate in phagocytosis of oligodendrocytes and myelin. Demyelination, however, is not a prominent feature at this early stage.

  11. Contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gurwood, A S; Altenderfer, D S

    2001-01-01

    Anatomically, the eyelid can be divided microscopically into (1) skin, which is made up of epidermis and dermis; (2) submucosa (3) muscular layer; (4) submuscular layer (dense connective tissue); (5) fibrous layer; and (6) palpebral conjunctiva. The thin nature of the eyelid makes it susceptible to inflammation resulting from allergy. Minimum levels of irritants contacting the adnexal area can penetrate the skin to initiate the allergic cascade. Allergic reactions that involve the eye may begin via contact to the skin, but often involve the conjunctiva. Eczema is the general term that describes the superficial inflammatory process involving the epidermis. Contact eczema is characterized by varying elements of epidermal erythema, papules, and vesicles. Allergic dermatoconjunctivitis connotes involvement of both the skin and conjunctiva. A 24-year-old man came to the clinic with a red, swollen left eye. Based on the history, the constellation of signs and symptoms (lack of diffuse or focal pain, presence of periorbital and conjunctival edema, absence of fever), and failed resolution after treatment with injectable antibiotics, the diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction secondary to toxic/chemical exposure was made. Speedy resolution was accomplished using a sequenced therapy, which included oral antihistamines, topical cycloplegics, topical antibiotics, topical steroids, and palliative therapies. Optometrists should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of contact eczema and allergic dermatoconjunctivitis. Treatment includes management of the skin and adnexae, as well as the ocular manifestations.

  12. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, E R; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N

    2007-07-18

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, covered across the back with a warm blanket, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, behavior, and physiological adaptation in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's and Neonatal Group's Trials Registers (August 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1976 to 2006). Randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty studies involving 1925 participants (mother-infant dyads), were included. Data from more than two trials were available for only 8-of-64 outcome measures. We found statistically significant and positive effects of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (10 trials; 552 participants) (odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 3.07), and breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (weighted mean difference (WMD) 42.55, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79). Trends were found for improved summary scores for maternal affectionate love/touch during observed breastfeeding (four trials; 314 participants) (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.52, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98) and maternal attachment behavior (six trials; 396 participants) (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.72) with early SSC. SSC infants cried for a shorter length of time (one trial; 44 participants) (WMD -8.01, 95% CI -8.98 to -7.04). Late preterm infants had

  13. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2012-05-16

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was significantly higher in SSC infants (two trials, 94 infants) (MD 10.56 mg/dL, 95% CI 8.40 to 12.72).The

  14. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was

  15. Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their eggs.

    PubMed

    Charles Deeming, D; Mayr, Gerald

    2018-05-01

    Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds, but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species, eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by the pubic symphysis. Known elongation ratios of Mesozoic bird eggs allowed us to predict egg mass and hence the load mass an egg could endure before cracking. These values were compared to the predicted body masses of the adult birds based on skeletal remains. Based on 21 fossil species, we show that for nonornithothoracine birds body mass was 187% of the load mass of the eggs. For Enantiornithes, body mass was 127% greater than the egg load mass, but some early Cretaceous ornithuromorphs were 179% heavier than their eggs could support. Our indirect approach provides the best evidence yet that early birds could not have sat on their eggs without running the risk of causing damage. We suggest that contact incubation evolved comparatively late in birds. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Perinatal paracetamol exposure in mice does not affect the development of allergic airways disease in early life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Debbie C P; Walker, Simone A; Byrne, Adam J; Gregory, Lisa G; Buckley, James; Bush, Andrew; Shaheen, Seif O; Saglani, Sejal; Lloyd, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy, or intake during infancy and risk of wheezing or asthma in childhood is inconclusive based on epidemiological studies. We have investigated whether there is a causal link between maternal paracetamol intake during pregnancy and lactation and the development of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in offspring using a neonatal mouse model. Methods Pregnant mice were administered paracetamol or saline by oral gavage from the day of mating throughout pregnancy and/or lactation. Subsequently, their pups were exposed to intranasal HDM or saline from day 3 of life for up to 6 weeks. Assessments of airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation and remodelling were made at weaning (3 weeks) and 6 weeks of age. Results Maternal paracetamol exposure either during pregnancy and/or lactation did not affect development of AAD in offspring at weaning or at 6 weeks. There were no effects of maternal paracetamol at any time point on airway remodelling or IgE levels. Conclusions Maternal paracetamol did not enhance HDM induced AAD in offspring. Our mechanistic data do not support the hypothesis that prenatal paracetamol exposure increases the risk of childhood asthma. PMID:25841236

  17. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  18. Early skin-to-skin contact after cesarean section: A randomized clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Martina; Aldrian, Lisa; Scheuchenegger, Anna; Mautner, Eva; Herzog, Sereina A.; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Lang, Uwe; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Klaritsch, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early bonding by skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for mothers and newborns following vaginal delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative bonding (early SSC) after cesarean section on neonatal adaptation, maternal pain and stress response. Study design This prospective, randomized-controlled pilot study was performed at a single academic tertiary hospital (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Austria) between September 2013 and January 2014. Women were randomly assigned to intraoperative (“early”) SCC (n = 17) versus postoperative (“late”) SCC (n = 18). Main variables investigated were neonatal transition (Apgar score, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and temperature), maternal pain perception and both maternal and neonatal stress response by measuring the stress biomarkers salivary free cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. Results There was no evidence for differences in parameters reflecting neonatal transition or stress response between the ‘Early SSC Group’ and the ‘Late SSC Group’. Maternal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as maternal wellbeing and pain did not differ between the groups. However, the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the ‘Early SSC Group’ compared to the ‘Late SSC Group’ (p = 0.004). Conclusions This study did not reveal significant risks for the newborn in terms of neonatal transition when early SSC is applied in the operating room. Maternal condition and stress marker levels did not differ either, although the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the ‘Early SSC Group’ compared to the ‘Late SSC Group’, which may indicate a stressor sign due to intensive activation of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary-system. This needs to be further evaluated in a larger prospective randomized trial. Trial

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis pattern in Kuwait: nickel leads the pack. In-depth analysis of nickel allergy based on the results from a large prospective patch test series report

    PubMed Central

    Almutawa, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Contact dermatitis is a relatively common dermatosis reported among several population groups from all around the globe. However, the data from Kuwait is unavailable. Patch tests are essential for the diagnosis of contact sensitization. Aim To determine a relative frequency and pattern of sensitizers to different allergens in patients of suspected contact dermatitis in Kuwait and, also to study the role of the commonest sensitizer in detail. Material and methods Patch tests were performed in 2461 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of contact dermatitis seen at our hospital between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Out of the total of 1381 (56.1%) patients with positive patch test results to at least one allergen, 546 (22.2%) patients with a single positive reaction to nickel only (single largest sensitizer) were selected as the study population for further detailed analysis. Results At least one positive patch test reaction was found in 1381 (56.12%) patients. Nickel was found to be the most common sensitizer seen in 546 (40%) patients. The mean age was 37.3 ±13.8 years and the mean duration of disease was 27.3 ±13.8 months. Most (387/546) patients sensitized were females. The forearms/hands and wrists were the most prevalent sites (52.56% of the participants). In 58.91% of women, dermatitis was more often confined to other sites, mostly ears and the neck due to earrings and necklaces. Just more than half of the number (51.09%) of nickel allergic patients were found in the age group of 15–25 years. Hairdressers/beauticians were the most affected group followed by house workers (housewives, cleaners, housekeepers). Conclusions Nickel is the single most common sensitizer found in our patients, and female sex, young age, occupation with long hours of contact to nickel are high risk factors. We recommend that a directive, which limits the release of nickel from products with extended skin contact, be approved in Kuwait. PMID:28670248

  20. Any benefits of probiotics in allergic disorders?

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Oner

    2010-01-01

    Development of the child's immune system tends to be directed toward a T-helper 2 (Th2) phenotype in infants. To prevent development of childhood allergic/atopic diseases, immature Th2-dominant neonatal responses must undergo environment-driven maturation via microbial contact in the early postnatal period. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria are found more commonly in the composition of the intestinal flora of nonallergic children. Epidemiological data also showed that atopic children have a different intestinal flora from healthy children. Probiotics are ingested live health-promoting microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host; and enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against atopy. There is insufficient but very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics to foods for prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis. Clinical improvement especially in allergic rhinitis and IgE-sensitized (atopic) eczema has been reported too. Literature data for food allergy/hypersensitivity and asthma are not adequate for this guaranteed conclusion; however, clinical benefit of probiotic therapy depends on numerous factors, such as type of bacterium, dosing regimen, delivery method, and other underlying host factors, e.g., the age and diet of the host. The selection of the most beneficial probiotic strain, the dose, and the timing of supplementation still need to be determined. Accordingly, probiotics can not be recommended generally for primary prevention of atopic disease; and if probiotics are used in atopic infants/children for any reason, such as therapy or prevention, cautionary approach ought to be taken.

  1. [News on occupational contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  2. Effects of the phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor roflumilast on early and late allergic response and airway hyperresponsiveness in Aspergillus-fumigatus-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Wollin, Lutz; Muller, Meike; Korolewitz, Regina; Krug, Norbert; Braun, Armin; Beume, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of roflumilast on responses characteristic of allergic asthma were investigated in a fungal asthma model in BALB/c mice. Mice were sensitized with Aspergillus antigen (Afu) and exposed to Afu or vehicle, and given roflumilast 1 or 5 mg/kg. Early airway response (EAR) and late airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine were measured via plethysmography. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was used to assess inflammatory cell count. In Afu-exposed mice, roflumilast dose-dependently reduced the EAR [26% at 1 mg/kg (NS) and 94% at 5 mg/kg (p < 0.01)] and AHR [46% at 1 mg/kg (NS) and 128% at 5 mg/kg (p < 0.05)]. Roflumilast 5 mg/kg reduced neutrophil, eosinophil and lymphocyte counts [87% (p < 0.01), 40% (NS) and 67% (p < 0.01), respectively] in BAL fluid versus controls. In this model, roflumilast inhibited the EAR, suppressed AHR and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Opening wedge trapezial osteotomy as possible treatment for early trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: a biomechanical investigation of radial subluxation, contact area, and contact pressure.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tahseen; Salas, Christina; Morrell, Nathan; Lansing, Letitia; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M; Mercer, Deana

    2012-04-01

    Radial subluxation and cartilage thinning have been associated with initiation and accelerated development of osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Few investigators have reported on the benefits of opening wedge trapezial osteotomy for altering the contact mechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint as a possible deterrent to the initiation or progression of osteoarthritis. We used cadaveric specimens to determine whether opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium was successful in reducing radial subluxation of the metacarpal base and to quantify the contact area and pressure on the trapezial surface during simulated lateral pinch. We used 8 fresh-frozen specimens in this study. The flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, adductor pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis tendons were each loaded to simulate the thumb in lateral pinch position. We measured radial subluxation from anteroposterior radiographs before and after placement of a 15° wedge. We used real-time sensors to analyze contact pressure and contact area distribution on the trapezium. Center of force in the normal joint under lateral pinch loading was primarily located in the dorsal region of the trapezium. After wedge placement, contact pressure increased in the ulnar-dorsal region by 76%. Mean contact area increased in the ulnar-dorsal region from 0.05 to 0.07 cm(2), and in the ulnar-volar region from 0.003 to 0.024 cm(2). The average reduction in joint subluxation was 64%. The 15° opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium reduced radial subluxation of the metacarpal on the trapezium and increased contact pressure and contact area away from the diseased compartments of the trapezial surface. Trapezial osteotomy addresses the 2 preeminent theories about the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. By reducing radial subluxation and altering contact pressure and contact area, trapezial osteotomy may prove an alternative to first

  4. A method for measuring mouse respiratory allergic reaction to low-dose chemical exposure to allergens: an environmental chemical of uncertain allergenicity, a typical contact allergen and a non-sensitizing irritant.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Harada, Takanori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2010-05-19

    Our aim was to improve a method for detecting respiratory hypersensitivity by testing three confirmed respiratory allergens (trimellitic anhydride [TMA], phthalic anhydride [PA] and toluene diisocyanate [TDI]), an environmental chemical of uncertain allergenicity (2,4-d-butyl [DB]), a confirmed contact allergen (2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB]) and a standard irritant (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]). BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (nine times in 3 weeks) with these chemicals, then challenged via the trachea. One day post-challenge, samples were taken from the mice to assay for total immunoglobulin (IgE and IgG(1)) levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and cytokine/chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within lung-associated lymph nodes (LNs); ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs; and gene expression in BALF (CCR3) and LNs (CCR4, STAT6 and GATA-3). The three confirmed respiratory allergens and DB induced immune response characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE and IgG(1) levels; influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, chemokines and cytokines in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells in LNs; increased Th2 cytokine production in LNs; and increased respiratory allergy-related gene expression in both BALF and LNs. In contrast, DNCB and SDS treatments yielded, at most, insignificant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. Thus, the protocol was equally suitable for use with an environmental chemical of unknown allergenicity and for typical respiratory allergens. Since the protocol differentiated respiratory allergens from contact allergens and irritants, it may be useful for detecting respiratory allergy related to environmental chemicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Extended breast-feeding is recommended for newborn children at risk of allergy-associated diseases, but the evidence of a protective effect on sensitization and these diseases remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the duration of exclusive breast-feeding on the development of sensitization in preschool children. Information on breast-feeding was gathered by interviews involving 335 children aged 1, 6, and 12 months from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort born to mothers with a history of asthma. Skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels against 12 common inhalant and 10 food allergens were assessed longitudinally at ages ½ year, 1½ years, 4 years, and 6 years. Eczema, wheeze/asthma, and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed at the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization in the first 6 years of life (odds ratio [OR]: ½ year, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.90-1.36]; 1½ years, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.97-1.36]; 4 years, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.93-1.25]; and 6 years, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.84-1.10]) or with current eczema, wheeze/asthma, and allergic rhinitis at age 7 years (OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.92-1.24]; OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect sensitization in early childhood or associated diseases at 7 years of age in at-risk children. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Bergman, Nils; Anderson, Gene C; Medley, Nancy

    2016-11-25

    Mother-infant separation post birth is common. In standard hospital care, newborn infants are held wrapped or dressed in their mother's arms, placed in open cribs or under radiant warmers. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and should last continually until the end of the first breastfeeding. SSC involves placing the dried, naked baby prone on the mother's bare chest, often covered with a warm blanket. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neuro-behaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time frame immediately post birth may represent a 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of immediate or early SSC for healthy newborn infants compared to standard contact on establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding and infant physiology. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 December 2015), made personal contact with trialists, consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr Susan Ludington, and reviewed reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials that compared immediate or early SSC with usual hospital care. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included 46 trials with 3850 women and their infants; 38 trials with 3472 women and infants contributed data to our analyses. Trials took place in 21 countries, and most recruited small samples (just 12 trials randomized more than 100 women). Eight trials included women who had SSC after cesarean birth. All infants recruited to trials were healthy, and the majority were full term. Six trials studied late preterm infants (greater than 35 weeks' gestation). No included trial met all criteria for good quality with respect to methodology and reporting

  7. MicroRNA-21-Mediated Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation Involved in the Protective Effect of Berberine on 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Rats via p38 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Liu, Fanxiu; Wang, Jun; Long, Man; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. Firstly, ACD model was established by sensitizing and challenging with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) topically, and the rats were treated with berberine. Ear swelling was assessed, and cytokine, IgE, and histamine productions were measured. The ear biopsies were obtained for histology analysis. Additionally, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) were isolated for detection of microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and MC degranulation. Lastly, RPMCs were transfected with miR-21 mimic or miR-21 inhibitor to investigate the relationship between miR-21 and p38 pathway in MC. Our results showed that berberine significantly attenuated ear swelling in DNFB-induced ACD (ACD vs high dose of berberine 0.48 ± 0.03 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mm, P < 0.01), inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration (86 ± 5.16 vs. 58 ± 4.32 cells/mm 2 , P < 0.01), reduced MC recruitment (61 ± 4.07 vs. 39 ± 3.42 mast cells/mm 2 , P < 0.01), as well as decreased inflammatory cytokine, IgE, and histamine productions (all P < 0.05). Berberine treatment inhibited miR-21 expression, suppressed β-hexosaminidase and histamine release, and prevented p38 phosphorylation (all P < 0.05), which was abrogated by pretreatment with miR-21 overexpression. These findings indicate that miR-21-mediated inhibition of MC degranulation is involved in the anti-ACD effect of berberine via inhibiting p38 pathway, which provide a new insight into the immunopharmacological role of berberine and suggest its potential application for the treatment of allergic inflammation, such as ACD.

  8. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Contact allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Pustišek, Nives; Žužul, Kristina; Švigir, Alen

    2018-06-01

    Contact allergies are common cause of eczema in all age groups and are one of the most common causes of occupational disability. Contact dermatitis (CD) can be divided into irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Distinguishing between irritant and allergic triggers of CD by clinical and histologic examinations can be challenging. The approach to patients with CD should consist of a detailed (work and leisure) history, skin examination, patch tests with allergens based on history, physical examination, education on materials that contain the allergen and adequate therapy and prevention.

  10. Risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Janson, Christer; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Foucard, Tony; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, S Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for asthma have been investigated in a large number of studies in adults and children, with little progress in the primary and secondary prevention of asthma. The aim of this investigation was to investigate risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents. In this study, 959 schoolchildren (13-14 years old) answered a questionnaire and performed exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements. All children (n = 238) with reported asthma, asthma-related symptoms and/or increased NO levels were invited to a clinical follow-up which included a physician evaluation and skin-prick testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 96 adolescents, whereof half had allergic and half non-allergic asthma. Children with both allergic and non-allergic asthma had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (20.8 and 20.7 vs. 19.8 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of parental asthma (30% and 32% vs. 16%) (p < 0.05). Early-life infection (otitis and croup) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.99 (1.02-3.88) and 2.80 (1.44-5.42), respectively], pets during the first year of life [2.17 (1.16-4.04)], window pane condensation [2.45 (1.11-5.40)] and unsatisfactory school cleaning [(2.50 (1.28-4.89)] was associated with non-allergic but not with allergic asthma. This study indicates the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of asthma when assessing the effect of different risk factors. While the risk of both allergic and non-allergic asthma increased with increasing BMI, associations between early-life and current environmental exposure were primarily found in relation to non-allergic asthma.

  11. Daily patterns of communication and contact between Italian early adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Schneider, Barry H; Dalessio, Maria; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Coplan, Robert J; Koszycki, Diana; Flament, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore patterns of communication between adolescents and their friends across both "online" and "in-person" contexts. The participants were adolescents (n = 727) aged 11-16 years attending middle schools in urban and rural areas of Italy. Participants completed daily logs of their in-person and online contacts with friends for 20 consecutive school days. Girls reported more total contacts with their friends than did boys as well as friendships that were closer and more intimate. However, boys indicated more contact than girls via electronic communication and online. Contacts with peers in general were less frequent among the older participants, perhaps because of increasing academic demands. Participants who complemented in-person contact with friends with electronic contact were less lonely than their counterparts who were less versatile in accessing different modalities of making contact with friends.

  12. Involvement of the Negative Feedback of IL-33 Signaling in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Electro-acupuncture on Allergic Contact Dermatitis via Targeting MicroRNA-155 in Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Yi, Tao; Long, Man; Ding, Fengmin; Ouyang, Lichen; Chen, Zebin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) on interleukin (IL)-33-mediated mast cell activation. Firstly, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in rats was developed with or without EA treatment. Then, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) were obtained and cultured in the presence of IL-33. EA treatment relieved ear swelling and reduced mast cell infiltration in the local inflammation area with DNFB challenge, accompanying the decrement of IL-33 production. RPMCs isolated from ACD rats with EA treatment showed significant downregulation of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-13, and MCP-1 production following IL-33 stimulation. However, there was no obvious difference in surface ST2 receptor expression among different groups. In addition, EA selectively altered IL-33 signaling, suppressing p38 phosphorylation as well as NF-κB- and AP-1-mediated transcription but not Akt phosphorylation. Importantly, EA lowered microRNA (miR)-155 expression in the RPMCs, which presented a positive correlation with IL-33-induced IL-6 production. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-155 in the RPMCs was established following miR-155 mimic transfection. RPMCs with the overexpressed miR-155 displayed an obvious increment of inflammatory cytokine and abrogated the inhibitive effect of EA on NF-κB- and AP-1-regulated transcription in response to IL-33 compared with those without transfected-miR-155. These findings demonstrate EA treatment inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 activation as well as promotes the negative feedback regulation of IL-33 signaling via targeting miR-155 in mast cells, which contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of EA on DNFB-induced ACD in rats.

  13. [An increase in allergic diseases in childhood--current hypotheses and possible prevention].

    PubMed

    Kurz, Herbert; Riedler, Jose

    2003-01-01

    During the last few decades there has ben a significant rise in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that this increase is real and not due to changes in diagnostic labelling. It has become increasingly clear that a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors account for this phenomenon. Genetically predisposed individuals are at an increased susceptibility to develop asthma or other allergic diseases when exposed to certain environmental or lifestyle factors. Particularly passive smoking has been shown to increase the risk for asthma in many studies and for atopy at least in some studies. This association is less clear for the exposure to sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, diesel exhaust and ozone. Lifestyle factors like socioeconomic status, sib-ship size, early childhood infections, dietary habits, growing up in antroposophic families or on a farm are more and more realised to be of great relevance for the development of allergic conditions. At the moment, there is a lot of uncertainty about which recommendations should be given for primary prevention. Recent studies have challenged the old paradigma that avoidance of early allergen contact could prevent the development of allergic disease. However, there is consensus that avoidance of smoking during pregnancy and avoidance of passive smoking during childhood should be recommended for primary prevention of asthma.

  14. Immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeni; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommends that mothers and newborns have skin-to-skin contact immediately after a vaginal birth, and as soon as the mother is alert and responsive after a Caesarean section. Skin-to-skin contact can be defined as placing a naked infant onto the bare chest of the mother. Caesarean birth is known to reduce initiation of breastfeeding, increase the length of time before the first breastfeed, reduce the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding, significantly delay the onset of lactation and increase the likelihood of supplementation. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence on the facilitation of immediate (within minutes) or early (within 1 h) skin-to-skin contact following Caesarean section for healthy mothers and their healthy term newborns, and identify facilitators, barriers and associated maternal and newborn outcomes. A range of electronic databases were searched for papers reporting research findings published in English between January 2003 and October 2013. Seven papers met the criteria. This review has provided some evidence that with appropriate collaboration skin-to-skin contact during Caesarean surgery can be implemented. Further evidence was provided, albeit limited, that immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section may increase breastfeeding initiation, decrease time to the first breastfeed, reduce formula supplementation in hospital, increase bonding and maternal satisfaction, maintain the temperature of newborns and reduce newborn stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Early local differentiation of the cell wall matrix defines the contact sites in lobed mesophyll cells of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Giannoutsou, E; Sotiriou, P; Apostolakos, P; Galatis, B

    2013-10-01

    The morphogenesis of lobed mesophyll cells (MCs) is highly controlled and coupled with intercellular space formation. Cortical microtubule rings define the number and the position of MC isthmi. This work investigated early events of MC morphogenesis, especially the mechanism defining the position of contacts between MCs. The distributions of plasmodesmata, the hemicelluloses callose and (1 → 3,1 → 4)-β-d-glucans (MLGs) and the pectin epitopes recognized by the 2F4, JIM5, JIM7 and LM6 antibodies were studied in the cell walls of Zea mays MCs. Matrix cell wall polysaccharides were immunolocalized in hand-made sections and in sections of material embedded in LR White resin. Callose was also localized using aniline blue in hand-made sections. Plasmodesmata distribution was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Before reorganization of the dispersed cortical microtubules into microtubule rings, particular bands of the longitudinal MC walls, where the MC contacts will form, locally differentiate by selective (1) deposition of callose and the pectin epitopes recognized by the 2F4, LM6, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, (2) degradation of MLGs and (3) formation of secondary plasmodesmata clusterings. This cell wall matrix differentiation persists in cell contacts of mature MCs. Simultaneously, the wall bands between those of future cell contacts differentiate with (1) deposition of local cell wall thickenings including cellulose microfibrils, (2) preferential presence of MLGs, (3) absence of callose and (4) transient presence of the pectins identified by the JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies. The wall areas between cell contacts expand determinately to form the cell isthmi and the cell lobes. The morphogenesis of lobed MCs is characterized by the early patterned differentiation of two distinct cell wall subdomains, defining the sites of the future MC contacts and of the future MC isthmi respectively. This patterned cell wall differentiation precedes cortical microtubule

  17. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  18. Birth by Cesarean Section, Allergic Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization among Children with Parental History of Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Pistiner, Michael; Gold, Diane R.; Abdulkerim, Hassen; Hoffman, Ellaine; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cesarean delivery may alter neonatal immune responses and increase the risk of atopy. Studies of the relation between cesarean delivery and allergic diseases in children not selected on the basis of a family history of atopy have yielded inconsistent findings. Objective To examine the relation between birth by cesarean delivery and atopy and allergic diseases in children at risk for atopy. Methods We examined the relation between mode of delivery and the development of atopy and allergic diseases among 432 children with parental history of atopy followed from birth to age 9 years. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the previous year and allergic rhinitis as physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis and naso-ocular symptoms apart from colds in the previous year. Atopy was considered present at school age if there was >=1 positive skin test or specific IgE to common allergens. Stepwise logistic regression was used to study the relation between cesarean delivery and the outcomes of interest. Results After adjustment for other covariates, children born by cesarean section had twofold higher odds of atopy than those born by vaginal delivery (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.1–3.9). In multivariate analyses, birth by cesarean section was significantly associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0–3.1) but not with asthma. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cesarean delivery is associated with allergic rhinitis and atopy among children with parental history of asthma or allergies. This could be explained by lack of contact with the maternal vaginal/fecal flora or reduced/absent labor during cesarean delivery. Clinical Implications Potential development of allergic diseases should be considered as a potential risk of cesarean delivery among children with parental history of atopy. Capsule Summary Cesarean delivery may lead to an increased risk of allergic rhinitis and atopy in children with parental history of atopy. PMID

  19. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  20. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Contact reactions to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, A; Armenaka, M; Kalogeromitros, D; Koufou, V; Georgala, S

    1999-05-01

    The most common reaction to fragrances is contact dermatitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction; however, other reactions include immediate contact reactions (contact urticaria) and photo-allergic reactions. Fragrance mix (FM) and balsam of Peru (BP) are used to screen for fragrance allergy. To study the different types of allergic skin reactions to fragrance compounds. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to FM and BP were studied in 4,975 patients with suspected contact dermatitis by routine patch testing interpreted at 48 and 96 hours. In 664 of the patients, patch tests were read at 30 minutes to evaluate for immediate (wheal-and-flare) contact reactions and again at 48 and 96 hours. Photopatch tests to FM were performed in 111 patients with suspected photo-allergic dermatitis. Delayed contact reactions to FM occurred in 6.6% of females and 5.4% of males and to BP in 3.9% of females and 4.1% of males. Analysis of data over time (12 study years) showed an increased trend for reactions to fragrances, particularly in males. Sensitivity to other contact allergens (polysensitivity) was found in 62% of patients and polysensitivity presented more often with generalized contact dermatitis. The most sensitizing components of the fragrance mix that were tested in 38 patients were cinnamic alcohol, oak moss, and cinnamic aldehyde. There were 112 immediate patch test reactions to FM and 113 to BP in 664 patients. Immediate contact reactions were followed by delayed contact reactions in 13.4% of patients for FM and 8.8% for BP, representing a significant increase in the frequency of delayed contact reactions. Patients with immediate contact reactions to fragrances did not have a higher incidence of atopy (25.9%). No cases of positive photopatch test reactions to FM were seen. Fragrances commonly cause both delayed and immediate patch test reactions and patients with immediate contact reactions have an increase in delayed contact reactions to the same allergen.

  2. Emerging drugs for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Caminati, Marco; Senna, Gianenrico; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-06-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a very common disease, especially in association with allergic rhinitis but may also occur in isolated presentation. The treatment of AC has long been based on antihistamines, cromones and topical corticosteroids, but none of these drugs completely abolishes the clinical expression of AC. The development of new drugs for AC is analyzed highlighting the recent insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. The major aim of development of drugs for AC is to have agents able to prevent the inflammatory effects of the interaction between the allergen and the specific IgE antibodies on mast cell surface. This may be obtained by blocking the effects of histamine (the main mediator of early allergic response) by H1-receptor antagonists, inhibiting the release of soluble factors able to recruit inflammatory cells (that sustain prolonged inflammation) by mast-cell stabilizers, inhibiting the effects of single mediators, inducing tolerance to the allergen by specific immunotherapy or even acting on factors related to activation and differentiation of T lymphocytes such as the toll-like receptors. AC is an underestimated disease for which there is a search of more effective treatments. The availability of the drugs under current evaluation will allow more refined therapeutic strategies to apply according to the characteristics and the clinical severity of AC.

  3. The Role of Physical Contact and Association in Early Contamination Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Belk, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Children were asked whether someone would get sick from drinking juice placed near a bug. Some preschoolers and most seven- and eight-year olds recognized the need for physical contact with the bug to make the juice noxious, whereas some believed the mere presence of a contaminant made it noxious. Thus, associational contamination sometimes plays…

  4. Effect of the meniscus contact angle during early regimes of spontaneous imbibition in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Karna, Nabin Kumar; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Zambrano, Harvey A

    2016-11-30

    Nanoscale capillarity has been extensively investigated; nevertheless, many fundamental questions remain open. In spontaneous imbibition, the classical Lucas-Washburn equation predicts a singularity as the fluid enters the channel consisting of an anomalous infinite velocity of the capillary meniscus. Bosanquet's equation overcomes this problem by taking into account fluid inertia predicting an initial imbibition regime with constant velocity. Nevertheless, the initial constant velocity as predicted by Bosanquet's equation is much greater than those observed experimentally. In the present study, large scale atomistic simulations are conducted to investigate capillary imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels with heights between 4 and 18 nm. We find that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends on the height of the channel. We also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of the meniscus contact angle. Moreover, during the subsequent visco-inertial regime, as the influence of viscosity increases, the meniscus contact angle is found to be time dependent for all the channels under study. Furthermore, we propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated into Bosanquet's equation, satisfactorily explains the initial capillary rise.

  5. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    PubMed

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  6. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  7. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  8. Early childhood infections and immunisation and the development of allergic disease in particular asthma in a high-risk cohort: A prospective study of allergy-prone children from birth to six years.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A; Widjaja, Constance; Darmaputra, Abbi A P; Lowe, Adrian; Matheson, Melanie C; Bennett, Catherine M; Allen, Katrina; Abramson, Michael J; Hosking, Cliff; Hill, David; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2010-11-01

    The role of early childhood infections and immunisation in the development of allergic diseases remains controversial. To examine these associations, six hundred and twenty infants with first-degree relatives with allergic diseases were recruited into the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Information on risk factors and outcomes was collected by interviewer administered questionnaire and was based on parental report and/or a physician's diagnosis. Risk factors examined included early childhood infections (including gastroenteritis, otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections) and immunisations in the first 2 yr of life. Outcomes were current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema at 6 yr of age. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and assess confounding. By 6 yr, 79% of the original cohort remained in the study. Those with at least three episodes of gastroenteritis showed an increased risk (crude RR 2.36, 95%CI 1.41 3.95; adjusted RR 2.03 95%CI 1.50 2.75) for the later development of asthma at age 6. Of the scheduled immunisations, Sabin immunisation in the second year had a reduced risk of asthma at 6 yr (crude RR 0.60, 95%CI 0.37 0.98; adjusted RR 0.63 95%CI 0.39 1.02). Combined diphtheria and tetanus (CDT) immunisation in the first year had an increased risk of asthma at 6 yr (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.11 2.78; adjusted RR 1.88 95%CI 1.28 2.77). Recurrent gastroenteritis in early childhood is associated with a later risk of asthma. This may reflect a cause and effect relationship, or exposure to common risk factors. In contrast, Sabin immunisation in the second year is associated with a decreased risk of asthma in later childhood. CDT immunisation in the first year may be a risk factor for asthma, but the need for CDT immunisation may also be a marker of increased risk of asthma in later childhood. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. WW Geminorum: An Early B-type Eclipsing Binary Evolving into the Contact Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Yang, Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G.

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q ph = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the period studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P mod = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10-8 day yr-1, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.

  10. Does Contact by a Family Nurse Practitioner Decrease Early School Absence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in…

  11. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described previously in only 3 patients. The allergen(s) is/are unknown.

  12. Modeling the Influence of Early Skin-to-Skin Contact on Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Sample of Hispanic Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Linares, Ana M; Wambach, Karen; Rayens, Mary K; Wiggins, Amanda; Coleman, Elizabeth; Dignan, Mark B

    2017-10-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of breastfeeding in Hispanics, this study evaluated the influence of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on initiation and sustained exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 1 month postpartum. Two-thirds of the women in the sample participated in early SSC. At discharge, over half of the women were EBF; this proportion decreased to one-third at 1 month postpartum. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables in the model, participation in early SSC was associated with a greater than sevenfold increase in the odds of EBF at discharge (p = .005) but was not predictive of EBF at 1 month post-discharge (p = .7). Younger maternal age and increased prenatal infant feeding intention were associated with an increased likelihood of EBF across both timepoints. Promoting early SSC may help with initiation of EBF, while further breastfeeding support may be needed to maintain EBF following discharge for this vulnerable population.

  13. WW Geminorum: An early B-type eclipsing binary evolving into the contact phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G.

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q {sub ph} = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the periodmore » studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P {sub mod} = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10{sup –8} day yr{sup –1}, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.« less

  14. Chapter 5: Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Uzzaman, Ashraf; Story, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rhinitis is a symptomatic inflammatory disorder of the nose with different causes such as allergic, nonallergic, infectious, hormonal, drug induced, and occupational and from conditions such as sarcoidosis and necrotizing antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positive (Wegener's) granulomatosis. Allergic rhinitis affects up to 40% of the population and results in nasal (ocular, soft palate, and inner ear) itching, congestion, sneezing, and clear rhinorrhea. Allergic rhinitis causes extranasal untoward effects including decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, obstructive sleep apnea, absenteeism from work and school, and impaired performance at work and school termed "presenteeism." The nasal mucosa is extremely vascular and changes in blood supply can lead to obstruction. Parasympathetic stimulation promotes an increase in nasal cavity resistance and nasal gland secretion. Sympathetic stimulation leads to vasoconstriction and consequent decrease in nasal cavity resistance. The nasal mucosa also contains noradrenergic noncholinergic system, but the contribution to clinical symptoms of neuropeptides such as substance P remains unclear. Management of allergic rhinitis combines allergen avoidance measures with pharmacotherapy, allergen immunotherapy, and education. Medications used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis can be administered intranasally or orally and include oral and intranasal H(1)-receptor antagonists (antihistamines), intranasal and systemic corticosteroids, intranasal anticholinergic agents, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. For intermittent mild allergic rhinitis, an oral or intranasal antihistamine is recommended. In individuals with persistent moderate/severe allergic rhinitis, an intranasal corticosteroid is preferred. When used in combination, an intranasal H(1)-receptor antagonist and a nasal steroid provide greater symptomatic relief than monotherapy. Allergen immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying intervention available.

  15. Allergic Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common types are atopic dermatitis (often called eczema) and contact dermatitis. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) Eczema is a chronic ... contact with your skin, they may cause a rash called contact dermatitis. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: ...

  16. Neonatal aerosol exposure to Bermuda grass allergen prevents subsequent induction of experimental allergic feline asthma: evidence for establishing early immunologic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Heller, M C; Lee-Fowler, T M; Liu, H; Cohn, L A; Reinero, C R

    2014-07-15

    Allergic asthma is increasing in industrialized countries, especially in children. Rodent and human studies suggest an opportunity to "prevent" asthma in the perinatal period. The aims of this study were to create a more "natural" model of feline asthma by exposing offspring of asthmatic queens to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) by inhalation only, and to investigate maternal-fetal-infant interactions in the development of asthma. Kittens from asthmatic queens were divided into four groups: maternal exposure to aerosolized BGA during the third trimester, neonatal exposure to aerosolized BGA in the first three months of life, both maternal and neonatal exposure, or saline control. Kittens failing to achieve an asthmatic phenotype based on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis by 6 months underwent traditional sensitization: adjuvanted allergen injection, intranasal allergen, and aerosol challenges. BALF was collected at 3, 4 and 6 months, and after sensitization at 8 months, and analyzed for eosinophil counts and BGA-specific IgG and IgA. Intradermal testing (IDT) was performed at 6 and 7 months. At six months none of the kittens had airway eosinophilia, BGA-specific IgG or IgA, and were non-responsive to IDT. After sensitization, kittens receiving neonatal aerosolization failed to develop airway eosinophilia as seen in the controls. Kittens exposed to BGA aerosols, either in-utero or neonatally, continued to lack IDT response. Chronic exposure to BGA aerosols failed to induce asthma in kittens, and instead tolerized the kittens to BGA. This is the first evidence that neonatal intervention could potentially "prevent" allergic asthma in cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of skin–to–skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal–Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Skin–to–skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under–utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Methods Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non–facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non–facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio–demographic, maternal and newborn–related factors. Results Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15–1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26–0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non–facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Conclusions Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC

  18. The importance of skin-to-skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-12-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under-utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non-facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non-facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio-demographic, maternal and newborn-related factors. Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non-facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC. Community engagement is also needed to ensure that all women and

  19. Early skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding behavior in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Anu; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Agarwal, Ramesh; Gupta, Nandita; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate if early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) improves breast-feeding (BF) behavior and exclusive BF (EBF) rates in term infants at 48 h of age. Term infants born by normal delivery were randomized at birth to either early SSC (n = 20) or conventional care (controls; n = 21). SSC was continued for at least 2 h after birth. Subsequently, one BF session of the infants was video recorded at about 48 h of life. The primary outcome, infants' BF behavior at 48 h of life, was assessed using the modified infant Breast-Feeding Assessment Tool (BAT; a score consisting of infant's readiness to feed, sucking, rooting and latching, each item scored from 0 to 3) by three independent masked observers. The secondary outcomes were EBF rates at 48 h and 6 weeks of age and salivary cortisol level of infants at 6 h of age. Baseline characteristics including birth weight and gestation were comparable between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the BAT scores between the groups [median: 8, interquartile range (IQR) 5-10 vs. median 9, IQR 5-10; p = 0.6]. EBF rates at 48 h and at 6 weeks were, however, significantly higher in the early-SSC group than in the control group [95.0 vs. 38.1%; relative risk (RR): 2.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-4.3 and 90 vs. 28.6%; RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.6-6.3]. Early SSC did not improve BF behavior at discharge but significantly improved the EBF rates of term neonates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Munblit, Daniel; Peroni, Diego G; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Hsu, Peter S; Van't Land, Belinda; Gay, Melvin C L; Kolotilina, Anastasia; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Boyle, Robert J; Collado, Maria Carmen; Garssen, Johan; Geddes, Donna T; Nanan, Ralph; Slupsky, Carolyn; Wegienka, Ganesa; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Warner, John O

    2017-08-17

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development.

  1. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Peroni, Diego G.; Boix-Amorós, Alba; Hsu, Peter S.; Van’t Land, Belinda; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Garssen, Johan; Geddes, Donna T.; Nanan, Ralph; Slupsky, Carolyn; Wegienka, Ganesa; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Warner, John O.

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. PMID:28817095

  2. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  3. Multiplex PCR technique could be an alternative approach for early detection of leprosy among close contacts--a pilot study from India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Surajita; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Gupta, Soma; Mahapatra, Prasanta Sinha; Gupta, Siddhartha; Guha, Samudra; Bandhopadhayay, Debasis; Ghosal, Chaitry; Paine, Suman Kalyan; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Biswas, Nibir; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-08-24

    Implementation of Multi drug Therapy (MDT) regimen has resulted in the decline of the total number of leprosy cases in the world. Though the prevalence rate has been declining, the incidence rate remains more or less constant and high in South East Asian countries particularly in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Srilanka. Leprosy, particularly that of multibacillary type spreads silently before it is clinically detected. An early detection and treatment would help to prevent transmission in the community. Multiplex PCR (M-PCR) technique appears to be promising towards early detection among contacts of leprosy cases. A total of 234 paucibacillary (PB) and 205 multibacillary (MB) leprosy cases were studied in a community of an endemic area of Bankura district of West Bengal (Eastern India). They were assessed by smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and M-PCR technique. These patients were treated with Multidrug Therapy (MDT) as prescribed by WHO following detection. A total of 110 MB and 72 PB contacts were studied by performing M-PCR in their nasal swab samples. 83.4% of MB patients were observed to be positive by smear examination for AFB and 89.2% by M-PCR. While 22.2% of PB patients were found to be positive by smear examination for AFB, 80.3% of these patients were positive by M-PCR. Among leprosy contacts (using M-PCR), 10.9% were found to be positive among MB contacts and 1.3% among PB contacts. Interestingly, two contacts of M-PCR positive MB cases developed leprosy during the period of two years follow up. The M-PCR technique appears to be an efficient tool for early detection of leprosy cases in community based contact tracing amongst close associates of PB and MB cases. Early contact tracing using a molecular biology tool can be of great help in curbing the incidence of leprosy further.

  4. γ-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice augments development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Soveg, Frank

    2016-01-01

    γ-Tocopherol increases responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether γ-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether γ-tocopherol augments development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with γ-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to allergen challenge. The γ-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice increased the numbers of eosinophils twofold in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also about a twofold increase in pup lung CD11b+ subsets of CD11c+ dendritic cells and in numbers of these dendritic cells expressing the transcription factor IRF4. There was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased the number of fetal liver CD11b+CD11c+ dendritic cells twofold in utero. In the pups, γ-tocopherol increased lung expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL11, amphiregulin, activin A, and IL-5. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and increased development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with γ-tocopherol in prenatal vitamins. PMID:26801566

  5. The efficacy of early treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis with benifuuki green tea containing O-methylated catechin before pollen exposure: an open randomized study.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Ema, Kaori; Monobe, Manami; Shibuichi, Ikuo; Shinoda, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Fujisawa, Takao

    2009-09-01

    We previously reported that 'benifuuki' green tea containing O-methylated catechin significantly relieved the symptoms of perennial or seasonal rhinitis compared with a placebo green tea that did not contain O-methylated catechin in randomized double-blind clinical trials. In this study we assessed the effects of 'benifuuki' green tea on clinical symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis. An open-label, single-dose, randomized, parallel-group study was performed on 38 subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis. The subjects were randomly assigned to long-term (December 27, 2006-April 8, 2007, 1.5 months before pollen exposure) or short-term (February 15, 2007: after cedar pollen dispersal--April 8, 2007) drinking of a 'benifuuki' tea drink containing 34 mg O-methylated catechin per day. Each subject recorded their daily symptom scores in a diary. The primary efficacy variable was the mean weekly nasal symptom medication score during the study period. The nasal symptom medication score in the long-term intake group was significantly lower than that of the short-term intake group at the peak of pollen dispersal. The symptom scores for throat pain, nose-blowing, tears, and hindrance to activities of daily living were significantly better in the long-term group than the short-term group. In particular, the differences in the symptom scores for throat pain and nose-blowing between the 2 groups were marked. We conclude that drinking 'benifuuki' tea for 1.5 months prior to the cedar pollen season is effective in reducing symptom scores for Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  6. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  7. [Ulcerative contact dermitis caused by premixed concrete (cement burns)].

    PubMed

    Ancona Alayón; Aranda Martínez, J G

    1978-01-01

    Cement dermatitis manifests clinically as a chronic dermatitis of irritative character, due to its alkaline nature and as allergic contact dermatitis produced by sensitization to chromium and cobalt occurring as trace elements. the present report deals with a mason without previous dermatitis, presenting bullae, ulcers and necrosis in lower limbs, short time after incidental contact at work, with premixed concrete. The clinical manifestations, such as short evolution, clear limitation to sites in close contact with concrete, negativity to standard patch testing and good prognosis with early treatment, are mentioned. The acute irritant nature of the disease is clear, in opposition to the classical manifestations of cement dermatitis. The need of studies of the chemical properties of this material including pH, alkalinity and the possible roll of additives employed, is part of the strategy for prevention of occupational dermatitis in the building trade, which should include also, information of hazards and proper training in their trade.

  8. Basophils and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, Mark C.; Kim, Brian S.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Artis, David

    2013-01-01

    Basophils were discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 and represent the least abundant granulocyte population in mammals. The relative rarity of basophils and their phenotypic similarities with mast cells resulted in this cell lineage being historically overlooked, both clinically and experimentally. However, recent studies in humans and murine systems have shown that basophils perform non-redundant effector functions and significantly contribute to the development and progression of TH2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Although the potential functions of murine and human basophils have provoked some controversy, recent genetic approaches indicate that basophils can migrate into lymphoid tissues and, in some circumstances, cooperate with other immune cells to promote optimal TH2 cytokine responses in vivo. This article provides a brief historical perspective on basophil-related research and discusses recent studies that have identified previously unappreciated molecules and pathways that regulate basophil development, activation and function in the context of allergic inflammation. Further, we highlight the unique effector functions of basophils and discuss their contributions to the development and pathogenesis of allergic inflammation in human disease. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting basophils in preventing or alleviating the development and progression of allergic inflammation. PMID:24075190

  9. Allergic factors associated with the development of asthma and the influence of cetirizine in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial: first results of ETAC. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    There is a common progression known as the allergic march from atopic dermatitis to allergic asthma. Cetirizine has several antiallergic properties that suggest a potential effect on the development of airway inflammation and asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis. Over a two year period, 817 infants aged one to two years who suffered from atopic dermatitis and with a history of atopic disease in a parent or sibling were included in the ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) trial, a multi-country, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The infants were treated for 18 months with either cetirizine (0.25mg/ kg b.i.d.) or placebo. The number of infants who developed asthma was compared between the two groups. Clinical and biological assessments including analysis of total and specific IgE antibodies were performed. In the placebo group, the relative risk (RR) for developing asthma was elevated in patients with a raised level of total IgE (> or = 30 kU/l) or specific IgE (> or = 0.35 kUA/l) for grass pollen, house dust mite or cat dander (RR between 1.4 and 1.7). Compared to placebo, cetirizine significantly reduced the incidence of asthma for patients sensitised to grass pollen (RR = 0.5) or to house dust mite (RR = 0.6). However, in the population that included all infants with normal and elevated total or specific IgE (intention-to-treat - ITT), there was no difference between the numbers of infants developing asthma while receiving cetirizine or placebo. The adverse events profile was similar in the two treatment groups. Raised total IgE level and raised specific IgE levels to grass pollen, house dust mite or cat dander were predictive of subsequent asthma. Cetirizine halved the number of patients developing asthma in the subgroups sensitised to grass pollen or house dust mite (i.e. 20% of the study population). In view of the proven safety of the drug, we propose this treatment as a primary pharmacological intervention strategy to prevent the

  10. Occupational contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lushniak, Boris D

    2004-01-01

    The dermatologist should be aware of the many facets of occupational skin diseases, which can be caused by physical, chemical, and biological insults. The most common manifestation of occupational skin diseases is contact dermatitis (both irritant and allergic). Three factors point out the importance of occupational skin diseases as diseases that have a public health impact: 1) occupational skin diseases are common; 2) they often have a poor prognosis; and 3) they result in a noteworthy economic impact for society and for an individual. They are also diseases amenable to public health interventions. Specific industries and exposures may put a worker at risk of occupational contact dermatitis. The accuracy of the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis is related to the skill level, experience, and knowledge of the medical professional who makes the diagnosis and confirms the relationship with a workplace exposure. Prevention of occupational contact dermatitis is important, and a variety of prevention strategies are available.

  11. Strategies to prevent or reduce allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The need for allergy prevention strategies has never been greater. Surging rates of food allergy and eczema are now adding to the already substantial burden of asthma and respiratory allergic diseases. The parallel rise in many other immune diseases suggests that the developing immune system is highly vulnerable to modern environmental changes. These strong environmental pressures may be one reason why simple allergen avoidance strategies have not been successful. Another more recent strategy to curtail the allergy epidemic has been to identify factors associated with modern lifestyle that may be causally linked with allergic disease, in an attempt to restore more favourable conditions for immune tolerance during early development. More hygienic conditions and disruption of microbial exposure have prompted strategies to restore this balance using probiotic and prebiotic supplements. Modern dietary changes linked with allergic diseases have prompted supplementation studies to assess the preventive merits of specific immunomodulatory dietary nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Other nutrients such as antioxidants, folate, and vitamin D are also currently under investigation. Modern environmental pollutants have also been associated with adverse effects on immune development and the risk of disease. While many of these avenues have provided some promise, they have not yet translated into specific recommendations. Current evidence-based guidelines for allergy prevention remain limited to avoidance of cigarette smoke, promotion of breastfeeding and the use of hydrolysed formula when breastfeeding is not possible. Allergen avoidance strategies have been largely removed from most guidelines. It is hoped that a number of ongoing studies will help provide clearer recommendations around the use of probiotics, prebiotics, specific dietary nutrients and the role of early introduction of allergenic foods for the promotion of tolerance. Despite the current

  12. Contact lens complications.

    PubMed

    Suchecki, Jeanine K; Donshik, Peter; Ehlers, William H

    2003-09-01

    Complications associated with contact lenses range from mild to severe and occur with all lens modalities. Contact lens wear can cause a change in corneal physiology, which can lead to epithelial, stromal, and endothelial compromise. Other complications include lens deposition, allergic conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, peripheral infiltrates, microbial keratitis, and neovascularization. Pre-existing conditions can contribute to these complications, or they can occur in association with contact lens wear and care regimens. Patient-related factors, such as alteration of the recommended wearing or replacement schedules and noncompliance with recommended contact lens care regimens for economic reasons, convenience, or in error, contribute to contact lens-related complications and have led to difficulty in accurate determination of complication rates among the various lens wear modalities. Complications may require discontinuation of contact lenses, topical therapy, and changes in contact lens wearing schedules, materials, and care solutions. On initial lens fitting and follow-up evaluations, practitioners should review contact lens replacement and cleaning regimens with patients and discuss complications. To avoid serious complications, patients should be reminded to remove their contact lenses as soon as ocular irritation occurs, and to call their eye care practitioner immediately if symptoms persist.

  13. Allergic reactions to insect secretions.

    PubMed

    Pecquet, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Some products derived from insects can induce allergic reactions. The main characteristics of some products from honeybees, cochineal and silkworms are summarised here. We review allergic reactions from honey-derived products (propolis, wax, royal jelly), from cochineal products (shellac and carmine) and from silk : clinical features, allergological investigations and allergens if they are known.

  14. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  15. Allergic conjunctivitis: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ocular allergy represents one of the most common conditions encountered by allergists and ophthalmologists. Allergic conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated. Basic and clinical research has provided a better understanding of the cells, mediators, and immunologic events, which occur in ocular allergy. New pharmacological agents have improved the efficacy and safety of ocular allergy treatment. An understanding of the immunologic mechanisms, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of ocular allergy may be useful to all specialists who deal with these patients. The purpose of this review is to systematically review literature underlining all the forms classified as ocular allergy: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratocongiuntivitis, contact allergy, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. PMID:23497516

  16. Contact dermatitis to training toilet seat (potty seat dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Claire O; Barros, Mark A; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2018-05-29

    Allergic contact dermatitis from various components of toilet seats has been well described. We report a case of a young boy presenting with an atypical pattern of dermatitis who was found to be allergic to his training toilet seat. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this diagnosis and the role of potty seats as the causative factor. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Application to allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirohisa

    2005-04-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in developed countries is considered to be caused, at least in part, by rapid improvement of human hygiene. In human beings, the immune system developed as an ingenious device for defending against frequent attacks by microbes. Therefore, our immune system seems to have become deranged in our recent, unprecedentedly hygienic environment. It is now necessary to understand the total functional elements comprising the immune system, not just a single molecule present in an immunocyte working in our immune system. Microarray analysis is now becoming capable of detecting the whole transcripts present in a cell. It is anticipated that we can understand the deranged human immunity using the system biology. It is also expected to predict previously unexpected drug-related adverse events caused by interaction of a drug with responsible molecules present in vital organs.

  18. [Allergic inflammation in respiratory system].

    PubMed

    An, Lifeng; Wang, Yanshu; Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of allergic disease such as asthma and allergic rhinitis tell the similar story: when the endogenous and exogenous inflammatory mechanisms occur disorder, the body may begin with inflammatory cell activation, namely through the release of cytokine and inflammatory mediator role in the corresponding target cells, activate the sensory nerve fiber, acting on the cell organ specificity effect, clinical symptoms. This article is divided into the following five parts focused on the research progress of allergic inflammatory diseases: (1) inflammatory cells; (2) staphylococcus aureus superantigen; (3) small molecules (cytokines, inflammatory mediators, lipid classes medium); (4) nerve fibers and effect cells; (5) genetic and epigenetic factors.

  19. 77 FR 43087 - Nomination of an In Vitro Test Method for the Identification of Contact Allergens: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... potential to produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). NICEATM also requests data generated using in vivo...]m MA, B[ouml]rje A, Luthman, K, Nilsson JLG. 2008. Allergic Contact Dermatitis--Formation... Identification of Contact Allergens: Request for Comments and Data AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology...

  20. Types of Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, June 29, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... Terms and Conditions © 1996-2018 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  3. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  4. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  5. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All majormore » enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.« less

  6. Contact tracing and antiviral prophylaxis in the early stages of a pandemic: the probability of a major outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joshua V; Black, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Antiviral prophylaxis forms a significant component of health management plans for many countries around the world. A number of studies have shown that the delays typically encountered in distributing these antivirals to households, following the first infectious case, can result in their efficacy being severely reduced. Here, we investigate the use of contact tracing as a method to reduce the delays and hence mitigate the reduction in efficacy of antivirals. We assess the usefulness of contact tracing in terms of the probability of a major outbreak. It is found, with parameter distributions appropriate to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and distributions reflecting commonly experienced delays, that standard contact tracing renders an outbreak impossible approximately one in five times compared with approximately one in ten times in its absence. A contact-tracing efficiency of 50% would see further improvements with an outbreak being impossible approximately one in four times, and a reduction of the median probability of a major outbreak from 0.41 to below 0.27. © The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  7. Contact allergy to epoxy hardeners.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2014-09-01

    Diglycidylether of bisphenol A resin is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients develop concomitant or solitary contact allergy to epoxy hardeners. At the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, several in-house test substances of epoxy hardeners have been tested in a special epoxy compound patch test series. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy hardeners. Test files (January 1991 to March 2013) were screened for contact allergy to different epoxy hardeners, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. The most commonly positive epoxy hardeners were m-xylylenediamine (n = 24), 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP; n = 14), isophorone-diamine (n = 12), and diethylenetriamine (n = 9). Trimethylhexamethylenediamine (n = 7), tetraethylenepentamine (n = 4), and triethylenetetramine (n = 2) elicited some reactions, although most patients were found to have no specific exposure. Allergic reactions to hexamethylenetetramine, dimethylaminopropylamine and ethylenediamine dihydrochloride were not related to epoxy products. Tris-DMP is an important sensitizer in epoxy hardeners, and should be included in the patch test series of epoxy chemicals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Kaur, Harsimran

    2016-12-08

    Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on "Fungal Sinusitis" under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of "eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis" (EFRS), "eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis" (EMRS) and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  9. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Farmer's lung--a form of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Sambale, M; Liebetrau, G

    1990-11-15

    Exogenic allergic alveolitides are caused by organic dusts which contain bacteria, moulds or vegetable and animal antigens. The farmer's lung as a form of the exogenic allergic alveolitis is a rare disease. The uncharacteristic symptomatology in the initial phase and in particular the retarded beginning of the symptom after several hours handicap the timely recognition in an early phase of the disease so that curative therapeutic measures are rarely possible. The cases of the disease are found only at the chronic stage, at the stage of the pulmonary fibrosis. Then the prognosis is unfavourable. In the Central Clinic for Heart and Lung Diseases Bad Berka 1,110 patients with alveolitides and lung fibroses were diagnosed in the period from 1975 to 1988. 306 of them could be clarified as exogenic allergic alveolitis, 61 of them (19.8%) were farmer's lungs.

  11. Contact dermatitis in students practicing sports: incidence of rubber sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M T; Dagnello, M; Matino, M G; Di Corato, R; Giuliano, G; Tursi, A

    2001-04-01

    Over the last few years, changes in cutaneous homoeostasis resulting from sports activities have been reported. In particular, alterations in sweating mechanisms, the hydrolipid barrier, and surface bacterial flora, together with exposure to atmospheric conditions and the need to use medicaments, detergents, and other topical substances, predispose subjects to allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis in a group of young people practising sports activities. Patch tests were performed to confirm the diagnosis of irritant or allergic dermatitis; in addition, the radioallergoabsorbent test (RAST) to latex was evaluated in the group studied. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourams (23.3%) and mercaptobenzothiazole (20.9%) was prevalent. Other haptens, such as benzocaine and nickel, which are contained in clothing, equipment, topical medicaments, and creams used for massage, were also allergenic. In two cases, RAST positivity to latex was registered. -The results suggest that close contact with sports equipment may increase the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis. Students practising certain sports may have "professional" allergic contact dermatitis to additives used in the production of rubber.

  12. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptees and their adoptive parents.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Cadoret, R J; Burns, T L; Troughton, E P

    1998-08-01

    Since the highest risk for the development of atopic disease is in early life, environmental risk factors need to be separated from the genetic component in this high risk period. Adoptees removed at birth and placed in adoptive families present a way to separate environmental and genetic factors at this early susceptible age. An opportunity for a pilot study of asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptive families was presented when a psychiatrist (RC) was planning a behavioral study of young adult adoptees and their adoptive parents. A detailed questionnaire about allergic rhinitis and asthma was added after the psychiatrists' interview. Placement was not influenced by a history of allergy in adoptive or natural parents. The adoptee and at least one adoptive parent completed questionnaires in 367 families. The adoptees had been removed at birth and placed in the adoptive family within 3 months (83% within 1 month). Compared with adoptive families without asthma or allergic rhinitis, an adoptive mother with asthma or rhinitis, when the adoptive father was not affected, increased the risk for asthma in the adoptee (OR = 3.2, P < .0005). Asthma in the adoptive mother alone (OR = 3.2, P < .005) and allergic rhinitis alone (OR = 3.4, P < .005) increased the risk for asthma in the adoptee. Adoptive father asthma or allergic rhinitis showed a trend toward increased asthma in the adoptee (OR = 1.9, P < .1). This should be considered a pilot or feasibility study since subjects could not be examined or tested. Finding a risk for atopic respiratory disease or asthma associated with adoption by parents with asthma or allergic rhinitis suggests that further well planned adoptee studies should be made.

  13. Alkyl Glucosides in Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Loranger, Camille; Alfalah, Maisa; Ferrier Le Bouedec, Marie-Christine; Sasseville, Denis

    Ecologically sound because they are synthesized from natural and renewable sources, the mild surfactants alkyl glucosides are being rediscovered by the cosmetic industry. They are currently found in rinse-off products such as shampoos, liquid cleansers, and shower gels, but also in leave-on products that include moisturizers, deodorants, and sunscreens. During the past 15 years, numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been published, mostly to lauryl and decyl glucosides, and these compounds are considered emergent allergens. Interestingly, the sunscreen Tinosorb M contains decyl glucoside as a hidden allergen, and most cases of allergic contact dermatitis reported to this sunscreen ingredient are probably due to sensitization to decyl glucoside. This article will review the chemistry of alkyl glucosides, their sources of exposure, as well as their cutaneous adverse effects reported in the literature and encountered in various patch testing centers.

  14. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules.

  15. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after delivery results in early recognition of own mother's milk odour.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Mizuno, N; Shinohara, T; Noda, M

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effects of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth on infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and breastfeeding duration until 1 y of age. Sixty healthy, full-term neonates were randomly assigned to group A with skin-to-skin contact and group B without. One and 4 d after birth, infant responses to the following odour stimuli were observed: own mother's milk, another mother's milk, formula, orange juice and distilled water. Infant facial action was videotaped and the frequency of mouthing movements was evaluated for each stimulus. Nutritional assessment, focused particularly on breastfeeding, was performed every 3 mo on participating infants. Statistical analysis comparing the frequency of mouthing movements with the aforementioned five different odour exposures was performed by ANOVA with Fisher's PLSD. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test was used to compare breastfeeding rates between groups. Infants in both groups responded differently to mother's milk odour (either their own or another mother's milk) compared to the other stimuli on days 1 and 4. However, infants in group A demonstrated a larger difference in mouthing movements between their own and another mother's milk odour at 4 d of age (2.6 +/- 1.6) compared to infants in group B (0.9 +/- 2.0, p = 0.01). Infants in group A were breastfed an average of 1.9 mo longer than the others. Our study provides evidence that mother-infant skin-to-skin contact for more than 50 min immediately after birth results in enhanced infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and longer breastfeeding duration.

  16. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kull, I; Wickman, M; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S; Pershagen, G

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. Methods: A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results: Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, ORadj = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders—asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen—were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease—that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease. PMID:12456543

  17. Allergic reaction to mint leads to asthma

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tisha

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory and cutaneous adverse reactions to mint can result from several different mechanisms including IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis), and nonimmunologic histamine release. Reactions to cross-reacting plants of the Labiatae family, such as oregano and thyme, as well as to the chemical turpentine, may clue the clinician in on the diagnosis of mint allergy. Contact dermatitis can result from menthol in peppermint. Contact allergens have been reported in toothpastes, which often are mint-flavored. Allergic asthma from mint is less well-recognized. A case of a 54-year-old woman with dyspnea on exposure to the scent of peppermint is presented in whom mint exposure, as seemingly innocuous as the breath of others who had consumed Tic Tac candies, exacerbated her underlying asthma. This case highlights the importance of testing with multiple alternative measures of specific IgE to mint, including skin testing with mint extract, and skin testing with fresh mint leaves. Additionally, this cases suggests that asthma can result from inhaling the scent of mint and gives consideration to obtaining confirmatory pre- and postexposure pulmonary function data by both impulse oscillometry and spirometry. PMID:22852115

  18. Rural residence, farming environment, and allergic diseases in Argentinean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Badellino, Hèctor A; Forno, Erick; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about residence in a rural or farming environment and allergic diseases in Latin America. Cross-sectional study of rural residence and current wheeze, current asthma and current symptoms of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis in 1,804 adolescents (ages 13-14 years) attending 31 schools in urban and rural areas of San Francisco (Córdoba, Argentina). Rural residence was classified as never, previous, and current. Duration of rural residence was categorized as 0, >0 but ≤5 years, and >5 years. Current wheeze, current asthma, and current allergic rhino-conjunctivitis were defined on the basis of responses to an extensively validated questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Logistic regression was used for the multivariable analysis of rural residence and the outcomes of interest. After adjustment for current smoking and other covariates, current rural residence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.81) and rural residence for >5 years (OR = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.12-0.84) were significantly associated with reduced odds of current wheeze. In a multivariable analysis, current residence in a rural area (OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.32-0.86) and rural residence for >5 years (OR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.26-0.73) were significantly associated with reduced odds of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. This association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for current residence in a dairy farm, which was significantly associated with reduced odds of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. Similarly, current regular contact with farm animals was significantly associated with reduced odds of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. Among Argentinean adolescents, current rural residence and rural residence for >5 years were associated with reduced odds of current wheeze and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. These potential protective effects may be explained by a dairy farm environment, including regular

  19. Complementary therapies in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Baykal, Bahadir; Ulusoy, Seckin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed.

  20. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  1. Environmental contributions to allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Levetin, E; Van de Water, P

    2001-11-01

    The environment is a major contributor to allergic disease, and great effort is being expended to identify the chemical pollutants and allergens that make a significant impact. Exposure to high levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and diesel exhaust particles is known to reduce lung function. Studies continue to delineate the role of these particles as adjuvants and carriers of allergens into the respiratory system. Current studies also show the exacerbation of allergic disease through fungal spore inhalation and continue to document the role of pollen in allergic rhinitis. Pollen also was recently associated with asthma epidemics, especially after thunderstorms. Forecasting models currently are being developed that predict the trajectories of pollen dispersal and may allow increased avoidance of dangerous outdoor conditions.

  2. Comparative immunology of allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-01-01

    Allergic responses occur in humans, rodents, non-human primates, avian species, and all of the domestic animals. These responses are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind to mast cells and cause release/synthesis of potent mediators. Clinical syndromes include naturally occurring asthma in humans and cats; atopic dermatitis in humans, dogs, horses, and several other species; food allergies; and anaphylactic shock. Experimental induction of asthma in mice, rats, monkeys, sheep, and cats has helped to reveal mechanisms of pathogenesis of asthma in humans. All of these species share the ability to develop a rapid and often fatal response to systemic administration of an allergen--anaphylactic shock. Genetic predisposition to development of allergic disease (atopy) has been demonstrated in humans, dogs, and horses. Application of mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic asthma has provided evidence for a role of air pollutants (ozone, diesel exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke) in enhanced sensitization to allergens.

  3. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol facilitates allergic sensitization to whey in mice.

    PubMed

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M; Braber, S; Akbari, P; de Graaff, P; van Roest, M; Kruijssen, L; Smit, J J; van Esch, B C A M; Jeurink, P V; Garssen, J; Fink-Gremmels, J; Pieters, R H H

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal epithelial stress or damage may contribute to allergic sensitization against certain food antigens. Hence, the present study investigated whether impairment of intestinal barrier integrity by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contributes to the development of whey-induced food allergy in a murine model. C3H/HeOuJ mice, orally exposed to DON plus whey once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, showed whey-specific IgG1 and IgE in serum and an acute allergic skin response upon intradermal whey challenge, although early initiating mechanisms of sensitization in the intestine appeared to be different compared with the widely used mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). Notably, DON exposure modulated tight-junction mRNA and protein levels, and caused an early increase in IL-33, whereas CT exposure affected intestinal γδ T cells. On the other hand, both DON- and CT-sensitized mice induced a time-dependent increase in the soluble IL-33 receptor ST2 (IL-1R1) in serum, and enhanced local innate lymphoid cells type 2 cell numbers. Together, these results demonstrate that DON facilitates allergic sensitization to food proteins and that development of sensitization can be induced by different molecular mechanisms and local immune responses. Our data illustrate the possible contribution of food contaminants in allergic sensitization in humans.

  4. Self-reported allergic reactions to peanut on commercial airliners.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, S H; Furlong, T J; DeSimone, J; Sampson, H A

    1999-07-01

    Allergic reactions to food occurring on commercial airlines have not been systematically characterized. We sought to describe the clinical characteristics of allergic reactions to peanuts on airplanes. Participants in the National Registry of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy who indicated an allergic reaction while on a commercial airliner were interviewed by telephone. Sixty-two of 3704 National Registry of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy participants indicated a reaction on an airplane; 42 of 48 patients or parental surrogates contacted confirmed the reaction began on the airplane (median age of affected subject, 2 years; range, 6 months to 50 years). Of these, 35 reacted to peanuts (4 were uncertain of exposure) and 7 to tree nuts, although 3 of these 7 reacted to substances that may have also contained peanut. Exposures occurred by ingestion (20 subjects), skin contact (8 subjects), and inhalation (14 subjects). Reactions generally occurred within 10 minutes of exposure (32 of 42 subjects), and reaction severity correlated with exposure route (ingestion > inhalation > skin). The causal food was generally served by the airline (37 of 42 subjects). Medications were given in flight to 19 patients (epinephrine to 5) and to an additional 14 at landing/gate return (including epinephrine to 1 and intravenous medication to 2), totaling 79% treated. Flight crews were notified in 33% of reactions. During inhalation reactions as a result of peanut allergy, greater than 25 passengers were estimated to be eating peanuts at the time of the reaction. Initial symptoms generally involved the upper airway, with progression to the skin or further lower respiratory reactions (no gastrointestinal symptoms). Allergic reactions to peanuts and tree nuts caused by accidental ingestion, skin contact, or inhalation occur during commercial flights, but airline personnel are usually not notified. Reactions can be severe, requiring medications, including epinephrine.

  5. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  6. Gallate Contact Dermatitis: Product Update and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Zachary E; Van Noord, Megan G; Atwater, Amber Reck

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to cosmetic use can result from allergens not routinely evaluated by standard patch test protocols. Propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates are commonly used antioxidant preservatives with reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis in the literature. The objectives of this review were to investigate the role of gallates in allergic contact dermatitis and to explore products containing these preservatives. A systematic review of the literature through April 2016 was performed to explore cases of reported gallate allergy. Food and cosmetic product databases were searched for products containing gallates. Seventy-four cases of gallate contact allergy have been reported. In addition, a variety of commercially available cosmetic products and foods contain gallate chemicals. Propyl gallate is the most commonly reported gallate contact allergen and often causes facial and/or hand dermatitis.

  7. Silicone hydrogel mini-scleral contact lenses in early stage after corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Severinsky, Boris; Wajnsztajn, Denise; Frucht-Pery, Joseph

    2013-11-01

     The aim was to the evaluate performance of a novel silicone hydrogel mini-scleral contact lens (SHmS) for optical correction of keratoconus in the early stages after the corneal collagen cross-linking procedure (CXL).  We retrospectively analysed the visual acuity improvement and corneal adaptation in the first 10 eyes of nine patients fitted with SHmS lenses one to 3.5 months after corneal collagen cross-linking. The lenses were designed to rest over the patients' sclera and peri-limbal cornea and vault the central cornea with minimal support over it. Visual acuities with manifest refraction and contact lenses, refractive and topographical values (Kmin and Kmax) were evaluated on lens dispensing and after six month of lens wearing. Ocular physiological responses were evaluated using the Institute of Eye Research (IER) grading scales.  SHmS fitting was performed 2.1 ± 0.97 (SD) months after collagen cross-linking. Mean follow up was 10.9 ± 4.41 months (range six to 18 months). Mean decimal visual acuity with SHmS was 0.66 ± 0.22 (approximately 6/9 Snellen fraction, range 0.3 to 0.1) or 0.75 ± 0.14 (approximately 6/8.1, range 0.5 to 1.0), when omitting two amblyopic eyes. Nine (90 per cent) eyes were successfully fitted, that is, able to wear the lenses for 10 hours per day or longer. Mean wearing time was 11.7 hours (range six to 14) per day. No corneal neovascularisation or papillary reaction was found in all fitted eyes.  SHmS contact lenses provide successful visual rehabilitation shortly after corneal collagen cross-linking. This new soft contact lens design with scleral fixation and minimal apical touch was demonstrated to be safe shortly after collagen cross-linking, as the avoidance of contact with the treated zone minimises contact lens influence on corneal recovery. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resin in a hemodialysis cannula.

    PubMed

    Ng, P P; Leow, Y H; Ng, S K; Goh, C L

    1998-03-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis presented with dermatitis, particularly over the arteriovenous fistulae sites on the forearm. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to epoxy resin present in the glue that fixed the needle of the hemodialysis cannula.

  9. TOTALL: high cost of allergic rhinitis-a national Swedish population-based questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Olsson, Petter; Andersson, Morgan; Welin, Karl-Olof; Svensson, Johanna; Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson; Hellgren, Johan

    2016-02-04

    Allergic rhinitis is a global illness with a well-recognised impact on quality of life and work performance. Comparatively little is known about the extent of its economic impact on society. The TOTALL study estimates the total cost of allergic rhinitis using a sample representing the entire Swedish population of working age. A questionnaire focused on allergic rhinitis was mailed out to a random population of Swedish residents, aged 18-65 years. Health-care contacts, medications, absenteeism (absence from work) and presenteeism (reduced working capacity at work) were assessed, and the direct and indirect costs of allergic rhinitis were calculated. Medication use was evaluated in relation to the ARIA guidelines. In all, 3,501 of 8,001 (44%) answered the questionnaire, and 855 (24%) of these reported allergic rhinitis. The mean annual direct and indirect costs because of allergic rhinitis were €210.3 and €750.8, respectively, resulting in a total cost of €961.1 per individual/year. Presenteeism represented 70% of the total cost. Antihistamines appear to be used in excess in relation to topical steroids, and the use of nasal decongestants was alarmingly high. The total cost of allergic rhinitis in Sweden, with a population of 9.5 million, was estimated at €1.3 billion annually. These unexpectedly high costs could be related to the high prevalence of disease, in combination with the previously often underestimated indirect costs. Improved adherence to guidelines might ease the economic burden on society.

  10. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  11. Protein contact dermatitis: allergens, pathogenesis, and management.

    PubMed

    Levin, Cheryl; Warshaw, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Protein contact dermatitis is an allergic skin reaction induced principally by proteins of either animal or plant origin. The clinical presentation is that of a chronic dermatitis, and it is often difficult to differentiate between allergic contact dermatitis and other eczematous dermatoses. One distinguishing clinical feature is that acute flares of pruritus, urticaria, edema, or vesiculation are noted minutes after contact with the causative substances. Additionally, the patch-test result is typically negative, and the scratch- or prick-test result is positive. The pathogenesis of protein contact dermatitis is unclear but may involve a type I (immunoglobulin E [IgE], immediate) hypersensitivity reaction, type IV (cell-mediated delayed) hypersensitivity reaction, and/or a delayed reaction due to IgE-bearing Langerhans' cells. Management involves avoidance of the allergen.

  12. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  13. [Biological pollution and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Carrer, P; Moscato, G

    2004-01-01

    House dust mites, pets, microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria are the main causes of indoor allergens. The diseases correlated to the presence of these allergens are of increasing importance in public health as well as in occupational medicine. Indoor allergens are widespread in residential buildings as well as in public and in office buildings. Surveys conducted in Italian office buildings demonstrated detectable allergen concentrations in most of these buildings. In some cases, the concentrations were higher than the proposed risk threshold for allergenic sensitisation or for the elicitation of symptoms in allergic individuals. The health effects of exposure to indoor allergens mainly include allergic asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis caused by IgE reactions in predisposed subjects. Moreover, exposure to indoor biological agents can cause extrinsic allergic alveolitis or other effects such as the so-called "humidifier fever" due to contaminated humidifiers. Standardized methods for the measurement of indoor allergen levels are available, and may be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of individual allergic patients or for group studies in order to evaluate the relationship between allergen indoor levels and health effects or to assess indoor allergen levels in private or public buildings for preventative purposes.

  14. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight ® intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight ® group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight ® group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight ® group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight ® treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  15. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  16. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  17. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M; Truckner, Robert T; Weber, Richard W; Peden, David B

    2008-09-01

    Climate change is potentially the largest global threat to human health ever encountered. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are largely responsible. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, the next generations will face more injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, and wide-spread malnutrition, as well as more allergic and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. The pattern of change will vary regionally depending on latitude, altitude, rainfall and storms, land-use patterns, urbanization, transportation, and energy production. The magnitude of climate change and related increases in allergic disease will be affected by how aggressively greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are pursued, but at best an average warming of 1 to 2 degrees C is certain this century. Thus, anticipation of a higher allergic disease burden will affect clinical practice as well as public health planning. A number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies are suggested at the end of the review to assist in meeting this unprecedented public health challenge.

  18. Comparison of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and oxygen saturation between early skin-to-skin contact with different initiation and duration times in healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsushima, Miyoko; Kawabe, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    There are few studies that compare the physiological and biological efficacies between different early skin-to-skin contacts (SSC) post birth. To investigate physiologically and biochemically how early SSC with different initiation and duration time influence the stress post birth for full-term infants. Non-experimental study. Study I; Thirty-two infants who began SSC 5 min or less [birth SSC, mean initiation time (standard deviation): 1.6 (1.1) min] after birth and 36 infants who did so more than 5 min [very early SSC, 26.3 (5.0) min] in heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) analysis. Study II; Eighteen infants who underwent SSC for 60 min or less [mean initiation time: 7.5 (12.2) min] and 61 infants who did so for more than 60 min [15.3 (12.5) min] in salivary cortisol analysis. HR and SpO(2) measured for 30 min post birth. Salivary cortisol concentration measured at 1 min, 60 min, and 120 min post birth. Birth SSC group reached HR stability of 120-160 bpm significantly faster than very early SSC group by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=0.001 by log-rank test). As for SpO(2) stability of 92% and 96%, no significantly between-group difference was found. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower between 60 and 120 min after birth in SSC group, continuing for more than 60 min compared with SSC group for 60 min or less after adjustment for salivary cortisol level at 1 min besides the infant stress factors (P=0.046). Earlier SSC beginning within 5 min post birth and longer SSC continuing for more than 60 min within 120 min post birth are beneficial for stability of cardiopulmonary dynamics and the reduction of infant stress during the early period post birth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  20. Early skin-to-skin contact or incubator for very preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Laila; Støen, Ragnhild; Rygh, Hilde; Sognnæs, Margunn; Follestad, Turid; Mohn, Hilde S; Nissen, Ingrid; Bergseng, Håkon

    2016-12-12

    Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of skin-to-skin care in the delivery room for very preterm infants born at gestational age 28 0 -31 6 weeks with birth weight >1000 grams. Infants with severe congenital malformations or need of intubation in the delivery room are excluded. A detailed checklist and a flowchart were prepared for the study, and all involved professionals (neonatologists, neonatal nurses, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, midwives) participated in medical simulation training prior to study start on February 1, 2014. A consultant in neonatology and a neonatal nurse are present at all deliveries. Infants with birth weight <1500 grams receive an intravenous line with glucose, amino acids, and caffeine citrate in the delivery room. Infants with gestational age <30 weeks are routinely put on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). After initial stabilization, infants are randomized to skin-to-skin care or are transferred to the nursery in an incubator. Primary outcome is cognitive development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Secondary outcomes are safety defined as hypothermia, respiratory failure, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, physiological stability after birth and motor, language and cognitive development at 1 year for the child, and mental health measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at discharge, and at 3 months and 2

  1. Allergic reaction to latex: a risk factor for unsuspected anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Warpinski, J R; Folgert, J; Cohen, M; Bush, R K

    1991-01-01

    Allergic reactions to latex, including anaphylaxis may be a problem in certain individuals exposed to latex. Four atopic patients with symptoms of rhinitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, and/or urticaria upon contact with latex products were studied. The patients showed IgE binding to latex RAST disks ranging from 1.0 to 27.3 times the negative control. Latex products (gloves, balloons, and condoms) directly bound IgE from all four patients. Eluted proteins from the latex products inhibited IgE binding to commercial latex RAST disks. SDS-PAGE demonstrated multiple latex protein bands by Coomassie Blue staining between 14 and 66 kD. Immunoblotting showed specific IgE binding to latex proteins at 30 and 66 kD. These results indicate that latex-allergic patients have IgE directed against specific latex proteins. Allergy to latex can pose a substantial health risk to susceptible individuals.

  2. Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

  3. Are You at Risk for Contact Dermatitis? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    You probably don’t give much thought to hand health. Until something goes wrong, almost everyone takes for granted that these crucial appendages will continue working as they always have. But hand health is an important consideration, especially at work. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact

  4. Impact of perinatal environmental tobacco smoke on the development of childhood allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy, are most common chronic, noncommunicable diseases in childhood. In the past few decades, the prevalence has increased abruptly worldwide. There are 2 possible explanations for the rising prevalence of allergic diseases worldwide, that an increased disease-awareness of physician, patient, or caregivers, and an abrupt exposure to unknown hazards. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite the continuing efforts worldwide, the etiologies and rising prevalence remain unclear. Thus, it is important to identify and control risk factors in the susceptible individual for the best prevention and management. Genetic susceptibility or environments may be a potential background for the development of allergic disease, however they alone cannot explain the rising prevalence worldwide. There is growing evidence that epigenetic change depends on the gene, environment, and their interactions, may induce a long-lasting altered gene expression and the consequent development of allergic diseases. In epigenetic mechanisms, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during critical period (i.e., during pregnancy and early life) are considered as a potential cause of the development of childhood allergic diseases. However, the causal relationship is still unclear. This review aimed to highlight the impact of ETS exposure during the perinatal period on the development of childhood allergic diseases and to propose a future research direction.

  5. [Contact dermatitis: an approach used by a medical officer].

    PubMed

    Vologzhanin, D A; Bozhchenko, A A; Bala, A M

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with contact dermatitis issues, that are of interest not only for dermatologists and specialists in professional pathology, but as well as for general practitioners. Issues of contact dermatitis classification, pathogenic peculiarities of the disease main forms and their basic causes are discussed. Clinical manifestations of irritative and allergic contact dermatitis are described in detail, aspects of differential diagnostics analysed. A detailed consideration is given to allergic diagnostics of contact dermatitis using application test-systems with the most common contact allergens. Main principles of contact dermatitis treatment are outlined in the article. The necessity of a complex approach to this disease therapy that requires not only external therapy, but the compliance with an appropriate treatment regimen, diet as well as application of a particular system therapy is shown. Recommendations for contact dermatitis prophylaxis are given.

  6. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  7. Hypnosis and the allergic response.

    PubMed

    Wyler-Harper, J; Bircher, A J; Langewitz, W; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the immune system and the pathogenesis of immune disorders has increased. There has been much research on the complex connections between the psyche, the central nervous system and the immune system and the effect of mood on disease processes. This paper reviews the evidence on the effects of hypnosis on the allergic skin test reaction, on allergies, particularly respiratory allergies and hayfever, and on bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. Hypnosis, which is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness associated with concentration, relaxation and imagination, and amongst other characteristics an enhanced responsiveness to suggestion, has long been thought to be effective in the amelioration of various bodily disorders. It has seemed that the state of hypnosis is capable of a bridging or mediating function in the supposed dualism between mind and body. There has been great variation in the experimental and clinical procedures such as type of hypnotic intervention employed, the training of subjects and the timing of the intervention. Also, variability in the type of allergen used and its mode of application is evident. But despite these limitations, many of the studies have shown a link between the use of hypnosis and a changed response to an allergic stimulus or to a lessened bronchial hyperreactivity. There is as yet no clear explanation for the effectiveness of hypnosis, but there is some evidence for an influence on the neurovascular component of the allergic response.

  8. Allergen Avoidance in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Francesca; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Allergic asthma is the most frequent disease among the chronic respiratory disorders in pediatric age with an important social impact. In the last years, many efforts have been made to identify effective preventive approaches to get a better control of symptoms and to obtain the best future outcomes for the patients. In patients with allergic asthma triggered by the exposure to indoor allergens, the avoidance is the first intervention to prevent the appearance or the worsening of bronchial symptoms. This review article summarized the most recent evidence from literature about the efficacy of specific control interventions for the most important allergens. Even if a wide spectrum of interventions has been suggested and may help to reduce exposure to trigger allergy for sensitized patients suffering from respiratory allergy, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is still weak and subject of controversy. However, the exposure control to specific airborne allergens is still widely recommended and may be effective as part of a holistic approach to reduce the severity of allergic respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. PMID:28540285

  9. Fetal growth and risk of childhood asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Tedner, S G; Örtqvist, A K; Almqvist, C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early genetic and environmental factors have been discussed as potential causes for the high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in the western world, and knowledge on fetal growth and its consequence on future health and disease development is emerging. Objective This review article is an attempt to summarize research on fetal growth and risk of asthma and allergic disease. Current knowledge and novel findings will be reviewed and open research questions identified, to give basic scientists, immunologists and clinicians an overview of an emerging research field. Methods PubMed-search on pre-defined terms and cross-references. Results Several studies have shown a correlation between low birth weight and/or gestational age and asthma and high birth weight and/or gestational age and atopy. The exact mechanism is not yet clear but both environmental and genetic factors seem to contribute to fetal growth. Some of these factors are confounders that can be adjusted for, and twin studies have been very helpful in this context. Suggested mechanisms behind fetal growth are often linked to the feto-maternal circulation, including the development of placenta and umbilical cord. However, the causal link between fetal growth restriction and subsequent asthma and allergic disease remains unexplained. New research regarding the catch-up growth following growth restriction has posited an alternative theory that diseases later on in life result from rapid catch-up growth rather than intrauterine growth restriction per se. Several studies have found a correlation between a rapid weight gain after birth and development of asthma or wheezing in childhood. Conclusion and clinical relevance Asthma and allergic disease are multifactorial. Several mechanisms seem to influence their development. Additional studies are needed before we fully understand the causal links between fetal growth and development of asthma and allergic diseases. PMID:22994341

  10. Curcumin: A Contact Allergen.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Soham P; Tam, Alison Y; Barr, Jason A

    2015-11-01

    Herbal medicines are used by thousands of patients all over the world. However, they can often cause adverse effects. Turmeric, made from the root of Curcuma, longa, is a yellow spice used throughout South Asia for its flavor as well as for its medicinal properties. Curcumin is the main ingredient in turmeric. It is known for downregulating the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines and has been studied for its antiinflammatory mechanism. However, it has also been reported to cause contact dermatitis. Kumkum, a turmeric-based powder applied by Hindu women on their foreheads, has also been found as an allergen. The authors have reviewed the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin and reports of contact dermatitis to understand the possible harmful effects of this commonly used spice, while also examining its beneficial role in dermatologic conditions. They aim to increase awareness regarding this common herb and its prevalent use not only in South Asia, but also in North America. A thorough literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify studies that examined the antiinflammatory role of curcumin and its role in contact dermatitis. Eleven studies demonstrate that although curcumin does have antiinflammatory properties, it is an allergen. Curcumin has many valuable properties that can be exploited to treat dermatologic conditions. However, patients and dermatologists must be keen of possible allergic reactions. Further studies are needed to completely understand this widely used herb and its efficacy in dermatology.

  11. Contact allergy in cheilitis.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2016-07-01

    Recalcitrant non-actinic cheilitis may indicate contact allergy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) in patients with non-actinic cheilitis and to identify the most relevant allergens. We used an institutional database to identify patients with non-actinic cheilitis who underwent patch testing between January 1, 2001, and August 31, 2011, and conducted a retrospective review of patch test results in these patients. Additional data were obtained from institutional electronic medical records. Ninety-one patients (70 [77%] female; mean age: 51 years) were included in the study. Almost half (41 [45%]) had a final diagnosis of ACC. Patch testing was performed in line with universally accepted methods, with application on day 1, allergen removal and an initial reading on day 3, and the final reading on day 5. The allergens of most significance were fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin, dodecyl gallate, octyl gallate, and benzoic acid. Nickel was the most relevant metal allergen. Contact allergy is an important consideration in recalcitrant cheilitis. Fragrances, antioxidants, and preservatives dominated the list of relevant allergens in our patients. Nickel and gold were among the top 10 allergens. Almost half (45%) of these patients had a final diagnosis of ACC. Patch testing beyond the oral complete series should be undertaken in any investigation of non-actinic cheilitis. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Marcella; Rosner, Greg

    2018-05-15

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell receptor without first being presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules and without prior metabolism, which would help explain why SCD can be seen on first exposure to medications. Nomenclature remains a challenge as SCD can be subcategorized using terms such as ACDS (allergic contact dermatitis syndrome) and its four clinical stages, Baboon syndrome, and SDRIFE (symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema), which share many overlapping features. Food allergens may be responsible for uncontrolled or persistent symptoms in patients with contact dermatitis who do not respond to topical avoidance. With medications, symptoms may be induced by topical application versus systemic administration. Patch testing (PT) may be beneficial in diagnosing SCD caused by metals and many topical medications including corticosteroids, antimicrobials (ampicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin, neomycin, nystatin), NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen), anesthetics, and antihistamines (chlorphenamine, piperazine). Current treatment options include topical steroids and oral antihistamines for symptom relief and dietary avoidance to causative foods or metals.

  13. Affect of Early Skin-to-Skin Mother-Infant Contact in the Maintenance of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience in a Health Department in Spain.

    PubMed

    Vila-Candel, Rafael; Duke, Kiri; Soriano-Vidal, F Javier; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to result in extensive physical and psychological benefits for both the mother and the newborn. However, the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low worldwide. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) immediately after birth has demonstrated results that support the argument for breastfeeding continuation. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBF 3 months postpartum and the effect of early SSC in maintaining optimal EBF practices for mothers and their healthy newborns. We conducted an observational, retrospective study in Spain from 2013 to 2015. Pregnant women were interviewed immediately postpartum and again at 3 months postpartum regarding variables associated with breastfeeding initiation and continuation. There were 1,071 women recruited. Early SSC was performed in 92% of vaginal births but only 57% of urgent cesarean births. Of women breastfeeding at discharge, 69.5% performed SSC with their newborn. We found that 68.6% of women were exclusively breastfeeding by discharge and 46.7% by 3 months postpartum. Type of feeding at discharge, country of origin, and parity were found to be associated with each other ( p = .003, p = .001, respectively). Early SSC was also significantly associated with type of feeding at discharge, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months postpartum ( p < .001). Hypogalactia (19.8%) was the most frequently reported factor for breastfeeding discontinuation. Breastfeeding promotion interventions are likely to improve breastfeeding rates at 3 months postpartum. Social and economic factors should be taken into account when such programs are planned to be implemented.

  14. Contact allergy to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-06-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most common sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients also develop contact allergy to reactive diluents. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins. Test files (January 1991 to June 2014) were screened, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. A total of 67 patients reacted to at least one of the compounds. The largest numbers of allergic reactions were to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE; n = 41), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE; n = 34), and p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether (PTBPGE; n = 19). Ten of the patients did not have contact allergy to DGEBA-R. The reactions of 5 of these were related to the use of BDDGE-containing products. We found no significant exposure to PGE or PTBPGE in patients sensitized to them, but some of the patients had used cresyl glycidyl ether-containing products. Allergic reactions to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins usually occurred together with reactions to DGEBA-R. BDDGE was the clinically most significant compound, and was the sole cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 3 patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  16. Low-dose ethanol aggravates allergic dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Ogino, Hirofumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Okuno, Tomofumi; Ueno, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol injures dendritic cells and suppresses cellular immunity, while some evidence indicates that drinking alcohol aggravates allergic asthma. This study investigated the effect of low doses of ethanol in enhancing allergic reactions in the skin of mice. Liquid food containing alcohol was administered to conventional NC/Nga mice to induce alcoholic hepatic steatosis, and spontaneous dermatitis was evaluated. BALB/c mice were administered approximately 1 g/kg body weight of ethanol by gavage, and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA) was induced. Spleens were collected 24 h after the elicitation of CHS and mRNA expressions of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diet exaggerated spontaneous dermatitis in conventional NC/Nga mice and contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administered by gavage for 5 days enhanced contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice. Ethanol administration with gavage also enhanced ACA of BALB/c mice. Ethanol did not affect mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-4, but did enhance IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 mRNA expression. Histological evaluation revealed an absence of hepatic steatosis in mice administered ethanol by gavage for 5 days. In ethanol-administered mice, inflamed areas presented as lesions or a local extreme accumulation of mononuclear cells in the epidermis. These findings suggest that ethanol enhances the expression of inflammatory cytokines independently from T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine phenotypes, causing abnormalities in the epidermis resulting in exacerbated allergic reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical characteristics of an allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Liebermann, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions to dental impression materials may occur throughout dental treatment, with diverse manifestations from slight redness to severe pain and a burning mouth with total stomatitis. Patients are often unaware of these allergic reactions, which makes early identification of the cause almost impossible. In addition, symptoms usually begin after 24 hours and mostly in patients with a preexisting history of allergic responses. This report describes a patient with a suspected allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material during prosthetic rehabilitation associated with a mandibular telescopic denture. Although instances of such occurrence are rare, clinicians need to be aware of these symptoms and select materials carefully for patients with a history of allergy. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  19. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Rhinitis 2014.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Ogino, Satoshi; Uchio, Eiichi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 7th edition was published in 2013, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2013. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  20. Difference in the breast milk proteome between allergic and non-allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Kasper A; Reina, Fabiola M; Boeren, Sjef; Zhang, Lina; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Wijga, Alet H

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. Important components that may be involved are breast milk proteins, as these are known to regulate immune development in the newborn. The objective of this study was therefore to explore differences in the proteins of breast milk from 20 allergic and non-allergic mothers. The results from this comparison may then be used to generate hypotheses on proteins associated with allergy in their offspring. Milk samples from allergic and non-allergic mothers were obtained from the PIAMA project, a prospective birth cohort study on incidence, risk factors, and prevention of asthma and inhalant allergy. Non-targeted proteomics technology, based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was used to compare breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers. Nineteen proteins, out of a total of 364 proteins identified in both groups, differed significantly in concentration between the breast milk of allergic and non-allergic mothers. Protease inhibitors and apolipoproteins were present in much higher concentrations in breast milk of allergic than non-allergic mothers. These proteins have been suggested to be linked to allergy and asthma. The non-targeted milk proteomic analysis employed has provided new targets for future studies on the relation between breast milk composition and allergy.

  1. Does adiposity mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and non-allergic asthma in childhood?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kate Marie; Pikhart, Hynek; Morrison, Joana

    2018-05-01

    Despite its high prevalence, early onset and chronic nature, the causes of asthma are not clearly established. The present study examined a plausible but untested relationship in the development of non-allergic asthma; an asthma phenotype closely linked to deprivation and other preventable risk factors. Our aim was to determine the mediating role of adiposity in the relationship between socioeconomic position in infancy and non-allergic asthma emergence in mid-childhood. To estimate the causal indirect effect of adiposity we applied the parametric g-computational procedure to 6203 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Adiposity was measured at age 7 by body mass index, waist circumference and waist circumference-to-height ratio. Children who developed non-allergic asthma between the age of 7 and 14 were compared with children without allergies or allergic asthma at these ages. We found no evidence to suggest that adiposity is a mediator in the relationship between socioeconomic position and the development of non-allergic asthma in mid-childhood. After adjustment for risk factors, the direct effect of socioeconomic position remained; children in the lowest tertile of socioeconomic position had a 43% (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.49) greater odds of developing non-allergic asthma compared with the highest tertile. Adiposity at age 7 does not mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and non-allergic asthma. The results suggest that improving socioeconomic conditions and promoting healthy weight are both important in reducing the development of non-allergic asthma in early to mid-childhood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1980s as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy and in the latest decade achieved significant advances. Its efficacy in allergic rhinitis is supported by a number of meta-analyses. The development of SLIT preparations in tablets to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agencies for quality of allergen extracts made available optimal products for grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Preparations of other allergens based on the same production methods are currently in progress. A notable outcome of SLIT, that is shared with subcutaneous immunotherapy, is the evident cost-effectiveness, showing significant cost savings as early as 3 months from starting the treatment, that become as high as 80% compared with drug treatment in the ensuing years.

  3. TLR9-based immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Abbasirad, Narjes; Movahed, Ali; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Pishjoo, Masoud; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors expressed on many cell types of innate immunity, recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbes. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a reduced microbial exposure in early childhood increases the susceptibility to allergic diseases due to deviation in development of the immune system. TLRs are key roles in the right and healthy direction of adaptive immunity with the induction of T-helper 2 toward Th1 immune responses and regulatory T cells. TLR ligand CpG-ODN-based immunomodulation is independent of allergen and it mainly affects innate immune system. While, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-based vaccination is allergen specific and induces adaptive immune system. The use of agonists of TLR9 in two distinct strategies of immunotherapy, immunomodulation and vaccination, could be presented as the curative method for the treatment of allergic diseases.

  4. Unusual food allergy: Alioidea allergic reactions overview.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Visconti, Bianca; Paolino, Giovanni; Frascani, Federica; Tofani, Sonia; Fazia, Gilda; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Allergic reactions can cause by several aliments and foods. Symptoms usually appear after ingestion, several hours after consumption or even almost immediately. Various food allergies can lead to serious diseases and in some cases to death, so the priority for people suffering from them should be prevention and completely avoiding foods that cause this kind of reactions. Allergy to Alioidea is one of the probable causes of contact dermatitis, gingival and oculonasal diseases and asthma. In this review, we will focus on the increasing incidence of allergy to foods of common use like onions and garlic. In the last ten years, the world production of onions and garlic has increased of at least 25%. People make large use of them, not only in cookery but also from a therapeutic point of view. Their growing use is producing more and more specific, insidious and sometimes serious medical conditions, which highly influence the quality of life of patients. Medical practitioners should be able to recognize immediately these disorders in order to diagnose them quickly and accurately, avoiding unnecessary tests and treatments. We will also describe new patents for detecting food allergens.

  5. Temporal and long-term gut microbiota variation in allergic disease: A prospective study from infancy to school age.

    PubMed

    Simonyté Sjödin, Kotryna; Hammarström, Marie-Louise; Rydén, Patrik; Sjödin, Andreas; Hernell, Olle; Engstrand, Lars; West, Christina E

    2018-05-22

    Compositional changes of the early life gut microbiota have been implicated in IgE-associated allergic disease but there is lack of longitudinal studies. We examined gut microbiota development from infancy to school age in relation to onset of IgE-associated allergic diseases. At 8 years of age, we also examined the relationship between gut microbiota and T-cell regulation, estimated as responses to polyclonal T-cell activation. Stool samples were collected from 93 children at 4, 6 and 13 months, and 8 years of age. The gut microbiota was profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Peripheral blood was drawn from all children and mononuclear cells were polyclonally activated. Levels of IL-10 and FOXP3 mRNA copies were determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. At 8 years of age 21 children were diagnosed with IgE-associated allergic disease and 90% displayed allergic comorbidity. Seventy-two children were non-allergic and non-sensitized. Statistical tests with multiple testing corrections demonstrated temporal underrepresentation of Ruminococcus and consistent underrepresentation of Bacteroides, Prevotella and Coprococcus in allergic compared to non-allergic children from infancy to school age. The gut microbiota of the allergic 8-year-olds was enriched in Bifidobacterium and depleted of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Lachnospira. In allergic 8-year-olds, Faecalibacterium correlated with IL-10 mRNA levels (r s =0.49 , P adj= 0.02) with the same trend for FOXP3 (r s =0.39 , P adj= 0.08). We identified both temporal and long-term variation in the differential abundance of specific bacterial genera in children developing IgE-associated allergic disease. Improved dietary interventions aiming at expanding immune-modulatory taxa could be studied for prevention of allergic disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of early skin-to-skin contact on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Despite multiple benefits of breast milk, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding in developing countries are low. To evaluate the efficacy of early skin -to -skin contact (SSC) on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 6 weeks of age among term neonates born by vaginal delivery. Term neonates born by vaginal delivery and did not require any resuscitation were randomized at birth to SSC (n=100) and control (n=100) group. Immediately after clamping the umbilical cord, SSC group neonates were placed on the bare bosom of mother and control group neonates were placed under a radiant warmer for a period of 45 minutes each while mothers underwent management of the third stage of labor and episiotomy repair. Pain experienced by mother during episiotomy repair was recorded using a numerical pain scale The primary outcome evaluated was the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks of postnatal age. A significantly higher proportion of neonates were exclusively breastfeed at 6 weeks of age in the SSC group than in the control group (72% vs. 57.6%, p=0.04, relative risk: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0 -1.6). The pain score during episiotomy repair in mothers of the SSC group was significantly lower than the control group (4.74±0.85 versus 5.34±0.81; P <0.01). Early SSC significantly improved the rate of exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks of age among healthy term neonates. An important additional effect was a decrease in the amount of pain that mothers in the SSC group experienced during episiotomy repair.

  7. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Collins, P; Ferguson, J

    1994-07-01

    A 21-year-old woman developed an erythematous papulovesicular eruption of photo-exposed sites, following the use of an oxybenzone-containing sunscreen. Patch testing, photopatch testing, phototesting, and histology produced findings strongly suggestive of oxybenzone photoallergy. Photopatch testing with a monochromator source showed abnormal UVA responses, with evidence of immediate urticaria, and delayed-onset dermatitis. Sun-barrier use is associated with a risk of the development of contact or photocontact allergic reactions. The benzophenones are frequently used in high-protection factor sun-barrier preparations, and appear to have a particular ability to induce such responses.

  8. Gold--a controversial sensitizer. European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Andersen, K E

    1999-06-01

    Until recently, gold allergy was considered to be extremely rare. Gold has been used and worshipped for thousands of years without any obvious complaints of skin problems, either in those participating in mining and other ways of prospecting, or in those wearing jewellery. When studies on contact allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate were published at the beginning of the 1990s, the allergic nature of the reported positive patch test reactions to gold was questioned. The major argument for such questioning was the lack of demonstrable clinical relevance in most positive reactors. A major reason for the questioning may have been confusion in differentiating between contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis. To arrive at a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, 3 steps have, in principle, to be fulfilled: (i) establishment of contact allergy; (ii) demonstration of present exposure; (iii) assessment of clinical relevance, i.e., causing or aggravating a contact dermatitis. In this paper, these steps are discussed with regard to gold. With our present knowledge of contact allergy-allergic contact dermatitis, we do not recommend including gold sodium thiosulfate in the standard series. It should be applied for scientific purposes and when allergic contact dermatitis from gold is suspected.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Man, Li-Xing

    2009-06-01

    Otolaryngologists and other physicians who diagnose and treat allergic rhinitis encounter patients who use complementary medicine and alternative remedies. This article reviews the recent literature regarding complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. There are a myriad of modalities for treating allergic rhinitis. Few are studied with rigorous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials for clinical efficacy. Often, the biological mechanisms and adverse effects are even less well understood. A few therapies, including spirulina, butterbur, and phototherapy hold some promise. Thus far, complementary and alternative therapies have not been integrated into the general treatment armamentarium of allergic rhinitis. Several studies report beneficial effects of certain alternative treatments for allergic rhinitis. Additional insight into the mechanisms of action, short-term and long-term effects, and adverse events is needed.

  10. Regulatory T cells in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Magali Noval; Chatila, Talal A.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response towards allergens. Regulatory T cells (TReg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which TReg cells fail to maintain tolerance in allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how TReg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the “dual” functionality of TReg cells in allergic diseases: how TReg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a pro-allergic inflammatory environment can skew TReg cells towards a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in chronic allergic diseases by promoting TReg cell and stability function. PMID:27596705

  11. Orphan immunotherapies for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    As confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to Hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. Other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), such as dog, molds, occupational allergens, and insects, have also been recognized. For these allergens, immunotherapy is poorly studied and often unavailable. Thus, use of the term orphan immunotherapies is appropriate. We used MEDLINE to search the medical literature for English-language articles. Randomized, controlled, masked studies for orphan immunotherapies were selected. In the remaining cases, the available reports were described. The literature on food desensitization is abundant, but for other orphan allergens, such as mosquito, Argas reflexus, dog, or occupational allergens, there are only a few studies, and most are small studies or case reports. Orphan immunotherapy is associated with insufficient evidence of efficacy from controlled trials, an erroneous belief of the limited importance of some allergen sources, and the unlikelihood for producers to have a profit in making commercially available extracts (with an expensive process for registration) to be used in few patients. It should be taken into consideration that adequate preparations should be available also for orphan allergens. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormonal factors and incident asthma and allergic rhinitis during puberty in girls.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junxiang; Gerlich, Jessica; Genuneit, Jon; Nowak, Dennis; Vogelberg, Christian; von Mutius, Erika; Radon, Katja

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence is indicating that hormonal factors play a role in new-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma after puberty. To determine whether age at menarche and use of hormonal contraceptives predict new-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma after puberty in young German women. A prospective community-based cohort study followed 1,191 girls 9 to 11 years old to early adulthood (19-24 years old). Self-administrated questionnaires concerning age at menarche, use of hormonal contraceptives, and status and age at onset of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis and asthma were collected at 16 to 18 and 19 to 24 years of age. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis after puberty and pooled estimates were obtained from the final model. Eleven percent of girls developed allergic rhinitis after menarche and 3% reported new-onset asthma. Late menarche (>13 years of age) was statistically significantly inversely related to allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.74) but did not reach the level of statistical significance for asthma (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-1.42). Use of hormonal contraceptives was inversely associated with new-onset allergic rhinitis (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.23) and asthma (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.12-0.58) after puberty. This study shows that girls with late onset of menarche are less likely to develop allergic rhinitis after puberty compared with those who have menarche at an average age. These findings also suggest that, in addition to endogenous hormones, hormonal contraceptives play a role and might protect young women from allergies and asthma. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contact Us

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  14. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR) (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis) in the case of non-characterised stimuli. An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications. Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed. PMID:22073046

  15. Contact Allergy to (Ingredients of) Toothpastes.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton

    The literature on contact allergy to (ingredients of) toothpastes is critically reviewed. We have found 47 case reports, small case series (n = 2-5) and citations published between 1900 and 2016 describing more than 60 patients allergic to toothpastes, and in addition 3 larger case series and many descriptions of toothpaste allergy among selected groups of patients. Allergic reactions usually manifest as cheilitis with or without dermatitis around the mouth, less frequently by oral symptoms. Formerly, many reactions were caused by cinnamon derivatives; more recently, reported allergens are diverse. A semiopen test or closed patch test with the toothpaste "as is" may be performed as an initial test, but a positive reaction should always be followed by confirmatory tests. The role of contact allergy to toothpastes in patients with oral symptoms (stomatitis, glossitis, gingivitis, buccal mucositis, burning, soreness, and possibly burning mouth syndrome and recurrent aphthous ulcers) is unclear and should be further investigated.

  16. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The possible mechanisms of the human microbiome in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ipci, Kagan; Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Senturk, Mehmet; Cingi, Cemal

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, we discuss the importance of the microbiome in allergic disease. In this review paper, the data from the Medline (PubMed) and search engine of Kirikkale University were systematically searched for all relevant articles in June 15th, 2015 for the past 30 years. The keywords of "microbiome", "dysbiosis", "allergy", "allergic rhinitis", "allergic disease", "mechanisms" and "treatment" were used alone or together. In this paper, microbiomes were presented in terms of "Definition", "Influence of \\the human microbiome on health", "The microbiome and allergic diseases", and "Modulation of the gut microbiota in terms of treatment and prevention". Microbiological dysbiosis is also reviewed. The microbiome is the genetic material of all microbes (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) that live on or in the human body. Microbes outnumber human cells in a 10:1 ratio. Most microbes live in the gut, particularly the large intestine. Changes in the immune function of the respiratory tract are (at least in theory) linked to the immunomodulatory activity of the gut microbiota via the concept of a "common mucosal response". The gut microbiota shapes systemic immunity, thus affecting the lung mucosa. Alternatively, changes in the gut microbiota may reflect alterations in the oropharyngeal microbiota, which may in turn directly affect the lung microbiota and host immune responses via microaspiration. Dysbiosis is defined as qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal flora; and modern diet and lifestyle, antibiotics, psychological and physical stress result in alterations in bacterial metabolism, as well as the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. All immune system components are directly or indirectly regulated by the microbiota. The nature of microbial exposure early in life appears to be important for the development of robust immune regulation; disruption of either the microbiota or the host response can trigger chronic

  18. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  19. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  20. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  1. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers.

    PubMed

    Remington, B C; Baumert, J L; Blom, W M; Houben, G F; Taylor, S L; Kruizinga, A G

    2015-07-01

    Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk from UAPs. This study investigates the risk of an allergic reaction within the milk-, wheat-, hazelnut- and peanut-allergic populations when ingesting UK foods across multiple product categories with and without precautionary allergen labelling. Allergen risk assessment using probabilistic techniques enables the estimation of the residual risk after the consumption of a product that unintentionally contains an allergen. Within this selection of UK products, the majority that tested positive for an allergen contained a concentration of allergen predicted to cause a reaction in >1% of the allergic population. The concentrations of allergens measured were greater than the VITAL(®) 2.0 action levels and would trigger precautionary allergen labelling. This was found for products both with and without precautionary allergen labelling. The results highlight the need for the food industry and regulators to adopt a transparent, risk-based approach for the communication of the risk associated with potential cross-contact that could occur in the processing facility or production chain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pattern of occupational allergic dermatitis in the Dermatology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Rohna, R; Ganesapillai, T; Salbiah, D; Zaiton, I

    1999-03-01

    A two years retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed as contact allergic dermatitis with positive patch test attending the Dermatology clinic was performed. Of the 346 patients with a positive patch test, 14% had occupational dermatitis. This condition affected mainly young and inexperienced workers. An inverse relationship was seen between age and prevalence of occupational allergic dermatitis. Allergic hand dermatitis was the commonest presentation in occupational allergic dermatitis. This was followed by dermatitis of the exposed skin (face, neck, hands and forearms). The common sensitising agents identified were rubber chemicals and nickel. The two main groups at risk were factory workers and medical personnel. The common allergens found in factory workers were epoxy resin, pewter, nickel and rubber chemicals. Exposure dermatitis occurred in patients working in the pewter industry. Two thirds of medical personnel with hand dermatitis were allergic to rubber gloves. One year follow up after patch testing showed that 19% of patients still suffered from chronic dermatitis. Dermatitis improved in 34% of patients. Forty-seven percent were cured and stopped attending the clinic after patch testing and adequate counselling.

  3. Studies on actively allergized cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne B.; Kent, S. P.; Millar, Rose-Mary; McConnell, I.; Coombs, R. R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A proportion of the plasma cells in lymph nodes of allergized guinea-pigs and mice were found to possess membrane-bound receptors for antigen when tested for rosette-formation at 4° by the suspension-centrifugation technique. This was shown by staining rosetted cells with pyronin-methyl green. Rosette-forming cells of the guinea-pig were further examined by staining with fluorescein-conjugated antigen (rabbit Fab′) and by electron microscopy. By these techniques it was found that many plasma cells which contain antigen-specific intracellular antibodies do not form rosettes, and that cells of the plasmacytic series represented in the rosetted population are limited to plasmablasts and immature plasma cells. The lack of rosette-forming mature plasma cells suggests that a loss of receptors from the cell-membrane occurs as an accompaniment to maturation. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 4 PMID:4717940

  4. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  5. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  6. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  7. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  8. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic manifestations...

  9. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  10. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 35. Usatine RP, Riojas M. Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis. Am Fam Physician . 2010;82( ...

  11. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    past reports, the majority of our EE subjects are male, Caucasian, and have another atopic disorder (asthma, allergy, eczema and/or food allergy...or skin prick testing positive Table 2: Co-existent Allergic Characteristics of Pediatric EoE Population Asthma (%) Allergic Rhinitis (%) Eczema ...Consistent with high rates of atopy in the EoE population, 36% had asthma, 53% had allergic rhinitis, 43% had eczema , and 42% had a an immediate

  12. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Correlation in Palm Tree Workers of Jahrom City in 2016.

    PubMed

    Farahmand Fard, Mohammad Amin; Khanjani, Narges; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Ashrafi Asgarabad, Ahad

    2017-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis and asthma can be related to occupation. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between asthma or allergic rhinitis and employment in the palm tree gardens of Jahrom, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study including 50 palm tree garden workers and a control group of 50 office employees. Data collection included demographics, as well as standard International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and A New Symptom-Based Questionnaire for Predicting the Presence of Asthma (ASQ) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS22. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, and logistics regression were used to analyze data. The correlation between asthma and occupation was significant ( P=0.046); and asthma prevalence was higher in palm tree garden workers. However, no relationship was observed between age, duration of employment, smoking cigarettes, hookah, or opium addiction with asthma. Furthermore, in this study, no significant relation was observed between the prevalence of asthma and contact with dust, contact with pets' skin and hair, family history of asthma, or the use of perfume and air freshener. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis (including sneezing, runny nose, and blocked nose) were significantly greater in palm tree garden workers (P=0.038). These symptoms in both workers and office employees were higher in spring. In our study, allergic rhinitis and asthma were more common in palm tree garden workers than in the general population. According to our study, people working in this occupation should take necessary precautions.

  13. Atopic and Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva.

    PubMed

    Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Pruritus, or itch, is a common vulvar complaint that is often treated empirically as a yeast infection; however, yeast infections are just one of the many conditions that can cause vulvar itch. Ignoring other conditions can prolong pruritus unnecessarily. Atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are extremely common noninfectious causes of vulvar itch that are often underdiagnosed by nondermatologists. Identifying these conditions and treating them appropriately can significantly improve a patient's quality of life and appropriately decrease health care expenditures by preventing unnecessary additional referrals or follow-up visits and decreasing pharmaceutical costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cheilitis, perioral dermatitis and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Collet, Evelyne; Jeudy, Géraldine; Dalac, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Cheilitis is a superficial inflammatory condition of the lip. It can occur either alone or be associated with stomatitis or perioral eczema. Contact hypersensitivity reactions are a frequent cause of cheilitis. Cosmetic and hygiene products are the most usual causes. Less frequently, allergic cheilitis is caused by contact with musical instruments, topical medicines or food allergens. Cases of cheilitis induced by dental material are rare and debated. The diagnosis relies on patch tests, which start with the European baseline series and the patient's personal cosmetic and topical products. This investigation will then be completed by the ingredients in the topical products and specific test series.

  15. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  16. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Lee, So-Yeon; Suh, Dong In; Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Seo, Ju-Hee; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Shin, Yee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Ho; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2014-07-03

    This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child's neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child's genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim.The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child's exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre- and post-natal psychological stress

  17. The Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study: design, rationale and methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper describes the background, aim, and design of a prospective birth-cohort study in Korea called the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). COCOA objectives are to investigate the individual and interactive effects of genetics, perinatal environment, maternal lifestyle, and psychosocial stress of mother and child on pediatric susceptibility to allergic diseases. Methods/Design The participants in COCOA represents a Korean inner-city population. Recruitment started on 19 November, 2007 and will continue until 31 December, 2015. Recruitment is performed at five medical centers and eight public-health centers for antenatal care located in Seoul. Participating mother-baby pairs are followed from before birth to adolescents. COCOA investigates whether the following five environmental variables contribute causally to the development and natural course of allergic diseases: (1) perinatal indoor factors (i.e. house-dust mite, bacterial endotoxin, tobacco smoking, and particulate matters 2.5 and 10), (2) perinatal outdoor pollutants, (3) maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and the child’s neurodevelopment, (4) perinatal nutrition, and (5) perinatal microbiome. Cord blood and blood samples from the child are used to assess whether the child’s genes and epigenetic changes influence allergic-disease susceptibility. Thus, COCOA aims to investigate the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, and various environmental factors in early life to allergic-disease susceptibility in later life. How these variables interact to shape allergic-disease susceptibility is also a key aim. The COCOA data collection schedule includes 11 routine standardized follow-up assessments of all children at 6 months and every year until 10 years of age, regardless of allergic-disease development. The mothers will complete multiple questionnaires to assess the baseline characteristics, the child’s exposure to environmental factors, maternal pre

  18. Climate change, aeroallergens, and pediatric allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Perry E; Weinberger, Kate R; Kinney, Patrick L

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which aeroallergens are contributing to the global increase in pediatric allergic disease is incompletely understood. We review the evidence that links climate change to changes in aeroallergens such as pollen and outdoor mold concentrations and, subsequently, aeroallergen association with pediatric allergic disease. We specifically explore the evidence on both the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease in children related to outdoor pollen and mold concentrations. Pediatric allergic diseases include atopic dermatitis or eczema, allergic rhinitis or hay fever, and some types of asthma in children, typically defined as < 18 years of age. We discuss how the timing of aeroallergen exposure both in utero and in childhood could be associated with allergies. We conclude that the magnitude and type of health impacts due to climate change will depend on improved understanding of the relationship between climatic variables, multiple allergen factors, and allergic disease. Improved public-health strategies such as adequate humidity control, optimum air filtration and ventilation, and improved anticipatory public-health messaging will be critical to adaptation. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  19. Immunomodulation: the future cure for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Tsitoura, Daphne C; Tassios, Yannis

    2006-11-01

    Allergies are the result of aberrant immune reactivity against common innocuous environmental proteins (allergens). A pivotal component of allergic pathogenesis is the generation of allergen-specific Th cells with an effector phenotype. These Th cells activate a complex immune cascade that triggers the release of potent mediators and enhances the mobilization of several inflammatory cells types, which in turn elicit the acute allergic reactions and promote the development of chronic inflammation. The current therapies for allergic diseases focus primarily on pharmacological control of symptoms and suppression of inflammation. This approach is beneficial, but not curative, since the underlying immune pathology is not inhibited. In an attempt to develop more effective therapeutic strategies, the scientific interest has been directed toward methods down-modulating the immune mechanisms that initiate and maintain the allergic cascade. Today, the only widely used disease-modifying form of allergy treatment is the specific immunotherapy with allergen extracts. More recently the use of anti-IgE has been approved for patients with allergic asthma. Other immunomodulatory methods being currently explored are the administration of microbial adjuvants that inhibit Th2 reactivity and the design of molecules that interrupt the activity of key allergic cytokines, chemokines, or other Th2 effector mediators.

  20. Safety of meropenem in patients reporting penicillin allergy: lack of allergic cross reactions.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Hamid, N S; Krol, V; Eisenstein, L

    2008-04-01

    Over the years, meropenem has become the mainstay of empiric therapy for serious systemic infections in critically ill patients. Although we have had extensive clinical experience since 1996 using meropenem safely in treating hundreds of patients with reported allergic reactions to penicillin without any adverse events, we have not published our experience. This study was conducted to document our clinical practice experience. Accordingly, over a 12-month period we prospectively monitored 110 patients treated with meropenem reporting penicillin allergic reactions for that 12-month period. Since early empiric therapy in such patients is essential, there is often no time for penicillin skin testing. Penicillin skin testing was not done in this "real world" clinical study. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the nature of their penicillin allergic reactions. During a 12-month period, 110 patients with non-anaphylactic (59) and anaphylactic (51) penicillin allergic reactions tolerated prolonged meropenem therapy (1-4 weeks) safely without any allergic reactions. Based on these data and our previous clinical experience, there appears to be little/no potential cross reactivity between meropenem and penicillins even in patients with a definite history of anaphylactic reactions to penicillins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study demonstrating that meropenem may be safely given to patients with known/unknown allergic reactions to penicillin, including those with anaphylactic reactions, without penicillin skin testing. We conclude that meropenem may be given safely to patients reporting a history of non-anaphylactic or anaphylactic allergic reactions to penicillins without penicillin skin testing.

  1. Studies of the quenching phenomenon in delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Allenby, C F

    1991-09-01

    Studies in guinea pig and man have shown that eugenol can quench non-specifically contact urticarial responses, whereas limonene seems largely ineffective. In a comprehensive series of studies, there was little evidence of quenching of delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions to cinnamic aldehyde or citral, including in 'pre-quenched' material supplied by a perfume/flavour company, and in a similar mixture prepared in this laboratory, in the guinea pig model. In addition, there was no evidence of the quenching by eugenol of allergic reactions to cinnamic aldehyde in a panel of human subjects with a proven history of cinnamic-aldehyde-induced allergic contact dermatitis. Overall, the results lend little credibility to earlier literature reports of quenching phenomena in delayed contact hypersensitivity responses.

  2. Allergic axillary dermatitis due to hydrogenated castor oil in a deodorant.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Kathy; Tatnall, Frances; Orton, David

    2008-03-01

    We present a case of axillary dermatitis caused by hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) in a commercially available deodorant. Patch testing with constituents obtained from the manufacturer showed allergic reaction to HCO 'as is', whereas there was no reaction to HCO 30% in pet. Testing 10 controls with HCO 'as is' did not cause irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis to non-HCO in cosmetics has been described previously but sensitization to HCO seems to be rare. Most common allergens identified in deodorants are fragrances, and this case illustrates that HCO is another possible allergen found in this group of personal care products. It is important that it is tested 'as is' to avoid false-negative results.

  3. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  4. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  5. Exposure to cats: update on risks for sensitization and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J

    2012-10-01

    Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat.

  6. Hot topics in paediatric immunology: IgE-mediated food allergy and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Rueter, Kristina; Prescott, Susan

    2014-10-01

    The epidemic of allergic disease is a major public health crisis. The greatest burden of allergies is in childhood, when rapidly rising rates of disease are also most evident. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in recognising and addressing aller-gy-related problems and identifying whether a child requires referral to a paediatric allergist. This article focuses on IgE-mediated food allergies and allergic rhinitis, the most commonly seen conditions in paediatric im-munology. We will discuss prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment strategies. Currently there is no cure for food allergy. Oral tolerance induction continues to be a significant focus of research. All children with a possible food allergy should be referred to an allergist for further testing and advice. Children who develop allergic rhinitis need a regular review by their GP. Immunotherapy should be discussed early in the disease process and needs to be com-menced by an allergist.

  7. Clinical update on contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Orton, David I; Frosch, Peter J; Schnuch, Axel

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review recent findings in contact allergy, regarding clinical research. The biocide methyldibromo glutaronitrile was identified to be an important sensitizer. Subsequently, it was banned from leave-on cosmetics in the European Union. Another group of important allergens that have been studied extensively included the fragrances oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and farnesol. A new fragrance mix II has been developed for standard testing, which includes the two latter compounds. Dose response studies have demonstrated broad individual variation of elicitation thresholds, dependent on the allergen concentration during induction, and other factors. Some unsuspected routes of exposure to allergens include oral, inhalational, connubial or airborne contact. Experimental studies provide a classification of newly introduced chemicals; increasingly, the local lymph node assay is supplementing and potentially replacing the guinea pig maximization test. Recent advances in occupational contact allergy include, for example, some attempts to improve diagnostics for epoxy resin and other plastic, glue, and cutting fluid components. Constant awareness for new allergens, confirmed by critical evaluation, standardization of patch test materials, and the identification of temporal patterns and subgroups at risk will improve both the diagnosis and prevention of allergic contact dermatitis.

  8. [Toxic ulcerative contact dermatitis due to prefabricated concrete (cement burns)].

    PubMed

    Bandmann, H J; Agathos, M

    1977-01-01

    In the present report the case of a toxic ulcerous contact dermatitis (cement burns) by pre-fabricated concrete is described. This can be clearly distinguished by anamnesis, findings and development from the allergic and cumulative-toxic contact dermatitis caused by cement and related substances. It is pointed out, that in the few cases of "cement burns" made known up to now, pre-fabricated concrete was always the triggering agent.

  9. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Itazawa, Toshiko; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline the importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation protein-2, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR) 2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of toll-like receptor 4, or small interfering RNA against myeloid differentiation protein-2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which innately recruited neutrophils contribute to shifting the airway inflammatory response induced by allergens from neutrophilic to an eosinophilic-allergic is an area of active research. Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in the development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be a strategy to control allergic inflammation.

  10. Contact Us

    Science.gov Websites

    Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Contact Us NPIC staff Call us (toll free): 800-858-7378 We have trained pesticide specialists available to help you free of charge from 8:00am to 12:00pm

  11. The soft computing-based approach to investigate allergic diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tartarisco, Gennaro; Tonacci, Alessandro; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Billeci, Lucia; Pioggia, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition of inflammatory markers and their relation to asthma, adverse drug reactions, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases is an important goal in allergy. The vast majority of studies in the literature are based on classic statistical methods; however, developments in computational techniques such as soft computing-based approaches hold new promise in this field. The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review the main soft computing-based techniques such as artificial neural networks, support vector machines, bayesian networks and fuzzy logic to investigate their performances in the field of allergic diseases. The review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines and the protocol was registered within PROSPERO database (CRD42016038894). The research was performed on PubMed and ScienceDirect, covering the period starting from September 1, 1990 through April 19, 2016. The review included 27 studies related to allergic diseases and soft computing performances. We observed promising results with an overall accuracy of 86.5%, mainly focused on asthmatic disease. The review reveals that soft computing-based approaches are suitable for big data analysis and can be very powerful, especially when dealing with uncertainty and poorly characterized parameters. Furthermore, they can provide valuable support in case of lack of data and entangled cause-effect relationships, which make it difficult to assess the evolution of disease. Although most works deal with asthma, we believe the soft computing approach could be a real breakthrough and foster new insights into other allergic diseases as well.

  12. Targeting congestion in allergic rhinitis: the importance of intranasal corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Marple, Bradley F

    2008-01-01

    The cardinal nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) are sustained by an underlying inflammatory process. Congestion is one of the most prominent and distressing symptoms for patients and is strongly associated with a broadly deteriorated quality of life and significant losses in productivity. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) in down-regulating the inflammatory response to allergen and their clinical efficacy on AR symptoms, particularly congestion. AR is characterized by an influx of inflammatory cells and mediators into the nasal mucosa after antigen exposure. The response is biphasic, encompassing an early and a late phase. Antigen exposure has a priming effect, decreasing the threshold for subsequent allergic reaction on rechallenge and increasing the responsiveness of the nasal mucosa. INSs are a mainstay of therapy for AR and the most effective intervention for nasal congestion and other nasal symptoms, with established superiority to antihistamines, decongestants, and leukotriene antagonists. In addition to symptom relief, INSs suppress numerous stages of the inflammatory cascade, inhibiting the influx of inflammatory cells and mediators. Topical nasal corticosteroids have a low incidence of local adverse effects, negligible systemic absorption, and excellent safety. Congestion is one of the most bothersome symptoms of AR. INS therapy improves AR symptoms, with particular efficacy in relieving congestion, by attenuating nasal hyperresponsiveness. Pretreatment with INSs has been shown to relieve early and late-phase clinical symptoms of AR. Modification of the disease process results in significant relief of symptoms and leads to fewer disease exacerbations.

  13. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  14. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  15. Clostridium difficile colonization and/or infection during infancy and the risk of childhood allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Gong, Yun Na; Ryoo, Eell

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota can influence several diseases through immune modulation; however, the exact role of microbes such as Clostridium difficile and the relationship between microbiota colonization and allergic diseases are not well known. This study aimed to determine the relationship between C. difficile colonization and/or infection (CDCI) during infancy and allergic diseases during early childhood. Infants 1-12 months of age presenting changes in bowel habits for more than 2 weeks were enrolled in this study. After dividing them into 2 groups according to the presence and absence of C. difficile , the risk of allergic disease development during childhood was identified and compared. Sixty-five patients were included in this study; 22 (33.8%) were diagnosed with CDCI. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics between the C. difficile -positive and -negative groups except for antibiotic exposure (22.7% vs. 60.5%, P =0.004). Compared to the C. difficile -negative group, the risk of developing at least one allergic disease was higher in the C. difficile -positive group after adjusting other variables (adjusted odds ratios, 5.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-20.74; P =0.007). Furthermore, food allergies were more prevalent in the C. difficile -positive group ( P =0.03). CDCI during infancy were associated with a higher risk of developing allergic diseases during early childhood. These results suggest that CDCI during infancy might reflect the reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota, which is associated with an increased risk of allergic sensitization. To identify the underlying mechanism, further investigation and a larger cohort study will be needed.

  16. Contact dermatitis to cobalt chloride with an unusual mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Aksan, Serkan; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. A suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Therefore, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance because the patch testing is important to find out which allergen/material causes the complaints. Metallic allergens such as cobalt are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different skin areas. Here, we report an unusual case of cobalt allergy on the skin contact with the prosthetic leg of a 30-year-old female patient. The patient developed maculopapular and vesicular lesions on her contact region of residual limb to prosthetic leg. She underwent standard patch testing, which resulted in a strong positive reaction to cobalt chloride. This case report may serve to remind doctors to be aware of potential allergic reactions to prostheses and to enable them to recognize a metal allergy if it appears. Prosthetists should also be reminded of potential allergic reactions. Cobalt can be used as an accelerator in making a prosthetic socket. Several cases have been reported concerning allergies to components of the prosthetic socket. This is the first report of sensitization to cobalt which is used in making a prosthetic leg. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J; Henneberger, Paul K; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Using the 2005-2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever ( n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever ( n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated ( p < 0.05) with allergic wheeze (18 positive, 1 negative) and 21 pesticides with non-allergic wheeze (19 positive, 2 negative); 11 pesticides were associated with both. Seven pesticides (herbicides: 2,4-D and simazine; insecticides: carbaryl, dimethoate, disulfoton, and zeta-cypermethrin; and fungicide pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure-response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure-response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects.

  18. Fungal Keratitis Due to Beauveria bassiana in a Contact Lenses Wearer and Review of Published Reports.

    PubMed

    Lara Oya, Ana; Medialdea Hurtado, María Eloisa; Rojo Martín, María Dolores; Aguilera Pérez, Antonia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Miranda Casas, Consuelo; Rubio Prats, Marina; Medialdea Marcos, Santiago; Navarro Marí, José María

    2016-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is a severe ocular infection that primarily affects subjects engaged in outdoor activities. Risk factors include allergic conjunctivitis, previous eye surgery, previous treatment with wide-spectrum antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids and using contact lenses. Corneal infection is usually secondary to trauma involving organic material, which is often the only predisposing factor. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and microbiological investigation (microscopy, cultures and molecular techniques) is crucial to selecting the appropriate antifungal therapy and prevent progression. We report the case of a patient with keratitis due to Beauveria bassiana, an opportunistic and entomopathogenic filamentous fungus that is used as a biological insecticide and which is a rare cause of corneal infection. We review previous cases reports of B. bassiana keratitis published and its main features to compare with our case, a female occasional agriculture worker who had not suffered any trauma involving organic material. The patient received topical and oral antifungal therapy and debridement surgery, with a satisfactory outcome.

  19. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  20. Fragrance contact allergy in Iran.

    PubMed

    Firooz, A; Nassiri-Kashani, M; Khatami, A; Gorouhi, F; Babakoohi, S; Montaser-Kouhsari, L; Davari, P; Dowlati, Y

    2010-12-01

    Fragrances are considered as one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. About 1-4% of the general population suffer from fragrance contact allergy (FCA). To determine the frequency of FCA and its clinical relevance in a sample of Iranian patients with history of contact and/or atopic dermatitis from January 2004 to December 2008. Standardized patch testing with 28-allergen screening series recommended by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group and European Standard Series was used at six dermatological clinics in Iran. Fragrance allergens comprised of fragrance mix I (FM I), Myroxylon pereirae (MP; balsam of Peru), Lyral, turpentine and FM II. Fragrance contact allergy was detected in 7.2% of the patients. The frequency of positive reactions to FM I, MP and FM II were 3.7% (41/1105), 2.8% (32/1135) and 1.1% (3/267) respectively. 82.4% of the reactions to fragrance allergens were clinically relevant. The most common involved areas were hands (68.4%) and face (35.4%). Fragrance allergy predominantly affected women aged more than 40 years (P=0.008). Positive reaction to more than two allergens was significantly higher in FCA patients compared with other contact dermatitis patients (P<0.0001), and FM I, nickel and MP were the most frequent allergens in these patients. Despite less frequency of FCA in comparison with some European countries, its clinical relevance in Iranian patients seems to be high. It mostly affects the hands and the face predominantly in women aged more than 40 years. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Contact Us

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    Naval History Contact Us Command Addresses (SNDL) FAQ Leadership Secretary of the Navy Under Secretary Chiefs of Staff Defense.gov U.S. Army U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine Corps U.S. Coast Guard Naval History https://awards.navy.mil Naval Heritage And History Command http://www.history.navy.mil/about-us

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    for Sandy Fax By Fax: 1 631 344 4583 Attention Chuck Carlson EMail By E-Mail: Send E-Mail to Chuck Group Leader James Alessi Telephone: 1-631-344-4004 E-Mail: Peter Thieberger Information can be returned 1 631 344 4581. An organizational list of staff members and how to contact them. The BNL E-Mail and

  3. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Conk-Dalay, Meltem; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing globally due to various causes. It affects the quality life of a large group of people in all around the world. Allergic rhinitis still remains inadequately controlled with present medical means. The need of continuous medical therapy makes individuals anxious about the side effects of the drugs. So there is a need for an alternative strategy. Effects of spirulina, tinospora cordifolia and butterbur were investigated recently on allergic rhinitis in just very few investigations. Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. This double blind, placebo controlled study, evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Spirulina consumption significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placebo (P < 0.001***) including nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. Spirulina is clinically effective on allergic rhinitis when compared with placebo. Further studies should be performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this effect.

  4. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emerging roles of basophils in allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensuke; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    Basophils have long been neglected in immunological studies because they were regarded as only minor relatives of mast cells. However, recent advances in analytical tools for basophils have clarified the non-redundant roles of basophils in allergic inflammation. Basophils play crucial roles in both IgE-dependent and -independent allergic inflammation, through their migration to the site of inflammation and secretion of various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases. Basophils are known to produce large amounts of IL-4 in response to various stimuli. Basophil-derived IL-4 has recently been shown to play versatile roles in allergic inflammation by acting on various cell types, including macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Basophil-derived serine proteases are also crucial for the aggravation of allergic inflammation. Moreover, recent reports suggest the roles of basophils in modulating adaptive immune responses, particularly in the induction of Th2 differentiation and enhancement of humoral memory responses. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in understanding the roles of basophils in allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal as early signs of psychosis in adolescents--the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    PubMed

    Mäki, P; Koskela, S; Murray, G K; Nordström, T; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Veijola, J M

    2014-08-01

    Social withdrawal is among the first signs of the prodromal state of psychosis seen in clinical samples. The aim of this prospective study was to find out whether difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal precede first episode psychosis in the young general population. The members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=6274) completed the PROD-screen questionnaire in 2001-2002. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to detect both new psychotic and non-psychotic disorders requiring hospitalisation during 2003-2008. Twenty-three subjects developed psychosis and 89 developed a non-psychotic mental disorder requiring hospitalisation during the follow-up. Of those who developed psychosis, 35% had reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others and 30% social withdrawal in adolescence. In hospitalised non-psychotic disorder, the corresponding precentages were 10 and 13% and in the control group without hospital-treated mental disorder 9 and 11%. The differences between psychotic and non-psychotic hospitalised subjects (P<0.01) as well as controls (P<0.001) were statistically significant regarding difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others. In this general population-based sample self-reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others in adolescence preceded psychosis specifically compared to hospitalised non-psychotic mental disorders and controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Allergic rhinitis: continuous or on demand antihistamine therapy?

    PubMed

    Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; Dávila, I; del Cuvillo, A; Ferrer, M; Mullol, J; Valero, A

    2007-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa, caused by an IgE-mediated reaction after exposure to the allergen to which the patient is sensitized. Histamine is the most important preformed mediator released in the early stage of the allergic reaction, and also contributes to the late phase of the latter, exhibiting proinflammatory effects. Minimal persistent inflammation is a physiopathological phenomenon induced by the presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, together with ICAM-1 expression in the epithelial cells of the mucosa exposed to the allergen to which they are sensitized, in the absence of clinical symptoms. This molecule is considered to be an allergic inflammatory marker. The priming effect first described by Connell in 1968 consists of the reduction in the allergen concentration required to elicit a nasal hyper-response when performing a daily nasal exposure test. This implies that with natural exposure to inhaled allergens, small amounts of environmental allergen will maintain the patient symptoms, and thus of course minimal persistent inflammation. Considering the above, it is questionable whether antihistamines should be administered on a continuous basis or upon demand. The antihistamines, and fundamentally the second-generation drugs, have been shown to exert an antiinflammatory effect, and this effect is greater when the drug is administered continuously than when administered upon demand. Likewise, a reduction in treatment cost and an improvement in quality of life among patients treated on a continuous basis has been documented. However, no studies have been specifically designed to clarify the indication of treatment on a continuous basis or upon demand, as occurs in the GINA. As a result, the individualization of treatment according to the concrete characteristics of each patient seems to be the best approach, at least for the time being.

  9. Epigenetic regulation in allergic diseases and related studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chang-Hung; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Lee, Min-Sheng; Chang, Kai-Ting; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway, has features of both heritability as well as environmental influences which can be introduced in utero exposures and modified through aging, and the features may attribute to epigenetic regulation. Epigenetic regulation explains the association between early prenatal maternal smoking and later asthma-related outcomes. Epigenetic marks (DNA methylation, modifications of histone tails or noncoding RNAs) work with other components of the cellular regulatory machinery to control the levels of expressed genes, and several allergy- and asthma-related genes have been found to be susceptible to epigenetic regulation, including genes important to T-effector pathways (IFN-γ, interleukin [IL] 4, IL-13, IL-17) and T-regulatory pathways (FoxP3). Therefore, the mechanism by which epigenetic regulation contributes to allergic diseases is a critical issue. In the past most published experimental work, with few exceptions, has only comprised small observational studies and models in cell systems and animals. However, very recently exciting and elegant experimental studies and novel translational research works were published with new and advanced technologies investigating epigenetic mark on a genomic scale and comprehensive approaches to data analysis. Interestingly, a potential link between exposure to environmental pollutants and the occurrence of allergic diseases is revealed recently, particular in developed and industrialized countries, and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) as environmental hormone may play a key role. This review addresses the important question of how EDCs (nonylphenol, 4 octylphenol, and phthalates) influences on asthma-related gene expression via epigenetic regulation in immune cells, and how anti-asthmatic agents prohibit expression of inflammatory genes via epigenetic modification. The discovery and validation of epigenetic biomarkers linking exposure to allergic diseases might lead to better

  10. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders.

  11. Tolerance to a Hair Dye Product Containing 2-Methoxymethyl-P-Phenylenediamine in an Ethnically Diverse Population of P-Phenylenediamine-Allergic Individuals.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Amir; Kindred, Chesahna; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Goebel, Carsten; Gaspari, Anthony A

    Allergic contact dermatitis after exposure to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye products is a common and important clinical problem. Because there is a high rate of cross-elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to other important hair dye products (such as p-toluene diamine and other aminophenol hair dyes) in PPD-allergic patients, safer alternative dyes with excellent hair coloring options are needed. This study aimed to study tolerance to Me-PPD in a PPD-allergic cohort. Twenty ethnically diverse volunteers with a history of contact dermatitis to hair dyes or other PPD-containing chemicals and positive patch test results to 1% PPD in petrolatum were recruited to study their immediate and delayed skin reactivity to PPD, vehicle control, and 2-methoxy-methyl-PPD (Me-PPD) using the allergy alert test (simulating hair dyeing conditions) on volar forearm skin. This test is a short-contact open patch test. The Me-PPD may offer a safer alternative for PPD-allergic patients with an absent or reduced elicitation response in the allergy alert test simulating hair dye use conditions. The absent or reduced response to Me-PPD diagnosed using the allergy alert test has been shown to help reduce the possibility of moderate to severe cross-elicitation reactions among consumers during hair dyeing.

  12. Evolving paradigm in the management of allergic rhinitis-associated ocular symptoms: role of intranasal corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Blaiss, Michael S

    2008-03-01

    Along with nasal symptoms, ocular symptoms such as itching, tearing, and redness are common, bothersome components of the allergic rhinitis (AR) profile. Treatment of the patient with ocular allergy symptoms should take into account a variety of factors, including severity of symptoms, convenience/compliance issues, and patient preferences. To review from the primary care perspective the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of ocular symptoms associated with AR, and to evaluate the emerging role of intranasal corticosteroids (INSs). A search of the PubMed database identified clinical trials that assessed efficacy of agents in reducing ocular allergy symptoms. Internet searches identified further information including data on over-the-counter agents for treatment of ocular symptoms. Searches were conducted using search terms such as pathophysiology, epidemiology, ocular allergy, quality of life, drug class, and drug names. Primary care physicians are often the first point of contact for patients with seasonal AR (SAR) or perennial AR (PAR) symptoms. Ocular allergy associated with SAR and PAR (seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, respectively) is characterized by both early- and late-phase reactions, with symptoms often persisting long after allergen exposure. Non-pharmacologic measures such as allergen avoidance, use of artificial tears, and cool compresses are pertinent for all ocular allergy sufferers, but may not afford adequate symptom control. Pharmacotherapy options have traditionally included topical ophthalmic products for cases of isolated ocular symptoms, and oral antihistamines for patients with both nasal and ocular symptoms. However, this paradigm is changing with new evidence regarding the efficacy of INSs in reducing ocular symptoms. A number of meta-analyses and individual studies, most of which studied ocular symptoms as secondary variables, have demonstrated the ocular effects of INSs versus topical and oral antihistamines

  13. Scope and impact of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Gilbert E

    2002-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect as many as 40 million people in the United States on a regular basis, and even more individuals who have occasional symptoms. The disease is associated with a considerable burden on the healthcare system, accounting for a total of $7.9 billion in direct and indirect costs in 1997, and with significant adverse effects on patients' quality of life, including disturbed sleep and impaired function at work and school. The pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis is complex, involving inflammatory mediators and immune cells that produce allergy symptoms via multiple mechanisms. The first principle of clinical management of patients with allergic rhinitis is avoidance of exposure to allergens, but this measure can be very difficult, and most patients require pharmacotherapy. Allergy vaccine therapy may be an appropriate and necessary option in selected patients with allergies refractory to other treatment modalities.

  14. Allergic reactions to Anisakis found in fish.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    The food-borne parasite Anisakis is an important hidden food allergen. Anisakis is a parasitic nematode which has a third-stage larval form that infects mainly fish, and ingestion of contaminated seafood can result in severe allergic reactions. Symptoms experienced due to exposure to this parasite include gastrointestinal disorders, urticaria, dermatitis, asthma and even anaphylaxis. Accurate prevalence data of allergic sensitisation to Anisakis are difficult to estimate due to the lack of well-designed population-based studies. Current diagnostic approaches rely on the detection of serum IgE antibodies to allergenic proteins, which however demonstrate considerable immunological cross-reactivity to other invertebrate allergens. While exposure to this parasite seems to increase due to the increasing consumption of seafood worldwide, the immunology of infection and allergic sensitization is not fully understood.

  15. Regulatory cells induced by acute toxoplasmosis prevent the development of allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sanchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Maglioco, Andrea; Corigliano, Mariana G; Dran, Graciela I; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-05-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduction of some infections. Supporting epidemiological studies, we previously showed that both acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection can diminish allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. The mechanisms involved when sensitization occurs during acute phase would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms involved in T. gondii allergy protection in mice sensitized during acute T. gondii infection. Adoptive transference assays and ex vivo co-cultures experiments showed that not only thoracic lymph node cells from infected and sensitized mice but also from non-sensitized infected animals diminished both allergic lung inflammation and the proliferation of effector T cells from allergic mice. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells. IL-10 would not be involved in allergy suppression since IL-10-deficient mice behaved similar to wild type mice. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to immune deviation, acute T. gondii infection can suppress allergic airway inflammation through immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets?

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, R J; Carlsen, K C L; Granum, B; Carlsen, K-H; Håland, G; Devulapalli, C S; Munthe-Kaas, M C; Mowinckel, P; Løvik, M

    2010-06-01

    Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping.

  17. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. Objective: We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Methods: Using the 2005–2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever (n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever (n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. Results: In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with allergic wheeze (18 positive, 1 negative) and 21 pesticides with non-allergic wheeze (19 positive, 2 negative); 11 pesticides were associated with both. Seven pesticides (herbicides: 2,4-D and simazine; insecticides: carbaryl, dimethoate, disulfoton, and zeta-cypermethrin; and fungicide pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure–response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure–response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. Conclusions: These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. Citation: Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, Long S, London SJ, Henneberger PK, Blair A, Alavanja M, Beane Freeman LE, Sandler DP. 2017

  18. Allergic and Noninvasive Infectious Pulmonary Aspergillosis Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Eavan G; Strek, Mary E; Patterson, Karen C

    2017-09-01

    Aspergillus spp are ubiquitous in the environment, and inhalation of Aspergillus spores is unavoidable. An intact immune system, with normal airway function, protects most people from disease. Globally, however, the toll from aspergillosis is high. The literature has largely focused on invasive aspergillosis, yet the burden in terms of chronicity and prevalence is higher for noninvasive Aspergillus conditions. This article discusses allergic aspergilloses and provides an update on the diagnosis and management of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, including in patients with cystic fibrosis, and an update on severe asthma with fungal sensitization. In addition, the presentation, investigation, and management of noninvasive infectious aspergilloses are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Curvularia sp.].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Verónica C; Guelfand, Liliana; Pidone, Juan Carlos; Soloaga, Rolando; Ontivero, Paula; Margari, Alejandra; López Daneri, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a benign and non-invasive sinusal disease related to a hypersensitivity reaction to fungal antigens. This process can cause tissue edema with chronic inflammatory disturbances of the respiratory mucosa. We present the case of a 17 year-old immunocompetent male, with history of seasonal allergic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps and previous surgery for mucocele of the frontal sinus. Sticky material was removed in the last surgery that revealed pigmented and septed filaments on direct examination, and yielded Curvularia on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After a course of amphotericin B, treatment was switched to itraconazole, with good tolerance and favorable clinical outcome. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  1. [Allergic rhinosinusitis by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Barthel, Elizabeth; Espinoza, Jaime

    2013-06-01

    Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn is a fungus dematiaceo, saprophyte and plant pathogen found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, associated with various organic substrates. Rarely been identified in systemic infections, skin and there is only one report of allergic rhinosinusitis described above. A case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn in which diagnosis was considered the signs and symptoms, sinus CT and cultivation of mucin.The patient was treated with endoscopic surgical toilet, plus use of inhaled steroids and itraconazole systemic. With good clinical response, is asymptomatic at one year.

  2. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  3. Skincare products containing low concentrations of formaldehyde detected by the chromotropic acid method cannot be safely used in formaldehyde-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Hauksson, I; Pontén, A; Gruvberger, B; Isaksson, M; Engfeldt, M; Bruze, M

    2016-02-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in skincare products. It has been found that formaldehyde at concentrations allowed by the European Cosmetics Directive can cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, we still lack information on whether formaldehyde at low concentrations affects dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic individuals. To study the effects of low concentrations of formaldehyde on irritant contact dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic individuals. Fifteen formaldehyde-allergic individuals and a control group of 12 individuals without contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers were included in the study. The individuals performed the repeated open application test (ROAT) during 4 weeks with four different moisturizers releasing formaldehyde in concentrations that had been determined as > 40, 20-40, 2·5-10 and 0 p.p.m. by the chromotropic acid (CA) spot test. Dimethyloldimethylhydantoin was used as a formaldehyde releaser in the moisturizers. The ROAT was performed on areas of experimentally induced sodium lauryl sulfate dermatitis. The study was double blind, controlled and randomized. Nine of the 15 formaldehyde-allergic individuals had reappearance or worsening of dermatitis on the areas that were treated with moisturizers containing formaldehyde. No such reactions were observed in the control group (P < 0·001) or for the moisturizers without formaldehyde in the formaldehyde-allergic individuals (P < 0·001). Our results demonstrate that the low concentrations of formaldehyde often found in skincare products by the CA method are sufficient to worsen an existing dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic individuals. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Chronic features of allergic asthma are enhanced in the absence of resistin-like molecule-beta.

    PubMed

    LeMessurier, Kim S; Palipane, Maneesha; Tiwary, Meenakshi; Gavin, Brian; Samarasinghe, Amali E

    2018-05-04

    Asthma is characterized by inflammation and architectural changes in the lungs. A number of immune cells and mediators are recognized as initiators of asthma, although therapeutics based on these are not always effective. The multifaceted nature of this syndrome necessitate continued exploration of immunomodulators that may play a role in pathogenesis. We investigated the role of resistin-like molecule-beta (RELM-β), a gut antibacterial, in the development and pathogenesis of Aspergillus-induced allergic airways disease. Age and gender matched C57BL/6J and Retnlb -/- mice rendered allergic to Aspergillus fumigatus were used to measure canonical markers of allergic asthma at early and late time points. Inflammatory cells in airways were similar, although Retnlb -/- mice had reduced tissue inflammation. The absence of RELM-β elevated serum IgA and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs at homeostasis. Markers of chronic disease including goblet cell numbers, Muc genes, airway wall remodelling, and hyperresponsiveness were greater in the absence RELM-β. Specific inflammatory mediators important in antimicrobial defence in allergic asthma were also increased in the absence of RELM-β. These data suggest that while characteristics of allergic asthma develop in the absence of RELM-β, that RELM-β may reduce the development of chronic markers of allergic airways disease.

  5. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): the new generation guideline implementation.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Schunemann, H J; Fonseca, J; Samolinski, B; Bachert, C; Canonica, G W; Casale, T; Cruz, A A; Demoly, P; Hellings, P; Valiulis, A; Wickman, M; Zuberbier, T; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Bedbrook, A; Bergmann, K C; Caimmi, D; Dahl, R; Fokkens, W J; Grisle, I; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N; Passalacqua, G; Ryan, D; Valovirta, E; Yorgancioglu, A; Aberer, W; Agache, I; Adachi, M; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Baiardini, I; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Bel, E H; Ben Kheder, A; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bewick, M; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Boner, A L; Boulet, L P; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosse, I; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Calderon, M A; Camargos, P A M; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chavannes, N H; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Correia de Sousa, J; Cox, L; Crooks, G; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fink Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Forastiere, F; Gamkrelidze, A; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grouse, L; Guzmán, M A; Haahtela, T; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Heinrich, J; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O 'b; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Ivancevich, J C; Jares, E J; Johnston, S L; Joos, G; Jonquet, O; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Khaltaev, N; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Louis, R; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Merk, H; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Mösges, R; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Palmer, S; Panzner, P; Papi, A; Park, H S; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Postma, D; Potter, P; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Rolland, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Reitamo, S; Rodenas, F; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Strandberg, T; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Wagenmann, M; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Williams, D M; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2015-11-01

    Several unmet needs have been identified in allergic rhinitis: identification of the time of onset of the pollen season, optimal control of rhinitis and comorbidities, patient stratification, multidisciplinary team for integrated care pathways, innovation in clinical trials and, above all, patient empowerment. MASK-rhinitis (MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a simple system centred around the patient which was devised to fill many of these gaps using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools and a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on the most widely used guideline in allergic rhinitis and its asthma comorbidity (ARIA 2015 revision). It is one of the implementation systems of Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA). Three tools are used for the electronic monitoring of allergic diseases: a cell phone-based daily visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of disease control, CARAT (Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test) and e-Allergy screening (premedical system of early diagnosis of allergy and asthma based on online tools). These tools are combined with a clinical decision support system (CDSS) and are available in many languages. An e-CRF and an e-learning tool complete MASK. MASK is flexible and other tools can be added. It appears to be an advanced, global and integrated ICT answer for many unmet needs in allergic diseases which will improve policies and standards. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  7. The Effects of Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A on Allergic Lung Inflammation into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high–production volume chemical classified as an environmental estrogen and used primarily in the plastics industry. BPA’s increased usage correlates with rising BPA levels in people and a corresponding increase in the incidence of asthma. Due to limited studies, the contribution of maternal BPA exposure to allergic asthma pathogenesis is unclear. Using two established mouse models of allergic asthma, we examined whether developmental exposure to BPA alters hallmarks of allergic lung inflammation in adult offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6 dams were gavaged with 0, 0.5, 5, 50, or 500 μg BPA/kg/day from gestational day 6 until postnatal day 21. To induce allergic inflammation, adult offspring were mucosally sensitized with inhaled ovalbumin containing low-dose lipopolysaccharide or ip sensitized using ovalbumin with alum followed by ovalbumin aerosol challenge. In the mucosal sensitization model, female offspring that were maternally exposed to ≥ 50 μg BPA/kg/day displayed enhanced airway lymphocytic and lung inflammation, compared with offspring of control dams. Peritoneally sensitized, female offspring exposed to ≤ 50 μg BPA/kg/day presented dampened lung eosinophilia, compared with vehicle controls. Male offspring did not exhibit these differences in either sensitization model. Our data demonstrate that maternal exposure to BPA has subtle and qualitatively different effects on allergic inflammation, which are critically dependent upon route of allergen sensitization and sex. However, these subtle, yet persistent changes due to developmental exposure to BPA did not lead to significant differences in overall airway responsiveness, suggesting that early life exposure to BPA does not exacerbate allergic inflammation into adulthood. PMID:22821851

  8. The history and progression of treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to place new treatments in the context of allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment history. The medical literature was searched for significant advances and changes in AR treatment. Historical data on AR treatment options and management were selected. Reviews of AR management published throughout the 20th century were included to provide context for treatment advances. Modern AR treatment began in the early 20th century with immunotherapy and was soon followed by the emergence of antihistamine therapy in the 1930s. Numerous treatments for AR have been used over the ensuing decades, including decongestants, mast cell stabilizers, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Topical corticosteroid options were developed the 1950s, and, added to baseline antihistamine therapy, became the foundation of AR treatment. Treatment options were significantly impacted after the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbon propellant aerosols because of environmental concerns. From the mid-1990s until recently, this left only aqueous solution options for intranasal corticosteroids (INSs). The approval of the first hydrofluoroalkane propellant aerosol INSs for AR in 2012 restored a "dry" aerosol treatment option. The first combination intranasal antihistamine/INSs was also approved in 2012, providing a novel treatment option for AR. Treatment of AR has progressed with new therapeutic options now available. This should continue to move forward with agents to alter the allergic mechanism itself and impact the disease burden that has a significant impact on patient outcomes.

  9. Association of childhood perennial allergic rhinitis with subclinical airflow limitation.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Capasso, M

    2010-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a relevant risk factor for the onset of asthma, and a close association exists between the nose and the bronchi. Recently, it has been evidenced that the duration of AR and mite allergy represent high risks for spirometric impairment in allergic adults. To evaluate a group of AR children, without bronchial symptoms, to investigate spirometric impairments. Two hundred children with moderate-severe AR were consecutively evaluated. Clinical examination, skin prick test, and spirometry were performed in all children. Thirty-one percent of the children had forced expiratory flow at 25% and 75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25-75%)<80% of the predicted values and 11% had both forced expiratory volume in 1 s and FEF25-75%<80% of the predicted values. Rhinitis duration and sensitization to house dust mites were significantly associated with impaired values of these spirometric parameters. This study highlights the close link between the upper and the lower airways and the role of some risk factors, such as long duration and mite sensitization, as early prognostic markers of bronchial involvement in children with AR and perceiving nasal symptoms alone.

  10. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  11. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  12. Making contact for contact dermatitis: a survey of the membership of the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

    PubMed

    Nezafati, Kaveh A; Carroll, Bryan; Storrs, Frances J; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2013-01-01

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) is the principal organization representing the subspecialty of contact dermatitis in the United States. The aim of this study was to characterize ACDS members with respect to demographic characteristics, patch-test practices, and sentiments regarding the Society and its journal Dermatitis. We conducted cross-sectional postal and online surveys of ACDS members. More than a third of ACDS members responded to the survey, 92% of whom practice dermatology, and most of whom are community practitioners. Responders manage patients with allergic and irritant dermatitis at a similar frequency. On average, they patch test 4 patients per week using 66 allergens per patient, which often include customized trays. Almost half of these practitioners learned patch testing from their residency programs. Most of the responders read and value the Society journal, value the Contact Allergen Management Program database, and attend society meetings. The ACDS is comprised overwhelmingly of dermatologists who are primarily community-based, young relative to the start of their practices, and use the Society's resources for continuing education.

  13. Contact and photocontact allergy to oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Lenique, P; Machet, L; Vaillant, L; Bensaïd, P; Muller, C; Khallouf, R; Lorette, G

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of contact allergy and photocontact allergy to sunscreens. A consecutive series of 54 patients with suspected clinical photosensitivity were assessed. All had the same standardized photobiological investigation from January 1989 to December 1990, including patch tests and photopatch tests with 6 sunscreen agents. Oxybenzone was found to cause 4 cases of allergic contact dermatitis (with photoaggravation in 2), and 3 cases of photocontact dermatitis (13% of patients). This is probably due to the wide distribution of oxybenzone in sunscreens and other cosmetics, 2 patients with polymorphic light eruption and persistent light reactivity, respectively, were regular sunscreen users. Photobiological investigation is necessary to ensure accurate diagnosis, since sunscreen contact or photocontact allergy may simulate other photosensitivity eruptions.

  14. Sensitization to serum albumins in children allergic to cow's milk and epithelia.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Serrano, J; Caballero, M L; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; Carretero, P; Pérez, R; Blanco, J G; Juste, S; Moneo, I

    2007-09-01

    Patients with persistent milk allergy and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) have a greater risk of rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma because of animal dander. To prove the cross-reactivity between serum albumin (SA) of different mammals in milk, meat, and epithelia and determine if heat treatment of meats decrease the allergenicity of albumins. The study was performed using SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting using sera from eight patients sensitized to milk, BSA, and animal danders. Sera from non-allergic and only animal dander allergic subjects served as a control. With one exception, all patients' sera recognized SA in different meats (beef, lamb, deer, and pork), epithelia (dog, cat, and cow), and cow's milk. Some patients even were only sensitized to SA in meat and epithelia. Danders' allergic only recognized other proteins in epithelia but not SA. No patients reacted to SA from heated meat extracts. Serum albumin is an important allergen involved in milk, meat, and epithelia allergy. The first contact with SA was through cow's milk and patients developed sensitization to epithelia SA even without direct contact with animals. Patients with both BSA and cow's milk allergy must avoid raw meats and furry pets.

  15. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1 month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6 months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6 weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6 months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (≥18 years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical

  16. SUPPRESSION OF ALLERGIC UVEITIS BY 6-MERCAPTOPURINE

    PubMed Central

    Wirostko, E.; Halbert, S. P.

    1962-01-01

    Experimental uveitis in rabbits was induced by single intraocular antigen injection. Treatment with 6-MP for 14 days suppressed the allergic inflammation and antibody response. A good correlation was demonstrated between the degree of uveitis and the antibody titer. PMID:14001284

  17. [Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Durango, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cisneros Pérez, Vicente; Alvarado Esquivel, Cosme

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis has become the most frequent chronic disease of upper airways and its prevalence is increasing importantly in countries with systems of western life. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and its subtypes in inhabitants of Durango, Mexico. Through a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 1,320 inhabitants of Durango were studied. They were chosen randomly and accepted voluntarily to participate. A modification of the Middleton diary symptom questionnaire was used as a tool to determine the prevalence. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the general population was of 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2). The prevalence of seasonal rhinitis was of 5.5% (95% CI 4.4-6.9), of perennial rhinitis, 2.1% (95% CI 1.4-3.0), for medical diagnosis, 4.3% (95% CI 3.4-5.8), and for survey, 3.3% (95% CI 2.4-4.4). The highest frequency was found in persons of 5-9 years old (12.5%) and in women (5.1%). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Durango, Mexico, is similar to the national mean prevalence, but lower than that reported in developed countries.

  18. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chokhani, Ramesh; Neupane, Saraswoti; Kandel, Ishwar Sharma

    2004-12-01

    A 24 years old male presented with recurrent symptoms of cough and breathlessness for 6 years but increased in past 6 months. Fleeting radiological opacities, peripheral eosinophilia and central type bronchiectasus in high resolution CT scan gave the suspicion of allergic bronchopolmonary aspergilosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was done by skin prick and immunological tests. The patient showed an excellent response to oral prednisolone.

  19. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials.

  20. Cytokine-targeting biologics for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Monica G; Steinke, John W; Borish, Larry

    2018-04-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases continue to increase in prevalence, creating a financial burden on the health care system and affecting the quality of life for those who have these diseases. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors are involved in the initiation and maintenance of the allergic response. Cytokines are proteins with growth, differentiation, and activation functions that regulate and direct the nature of immune responses. clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed. Relevant clinical trials and recent basic science studies were chosen for discussion. Many cytokines have been implicated in the development and perpetuation of the allergic response. Biologics have been and are continuing to be developed that target these molecules for use in patients with asthma and atopic dermatitis where standard treatment options fail. The current state of cytokine-targeting therapies is discussed. This review focused on cytokines involved in the allergic response with an emphasis on those for which therapies are being or have been developed. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison between the 19th century early proposals and the 20th-21st centuries realized projects intended to contact other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence; Bilodeau, Bénédicte

    2012-09-01

    Methods dealing with how to contact other planets that are supposed to be inhabited by “intelligent” civilizations have begun more than one century and a half ago. The historical question has been already treated in several studies and the aim of this paper is not to provide details on that aspect. On the other hand, it could be interesting to make a comparison between the different approaches to contact planets, formulated at different epochs (even if obviously techniques were not in the same state of advancement). The most important characteristics of the earliest messages, remained only on a theoretical form, will be presented. The main features of modern messages, which have been concretely realized, will also be emphasized. Drawing a parallel between these two series of projects could demonstrate what has been considered as unavoidable by both pioneer and modern messages creators, while it has not been proved that the first ones have had any influence on the second ones. The common points emerging from this comparison could then (perhaps) help to select adequate models for an intelligible message intended to ETs, particularly concerning the language forms. Besides this, the differences could illustrate the human cultural advances in the field of METI and underline the tendencies that have been chosen in that field since the last decades.

  2. Maternal allergic disease history affects childhood allergy development through impairment of neonatal regulatory T-cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shan-Shan; Gao, Rong; Yan, Bing-di; Ren, Jin; Wu, Fei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Li-Fang; Xiao, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-20

    production, and FOXP3 expression in neonates (PPG and LPA stimulated) were identified as independent risk factors for allergic diseases in offspring at 3 years of age after adjusting for maternal allergic history and environmental factors (P < 0.05). Maternal allergy correlated with impaired Tregs in neonates, and this could enhance the susceptibility of offspring to allergic diseases in early childhood due to an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells.

  3. Interaction between allergic asthma and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Conglin; Zhang, Jingying; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have established an essential role of mast cells in allergic asthma and atherosclerosis. Mast cell deficiency or inactivation protects mice from allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diet-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that mast cells share pathologic activities in both diseases. Allergic asthma and atherosclerosis are inflammatory diseases that contain similar sets of elevated numbers of inflammatory cells in addition to mast cells in the airway and arterial wall, such as macrophages, monocytes, T cells, eosinophils, and smooth muscle cells. Emerging evidence from experimental models and human studies points to a potential interaction between the two seemingly unrelated diseases. Patients or mice with allergic asthma have a high risk of developing atherosclerosis or vice versa, despite the fact that asthma is a Th2-oriented disease, whereas Th1 immunity promotes atherosclerosis. In addition to the preferred Th1/Th2 responses that may differentiate the two diseases, mast cells and many other inflammatory cells also contribute to their pathogenesis by much more than just T cell immunity. Here we summarize the different roles of airway and arterial wall inflammatory cells and vascular cells in asthma and atherosclerosis, and propose an interaction between the two diseases, although limited investigations are available to delineate the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which one disease increases the risk of the other. Results from mouse allergic asthma and atherosclerosis models and from human population studies lead to the hypothesis that patients with atherosclerosis may benefit from anti-asthmatic medications, or that the therapeutic regimens targeting atherosclerosis may also alleviate allergic asthma. PMID:26608212

  4. Pragmatic approach to the clinical work-up of patients with putative allergic disease to metallic orthopaedic implants before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Schalock, P C; Taylor, J S; Maibach, H I

    2011-03-01

    Allergic complications following insertion of metallic orthopaedic implants include allergic dermatitis reactions but also extracutaneous complications. As metal-allergic patients and/or surgeons may ask dermatologists and allergologists for advice prior to planned orthopaedic implant surgery, and as surgeons may refer patients with complications following total joint arthroplasty for diagnostic work-up, there is a continuous need for updated guidelines. This review presents published evidence for patch testing prior to surgery and proposes tentative diagnostic criteria which clinicians can rely on in the work-up of patients with putative allergic complications following surgery. Few studies have investigated whether subjects with metal contact allergy have increased risk of developing complications following orthopaedic implant insertion. Metal allergy might in a minority increase the risk of complications caused by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. At present, we do not know how to identify the subgroups of metal contact allergic patients with a potentially increased risk of complications following insertion of a metal implant. We recommend that clinicians should refrain from routine patch testing prior to surgery unless the patient has already had implant surgery with complications suspected to be allergic or has a history of clinical metal intolerance of sufficient magnitude to be of concern to the patient or a health provider. The clinical work-up of a patient suspected of having an allergic reaction to a metal implant should include patch testing and possibly in vitro testing. We propose diagnostic criteria for allergic dermatitis reactions as well as noneczematous complications caused by metal implants. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. [Risk factors of the development of allergic diseases in children at the junction of XX-XXI centuries].

    PubMed

    Metreveli, M V; Teliia, A Z; Saakadze, V P

    2006-02-01

    Analysis of the scientific achievements of Allergology, Immunology, Genetics and Profpathology as well as scientific investigation the authors set categories of causes, characteristics and promoting factors, that cause progressive increase of allergic diseases and atopy in children. Allergic heredity plays significant role in the incidence of allergic diseases among children. The focus is made on development of toxicosis during the pregnancy, frequency of abortions, smoking and treatment with drugs during pregnancy and lactation, excessive consumption of cow milk during lactation. Numerous evidences confirm the negative role of high environmental pollution that is observed during the last decade in the increase of allergoses. Besides, it is worth mentioning that food and plant allergens greatly contribute in the development of allergens in children. Special attention should be paid to the parents' professional activities in antenatal period of the fetus development, particularly, to their professional contacts with the industrial allergens. Three constitutional types of children are discussed, based on them it is possible to make projections about development of different types of allergoses in children. The role of different chemical. biological and physical air pollutants is indicated in setting allergic status in children. Conclusions made on the basis of the analysis of the existing information will help researchers and practicing physicians to prevent development allergic pathologies in children in antenatal period and later progressive of manifested disease by means of purposive, effective preventive measures and treatment complexes.

  6. miR-122-SOCS1-JAK2 axis regulates allergic inflammation and allergic inflammation-promoted cellular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanearl; Kim, Hyuna; Byun, Jaehwan; Park, Yeongseo; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in inflammation has been reported. However, its role in allergic inflammation has not been previously reported. SOCS1 mediated in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation. Histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3), a mediator of allergic inflammation, interacted with SOCS1, and miR-384 inhibitor, a positive regulator of HDAC3, induced features of allergic inflammation in an SOCS1-dependent manner. miRNA array analysis showed that the expression of miR-122 was decreased by antigen-stimulation. TargetScan analysis predicted the binding of miR-122 to the 3′-UTR of SOCS1. miR-122 inhibitor induced in vitro and in vivo allergic features in SOCS1-dependent manner. SOCS1 was necessary for allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells. SOCS1 and miR-122 regulated cellular interactions involving cancer cells, mast cells and macrophages during allergic inflammation. SOCS1 mimetic peptide, D-T-H-F-R-T-F-R-S-H-S-D-Y-R-R-I, inhibited in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation, allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells, and cellular interactions during allergic inflammation. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) exhibited binding to SOCS1 mimetic peptide and mediated allergic inflammation. Transforming growth factor- Δ1 (TGF-Δ1) was decreased during allergic inflammation and showed an anti-allergic effect. SOCS1 and JAK2 regulated the production of anti-allergic TGF-Δ1. Taken together, our results show that miR-122-SOCS1 feedback loop can be employed as a target for the development of anti-allergic and anti-cancer drugs. PMID:28968979

  7. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  8. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child's recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50-74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33-3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children.

  9. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R.; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26086549

  10. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  11. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  12. Anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jat, Kana R; Walia, Dinesh K; Khairwa, Anju

    2018-03-18

    study enrolling 14 participants was eligible for inclusion in the review. The double-blind study compared a daily dose of 600 mg omalizumab or placebo along with twice daily itraconazole and oral corticosteroids, with a maximum daily dose of 400 mg. Treatment lasted six months but the study was terminated prematurely and complete data were not available. We contacted the study investigator and were told that the study was terminated due to the inability to recruit participants into the study despite all reasonable attempts. One or more serious side effects were encountered in six out of nine (66.67%) and one out of five (20%) participants in omalizumab group and placebo group respectively. There is lack of evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-IgE (omalizumab) therapy in people with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. There is a need for large prospective randomized controlled studies of anti-IgE therapy in people with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with both clinical and laboratory outcome measures such as steroid requirement, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis exacerbations and lung function.

  13. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001

  14. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  15. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  16. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  17. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesismore » of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.« less

  18. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  19. Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Jungewelter, Soile; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-acryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-GA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryl-oxyethoxy)phenyl] propane (bis-EMA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-MA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is often manifested together with contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. To analyse patterns of concomitant allergic reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates in relation to exposure. We reviewed the 1994-2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates, and examined the patients' medical records for exposure. Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied epoxy (meth)acrylates, but specific exposure was found only in five patients: two bis-GMA allergies from dental products, two bis-GA allergies from UV-curable printing inks, and one bis-GA allergy from an anaerobic glue. Only 25% of the patients were negative to DGEBA epoxy resin. The great majority of allergic patch test reactions to bis-GMA, bis-GA, GMA and bis-EMA were not associated with specific exposure, and cross-allergy to DGEBA epoxy resin remained a probable explanation. However, independent reactions to bis-GA indicated specific exposure. Anaerobic sealants may induce sensitization not only to aliphatic (meth)acrylates but also to aromatic bis-GA.

  20. Convergence of topological domain boundaries, insulators, and polytene interbands revealed by high-resolution mapping of chromatin contacts in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Michael R; Haines, Jenna E

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput assays of three-dimensional interactions of chromosomes have shed considerable light on the structure of animal chromatin. Despite this progress, the precise physical nature of observed structures and the forces that govern their establishment remain poorly understood. Here we present high resolution Hi-C data from early Drosophila embryos. We demonstrate that boundaries between topological domains of various sizes map to DNA elements that resemble classical insulator elements: short genomic regions sensitive to DNase digestion that are strongly bound by known insulator proteins and are frequently located between divergent promoters. Further, we show a striking correspondence between these elements and the locations of mapped polytene interband regions. We believe it is likely this relationship between insulators, topological boundaries, and polytene interbands extends across the genome, and we therefore propose a model in which decompaction of boundary-insulator-interband regions drives the organization of interphase chromosomes by creating stable physical separation between adjacent domains. PMID:29148971

  1. [Contact allergy caused by poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Hausen, B M; Brasch, J; Christophers, E

    2001-02-01

    Within 3 days two female patients presented with an eruption featuring erythema, edema, vesicles and bullae. We suspected poison ivy allergy which was subsequently proven by history and positive patch tests. In Germany the risk of specific hypersensitivity to Toxicodendron species is low, since the distribution of such plants is confined to botanical gardens. Other species belonging to the family of Anacardiaceae contain urushiols as well (e.g., mango, cashew) and may cause allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Alkylphenols--potential modulators of the allergic response.

    PubMed

    Suen, Jau-Ling; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Hsin-Su; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades. Allergic diseases, particularly asthma, are complex diseases with strong gene-environment interactions. Epidemiological studies have identified a variety of risk factors for the development of allergic diseases. Among them, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) play an important role in triggering or exacerbating these diseases. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) and 4-octylphenol (OP)--two major alkylphenols--have been recognized as common toxic and xenobiotic endocrine disrupters. Due to their low solubility, high hydrophobicity, and low estrogenic activity, they tend to accumulate in the human body and may be associated with the adverse effects of allergic diseases. Recently, new evidence has supported the importance of alkylphenols in the in vitro allergic response. This review focuses on the effects of alkylphenols on several key cell types in the context of allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Occupational contact dermatitis due to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Akiva; David, Michael; Lazarov, Aneta

    2008-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis induced by the occupational use of products containing essential oils has not been studied comprehensively. The aim of the present report was to describe the characteristics, diagnosis, and outcome of 5 patients with occupational contact dermatitis because of essential oils attending our outpatient dermatology clinics over a 2-year period. These patients are added to the 11 cases reported thus far in the literature. The research shows that for proper diagnosis, patch tests with the standard series and the fragrance series should be performed, in addition to tests with the specific oils to which the patients were exposed. Patients should be instructed to avoid the allergens identified. Sensitization to essential oils has important implications for the occupational future of affected individuals.

  4. [Contact dermatitis caused by acetazolamide under occlusion].

    PubMed

    Daveluy, Amélie; Vial, Thierry; Marty, Laurine; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Moore, Nicholas; Haramburu, Françoise

    2007-12-01

    Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used topically for local secondary treatment of posttraumatic or postoperative edema. Two women had contact dermatitis, secondarily extensive, after local cutaneous use of acetazolamide under a compression panty after liposuction. The eruption disappeared after acetazolamide was stopped and local treatment administered. Cutaneous tests were positive for acetazolamide. Local allergic reactions are mentioned in the monograph on topical acetazolamide. Cases of contact dermatitis from this drug have not so far been published, but French adverse drug reaction reporting data include 10 other cases of eczema or rash at the application site. In one of these, a positive reaction was observed on readministration, and in 2 cases allergy skin tests were positive. The application of the drug under occlusion, which is contraindicated, may have contributed to spreading the lesions. Cases have also been described with another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, dorzolamide, used in ophthalmology.

  5. Resolution of Metallic Biliary Stent Allergic Reaction After Partial Stent Removal in a Patient with Nickel Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Esparaz, Anthony M; Ahmed, Muneeb

    2017-07-01

    Local and systemic reactions to implanted metallic devices, particularly to those containing nickel, are well documented. Metal ions are released due to exposure of the metal to blood, proteins, other body fluids, and sheer mechanical stress. Metal ions then complex with native proteins and become antigens, which can elicit hypersensitivity reactions. Another case report depicts a specific allergic complication (early stent occlusion) related to metallic biliary stent implantation. We present a case of allergic symptoms, associated with eating, in a patient who developed nickel sensitivity after biliary metal stent placement confirmed by allergic skin testing to the same metallic biliary stent placed one year earlier. Symptoms resolved following partial removal of the non-epithelialized portion of the biliary stent.

  6. Interplay of Filaggrin Loss-of-Function Variants, Allergic Sensitization, and Eczema in a Longitudinal Study Covering Infancy to 18 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ziyab, Ali H.; Karmaus, Wilfried; Yousefi, Mitra; Ewart, Susan; Schauberger, Eric; Holloway, John W.; Zhang, Hongmei; Arshad, Syed Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background Immune specific genes as well as genes regulating the formation of skin barrier are major determinants for eczema manifestation. There is a debate as to whether allergic sensitization and filaggrin gene (FLG) variants lead to eczema or FLG variants and eczema increase the risk of allergic sensitization. To investigate the time-order between eczema and allergic sensitization with respect to FLG variants, data from a large prospective study covering infancy to late adolescence were analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings Repeated measurements of eczema and allergic sensitization (documented by skin prick tests) at ages 1, 2, 4, 10, and 18 years were ascertained in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (n = 1,456). Three transition periods were analyzed: age 1-or-2 to 4, 4 to 10, and 10 to 18 years. FLG variants were genotyped in 1,150 participants. Over the three transition periods, in temporal sequence analyses of initially eczema-free participants, the combined effect of FLG variants and allergic sensitization showed a 2.92-fold (95% CI: 1.47–5.77) increased risk ratio (RR) of eczema in subsequent examinations. This overall risk was more pronounced at a younger age (transition period 1-or-2 to 4, RR = 6.47, 95% CI: 1.96–21.33). In contrast, FLG variants in combination with eczema showed a weaker, but significant, risk ratio for subsequent allergic sensitization only up to 10 years of age. Conclusions/Significance Taking the time order into account, this prospective study demonstrates for the first time, that a combination of FLG variants and allergic sensitization increased the risk of eczema in subsequent years. Also FLG variants interacted with eczema and increased the risk of subsequent allergic sensitization, which, was limited to the younger age. Hence, early restoration of defective skin barrier could prevent allergic sensitization and subsequently reduce the risk of eczema development. PMID:22403702

  7. The role of skin barrier in occupational contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Thyssen, Jacob P; Kezic, Sanja

    2018-06-12

    Skin diseases represent one of the most common work-related diseases and may have a detrimental effect on social, personal and occupational aspects of life. Contact dermatitis, which comprises predominately irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) accounts for vast majority of occupational skin diseases, especially in occupations associated with frequent skin contact with irritants and contact allergens. Although ICD and ACD have similar clinical manifestation, their pathophysiology and the role of the skin barrier is different. In ICD, perturbation of the skin barrier is the primary event which sets into motion diverse metabolic processes and triggers activation of innate immunity without involvement of adaptive immune system. In ACD, a type IV hypersensitivity reaction induced by contact allergens, the skin barrier impairment may evoke innate signaling pathways during the sensitization phase required for the activation of T-cell adaptive response. Thus, skin barrier impairment may increase the risk of ICD or ACD not only because of enhanced permeability and ingress of irritants and allergens, but also by generation of innate immune signal needed for the induction of allergic response. Hence, an efficient way to prevent CD is to avoid skin barrier damage in the workplace. This review focuses on the skin barrier, how it is affected by skin irritants and how its impairment contributes to development of ICD and ACD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of environmental toxins on allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, San-Nan; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Lee, Min-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Yii; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has increased worldwide over the last few decades. Many common environmental factors are associated with this increase. Several theories have been proposed to account for this trend, especially those concerning the impact of environmental toxicants. The development of the immune system, particularly in the prenatal period, has far-reaching consequences for health during early childhood, and throughout adult life. One underlying mechanism for the increased levels of allergic responses, secondary to exposure, appears to be an imbalance in the T-helper function caused by exposure to the toxicants. Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals can result in dramatic changes in cytokine production, the activity of the immune system, the overall Th1 and Th2 balance, and in mediators of type 1 hypersensitivity mediators, such as IgE. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke is a common risk factor for wheezing and asthma in children. People living in urban areas and close to roads with a high volume of traffic, and high levels of diesel exhaust fumes, have the highest exposure to environmental compounds, and these people are strongly linked with type 1 hypersensitivity disorders and enhanced Th2 responses. These data are consistent with epidemiological research that has consistently detected increased incidences of allergies and asthma in people living in these locations. During recent decades more than 100,000 new chemicals have been used in common consumer products and are released into the everyday environment. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the environmental effects on allergies of indoor and outside exposure.

  9. The Effects of Environmental Toxins on Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, San-Nan; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Lee, Min-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Yii

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has increased worldwide over the last few decades. Many common environmental factors are associated with this increase. Several theories have been proposed to account for this trend, especially those concerning the impact of environmental toxicants. The development of the immune system, particularly in the prenatal period, has far-reaching consequences for health during early childhood, and throughout adult life. One underlying mechanism for the increased levels of allergic responses, secondary to exposure, appears to be an imbalance in the T-helper function caused by exposure to the toxicants. Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals can result in dramatic changes in cytokine production, the activity of the immune system, the overall Th1 and Th2 balance, and in mediators of type 1 hypersensitivity mediators, such as IgE. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke is a common risk factor for wheezing and asthma in children. People living in urban areas and close to roads with a high volume of traffic, and high levels of diesel exhaust fumes, have the highest exposure to environmental compounds, and these people are strongly linked with type 1 hypersensitivity disorders and enhanced Th2 responses. These data are consistent with epidemiological research that has consistently detected increased incidences of allergies and asthma in people living in these locations. During recent decades more than 100,000 new chemicals have been used in common consumer products and are released into the everyday environment. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the environmental effects on allergies of indoor and outside exposure. PMID:25374746

  10. Screening Active Components from Yu-Ping-Feng-San for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation. PMID:25198676

  11. High initiation and long duration of breastfeeding despite absence of early skin-to-skin contact in Karen refugees on the Thai-Myanmar border: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) after birth is recommended as part of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) baby friendly health initiative to promote optimum breastfeeding. This paper reports rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in a low resource environment, where early SSC is not practised, and explores views of pregnant women and midwives surrounding breastfeeding and swaddling. Methods Data from records from a single hospital on the Thai-Myanmar border where refugee women gave birth during a one-year period (2010) were used to determine breastfeeding initiation rates and the time of the first breastfeed, and duration of breastfeeding of the previous alive child in multigravidae. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to obtain information from pregnant women attending antenatal care about their intended or previous duration of breastfeeding and views on breastfeeding. Interviews with local midwives explored reasons for high rates of breastfeeding in this setting and the practice of newborn swaddling. Results Of 1404 live births in 2010 in Maela refugee camp there were 982 evaluable mother-newborn pairs, including 80 infants born before 37 weeks gestation. Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge in term mother-newborn pairs was 91.2% (823/902) and 99.3% (896/902); and before 37 weeks gestation, 48.8% (39/80) and 98.8% (79/80). Reported duration of previous breastfeeding was 19 (range 2 to 72) months. During FGD all primigravidae (n = 17) intended to breastfeed and all multigravidae (n = 33) had previously breastfed; expected or previous duration of feeding was for more than one year or longer. The major theme identified during FGD was breastfeeding is “good”. Women stated their intention to breastfeed with certainty. This certainty was echoed during the interviews with midwifery staff. SSC requires a delay in early swaddling that in Karen people, with

  12. Contact dermatitis and patch testing for the allergist.

    PubMed

    Fonacier, Luz; Noor, Irum

    2018-06-01

    To review of contact dermatitis (CD) and its key allergens and provide updates and recommendations for the practicing allergist. Through the use of various scientific search engines (eg, PubMed and MEDLINE), we reviewed literature on CD, patch tests (PTs), key allergens, occupational dermatitis, and treatment. Studies on CD, important allergens, and PTs were considered. Contact-induced dermatitis may be due to allergic CD, irritant CD, systemic CD, contact urticaria, and protein CD. Key allergens include metals (nickel, gold), topical medicaments (topical corticosteroids), and cosmetics and personal care products (fragrances and preservatives such as methyl- and methylchloro-isothiazolinone). Present relevance of a positive PT result is the combination of definite, probable, and possible relevance and should be correlated with the patient's history and physical examination. Treatment of allergic CD includes identification of relevant allergens, patient education, avoidance, and provision of alternative products the patient can use. CD is a common inflammatory skin disease and should be suspected in patients presenting with acute, subacute, or chronic dermatitis. The gold standard for diagnosing allergic CD is a PT. This article provides practical recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CD commonly seen by the allergist in their practice. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The levels of the GluN2A NMDA receptor subunit are modified in both the neonatal and adult rat brain by an early experience involving denial of maternal contact.

    PubMed

    Manatos, V; Stylianopoulou, F; Stamatakis, A

    2016-01-26

    The composition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor receptor in GluN2A/GluN2B subunits is important in determining its characteristics and its role in plasticity, a property of the brain which is known to be critically affected by early experiences. In the present work we employed an early experience model involving either receipt (RER) or denial (DER) of the expected reward of maternal contact within the context of learning by the pups of a T-maze on postnatal days (PND) 10-13. We investigated the effects of the RER and DER early experiences on GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and amygdala of the rat. We show that on PND13 the DER animals had lower GluN2A levels in the PFC. In adulthood DER males had higher GluN2A levels in the hippocampus, both under basal conditions and after exposure to a novel environment. The early experiences did not affect the response to the novelty. After exposure to a novel environment animals of all three groups (DER, RER, Control) responded with an increase in GluN2A levels in the brain areas examined. We did not detect any effects on GluN1 or GluN2B levels. The alterations in GluN2A levels observed in the DER animals could in part be responsible for their behavioral phenotype, described previously, which includes an increased susceptibility for the expression of depressive-like behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Chiurazzi, Romina; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Argenziano, Mariana A; Soto, Ariadna; Picchio, Mariano S; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells.

  15. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  16. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    PubMed Central

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  17. [Impact off treatment with intranasal electrophoresis of vanadium on the allergic reactivity and immunological indices of patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Tsiclauri, Sh

    2010-02-01

    67 patients were investigated. From these patients, 35 had been persistent form of Allergic Rhinitis and 32 - intermittent form of pathology. It has been established, that in patients with Allergic Rhinitis the treatment with intranasal electrophoresis of vanadium strenghthens T-cellulal immunity, has a desensitization action, increases non-specific resistance of the organism and has a normalizing influence on the indices of humoral immunity. The above shown positive shift were more pronounced in patients with intermittent form of Allergic Rhinitis.

  18. Is advising food allergic patients to avoid food with precautionary allergen labelling out of date?

    PubMed

    Zurzolo, Giovanni A; de Courten, Maximilian; Koplin, Jennifer; Mathai, Michael L; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-06-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) continues to be used by the food manufacturing industry to alert the food allergic consumer that cross-contact may have occurred during the supply chain for ingredients or the manufacturing process. This review will summarize recent evidence regarding use and interpretation of precautionary labels by industry, healthcare professionals, and food allergic consumers. Consumers find precautionary labels difficult to interpret and often distrust them as disclaimers of product liability. It is unclear from a clinician's perspective how healthcare professionals should advise their patients regarding these statements. Recent studies suggest that consumers do not always read food labels and that these labels are difficult to interpret and are often distrusted by consumers as disclaimers of liability. There is evidence to suggest that this behaviour occurs in all countries assessed that use PAL. The healthcare professional remains confused about the interpretation and value of the current PAL system as it is unclear whether foods that contain no advisory labels are safe to consume. There is a need for improvement in the value and use of precautionary labelling for allergen risk assessment for allergic consumers. New studies have shown the confusion that currently exists in regard to PAL for the healthcare professional and the consumer alike. The studies have also highlighted certain gaps in the literature that, once addressed, will improve the uniformity of PAL and provide the healthcare professional with appropriate advice which they can in turn relay to the allergic consumer. Because of the global supply of food products there is a need for an international approach in improving PAL.

  19. Anti-allergic activity of the Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Shinohara, Kaito; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni is distributed throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Anti-allergic effects of noni have not been reported despite the clinical usage as an anti-allergic agent. Materials and Methods: To investigate the anti-allergic effects of the 50% ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves (MCF-ext and MCL-ext), dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction and picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) tests were performed. Results: In DNFB-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction, oral administration of MCF-ext and MCL-ext exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous reaction at 1 h (immediate phase response) after the DNFB challenge. MCF-ext also inhibited ear swelling at 24 h (late phase response) and 8 days (very late phase response) after the DNFB challenge. The effect of MCL-ext on the immediate phase response was attributed to the anti-degranulation from RBL-2H3 cells, while MCF-ext had no significant effect on degranulation. The active components of anti-degranulation activity in MCL-ext were determined to be ursolic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside. In the PC-CD test, both MCF-ext and MCL-ext showed an anti-swelling effect but the potency of MCF-ext was stronger than MCL-ext. Conclusion: These data suggest that noni fruits and leaves can be a daily consumable material for the prevention of allergic symptoms. PMID:25002809

  20. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Fernanda; das Graças, Maria; Melo, Mota; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field. PMID:21436967

  1. Are You at Risk for Contact Dermatitis? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    You probably don’t give much thought to hand health. Until something goes wrong, almost everyone takes for granted that these crucial appendages will continue working as they always have. But hand health is an important consideration, especially at work. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis account for 15–20 percent of all reported occupational diseases, and they cost employers an estimated $1 billion each year in lost workdays and decreased productivity.

  2. Gas cooking, respiratory and allergic outcomes in the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiwei; Gehring, Ulrike; Oldenwening, Marieke; de Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-03-01