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Sample records for early arthritis clinics

  1. Effectiveness of a clinical practice intervention in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto

    2012-03-01

    To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Is there subclinical enthesitis in early psoriatic arthritis? A clinical comparison with power doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Freeston, J E; Coates, L C; Helliwell, P S; Hensor, E M A; Wakefield, R J; Emery, P; Conaghan, P G

    2012-10-01

    Enthesitis is a recognized feature of spondylarthritides (SpA), including psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Previously, ultrasound imaging has highlighted the presence of subclinical enthesitis in established SpA, but there are little data on ultrasound findings in early PsA. The aim of our study was to compare ultrasound and clinical examination (CE) for the detection of entheseal abnormalities in an early PsA cohort. Forty-two patients with new-onset PsA and 10 control subjects underwent CE of entheses for tenderness and swelling, as well as gray-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) ultrasound of a standard set of entheses. Bilateral elbow lateral epicondyles, Achilles tendons, and plantar fascia were assessed by both CE and ultrasound, the latter scored using a semiquantitative (SQ) scale. Inferior patellar tendons were assessed by ultrasound alone. A GS SQ score of >1 and/or a PD score of >0 was used to describe significant ultrasound entheseal abnormality. A total of 24 (57.1%) of 42 patients in the PsA group and 0 (0%) of 10 controls had clinical evidence of at least 1 tender enthesis. In the PsA group, for sites assessed by both CE and ultrasound, 4% (7 of 177) of nontender entheses had a GS score >1 and/or a PD score >0 compared to 24% (9 of 37) of tender entheses. CE overestimated activity in 28 (13%) of 214 of entheses. All the nontender ultrasound-abnormal entheses were in the lower extremity. The prevalence of subclinical enthesitis in this early PsA cohort was low. CE may overestimate active enthesitis. The few subclinically inflamed entheses were in the lower extremity, where mechanical stress is likely to be more significant. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Longitudinal study of clinical prognostic factors in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the PREDICT study.

    PubMed

    Bird, Paul; Nicholls, Dave; Barrett, Rina; de Jager, Julien; Griffiths, Hedley; Roberts, Lynden; Tymms, Kathleen; McCloud, Philip; Littlejohn, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    To assess the association between baseline clinical prognostic factors and subsequent Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) remission in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data were collected using point of care clinical software from participating rheumatology centres. Patients aged 18 years or over whose date of clinical onset of RA was within the previous 12-24 months, who had at least 6 months of follow-up data and a DAS28-ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) score recorded between 12 and 24 months from first being seen for RA were included. Data collected included baseline demographics, mode of disease onset, pattern of joint involvement at onset, smoking status, DAS28, rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA), time from symptom onset to presentation and disease activity at baseline. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression of DAS28-ESR remission between 12 and 24 months after first assessment were performed. Data from 1017 patients were analyzed: 70% female; mean age 60 years (SD: 14.7); 70% RF-positive, 58% ACPA-positive. The strongest age and sex adjusted baseline predictors of DAS28-ESR remission at 12-24 months were remission at baseline (odds ratio [OR]: 4.49, 95% CI: 2.17-9.29, P < 0.001), being male (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46-4.01, P < 0.001), abstaining from alcohol (P < 0.001) and being lower weight (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-1.00, P = 0.015). There was no statistically significant association between joint onset patterns, mode of onset, RF, ACPA or smoking status. In this observational study, patients with early RA at risk of not achieving remission include those with high disease activity at baseline, women, those who drink alcohol and those with higher body weight. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Early Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Neil John

    2015-11-01

    Skin psoriasis is a major risk factor for the development of psoriatic arthritis. Recent studies have shown that delayed diagnosis is associated with long-term adverse outcomes. Screening questionnaires have revealed a potential burden of undiagnosed disease. Lifestyle factors and genetic and soluble biomarkers have come under scrutiny as risk factors. Imaging modalities may have an important role in detecting early change. With more effective treatments, it may be possible to prevent significant joint damage and associated disability. However, the precise nature of accurate and cost-effective screening strategies remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient- and clinician-reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Joanna M; Snowden, Neil; Rivett, Ali; Galloway, James; Ide, Zoe; Firth, Jill; MacPhie, Elizabeth; Kandala, Ngianga; Dennison, Elaine M; Rowe, Ian

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16-65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement 'Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis'; <2% disagreed. This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from outpatient clinics, including measures of

  6. Patient and clinician reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ledingham, JM; Snowden, N; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Firth, J; Ide, Z; MacPhie, E; Kandala, N; Dennison, EM; Rowe, I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. Methods All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Results Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16–65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement ‘Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis’; <2% disagreed. Conclusion This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from

  7. MRI evidence of persistent joint inflammation and progressive joint damage despite clinical remission during treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Forslind, K; Svensson, B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bones and joints in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated for 2 years from diagnosis with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and glucocorticoids. Thirteen patients with early RA were treated according to clinical practice and followed with MRI, radiographs, and Disease Activity Score calculated on 28 joints (DAS28) at inclusion (baseline) and after 1, 4, 7, 13, and 25 months. MRI of the dominant wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were assessed for synovitis, bone oedema, and erosions using the RA MRI Score (RAMRIS) and for tenosynovitis by an MRI tenosynovitis scoring method. Radiographs were assessed by the van der Heijde modified Sharp score (SHS). Clinical remission was defined by a DAS28 < 2.6. MRI at baseline detected inflammation in joints and tendons in all patients as well as erosions in 10 out of 13 patients. Over time, the erosion score increased while the synovitis and tenosynovitis scores remained almost unchanged. Bone oedema strongly correlated with synovitis. Synovitis and tenosynovitis correlated well with the erosion score at baseline but not thereafter. The MRI changes showed that joint damage started early and continued in the presence of persistent synovial and tenosynovial inflammation. The observations made in this small study suggest that the treatment goal of 'clinical remission' should be supplemented by a 'joint remission' goal. To this end, MRI is an appropriate tool. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal use of MRI in early RA.

  8. Achievement of NICE quality standards for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Joanna M; Snowden, Neil; Rivett, Ali; Galloway, James; Ide, Zoe; Firth, Jill; MacPhie, Elizabeth; Kandala, Ngianga; Dennison, Elaine M; Rowe, Ian

    2017-02-01

    A national audit was performed assessing the early management of suspected inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The aim of this audit was to measure the performance of rheumatology services against National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality standards (QSs) for the management of early inflammatory arthritis benchmarked to regional and national comparators for the first time in the UK. All individuals >16 years of age presenting to rheumatology services in England and Wales with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Information was collected against six NICE QSs that pertain to early inflammatory arthritis management. We present national data for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015; 97% of trusts and health boards in England and Wales participated in this audit. Only 17% of patients were referred by their general practitioner within 3 days of first presentation. Specialist rheumatology assessment occurred within 3 weeks of referral in 38% of patients. The target of DMARD initiation within 6 weeks of referral was achieved in 53% of RA patients; 36% were treated with combination DMARDs and 82% with steroids within the first 3 months of specialist care. Fifty-nine per cent of patients received structured education on their arthritis within 1 month of diagnosis. In total, 91% of patients had a treatment target set; the agreed target was achieved within 3 months of specialist review in only 27% of patients. Access to urgent advice via a telephone helpline was reported to be available in 96% of trusts. The audit has highlighted gaps between NICE standards and delivery of care, as well as substantial geographic variability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Clinical and MRI outcome of cervical spine lesions in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with anti-TNFα drugs early in disease course.

    PubMed

    Ključevšek, Damjana; Emeršič, Nina; Toplak, Nataša; Avčin, Tadej

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of cervical spine arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), who received anti-TNFα early in the course of cervical spine arthritis. Medical charts and imaging of JIA patients with cervical spine involvement were reviewed in this retrospective study. Data, including age at disease onset, JIA type, disease activity, treatment and clinical outcome were collected. Initial and followup MRI examinations of cervical spine were performed according to the hospital protocol to evaluate the presence of inflammation and potential chronic/late changes. Fifteen JIA patients with MRI proved cervical spine inflammation (11 girls, 4 boys, median age 6.3y) were included in the study: 9 had polyarthritis, 3 extended oligoarthritis, 2 persistent oligoarthritis and 1 juvenile psoriatic arthritis. All children were initially treated with high-dose steroids and methotrexate. In addition, 11 patients were treated with anti-TNFα drug within 3 months, and 3 patients within 7 months of cervical spine involvement confirmed by MRI. Mean observation time was 2.9y, mean duration of anti-TNFα treatment was 2.2y. Last MRI showed no active inflammation in 12/15 children, allowing to stop biological treatment in 3 patients, and in 3/15 significant reduction of inflammation. Mild chronic changes were found on MRI in 3 children. Early treatment with anti-TNFα drugs resulted in significantly reduced inflammation or complete remission of cervical spine arthritis proved by MRI, and prevented the development of serious chronic/late changes. Repeated MRI examinations are suggested in the follow-up of JIA patients with cervical spine arthritis.

  10. [Financial cost of early rheumatoid arthritis in the first year of medical attention: three clinical scenarios in a third-tier university hospital in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Mora, Claudia; González, Andrés; Díaz, Jorge; Quintana, Gerardo

    2009-03-01

    In Colombia, the cost burden of chronic diseases is not well known, either globally or in localized areas of the health system. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of most common chronic diseases, and represents a high cost for the health system. The direct medical costs were estimated for rheumatoid arthritis patients in the in the first year of diagnosis at a level 3 university hospital in Colombia. Three therapy settings for early rheumatoid arthritis patients were established in the first year of diagnosis according to national and international guidelines. Each setting included treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or biologic therapy based on disease severity as measured by Disease Activity Score 28. All direct medical costs were included: specialized medical care, diagnostic tests and drugs. Cost information was obtained from the Central Military Hospital finance department in Bogotá and the national manual of drug prices based on the "Farmaprecios" 2007 guide, a reference in general use by health institutions. Results. The average of cost of medical care in patients with mild, moderate and severe disease was US $1689, $1805 and $23,441 respectively. The recommended retail prices of the medicines published in "Farmaprecios" was US $1418, $1821 and $31,931. When the charges levied by several major health institutions were compared, substantial increases were noted, US $4936, $7716 and $123,661, respectively. Drug costs represented 86% of total cost, laboratory costs were 10% and medical attention was only 4%. Drugs costs were the principal component of the total direct medical cost, and it increased 40 times when a biological therapy is used. Complete economic evaluation studies are necesary to estimate the viability and clinical relevance of biological therapy for early rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Clinical and radiological outcomes of 5-year drug-free remission-steered treatment in patients with early arthritis: IMPROVED study.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Gülşah; Heimans, Lotte; Bergstra, Sytske Anne; Goekoop, Robbert J; van Oosterhout, Maikel; van Groenendael, Johannes H L M; Peeters, André J; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M; Lard, Leroy R; de Sonnaville, Peter B J; Grillet, Bernard A M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F

    2018-01-01

    To determine the 5-year outcomes of early remission induction therapy followed by targeted treatment aimed at drug-free remission (DFR) in patients with early arthritis. In 12 hospitals, 610 patients with early (<2 years) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or undifferentiated arthritis (UA) started on methotrexate (MTX) 25 mg/week and prednisone (60 mg/day tapered to 7.5 mg/day). Patients not in early remission (Disease Activity Score <1.6 after 4 months) were randomised (single blind) to arm 1, adding hydroxychloroquine 400 mg/day and sulfasalazine 2000 mg/day, or arm 2, switching to MTX plus adalimumab 40 mg/2 weeks. Treatment adjustments over time aimed at DFR. Outcomes were remission percentages, functional ability, toxicity and radiological damage progression after 5 years. After 4 months, 387 patients were in early remission, 83 were randomised to arm 1 and 78 to arm 2. After 5 years, 295/610 (48%) patients were in remission, 26% in sustained DFR (SDFR) (≥1 year) (220/387 (57%) remission and 135/387 (35%) SDFR in the early remission group, 50% remission, 11% SDFR in the randomisation arms without differences between the arms). More patients with UA (37% vs 23% RA, p=0.001) and more anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-negative patients (37% vs 18% ACPA-positive, p<0.001) achieved SDFR.Overall, mean Health Assessment Questionnaire was 0.6 (0.5), and median (IQR) damage progression was 0.5 (0-2.7) Sharp/van der Heijde points, with only five patients showing progression >25 points in 5 years. Five years of DFR-steered treatment in patients with early RA resulted in almost normal functional ability without clinically relevant joint damage across treatment groups. Patients who achieved early remission had the best clinical outcomes. There were no differences between the randomisation arms. SDFR is a realistic treatment goal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved

  12. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  13. Inhibition of joint damage and improved clinical outcomes with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: the IMAGE trial.

    PubMed

    Tak, P P; Rigby, W F; Rubbert-Roth, A; Peterfy, C G; van Vollenhoven, R F; Stohl, W; Hessey, E; Chen, A; Tyrrell, H; Shaw, T M

    2011-01-01

    Rituximab is an effective treatment in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the IMAGE study was to determine the efficacy of rituximab in the prevention of joint damage and its safety in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients initiating treatment with MTX. In this double-blind randomised controlled phase III study, 755 MTX-naïve patients with active RA were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX. The primary end point at week 52 was the change in joint damage measured using a Genant-modified Sharp score. 249, 249 and 250 patients were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX, respectively. At week 52, treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX compared with MTX alone was associated with a reduction in progression of joint damage (mean change in total modified Sharp score 0.359 vs 1.079; p=0.0004) and an improvement in clinical outcomes (ACR50 65% vs 42%; p<0.0001); rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX improved clinical outcomes (ACR50 59% vs 42%; p<0.0001) compared with MTX alone but did not significantly reduce the progression of joint damage. Safety outcomes were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg in combination with MTX is an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with MTX-naïve RA. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00299104.

  14. Early non-response to certolizumab pegol in rheumatoid arthritis predicts treatment failure at one year. Data from a randomised phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Francis; Pham, Thao; Claudepierre, Pascal; de Chalus, Thibault; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Saadoun, Carine; Riou França, Lionel; Fautrel, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    To compare different early clinical criteria of non-response determined at three months as predictors of clinical failure at one year in patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting therapy with certolizumab pegol. Data were derived from a randomised Phase III clinical trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who failed to respond to methotrexate monotherapy. Patients included in this post-hoc analysis were treated with certolizumab pegol (400mg qd reduced to 200mg qd after one month) and with methotrexate. The study duration was twelve months. Response at three months was determined with the American College of Rheumatology-50, Disease Assessment Score-28 ESR, Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Clinical Disease Activity Index. The performance of these measures at predicting treatment failure at twelve months defined by the American College of Rheumatology-50 criteria was determined, using the positive predictive values as the principal evaluation criterion. Three hundred and eighty two patients were available for analysis and 225 completed the twelve-month follow-up. At Week 52, 149 (38.1%) patients met the American College of Rheumatology-50 response criterion. Positive predictive values ranged from 81% for a decrease in Health Assessment Questionnaire- Disability index score since baseline >0.22 to 95% for a decrease in Disease Assessment Score-28 score since baseline≥1.2. Sensitivity was≤70% in all cases. Performance of these measures was similar irrespective of the definition of treatment failure at 12months. Simple clinical measures of disease activity can predict future treatment failure reliably and are appropriate for implementing treat-to-target treatment strategies in everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal methotrexate dose is associated with better clinical outcomes than non-optimal dose in daily practice: results from the ESPOIR early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaujoux-Viala, Cécile; Rincheval, Nathalie; Dougados, Maxime; Combe, Bernard; Fautrel, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Although methotrexate (MTX) is the consensual first-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), substantial heterogeneity remains with its prescription and dosage, which are often not optimal. To evaluate the symptomatic and structural impact of optimal MTX dose in patients with early RA in daily clinical practice over 2 years. Patients included in the early arthritis ESPOIR cohort who fulfilled the ACR-EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) criteria for RA and received MTX as a first DMARD were assessed. Optimal MTX dose was defined as ≥10 mg/week during the first 3 months, with escalation to ≥20 mg/week or 0.3 mg/kg/week at 6 months without Disease Activity Score in 28 joints remission. Symptomatic and structural efficacy with and without optimal MTX dose was assessed by generalised logistic regression with adjustment for appropriate variables. Within the first year of follow-up, 314 patients (53%) with RA received MTX as a first DMARD (mean dose 12.2±3.8 mg/week). Only 26.4% (n=76) had optimal MTX dose. After adjustment, optimal versus non-optimal MTX dose was more efficient in achieving ACR-EULAR remission at 1 year (OR 4.28 (95% CI 1.86 to 9.86)) and normal functioning (Health Assessment Questionnaire ≤0.5; OR at 1 year 4.36 (95% CI 2.03 to 9.39)), with no effect on radiological progression. Results were similar during the second year. Optimal MTX dose is more efficacious than non-optimal dose for remission and function in early arthritis in daily practice, with no impact on radiological progression over 2 years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...

  17. Combination therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, controlled, double blind 52 week clinical trial of sulphasalazine and methotrexate compared with the single components

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M.; Combe, B.; Cantagrel, A.; Goupille, P.; Olive, P.; Schattenkirchner, M.; Meusser, S; Paimela, L; Rau, R.; Zeidler, H.; Leirisalo-Repo, M.; Peldan, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the potential clinical benefit of a combination therapy.
METHODS—205 patients fulfilling the ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), not treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs previously, with an early (⩽1 year duration), active (Disease Activity Score (DAS) > 3.0), rheumatoid factor and/or HLA DR 1/4 positive disease were randomised between sulphasalazine (SASP) 2000 (maximum 3000) mg daily (n = 68), or methotrexate (MTX) 7.5 (maximum 15) mg weekly (n = 69) or the combination (SASP + MTX) of both (n = 68).
RESULTS—The mean changes in the DAS during the one year follow up of the study was −1.15, −0.87, −1.26 in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX group respectively (p = 0.019). However, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of either EULAR good responders 34%, 38%, 38% or ACR criteria responders 59%, 59%, 65% in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX group respectively. Radiological progression evaluated by the modified Sharp score was very modest in the three groups: mean changes in erosion score: +2.4, +2.4, +1.9, in narrowing score: +2.3, +2.1, +1.6 and in total damage score: +4.6, +4.5, +3.5, in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX groups respectively. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the SASP + MTX group 91% versus 75% in the SASP and MTX group (p = 0.025). Nausea was the most frequent side effect: 32%, 23%, 49% in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX groups respectively (p = 0.007).
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that an early initiation therapy of disease modifying drug seems to be of benefit. However, this study was unable to demonstrate a clinically relevant superiority of the combination therapy although several outcomes were in favour of this observation. The tolerability of the three treatment modalities seems acceptable.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; combination therapy; sulphasalazine; methotrexate PMID:10364900

  18. Stromal cell markers are differentially expressed in the synovial tissue of patients with early arthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ivy Y; Karpus, Olga N; Turner, Jason D; Hardie, Debbie; Marshall, Jennifer L; de Hair, Maria J H; Maijer, Karen I; Tak, Paul P; Raza, Karim; Hamann, Jörg; Buckley, Christopher D; Gerlag, Danielle M; Filer, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown increased expression of stromal markers in synovial tissue (ST) of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, ST expression of stromal markers in early arthritis in relationship to diagnosis and prognostic outcome was studied. ST from 56 patients included in two different early arthritis cohorts and 7 non-inflammatory controls was analysed using immunofluorescence to detect stromal markers CD55, CD248, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and podoplanin. Diagnostic classification (gout, psoriatic arthritis, unclassified arthritis (UA), parvovirus associated arthritis, reactive arthritis and RA), disease outcome (resolving vs persistent) and clinical variables were determined at baseline and after follow-up, and related to the expression of stromal markers. We observed expression of all stromal markers in ST of early arthritis patients, independent of diagnosis or prognostic outcome. Synovial expression of FAP was significantly higher in patients developing early RA compared to other diagnostic groups and non-inflammatory controls. In RA FAP protein was expressed in both lining and sublining layers. Podoplanin expression was higher in all early inflammatory arthritis patients than controls, but did not differentiate diagnostic outcomes. Stromal marker expression was not associated with prognostic outcomes of disease persistence or resolution. There was no association with clinical or sonographic variables. Stromal cell markers CD55, CD248, FAP and podoplanin are expressed in ST in the earliest stage of arthritis. Baseline expression of FAP is higher in early synovitis patients who fulfil classification criteria for RA over time. These results suggest that significant fibroblast activation occurs in RA in the early window of disease.

  19. Infliximab in active early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, F; Emery, P; Keystone, E; Patel, K; Furst, D; Kalden, J; St, C; Weisman, M; Smolen, J; Lipsky, P; Maini, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of the combination of infliximab plus methotrexate (MTX) on the progression of structural damage in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Subanalyses were carried out on data for patients with early RA in the Anti-TNF Therapy in RA with Concomitant Therapy (ATTRACT) study, in which 428 patients with active RA despite MTX therapy received placebo with MTX (MTX-only) or infliximab 3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every (q) 4 or 8 weeks with MTX (infliximab plus MTX) for 102 weeks. Early RA was defined as disease duration of 3 years or less; 82 of the 428 patients (19%) met this definition. Structural damage was assessed with the modified van der Heijde-Sharp score. The changes from baseline to week 102 in total modified van der Heijde-Sharp score were compared between the infliximab plus MTX groups and the MTX-only group. Results: The erosion and joint space narrowing scores from baseline to week 102 in the cohort of patients with early RA decreased significantly in each infliximab dose regimen compared with the MTX-only regimen. Consistent benefit was seen in the joints of both hands and feet. Conclusions: Infliximab combined with MTX inhibited the progression of structural damage in patients with early RA during the 2 year period of treatment. Early intervention with infliximab in patients with active RA despite MTX therapy may provide long term benefits by preventing radiographic progression and preserving joint integrity. PMID:14722203

  20. Self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis in a very early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Norli, Ellen Sauar; Brinkmann, Gina H; Kvien, Tore K; Bjørneboe, Olav; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Thunem, Cathrine; Lie, Elisabeth; Mjaavatten, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    To study occurrence of and factors associated with self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2010 RA criteria) in patients with ≤16 weeks׳ duration of joint swelling. We applied the 2010 RA criteria in 1118 patients included in a 2-year longitudinal cohort. In all, 256 patients fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria at baseline; outcome was defined as either "self-limiting arthritis" (no DMARD use during follow-up, no swollen joints at last assessment, and no final clinical diagnosis of RA) or "persistent disease." The associations between baseline characteristics, including the components of the 2010 RA criteria score, and outcomes were studied. In total, 36 of 256 patients (14.1%) classified as having RA had self-limiting arthritis. These patients differed from patients with persistent disease according to ACPA positivity (11.1% vs. 65.0%, p < 0.001), duration of joint swelling (median = 47.5 vs. 66.0 days, p = 0.002), 2010 RA criteria points (median = 6.0 vs. 7.0, p < 0.001), and ever smoking (52.8% vs. 74.5%, p = 0.01). Having no serology points and no duration points were independent predictors of self-limiting arthritis. The rate of self-limiting arthritis was 2.7% vs. 29.4% among ACPA positive vs. ACPA negative patients (p < 0.001), and 32.5% when duration of joint swelling was <4 weeks vs. 10.6% with longer duration (p < 0.001). Negative ACPA status, short duration of joint swelling and being a never smoker were factors associated with self-limiting arthritis in early arthritis patients classified as having RA at presentation. Our findings contribute to identify patients who potentially do not need DMARDs and who should not be included in early RA clinical drug trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Disease Activity or Clinical Response as Predictors of Long‐Term Outcomes With Certolizumab Pegol in Axial Spondyloarthritis or Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, A.; Fleischmann, R.; Mease, P. J.; Rudwaleit, M.; Nurminen, T.; Davies, O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early identification of patients unlikely to achieve good long‐term disease control with anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is important for physicians following treat‐to‐target recommendations. Here we assess associations between disease activity or clinical response during the first 12 weeks of treatment and attainment of treatment targets at week 48 in axial SpA and PsA patients receiving certolizumab pegol. Methods The relationship between disease activity or clinical response during the first 12 weeks of treatment and achievement of week‐48 targets (for axial SpA: inactive disease based on Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score [ASDAS] using the C‐reactive protein [CRP] level, or Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index <2 with normal CRP level; and for PsA: minimal disease activity) was assessed post hoc using RAPID‐axSpA and RAPID‐PsA trial data. Results A clear relationship between disease activity from week 2 to 12 and achievement of week‐48 treatment targets was observed in both axial SpA and PsA populations. In axial SpA, week‐48 ASDAS inactive disease was achieved by 0% of patients (0 of 21) with ASDAS very high disease activity at week 12, compared to 68% of patients (34 of 50) with week‐12 ASDAS inactive disease. For PsA, week‐48 minimal disease activity was achieved by 0% of patients (0 of 26) with Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) using the CRP level >5.1 at week 12, compared to 73% of patients (57 of 78) with DAS28‐CRP <2.6. Similar results were observed regardless of the disease activity measure used. Clinical response at week 12 also predicted week‐48 outcomes, though to a lesser extent than disease activity. Conclusion Using disease activity and the clinical response state during the first 12 weeks of certolizumab pegol treatment, it was possible to identify a subset of axial SpA and PsA patients unlikely to achieve

  2. Role of erosions typical of rheumatoid arthritis in the 2010 ACR/EULAR rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: results from a very early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Gina Hetland; Norli, Ellen S; Bøyesen, Pernille; van der Heijde, Désirée; Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Bjørneboe, Olav; Thunem, Cathrine; Kvien, Tore K; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Lie, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    To determine how the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) definition of erosive disease (erosion criterion) contributes to the number of patients classified as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/EULAR RA classification criteria (2010 RA criteria) in an early arthritis cohort. Patients from the observational study Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic with joint swelling ≤16 weeks, a clinical diagnosis of RA or undifferentiated arthritis, and radiographs of hands and feet were included. Erosive disease was defined according to the EULAR definition accompanying the 2010 RA criteria. We calculated the additional number of patients being classified as RA based on the erosion criteria at baseline and during follow-up. Of the 289 included patients, 120 (41.5%) fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria, whereas 15 (5.2%) fulfilled only the erosion criterion at baseline. 118 patients had radiographic follow-up at 2 years, of whom 6.8% fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria and only one patient fulfilled solely the erosion criterion during follow-up. Few patients with early arthritis were classified as RA based on solely the erosion criteria, and of those who did almost all did so at baseline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Verna Wright Lecture: Psoriatic Arthritis: The Need for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Neil J

    2015-11-01

    About 30% of individuals with skin psoriasis will develop an inflammatory disease of the peripheral or axial skeleton involving synovial and/or entheseal tissue termed psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In most cases psoriasis will precede PsA by several years. Hence skin psoriasis provides an opportune model to investigate genetic and environmental factors that interact and contribute to the development of a common form of inflammatory arthritis. Further, the preexisting presence of psoriasis represents a unique opportunity for the early detection of arthritis and the potential for more effective intervention. However, despite the presence of psoriasis, there may be delay in the diagnosis of PsA that is associated with adverse longterm outcome. Undiagnosed disease is not uncommon, as demonstrated by studies applying screening questionnaires to primary care and dermatology clinic populations. Other potential risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, the presence of certain genetic and biomarker profiles, combined with accurate imaging modalities, offer the potential for more targeted screening. So in future it should be possible to detect PsA at a much earlier stage and prevent significant joint damage and associated disability before it happens.

  4. Evidence for early disease-modifying drugs in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David L

    2004-01-01

    Some research evidence supports early aggressive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using combination therapy with two or more disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) plus steroids, or even DMARDs plus an anti-TNF. By contrast, conservatively delayed DMARD monotherapy, given after non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have failed, has been criticised. However, recent long-term studies highlight the complexities in evaluating whether to abandon pyramidal treatment in favour of early DMARDs. Although patients given early DMARD therapy show short-term benefits, longer-term results show no prolonged clinical advantages from early DMARDs. By 5 years patients receiving early DMARDs had similar disease activity and comparable health assessment questionnaire scores to patients who received DMARDs later in their disease course. X-ray progression was persistent and virtually identical in both groups. These negative findings do not invalidate the case for early DMARD therapy, as it is gives sustained reductions in disease activity in the early years of treatment without excessive risks from adverse effects. However, early DMARDs alone do not adequately control RA in the longer term. This may require starting with very aggressive therapy or treating patients more aggressively after early DMARD therapy has been initiated. PMID:14979927

  5. The impact of arthritis on the early employment experiences of young adults: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Jetha, Arif

    2015-07-01

    Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase that can determine a person's career trajectory. To date, little research has examined the influence of arthritis on early work experiences. This literature review aims at examining the impact of arthritis on the early career phase of young adults and identifying the barriers to employment. Two independent reviewers searched bibliographic databases for arthritis conditions and a series of employment-related keywords and subject headings. Information on authors, publication year; study design, sample characteristics (e.g., number of participants, age, gender, arthritis type); work outcomes measured; and specific barriers to employment was recorded. Nine studies were uncovered in the review. All studies examined young people with juvenile arthritis (9 of 9 studies) and consisted of sample sizes with less then 150 participants (6 of 9 studies) who were primarily recruited from clinics (7 of 9 studies). All were cross-sectional designs. Employment status was primarily examined and ranged from 11% to 71%. Although not always statistically significant, young adults with arthritis were less likely to be employed when compared to their healthy peers. Greater disease severity, less educational attainment and being female were related to not participating in paid work. This review brings to light the paucity of studies examining the early employment experiences of young adults with arthritis. There is a need to expand research to contribute to recommendations for sustained and productive employment across the working life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disease Characteristics and Rheumatoid Arthritis Development in Patients with Early Undifferentiated Arthritis: A 2-year Followup Study.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Gina H; Norli, Ellen S; Kvien, Tore K; Haugen, Anne J; Grøvle, Lars; Nygaard, Halvor; Bjørneboe, Olav; Thunem, Cathrine; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Lie, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To examine the 2-year disease course in patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) focusing on fulfillment of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classification criteria. Data were provided by the Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic study, which included patients presenting with ≥ 1 swollen joint of ≤ 16 weeks' duration. UA was defined as patients not fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria and who did not have a clinical diagnosis other than RA at baseline. The main outcome was fulfillment of the 2010 RA criteria. Secondary outcomes were disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use, resolution of synovitis without use of DMARD during followup, and final clinical diagnosis. We included 477 patients with UA of whom 47 fulfilled the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria during followup (UA-RA) and 430 did not (UA-non-RA). Of the UA-RA patients, 70% fulfilled the criteria within the first 6 months. UA-RA patients were older, more often positive for rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies, female, and ever smokers, and they more often presented with polyarticular arthritis, small joint involvement, and a swollen shoulder joint. During followup, 53% of UA-RA patients vs 13% of UA-non-RA patients used DMARD (p < 0.001). Overall, 71% of patients with UA achieved absence of clinical synovitis at final followup without use of DMARD. The most frequent final clinical diagnosis was UA (61%). Only 9.8% of patients with UA fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria during 2-year followup. Small joint involvement and swollen shoulder joint were among the factors associated with RA development. In two-thirds of patients with UA, the arthritis resolved without use of DMARD.

  7. Trial of early aggressive therapy in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Spalding, Steven J; Hashkes, Philip J; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Zeft, Andrew S; Szer, Ilona S; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I; Schanberg, Laura E; Sundel, Robert P; Milojevic, Diana; Punaro, Marilynn G; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S; Higgins, Gloria C; Ilowite, Norman T; Kimura, Yukiko; Hamilton, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether aggressive treatment initiated early in the course of rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive or RF-negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can induce clinical inactive disease within 6 months. Between May 2007 and October 2010, a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 aggressive treatments was conducted in 85 children ages 2-16 years with polyarticular JIA of <12 months' duration. Patients received either methotrexate (MTX) 0.5 mg/kg/week (maximum 40 mg) subcutaneously, etanercept 0.8 mg/kg/week (maximum 50 mg), and prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day (maximum 60 mg) tapered to 0 by 17 weeks (arm 1), or MTX (same dosage as arm 1), etanercept placebo, and prednisolone placebo (arm 2). The primary outcome measure was clinical inactive disease at 6 months. An exploratory phase determined the rate of clinical remission on medication (6 months of continuous clinical inactive disease) at 12 months. By 6 months, clinical inactive disease had been achieved in 17 (40%) of 42 patients in arm 1 and 10 (23%) of 43 patients in arm 2 (χ(2) = 2.91, P = 0.088). After 12 months, clinical remission on medication was achieved in 9 patients in arm 1 and 3 patients in arm 2 (P = 0.053). There were no significant interarm differences in adverse events. Although this study did not meet its primary end point, early aggressive therapy in this cohort of children with recent-onset polyarticular JIA resulted in clinical inactive disease by 6 months and clinical remission on medication within 12 months of treatment in substantial proportions of patients in both arms. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Early Psoriatic Arthritis Versus Early Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis: Role of Dermoscopy Combined with Ultrasonography for Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zabotti, Alen; Errichetti, Enzo; Zuliani, Francesca; Quartuccio, Luca; Sacco, Stefania; Stinco, Giuseppe; De Vita, Salvatore

    2018-05-01

    Exclusion of psoriatic skin/nail lesions is important in differentiating early seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) from early polyarticular psoriatic arthritis (EPsA) and such manifestations may go unnoticed in atypical or minimally expressed cases. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation in highlighting dermatological lesions missed on rheumatological examination and to investigate the role of ultrasonography (US) and dermoscopy in improving the recognition of subclinical psoriatic findings. Patients with a new diagnosis of seropositive or seronegative ERA and EPsA with prevalent hands involvement were recruited. All were reassessed for the presence of psoriatic lesions during an integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation and underwent hands US and proximal nailfold dermoscopy. Seventy-three consecutive subjects were included in the study: 25 with seropositive ERA, 23 with seronegative ERA, and 25 with EPsA. One-fourth of the subjects initially diagnosed as seronegative ERA presented cutaneous or nail psoriasis on integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation, thereby being reclassified as EPsA. The presence of at least 1 extrasynovial feature on hand US and dotted vessels on proximal nailfold dermoscopy was significantly associated with EPsA, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and 96.0% and a specificity of 88.1% and 83.3% for US and dermoscopy, respectively. When used together, specificity for PsA diagnosis raised to 90.5%. Integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation may be helpful in identifying patients with EPsA misclassified as seronegative ERA. Additionally, US and dermoscopy may be used as supportive tools in identifying subclinical psoriatic features, which may come in handy in distinguishing EPsA from ERA.

  9. What are the dominant cytokines in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Ridgley, Laura A.; Anderson, Amy E.; Pratt, Arthur G.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease of evolving immune dysregulation that culminates in joint destruction and disability. The principle by which pro-inflammatory cytokines may be therapeutically targeted to abrogate disease is well established, but has yet to translate into reliable cures for patients. Emerging insights into cytokine-mediated pathobiology during rheumatoid arthritis development are reviewed, and their implications for future treatment strategies considered. Recent findings Accumulating data highlight cytokine perturbations before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Some of these have now been linked to the arthritogenic activation of autoantibodies and associated pain and bone destruction in affected joints. These observations suggest cytokines may trigger the transition from systemic immunity to arthritis. Cytokine exposure could furthermore ‘prime’ synovial stromal cells to perpetuate a dominant pro-inflammatory environment. By facilitating cross-talk between infiltrating immune cells and even sustaining ectopic lymphoid structure development in some cases, cytokine interplay ultimately underpins the failure of arthritis to resolve. Summary Successful therapeutic stratification will depend upon an increasingly sophisticated appreciation of how dominant players amongst cytokine networks vary across time and anatomical space during incipient rheumatoid arthritis. The prize of sustained remission for all patients justifies the considerable effort required to achieve this understanding. PMID:29206659

  10. Clinically inactive disease in a cohort of children with new-onset polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with early aggressive therapy: time to achievement, total duration, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Spalding, Steven J; Hashkes, Philip J; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Zeft, Andrew S; Szer, Ilona S; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I; Schanberg, Laura E; Sundel, Robert P; Milojevic, Diana S; Punaro, Marilynn G; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S; Higgins, Gloria C; Ilowite, Norman T; Kimura, Yukiko; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    To determine the elapsed time while receiving aggressive therapy to the first observation of clinically inactive disease (CID), total duration of CID and potential predictors of this response in a cohort of children with recent onset of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA). Eighty-five children were randomized blindly to methotrexate (MTX), etanercept, and rapidly tapered prednisolone (MEP) or MTX monotherapy and assessed for CID over 1 year of treatment. Patients who failed to achieve intermediary endpoints were switched to open-label MEP treatment. Fifty-eight (68.2%) of the 85 patients achieved CID at 1 or more visits including 18 who received blinded MEP, 11 while receiving MTX monotherapy, and 29 while receiving open-label MEP. Patients starting on MEP achieved CID earlier and had more study days in CID compared to those starting MTX, but the differences were not significantly different. Patients given MEP (more aggressive therapy) earlier in the disease course were statistically more likely to have a higher proportion of followup visits in CID than those with longer disease course at baseline. Those who achieved American College of Rheumatology Pediatric 70 response at 4 months had a significantly greater proportion of followup visits in CID, compared to those who failed to achieve this improvement (p < 0.0001). Of the 32 patients who met criteria for CID and then lost CID status, only 3 fulfilled the definition of disease flare. Shorter disease duration prior to treatment, a robust response at 4 months, and more aggressive therapy result in a higher likelihood and longer duration of CID in patients with poly-JIA. The original trial from which data for this analysis were obtained is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00443430.

  11. Work instability and financial loss in early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Looper, Karl J; Mustafa, Sally S; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-12-01

    Inflammatory arthritis is associated with a high degree of work instability and financial burden. In this study, we examine the extent of work instability and financial loss as well as their association with disease characteristics during the first 18 months of inflammatory arthritis. One hundred and four patients in the early phase (more than 6 weeks, < 18 months) of inflammatory arthritis were recruited from a larger early inflammatory arthritis registry. Questionnaires recorded sociodemographic data and disease characteristics, including pain assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Work Instability Scale (RA-WIS) was used to measure patient-perceived functioning in the workplace and the Financial Loss Questionnaire (FLQ) measured the impact on family finances. Participants' mean age was 56 years, 70.2% were female and 49.0% were working. Average yearly household income was < 60 000 Canadian dollars (CAD) for 38.5% of the sample. Of our working patients, 43% had a medium or high risk of work loss as measured by the RA-WIS and 35% reported a financial loss. On multivariate analysis, MPQ and SF-36 contributed to the dependent variable work instability, while age and SF-36 contributed to financial loss. This study identifies pain and physical dysfunction as potential modifiable risk factors for negative socioeconomic repercussions of illness in early inflammatory arthritis. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Trial of Early Aggressive Therapy in Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Carol A.; Giannini, Edward H.; Spalding, Steven J.; Hashkes, Philip J.; O’Neil, Kathleen M.; Zeft, Andrew S.; Szer, Ilona S.; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Sundel, Robert P.; Milojevic, Diana; Punaro, Marilynn G.; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Kimura, Yukiko; Hamilton, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if aggressive treatment initiated early in the course of rheumatoid factor positive or negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA) can induce clinical inactive disease (CID) within 6 months. METHODS Between May 2007 and October 2010 a multi-center, prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of two aggressive treatments was conducted in 85 children aged 2 to 16 years with polyarticular JIA of less than 12 months duration. Patients received either methotrexate 0.5 mg/kg/wk SQ (40 mg max), etanercept 0.8 mg/kg/wk (50 mg max), prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/d (60 mg max) tapered to 0 by 17 weeks (Arm 1), or methotrexate (same dose as Arm 1), etanercept placebo, and prednisolone placebo (Arm 2). The primary outcome was CID at 6 months. An exploratory phase determined the rate of clinical remission on medication (6 months of continuous CID) at 12 months. RESULTS By 6 months, 17 of 42 (40%) of patients in Arm 1 and 10 of 43 (23%) in Arm 2 had achieved CID (X2 = 2.91; p = 0.088). After 12 months, 9 patients in Arm 1 and 3 in Arm 2 achieved clinical remission on medication (p = 0.0534). There were no significant inter-arm differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, early aggressive therapy in this cohort of children with recent onset polyarticular JIA resulted in substantial proportions of patients in both arms achieving CID by 6 months and clinical remission on medication within 12 months of treatment. PMID:22183975

  13. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  14. The Relationship Between Cardiac Conduction Times, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Inflammation in Patients with Early Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Turk, Samina A; Heslinga, Sjoerd C; Dekker, Jill; Britsemmer, Linda; van der Lugt, Véronique; Lems, Willem F; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of conduction disorders in patients with early arthritis and the relationship with inflammation and traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a 2-fold higher risk of sudden cardiac death, possibly owing to conduction disorders. This increased risk might already be present at the clinical onset of arthritis. Therefore, we assessed electrocardiography, blood pressure, 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), lipid profile, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in 480 patients with early arthritis at baseline and after 1 year. The prevalence of conduction disorders was 12.5%. Conduction times at baseline were not associated with DAS28, ESR, or CRP levels and did not change during antirheumatic treatment. Baseline and the improvement in DAS28 (European League Against Rheumatism response), ESR, and CRP were significantly associated with heart rate, lipid profile, and blood pressure. Elevated total cholesterol and blood pressure were associated with an increased QRS time. The change in heart rate differed 7.3 bpm between patients with the least versus largest DAS improvement. The prevalence of conduction disorders in patients with early arthritis was 12.5%, which is similar to the general population and was not associated with changes in inflammation markers. However, a high cholesterol was associated with a prolonged QRS time. Therefore, the emphasis of CV risk management in arthritis should not be only on treatment of disease activity but also on traditional CV risk factors. The relationship between the improvement in disease activity and heart rate is remarkable because this could imply a 10-year CV mortality risk difference of 24%.

  15. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or have trouble moving around, you might have arthritis. Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints ... joint can become severely damaged. Some kinds of arthritis can also cause problems in your organs, such ...

  16. Glenohumeral arthritis after Latarjet procedure: Progression and it's clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kee, Young Moon; Kim, Hwan Jin; Kim, Jung Youn; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2017-09-01

    The risk factors of glenohumeral arthritis after the Latarjet procedure remain relatively unexplored. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the clinical significance of glenohumeral arthritis after the Latarjet procedure, and to investigate risk factors associated with arthritis progression. We evaluated 110 patients (110 shoulders) who underwent the Latarjet procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Patients had a mean age of 23.8 years (range, 14-52 years) at the time of the operation, and the mean duration of follow-up was 31 months (range, 24-111 months). At the last follow-up, the mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Rowe and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) scores significantly improved from 3.1, 36.5 and 23.6 points preoperatively to 1.6, 87.6 and 32.6 points (all P < 0.05, respectively). The postoperative rate of recurrence was 5.4%. Among the 14 shoulders with preoperative arthritis, 8 (57.1%) showed progression of arthritis at the last follow up. New occurrence or progression of arthritis after the Latarjet procedure was in 20 shoulders (18.2%). At the final, overall prevalence of arthritis was 23.6% (26 shoulders). The non-arthritis group showed significantly better functional outcomes (VAS score: 0.9, Rowe Score: 89.3, UCLA score: 33.5) than the arthritis group (2.1, 84.9, 29.2; all P < 0.05, respectively). Preoperative generalized laxity and lateral overhang were associated with glenohumeral arthritis progression after surgery. (all P < 0.05, retrospectively). The Latarjet procedure yielded satisfactory functional outcomes with low recurrent rate at mid-term follow-up. Development or progression of arthritis was observed in 18.2% of patients, postoperatively. Glenohumeral arthritis after the Latarjet procedure had an adverse effect on clinical outcome. Generalized laxity and lateral overhang should be considered as risk factors of progression to glenohumeral arthritis after the Latarjet procedure. Copyright © 2017 The

  17. The first national clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Firth, J; Snowden, N; Ledingham, J; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Dennison, E M; MacPhie, E; Ide, Z; Rowe, I; Kandala, N; Jameson, K

    The first national audit for rheumatoid and early inflammatory arthritis has benchmarked care for the first 3 months of follow-up activity from first presentation to a rheumatology service. Access to care, management of early rheumatoid arthritis and support for self care were measured against National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality standards; impact of early arthritis and experience of care were measured using patient-reported outcome and experience measures. The results demonstrate delays in referral and accessing specialist care and the need for service improvement in treating to target, suppression of high levels of disease activity and support for self-care. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes within 3 months and high levels of overall satisfaction were reported but these results were affected by low response rates. This article presents a summary of the national data from the audit and discusses the implications for nursing practice.

  18. Early arthritis induces disturbances at bone nanostructural level reflected in decreased tissue hardness in an animal model of arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cascão, Rita; Finnilä, Mikko A. J.; Lopes, Inês P.; Saarakkala, Simo; Zioupos, Peter; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Arthritis induces joint erosions and skeletal bone fragility. Objectives The main goal of this work was to analyze the early arthritis induced events at bone architecture and mechanical properties at tissue level. Methods Eighty-eight Wistar rats were randomly housed in experimental groups, as follows: adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) (N = 47) and a control healthy group (N = 41). Rats were monitored during 22 days for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight and sacrificed at different time points (11 and 22 days post disease induction). Bone samples were collected for histology, micro computed tomography (micro-CT), 3-point bending and nanoindentation. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers and systemic cytokine quantification. Results At bone tissue level, measured by nanoindentation, there was a reduction of hardness in the arthritic group, associated with an increase of the ratio of bone concentric to parallel lamellae and of the area of the osteocyte lacuna. In addition, increased bone turnover and changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed in arthritic animals, since the early phase of arthritis, when compared with healthy controls. Conclusion We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induces very early changes at bone turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness. Bone tissue level is also affected since the early phase of arthritis, characterized by decreased tissue hardness associated with changes in bone lamella organization and osteocyte lacuna surface. These observations highlight the pertinence of immediate control of inflammation in the initial stages of arthritis. PMID:29315314

  19. A Clinical Update and Global Economic Burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Syed Ali; Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima E; Alam, Fahmida; Zarin, Nowshin; Bari, Mohammad T; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2018-02-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a predominant inflammatory autoimmune disorder. The incidence and prevalence of RA is increasing with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of RA has become clearer due to many significant research outputs during the last two decades. Many inflammatory cytokines involved in RA pathophysiology and the presence of autoantibodies are being used as potential biomarkers via the use of effective diagnostic techniques for the early diagnosis of RA. Currently, several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are being prescribed targeting RA pathophysiology, which have shown significant contributions in improving the disease outcomes. Even though innovations in treatment strategies and monitoring are helping the patients to achieve early and sustained clinical and radiographic remission, the high cost of drugs and limited health care budgets are restricting the easy access of RA treatment. Both direct and indirect high cost of treatment are creating economic burden for the patients and affecting their quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe the updated concept of RA pathophysiology and highlight current diagnostic tools used for the early detection as well as prognosis - targeting several biomarkers of RA. Additionally, we explored the updated treatment options with side effects besides discussing the global economic burden. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Impact of early diagnosis on functional disability in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dam; Choi, Chan-Bum; Lee, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To determine whether early diagnosis is beneficial for functional status of various disease durations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods A total of 4,540 RA patients were enrolled as part of the Korean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA). We defined early diagnosis as a lag time between symptom onset and RA diagnosis of ≤ 12 months, whereas patients with a longer lag time comprised the delayed diagnosis group. Demographic characteristics and outcomes were compared between early and delayed diagnosis groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of early diagnosis on the development of functional disability in RA patients. Results A total of 2,597 patients (57.2%) were included in the early diagnosis group. The average Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was higher in the delayed diagnosis group (0.64 ± 0.63 vs. 0.70 ± 0.66, p < 0.01), and the proportion of patients with no functional disability (HAQ = 0) was higher in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, early diagnosis was independently associated with no functional disability (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40). In a subgroup analysis according to disease duration, early diagnosis was associated with no functional disability in patients with disease duration < 5 years (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.72) but not in patients with longer disease duration (for 5 to 10 years: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.52; for ≥ 10 years: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28). Conclusions Early diagnosis is associated with no functional disability, especially in patients with shorter disease duration. PMID:27618867

  1. Autoantibodies to two novel peptides in seronegative and early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Liesbeth M; Hansen, Wendy L J; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Geusens, Piet; Lenaerts, Jan; Somers, Klaartje; Stinissen, Piet; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Somers, Veerle

    2016-08-01

    Despite recent progress in biomarker discovery for RA diagnostics, still over one-third of RA patients-and even more in early disease-present without RF or ACPA. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of previously identified autoantibodies to novel Hasselt University (UH) peptides in early and seronegative RA. Screening for antibodies against novel UH peptides UH-RA.1, UH-RA.9, UH-RA.14 and UH-RA.21, was performed in two large independent cohorts. Peptide ELISAs were developed to screen for the presence of antibodies to UH-RA peptides. First, 292 RA patients (including 39 early patients), 90 rheumatic and 97 healthy controls from UH were studied. Antibody reactivity to two peptides (UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21) was also evaluated in 600 RA patients, 309 patients with undifferentiated arthritis and 157 rheumatic controls from the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohort. In both cohorts, 38% of RA patients were seronegative for RF and ACPA. Testing for autoantibodies to UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21 reduced the serological gap from 38% to 29% in the UH cohort (P = 0.03) and from 38% to 32% in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohort (P = 0.01). Furthermore, 19-33% of early RA patients carried antibodies to these peptides. Specificities in rheumatic controls ranged from 82 to 96%. Whereas antibodies against UH-RA.1 were related to remission, anti-UH-RA.21 antibodies were associated with inflammation, joint erosion and higher tender and swollen joint counts. This study validates the presence of antibody reactivity to novel UH-RA peptides in seronegative and early RA. This might reinforce current diagnostics and improve early diagnosis and intervention in RA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Clinical benefit of 1-year certolizumab pegol (CZP) add-on therapy to methotrexate treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis was observed following CZP discontinuation: 2-year results of the C-OPERA study, a phase III randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Okada, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical impact of 1-year certolizumab pegol (CZP) therapy added to the first year of 2-year methotrexate (MTX) therapy, compared with 2-year therapy with MTX alone. Methods MTX-naïve patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors were eligible to enter Certolizumab-Optimal Prevention of joint damage for Early RA (C-OPERA), a multicentre, randomised, controlled study, which consisted of a 52-week double-blind (DB) period and subsequent 52-week post treatment (PT) period. Patients were randomised to optimised MTX+CZP (n=159) or optimised MTX+placebo (PBO; n=157). Following the DB period, patients entered the PT period, receiving MTX alone (CZP+MTX→MTX; n=108, PBO+MTX→MTX; n=71). Patients who flared could receive rescue treatment with open-label CZP. Results 34 CZP+MTX→MTX patients and 14 PBO+MTX→MTX patients discontinued during the PT period. From week 52 through week 104, significant inhibition of total modified total Sharp score progression was observed for CZP+MTX versus PBO+MTX (week 104: 84.2% vs 67.5% (p<0.001)). Remission rates decreased after CZP discontinuation; however, higher rates were maintained through week 104 in CZP+MTX→MTX versus PBO+MTX→MTX (41.5% vs 29.3% (p=0.026), 34.6% vs 24.2% (p=0.049) and 41.5% vs 33.1% (p=0.132) at week 104 in SDAI, Boolean and DAS28(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) remission. CZP retreated patients due to flare (n=28) showed rapid clinical improvement. The incidence of overall adverse events was similar between groups. Conclusions In MTX-naïve patients with early RA with poor prognostic factors, an initial 1 year of add-on CZP to 2-year optimised MTX therapy brings radiographic and clinical benefit through 2 years, even after stopping CZP. Trial registration number NCT01451203. PMID:28153828

  3. Clinical benefit of 1-year certolizumab pegol (CZP) add-on therapy to methotrexate treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis was observed following CZP discontinuation: 2-year results of the C-OPERA study, a phase III randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Okada, Toshiyuki; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the clinical impact of 1-year certolizumab pegol (CZP) therapy added to the first year of 2-year methotrexate (MTX) therapy, compared with 2-year therapy with MTX alone. MTX-naïve patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors were eligible to enter Certolizumab-Optimal Prevention of joint damage for Early RA (C-OPERA), a multicentre, randomised, controlled study, which consisted of a 52-week double-blind (DB) period and subsequent 52-week post treatment (PT) period. Patients were randomised to optimised MTX+CZP (n=159) or optimised MTX+placebo (PBO; n=157). Following the DB period, patients entered the PT period, receiving MTX alone (CZP+MTX→MTX; n=108, PBO+MTX→MTX; n=71). Patients who flared could receive rescue treatment with open-label CZP. 34 CZP+MTX→MTX patients and 14 PBO+MTX→MTX patients discontinued during the PT period. From week 52 through week 104, significant inhibition of total modified total Sharp score progression was observed for CZP+MTX versus PBO+MTX (week 104: 84.2% vs 67.5% (p<0.001)). Remission rates decreased after CZP discontinuation; however, higher rates were maintained through week 104 in CZP+MTX→MTX versus PBO+MTX→MTX (41.5% vs 29.3% (p=0.026), 34.6% vs 24.2% (p=0.049) and 41.5% vs 33.1% (p=0.132) at week 104 in SDAI, Boolean and DAS28(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) remission. CZP retreated patients due to flare (n=28) showed rapid clinical improvement. The incidence of overall adverse events was similar between groups. In MTX-naïve patients with early RA with poor prognostic factors, an initial 1 year of add-on CZP to 2-year optimised MTX therapy brings radiographic and clinical benefit through 2 years, even after stopping CZP. NCT01451203. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Expression of chemokines CXCL4 and CXCL7 by synovial macrophages defines an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, L; Adlard, N; Juarez, M; Smallie, T; Snow, M; Buckley, C D; Raza, K; Filer, A; Scheel-Toellner, D

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives For our understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), it is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying early stages of synovitis. Here, synovial cytokine production was investigated in patients with very early arthritis. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained from patients with at least one clinically swollen joint within 12 weeks of symptom onset. At an 18-month follow-up visit, patients who went on to develop RA, or whose arthritis spontaneously resolved, were identified. Biopsies were also obtained from patients with RA with longer symptom duration (>12 weeks) and individuals with no clinically apparent inflammation. Synovial mRNA expression of 117 cytokines was quantified using PCR techniques and analysed using standard and novel methods of data analysis. Synovial tissue sections were stained for CXCL4, CXCL7, CD41, CD68 and von Willebrand factor. Results A machine learning approach identified expression of mRNA for CXCL4 and CXCL7 as potentially important in the classification of early RA versus resolving arthritis. mRNA levels for these chemokines were significantly elevated in patients with early RA compared with uninflamed controls. Significantly increased CXCL4 and CXCL7 protein expression was observed in patients with early RA compared with those with resolving arthritis or longer established disease. CXCL4 and CXCL7 co-localised with blood vessels, platelets and CD68+ macrophages. Extravascular CXCL7 expression was significantly higher in patients with very early RA compared with longer duration RA or resolving arthritis Conclusions Taken together, these observations suggest a transient increase in synovial CXCL4 and CXCL7 levels in early RA. PMID:25858640

  5. Expression of chemokines CXCL4 and CXCL7 by synovial macrophages defines an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, L; Adlard, N; Biehl, M; Juarez, M; Smallie, T; Snow, M; Buckley, C D; Raza, K; Filer, A; Scheel-Toellner, D

    2016-04-01

    For our understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), it is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying early stages of synovitis. Here, synovial cytokine production was investigated in patients with very early arthritis. Synovial biopsies were obtained from patients with at least one clinically swollen joint within 12 weeks of symptom onset. At an 18-month follow-up visit, patients who went on to develop RA, or whose arthritis spontaneously resolved, were identified. Biopsies were also obtained from patients with RA with longer symptom duration (>12 weeks) and individuals with no clinically apparent inflammation. Synovial mRNA expression of 117 cytokines was quantified using PCR techniques and analysed using standard and novel methods of data analysis. Synovial tissue sections were stained for CXCL4, CXCL7, CD41, CD68 and von Willebrand factor. A machine learning approach identified expression of mRNA for CXCL4 and CXCL7 as potentially important in the classification of early RA versus resolving arthritis. mRNA levels for these chemokines were significantly elevated in patients with early RA compared with uninflamed controls. Significantly increased CXCL4 and CXCL7 protein expression was observed in patients with early RA compared with those with resolving arthritis or longer established disease. CXCL4 and CXCL7 co-localised with blood vessels, platelets and CD68(+) macrophages. Extravascular CXCL7 expression was significantly higher in patients with very early RA compared with longer duration RA or resolving arthritis Taken together, these observations suggest a transient increase in synovial CXCL4 and CXCL7 levels in early RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often needed for rheumatoid arthritis Water therapy Massage Other things you can do include: Get plenty ... to reduce pain from hip, knee, ankle, or foot arthritis. MEDICINES Medicines may be prescribed along with ...

  7. A rational use of glucocorticoids in patients with early arthritis has a minimal impact on bone mass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis is a frequent complication in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. However, little information exists about the consequences of GC use in patients with early arthritis. Here we describe the variables underlying the use of GC in early arthritis, as well as its effect on bone-mineral density. Methods Data from 116 patients in our early arthritis register were analyzed (90 women; median age, 52.5 years, interquartile range (IQR, 38.5-66); 6-month median disease duration at entry (IQR, 4-9)). In this register, the clinical and treatment information was recorded systematically, including the cumulative GC dose. Lumbar spine, hip, and forearm bone-mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed at entry and after a 2-year follow-up. A multivariate analysis was performed to establish the variables associated with the use of GCs, as well as those associated with variations in BMD. Results Of the patients with early arthritis studied, 67% received GCs during the 2-year follow-up. GCs were more frequently prescribed to elderly patients, those with higher basal disease activity and disability, and patients with positive rheumatoid factor. When adjusted for these variables, GCs were less frequently prescribed to female patients. The use of GCs was associated with an increase of BMD in the ultradistal region of the forearm, although it induced a significant loss of BMD in the medial region of the forearm. No relevant effect of GC was noted on the BMD measured at other locations. Conclusions The frequent use of GCs as a "bridge therapy" in patients with early arthritis does not seem to be associated with relevant loss of bone mass. Moreover, cumulative GC administration might be associated with an increase of juxtaarticular BMD. PMID:20331862

  8. Clinical presentation and treatment of septic arthritis in children.

    PubMed

    Moro-Lago, I; Talavera, G; Moraleda, L; González-Morán, G

    The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological features, clinical presentation, and treatment of children with septic arthritis. A retrospective review was conducted on a total of 141 children with septic arthritis treated in Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid) between the years 2000 to 2013. The patient data collected included, the joint affected, the clinical presentation, the laboratory results, the appearance, Gram stain result, and the joint fluid culture, as well as the imaging tests and the treatment. Most (94%) of the patients were less than 2 years-old. The most common location was the knee (52%), followed by the hip (21%). The septic arthritis was confirmed in 53%. No type of fever was initially observed in 49% of them, and 18% had an ESR (mm/h) or CRP (mg/l) less than 30 in the initial laboratory analysis. The joint fluid was purulent in 45% and turbid in 12%. The Gram stain showed bacteria in 4%. The fluid culture was positive in 17%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen found, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Kingella kingae. Antibiotic treatment was intravenous administration for 7 days, followed by 21 days orally. Surgery was performed in 18% of cases. The diagnosis was only confirmed in 53% of the patients. Some of the confirmed septic arthritis did not present with the classical clinical/analytical signs, demonstrating that the traumatologist or paediatrician requires a high initial level of clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Walking ability as a measure of treatment effect in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J; Brydson, G; Fraser, S; Grant, M

    2001-04-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of a prototype walkmat system in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four subjects with early RA and symptomatic forefoot disease requiring therapy with second-line drugs were recruited. Each subject underwent clinical assessment together with gait analysis on the contact sensitive walkmat system and Kistler forceplate before and after six months of treatment with second-line drugs. Two subjects were lost to follow-up. There was the expected improvement in disease activity in response to therapy. Significant differences were also demonstrated in defined gait parameters that indicated improved weight-bearing and enhanced forefoot propulsion. Medical therapy improved walking ability in patients with RA and the walkmat system provided a useful adjunct to existing outcome measures in the assessment of lower limb function.

  10. Novel autoantibody markers for early and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Somers, Klaartje; Geusens, Piet; Elewaut, Dirk; De Keyser, Filip; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Coenen, Marieke; Blom, Marlies; Stinissen, Piet; Somers, Veerle

    2011-02-01

    Approximately one-third of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are seronegative for the 2 serological RA markers, rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACCP). Moreover, the sensitivities of both markers are lower in the diagnostically important early disease phase. The aim of this study was to identify additional autoantibody markers for early RA and for RF-negative, ACCP-negative (seronegative) RA. We screened an RA synovium cDNA phage display library with autoantibodies in plasma from 10 early (symptoms of maximum 1 year) and 10 seronegative (RF-negative, ACCP-negative) RA patients with validation in 72 additional RA patients and 121 controls (38 healthy controls, 43 patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases, 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 subjects with mechanical joint complaints). Fourteen novel autoantibodies were identified that showed a 54% sensitivity and 90% specificity for RA. For 11 of these autoantibodies, an exclusive presence was demonstrated in RA patients (100% specificity, 37% sensitivity) as compared to controls. All early RA patients were positive for at least one of the identified autoantibodies and antibody-positivity was associated with a shorter disease duration (P = 0.0087). 52% of RA patients who initially tested negative for RF and ACCP, tested positive for at least one of the 14 novel autoantibodies, resulting in a 19% increase in sensitivity compared to current serological testing. Moreover, 5 identified autoantibodies were detected more frequently in seronegative RA patients, indicating that these autoantibodies constitute novel candidate markers for this RA subtype. We demonstrated that the targets of 3 of these 5 autoantibodies had an increased expression in RA synovial tissue compared to control synovial tissue, pointing towards a biological rationale for these auto antibody targets in RA. In conclusion, we identified novel candidate autoantibody markers for RA that can be

  11. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1.5T extremity magnetic resonance imaging? a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stomp, Wouter; Krabben, Annemarie; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bloem, Johan L; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Reijnierse, Monique

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recently suggested that MRI can improve the certainty of RA diagnosis. Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis. We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses. In our study, 179 patients presenting with early arthritis (median symptom duration 15.4 weeks) underwent 1.5T extremity MRI of unilateral wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints according to our arthritis protocol, the foot without contrast. Images were scored according to OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) by 2 independent readers. Tenosynovitis was also assessed. The main outcome was fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. In subanalyses, the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were used as outcome, and analyses were stratified for anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). The ACR 1987 criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients (24.0%). Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema (BME) than patients without RA (p < 0.05). ACPA-positive patients had more BME (median scores 6.5 vs. 4.25, p = 0.016) than ACPA-negative patients. For all MRI features, the predictive value for the presence of RA was low (< 50%). For all MRI features the AUC were < 0.70. Patients who fulfilled ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria but not ACR87 criteria for RA had less synovitis than patients who were positive for RA according to

  12. Clinical significance of delta neutrophil index in the differential diagnosis between septic arthritis and acute gout attack within 24 hours after hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jung Yoon; Kim, Dae Sik; Jung, Seung Min; Song, Jason Jungsik; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Sang-Won

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The most important differential diagnoses of acute monoarticular arthritis are septic arthritis and acute gout attack. Identifying infection is crucial in preventing the devastating outcome of septic arthritis. The delta neutrophil index (DNI) is a value that corresponds to the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes. As DNI reflects the burden of infection, we evaluated this index as a differentiating marker between septic arthritis and acute gout attack. The medical records of 149 patients with septic arthritis and 194 patients with acute gout attack were reviewed. A specific cell analyzer, ADVIA 2120, was used to measure DNI. Clinical and laboratory markers associated with predicting septic arthritis were assessed by using logistic regression. Patients with septic arthritis showed higher levels of DNI than those with acute gout attack (3.3 vs 0.6%, P < .001). Similar results were observed in patients without monosodium urate (MSU) crystal confirmation or those with normouricemia (3.3 vs 0.5 and 3.1 vs 0.7%, respectively; P < .001 for both). A DNI level of 1.9% was determined as the cutoff value for predicting septic arthritis. In the multivariate analysis, DNI was the most powerful independent value for predicting septic arthritis (odds ratio 14.003). This study showed the possibility of using DNI as a differentiating marker between septic arthritis and acute gout attack at the crucial early phase. DNI showed its relevance regardless of confirmation of MSU crystal deposition or serum level of uric acid. PMID:28746185

  13. Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract. Rheumatoid arthritis happens when the body’s own defense system doesn’t work properly. It affects joints ... conditions. These include: Lupus happens when the body’s defense system harms the joints, heart, skin, kidneys, and ...

  14. Everyday ethics and help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, A.; Adam, P.; Cox, S.M.; Li, L.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background Sociological understandings of chronic illness have revealed tensions and complexities around help-seeking. Although ethics underpins healthcare, its application in the area of chronic illness is limited. Here we apply an ethical framework to interview accounts and identify ethical challenges in the early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with eight participants who had been diagnosed with RA in the 12 months prior to recruitment. Applying the concepts of autonomous decision-making and procedural justice highlighted ethical concerns which arose throughout the help-seeking process. Analysis was based on the constant-comparison approach. Results Individuals described decision-making, illness actions and the medical encounter. The process was complicated by inadequate knowledge about symptoms, common-sense understandings about the GP appointment, difficulties concerning access to specialists, and patient–practitioner interactions. Autonomous decision-making and procedural justice were compromised. The accounts revealed contradictions between the policy ideals of active self-management, patient-centred care and shared decision-making, and the everyday experiences of individuals. Conclusions For ethical healthcare there is a need for: public knowledge about early RA symptoms; more effective patient–practitioner communication; and increased support during the wait between primary and secondary care. Healthcare facilities and the government may consider different models to deliver services to people requiring rheumatology consults. PMID:20610465

  15. Developing the Thai Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool and validating the Thai Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena; Wattanamongkolsil, Luksame; Srinonprasert, Varalak; Petcharat, Chonachan; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan; Katchamart, Wanruchada

    2016-10-01

    To validate the Thai language version of the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients Questionnaire (EARP), as well as also to develop a new tool for screening psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among psoriasis (Ps) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Ps patients visiting the psoriasis clinic at Siriraj Hospital were recruited. They completed the EARP and PEST. Full musculoskeletal history, examination, and radiography were evaluated. PsA was diagnosed by a rheumatologist's evaluation and fulfillment of the classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the performances of the tools. The Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool (SiPAT) contained questions most relevant to peripheral arthritis, axial inflammation, and enthesitis, selected from multivariate analysis. Of a total of 159 patients, the prevalence of PsA was 78.6 %. The ROC curve analyses of Thai EARP, PEST, and SiPAT were 0.90 (95 % CI 0.84, 0.96), 0.85 (0.78, 0.92), and 0.89 (0.83, 0.95), respectively. The sensitivities of SiPAT, Thai EARP, and PEST were 91.0, 83.0, and 72.0 %, respectively, while the specificities were 69.0, 79.3, and 89.7 %, respectively. All screening questionnaires showed good diagnostic performances. SiPAT could be considered as a screening tool with its desirable properties: higher sensitivity and taking less time. Thai PEST and EARP could possibly be sequentially administered for people with a positive test from SiPAT to reduce the number of false positives.

  16. [Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. I. Clinical and virological study].

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Vitu, C; Fontaine, J J; Vignoni, M

    1993-04-01

    In purpose to protect goats against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge.

  17. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity in Australian clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Bagga, Hanish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate which rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity measures are being collected in patients receiving glucocorticoids, non-biologic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in Australian rheumatology practice. Methods. A retrospective audit of medical records was conducted from eight rheumatology practices around Australia. Each rheumatologist recruited 30 consecutive eligible patients into the review, 10 of whom must have been receiving a biological agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Disease activity measures and radiographic assessments were collected from each patient's last consultation. For biologic patients, disease activity measures were also collected from when the patient was first initiated on the biological agent. Results. At last consultation, the disease measures that were recorded most often were ESR (89.2%), haemoglobin (87.5%), and CRP (84.2%). DAS28 was infrequently recorded (16.3%). The rate of recording disease activity measures for patients receiving biologic DMARDs decreased over time (mean 27 months). Conclusion. This review has shown inconsistency of RA activity measures being recorded in Australian rheumatology clinical practice. An accurate assessment of the disease process is necessary to effectively target rheumatoid arthritis patients to treat in order to achieve optimal outcomes.

  18. Early diagnosis of septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, Bennet A; Fitz, David W; Lawton, Cort D; Li, Daniel D; Balderama, Earvin S; Stover, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Septic arthritis results in rapid joint destruction if not properly diagnosed and treated. A work up for septic arthritis includes a peripheral white blood cell count, inflammatory markers, and a joint aspiration. In the general population, the interpretation of these labs has been well-defined by prior studies. To this point, no study has determined how immunosuppressive states affect this work up. Patients with immunosuppressive conditions who received a joint aspiration for a painful joint were retrospectively identified. Laboratory results from their work up were gathered and analyzed. 216 patients were included in the study, 21 of whom were diagnosed with septic arthritis. The average aspiration WBC count was 74,190 with 88% PMNs. 81% had a positive gram stain. Laboratory values for immunosuppressed patients with septic arthritis were similar to those associated with septic arthritis in historical general population controls. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Brief Report: Predicting Functional Disability: One-Year Results From the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Inception Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Caroline; McLernon, David J; Dale, James; Paterson, Caron; Ralston, Stuart H; Reid, David M; Tierney, Ann; Harvie, John; McKay, Neil; Wilson, Hilary E; Munro, Robin; Saunders, Sarah; Richmond, Ruth; Baxter, Derek; McMahon, Mike; Kumar, Vinod; McLaren, John; Siebert, Stefan; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2016-07-01

    To identify baseline prognostic indicators of disability at 1 year within a contemporary early inflammatory arthritis inception cohort and then develop a clinically useful tool to support early patient education and decision-making. The Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) inception cohort is a multicenter, prospective study of patients with newly presenting RA or undifferentiated arthritis. SERA data were analyzed to determine baseline predictors of disability (defined as a Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ] score of ≥1) at 1 year. Clinical and psychosocial baseline exposures were entered into a forward stepwise logistic regression model. The model was externally validated using newly accrued SERA data and subsequently converted into a prediction tool. Of the 578 participants (64.5% female), 36.7% (n = 212) reported functional disability at 1 year. Functional disability was independently predicted by baseline disability (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.98, 3.59]), depression (OR 2.52 [95% CI 1.18, 5.37]), anxiety (OR 2.37 [95% CI 1.33, 4.21]), being in paid employment with absenteeism during the last week (OR 1.19 [95% CI 0.63, 2.23]), not being in paid employment (OR 2.36 [95% CI 1.38, 4.03]), and being overweight (OR 1.61 [95% CI 1.04, 2.50]). External validation (using 113 newly acquired patients) evidenced good discriminative performance with a C statistic of 0.74, and the calibration slope showed no evidence of model overfit (P = 0.31). In the context of modern early inflammatory arthritis treatment paradigms, predictors of disability at 1 year appear to be dominated by psychosocial rather than more traditional clinical measures. This indicates the potential benefit of early access to nonpharmacologic interventions targeting key psychosocial factors, such as mental health and work disability. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Discordant inflammation and pain in early and established rheumatoid arthritis: Latent Class Analysis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network and British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register data.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Daniel F; Ferguson, Eamonn; Young, Adam; Kiely, Patrick D W; Walsh, David A

    2016-12-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity is often measured using the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). We aimed to identify and independently verify subgroups of people with RA that may be discordant with respect to self-reported and objective disease state, with potentially different clinical needs. Data were derived from three cohorts: (1) the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN) and the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR), (2) those commencing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors and (3) those using non-biologic drugs. In latent class analysis, we used variables related to pain, central pain mechanisms or inflammation (pain, vitality, mental health, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen joint count, tender joint count, visual analogue scale of general health). Clinically relevant outcomes were examined. Five, four and four latent classes were found in the ERAN, BSRBR TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The proportions of people assigned with >80% probability into latent classes were 76%, 58% and 72% in the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The latent classes displayed either concordance between measures indicative of mild, moderate or severe disease activity; discordantly worse patient-reported measures despite less markedly elevated inflammation; or discordantly less severe patient-reported measures despite elevated inflammation. Latent classes with discordantly worse patient-reported measures represented 12%, 40% and 21% of the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively; contained more females; and showed worse function. In those latent classes with worse scores at baseline, DAS28 and function improved over 1 year (p < 0.001 for all comparisons), and scores differed less at follow-up than at baseline. Discordant latent classes can be identified in people with RA, and these findings are robust across three cohorts with varying disease duration and

  1. Virally associated arthritis 2008: clinical, epidemiologic, and pathophysiologic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2008-01-01

    Several viruses have been associated with the development of inflammatory arthritis, including the hepatitis viruses (hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus), HIV, the parvovirus B19, the human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, and the alphaviruses. Here, we review the epidemiology, the pathophysiological mechanisms, the pertinent clinical and laboratory findings as well as the principles of therapy of the most common virus-associated arthritides. We believe that the knowledge of these key diagnostic and therapeutic features of virus-associated arthritides is important for the rheumatologist of the 21st century. PMID:18828883

  2. The effect of rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies on the incidence of cardiovascular events in a large inception cohort of early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Lillian J; Pope, Janet E; Hitchon, Carol; Boire, Gilles; Schieir, Orit; Lin, Daming; Thorne, Carter J; Tin, Diane; Keystone, Edward C; Haraoui, Boulos; Jamal, Shahin; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2017-05-01

    . RA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs). The objective was to estimate independent effects of RA autoantibodies on the incident CVEs in patients with early RA. Patients were enrolled in the Canadian Early Inflammatory Arthritis Cohort, a prospective multicentre inception cohort. Incident CVEs, including acute coronary syndromes and cerebrovascular events, were self-reported by the patient and partially validated by medical chart review. Seropositive status was defined as either RF or ACPA positive. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of seropositive status on incident CVEs, controlling for RA clinical variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. . A total of 2626 patients were included: the mean symptom duration at diagnosis was 6.3 months ( s . d . 4.6), the mean age was 53 years ( s . d . 15), 72% were female and 86% met classification criteria for RA. Forty-six incident CVEs occurred over 6483 person-years [incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 5.3, 9.4)]. The CVE rate did not differ in seropositive vs seronegative subjects and seropositivity was not associated with incident CVEs in multivariable Cox regression models. Baseline covariates independently associated with incident CVEs were older age, a history of hypertension and a longer duration of RA symptoms prior to diagnosis. The rate of CVEs early in the course of inflammatory arthritis was low; however, delays in the diagnosis of arthritis increased the rate of CVEs. Hypertension was the strongest independent risk factor for CVEs. Results support early aggressive management of RA disease activity and co-morbidities to prevent severe complications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of children with Lyme arthritis in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Glaude, Pier Diane; Huber, Adam M; Mailman, Timothy; Ramsey, Suzanne; Lang, Bianca; Stringer, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging problem in Nova Scotia. Lyme arthritis is a late manifestation of Lyme disease. To describe the demographic characteristics, referral patterns and clinical course of children diagnosed with Lyme arthritis in a tertiary care pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. In the present retrospective chart review, subjects diagnosed with Lyme arthritis between 2006 and 2013 were identified through the clinic database. Demographic variables, referral patterns, clinical presentation and information regarding treatment course and outcome were collected. Seventeen patients were identified; 76% presented in 2012 and 2013. In 37.5% of cases, the referring physician suspected Lyme disease. Most patients presented with one or more painful and/or swollen joints; 94% had knee involvement. Only three of 17 patients had a history of erythema migrans and four of 17 recalled a tick bite. Five patients had a history of neurological manifestations consistent with Lyme disease, although, none had a diagnosis made at the time. Arthritis usually resolved after treatment with standard antibiotics; however, at last follow-up, two patients had antibiotic refractory Lyme arthritis, with one having joint damage despite aggressive arthritis treatment. A significant increase in cases of Lyme arthritis has recently been recognized in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. A history of a tick bite or erythema migrans were not sensitive markers of Lyme arthritis, and this diagnosis was often not considered by the referring physician. Educational initiatives should be undertaken to increase local awareness of this treatable cause of arthritis in children.

  4. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of hand and foot MRI for early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Mangnus, Lukas; Newsum, Elize C; Bloem, Johan L; Huizinga, Tom W J; le Cessie, Saskia; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI for early RA. In some RA patients, a classifiable diagnosis cannot be made at first presentation; these patients present with unclassified arthritis (UA). The use of MRI for early diagnosis of RA is recommended, yet the evidence for its reliability is limited. MRI of hand and foot was performed in 589 early arthritis patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (229 presented with RA, 159 with other arthritides and 201 with UA). Symptom-free controls provided a reference for defining an abnormal MRI. In preliminary investigations, MRI of patients who presented with RA was compared with MRI of symptom-free controls and of patients with other arthritides. Thereafter, the value of MRI in early RA diagnosis was determined in UA patients using the 1-year follow-up on fulfilling the 1987 RA criteria and start of disease-modifying drugs as outcomes. Preliminary investigations were promising. Of the UA patients, 14% developed RA and 37% started disease-modifying treatment. MRI-detected tenosynovitis was associated with RA development independent of other types of MRI-detected inflammation [odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.4, 23] and also independent of age and other inflammatory measures (swollen joints, CRP) (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12.9). Within UA patients, the negative predictive value of abnormal tenosynovitis was 95% (95% CI: 89%, 98%) and the positive predictive value 25% (95% CI: 17%, 35%). The performance was best in the subgroup of UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis (18% developed RA): the positive predictive value was 36% (95% CI: 23%, 52%), the negative predictive value was 98% (95% CI: 88%, 100%), the sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 70%, 99%) and the specificity was 63% (95% CI: 51%, 74%). MRI contributes to the identification of UA patients who will develop RA, mostly in UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  5. [Significance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase assay in early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Liu, J; Zhu, L; Zhang, X W; Li, Z G

    2016-12-18

    To explore the titer of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) for early diagnosis of the outpatient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in real life, and to analyze its relationship with disease activity. In the study, 1 051 patients with arthritis were collected in the group who had joints tender and swelling, and 90 cases of healthy people as a control group. ELISA method was used to detect the serum level of GPI, and according to clinical features and laboratory test, all the patients including 525 RA patients, the other patients including osteoarthritis (OA), 134 cases of seronegative spine joint disease (SpA), 104 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 31 cases of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), 24 cases of gout arthritis (GA), 22 cases of other connective tissue diseases (including polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, adult Still disease) and 46 cases of other diseases (including 165 cases of osteoporosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, traumatic osteomyelitis, bone and joint disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, tumor). The diagnostic values of GPI were assessed, and the differences between the GPI positive and negative groups of the RA patients in clinical characteristics, disease activity, severity and inflammatory index analyzed. The positive rate of serum GPI in the patients with RA was 55.4%, contrasting to other autoimmune diseases (14.3%) and healthy controls (7.78%)(P<0.001). Compared with the OA and SpA patients, the RA group was increased more significantly, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The diagnostic value of GPI alone for RA was 0.39 mg/L, the sensitivity was 54.2%, and specificity was 87.3%. The positive rate of GPI in RF negative patients was 36.1%; the positive rate of GPI in anti-CCP antibody negative patients was 34.2%; the positive rate of GPI in RF and anti-CCP antibody negative patients was 24.1%. The level of GPI had positive correlation (P<0.05) with ESR, RF, anti

  6. Evaluation of clinical and cytogenetic parameters in rheumatoid arthritis patients for effective diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chandirasekar, R; Kumar, B Lakshman; Jayakumar, R; Uthayakumar, V; Jacob, Raichel; Sasikala, K

    2015-01-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the commonest inflammatory joint disease, affecting nearly 1% of the adult population worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have become increasingly important. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the relationships between hematological, biochemical, immunological and cytogenetic parameters in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy normal controls. The study group comprised of 126 RA patients and equal number of healthy normal control subjects. The blood was collected and analyzed for biochemical, immunological, enzymatic and cytogenetic parameters. Results of the present study indicated that 20% of RA patient's hematological, 31% of biochemical and 70% immunological parameters had a significant difference from the controls and reference range. The RF and anti-CCP antibody levels were also positive in 70% of RA patients. A significant increase in minor chromosomal abnormalities was also observed in patients as compared to controls. The knowledge about autoimmune diseases is very low among the South Indian population. The present study has thus helped in understanding the RA disease in a better way based on a pattern of various clinical markers of the disease condition which might help in planning therapeutic intervention strategies and create awareness about the disease management among RA patients of the population studied. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. AWBATTM: Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Victoria B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Methods: Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBATTM-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBATTM-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Results: Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, σ =1.95, with a range of 8–15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, σ =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, σ =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, σ =2.48, with a range of 5–13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, σ =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, σ =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Discussion: Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control. PMID:20361005

  8. AWBAT: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Victoria B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBAT-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBAT-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, sigma =1.95, with a range of 8-15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, sigma =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, sigma =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, sigma =2.48, with a range of 5-13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, sigma =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, sigma =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control.

  9. Genome-wide association study of response to methotrexate in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John C; Bongartz, Tim; Massey, Jonathan; Mifsud, Borbala; Spiliopoulou, Athina; Scott, Ian C; Wang, Jianmei; Morgan, Michael; Plant, Darren; Colombo, Marco; Orchard, Peter; Twigg, Sarah; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Freeston, Jane E; Nam, Jackie L; Cordell, Heather J; Isaacs, John D; Strathdee, Jenna L; Arnett, Donna; de Hair, Maria J H; Tak, Paul P; Aslibekyan, Stella; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Padyukov, Leonid; Bridges, S Louis; Pitzalis, Costantino; Cope, Andrew P; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Emery, Paul; Barnes, Michael R; Agakov, Felix; McKeigue, Paul; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Weinshilboum, Richard; Barton, Anne; Morgan, Ann W; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2018-05-25

    Methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy is a common first treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but many patients do not respond adequately. In order to identify genetic predictors of response, we have combined data from two consortia to carry out a genome-wide study of response to MTX in 1424 early RA patients of European ancestry. Clinical endpoints were change from baseline to 6 months after starting treatment in swollen 28-joint count, tender 28-joint count, C-reactive protein and the overall 3-component disease activity score (DAS28). No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reached genome-wide statistical significance for any outcome measure. The strongest evidence for association was with rs168201 in NRG3 (p = 10 -7 for change in DAS28). Some support was also seen for association with ZMIZ1, previously highlighted in a study of response to MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Follow-up in two smaller cohorts of 429 and 177 RA patients did not support these findings, although these cohorts were more heterogeneous.

  10. Outcome of total ankle arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory arthritis. A multicenter cohort study comparing clinical outcome and safety.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Elizabeth; Pinsker, Ellie; Younger, Alastair S E; Penner, Murray J; Wing, Kevin J; Dryden, Peter J; Glazebrook, Mark; Daniels, Timothy R

    2014-11-05

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often have degeneration of the ankle and ipsilateral hindfoot joints. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing total ankle arthroplasty have a higher risk of wound breakdown and infection. We compared intermediate-term clinical outcomes after total ankle arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with noninflammatory arthritis. Fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis were compared with fifty patients with noninflammatory arthritis (the control group), matched for age within ten years, prosthesis type, and follow-up time. All patients underwent total ankle arthroplasty. Revisions and major complications were noted. Outcome scores included the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. The groups were similar with respect to body mass index and length of follow-up (mean, 63.8 months for the rheumatoid arthritis group and 65.6 months for noninflammatory arthritis group); the rheumatoid arthritis group was younger (mean, 58.5 years compared with 61.2 years). The mean AOS pain scores were significantly different in the rheumatoid arthritis and noninflammatory arthritis groups preoperatively (p < 0.01), but were similar following total ankle arthroplasty (mean and standard deviation, 18.5 ± 17.8 for the rheumatoid arthritis group and 19.7 ± 16.5 for the noninflammatory arthritis group; p = 0.93). Both groups showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) with regard to the AOS scores for pain and disability and SF-36 physical component summary scores following surgery. Postoperatively, AOS disability and SF-36 physical component summary scores were better for patients with noninflammatory arthritis. There were seven revisions in the rheumatoid arthritis group and five in noninflammatory arthritis group. There was one major wound complication in the rheumatoid arthritis cohort and none in the control cohort. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis benefit from total ankle arthroplasty and

  11. Peer-to-peer mentoring for individuals with early inflammatory arthritis: feasibility pilot.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sharron; Veinot, Paula; Embuldeniya, Gayathri; Brooks, Sydney; Sale, Joanna; Huang, Sicong; Zhao, Alex; Richards, Dawn; Bell, Mary J

    2013-03-01

    To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of early peer support to improve the health and quality of life of individuals with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Feasibility study using the 2008 Medical Research Council framework as a theoretical basis. A literature review, environmental scan, and interviews with patients, families and healthcare providers guided the development of peer mentor training sessions and a peer-to-peer mentoring programme. Peer mentors were trained and paired with a mentee to receive (face-to-face or telephone) support over 12 weeks. Two academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Nine pairs consisting of one peer mentor and one mentee were matched based on factors such as age and work status. Mentee outcomes of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/biological treatment use, self-efficacy, self-management, health-related quality of life, anxiety, coping efficacy, social support and disease activity were measured using validated tools. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes. Peer mentor self-efficacy was assessed using a self-efficacy scale. Interviews conducted with participants examined acceptability and feasibility of procedures and outcome measures, as well as perspectives on the value of peer support for individuals with EIA. Themes were identified through constant comparison. Mentees experienced improvements in the overall arthritis impact on life, coping efficacy and social support (effect size >0.3). Mentees also perceived emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental support. Mentors also reported benefits and learnt from mentees' fortitude and self-management skills. The training was well received by mentors. Their self-efficacy increased significantly after training completion. Participants' experience of peer support was informed by the unique relationship with their peer. All participants were unequivocal about the need for

  12. Impact of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Associated Uveitis in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vernie, Lenneke A.; Rothova, Aniki; v. d. Doe, Patricia; Los, Leonoor I.; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; de Boer, Joke H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as ‘JIA-uveitis’) has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyze uveitis activity, complications and visual prognosis in adulthood. Methods In this multicenter study, 67 adult patients (129 affected eyes) with JIA-uveitis were retrospectively studied for best corrected visual acuity, visual fields, uveitis activity, topical/systemic treatments, ocular complications, and ocular surgeries during their 18th, 22nd and 30th year of life. Because treatment strategies changed after the year 1990, outcomes were stratified for onset of uveitis before and after 1990. Results Sixty-two of all 67 included patients (93%) had bilateral uveitis. During their 18th life year, 4/52 patients (8%) had complete remission, 28/52 (54%) had uveitis activity and 37/51 patients (73%) were on systemic immunomodulatory treatment. Bilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 2/51 patients (4%); unilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 17/51 patients (33%) aged 18 years. The visual prognosis appeared to be slightly better for patients with uveitis onset after the year 1990 (for uveitis onset before 1990 (n = 7) four patients (58%) and for uveitis onset after 1990 (n = 44) 13 patients (30%) were either visual impaired or blind). At least one ocular surgery was performed in 10/24 patients (42%) between their 18th and 22nd year of life. Conclusions Bilateral visual outcome in early adulthood in patients with JIA-uveitis appears to be fairly good, although one third of the patients developed one visually impaired or blind eye. However, a fair amount of the patients suffered from ongoing uveitis activity and needed ongoing treatment as well as surgical interventions. Awareness of these findings is important for ophthalmologists and

  13. Transient anorexia, hyper-nociception and cognitive impairment in early adjuvant arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Skurlova, M; Stofkova, A; Kiss, A; Belacek, J; Pecha, O; Deykun, K; Jurcovicova, J

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, pain, anorexia, and cognitive changes. The enhanced production of cytokines appears before the full manifestation of the disease. So far, any experimental data on behavioral effects of early arthritis are lacking. In the present series we describe anorexia early changes in, pain hyper-sensitivity and altered cognitive behavior during the first four days of adjuvant arthritis in rats (AA), when no clinical signs are yet apparent. AA was induced to male Lewis rats by a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (cFA) at the base of the tail. Plasma leptin and ghrelin were measured using specific RIA methods. Gene expressions for food-regulatory peptides, neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC), were quantitated by TaqMan real-time PCR. Pain sensation was measured on all four limbs and tail by the plantar test. Cognitive functions were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Levels of orexigenic ghrelin as well as mRNA expression of orexigenic NPY in nucleus arcuatus (nRC)re significantly enhanced on day 2 of AA only. Reduced body weight and food intake persisted by day 4 with the most profound reduction on day 2. The mRNA for anorexigenic IL-1β in the nARC was significantly enhanced on days 2 and 4. Enhanced pain sensitivity was observed on day 2, as was the cognitive impairment given by longer time to find the hidden platform, longer time spent in thigmotaxis zone, and longer trajectory. The less effective strategy used to find the hidden platform was observed up to the day 4 of AA. Early stage of AA brings about reduced body weight, food intake, and activation of central orexigenic pathways. The observed anorexia could be ascribed to the over-expression of anorexigenic IL-1β which dominates over the NPY orexigenic effects. On day 2 of AA higher pain sensitivity and cognitive impairment appear. All the observed change tend

  14. Disparity between ultrasound and clinical findings in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Husic, Rusmir; Gretler, Judith; Felber, Anja; Graninger, Winfried B; Duftner, Christina; Hermann, Josef; Dejaco, Christian

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the association between psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-specific clinical composite scores and ultrasound-verified pathology as well as comparison of clinical and ultrasound definitions of remission. We performed a prospective study on 70 consecutive PsA patients. Clinical assessments included components of Disease Activity Index for Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) and the Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (CPDAI). Minimal disease activity (MDA) and the following remission criteria were applied: CPDAI joint, entheses and dactylitis domains (CPDAI-JED)=0, DAPSA≤3.3, Boolean's remission definition and physician-judged remission (rem-phys). B-mode and power Doppler (PD-) ultrasound findings were semiquantitatively scored at 68 joints (evaluating synovia, peritendinous tissue, tendons and bony changes) and 14 entheses. Ultrasound remission and minimal ultrasound disease activity (MUDA) were defined as PD-score=0 and PD-score ≤1, respectively, at joints, peritendinous tissue, tendons and entheses. DAPSA but not CPDAI correlated with B-mode and PD-synovitis. Ultrasound signs of enthesitis, dactylitis, tenosynovitis and perisynovitis were not linked with clinical composites. Clinical remission or MDA was observed in 15.7% to 47.1% of PsA patients. Ultrasound remission and MUDA were present in 4.3% and 20.0% of patients, respectively. Joint and tendon-related PD-scores were higher in patients with active versus inactive disease according to CPDAI-JED, DAPSA, Boolean's and rem-phys, whereas no difference was observed regarding enthesitis and perisynovitis. DAPSA≤3.3 (OR 3.9, p=0.049) and Boolean's definition (OR 4.6, p=0.03) were more useful to predict MUDA than other remission criteria. PsA-specific composite scores partially reflect ultrasound findings. DAPSA and Boolean's remission definitions better identify MUDA patients than other clinical criteria. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  15. Improvement in work place and household productivity for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis treated with adalimumab plus methotrexate: work outcomes and their correlations with clinical and radiographic measures from a randomized controlled trial companion study.

    PubMed

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Cifaldi, Mary A; Ray, Saurabh; Chen, Naijun; Weisman, Michael H

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate household and work place outcomes for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were homemakers or employed workers, respectively, and who were treated with adalimumab plus methotrexate versus methotrexate monotherapy. We also determined baseline predictors of household and work place outcomes. Data were from a health economic companion study to PREMIER, a 2-year, randomized controlled trial of methotrexate-naive patients with early RA (<3 years) who received treatment with adalimumab plus methotrexate, adalimumab, or methotrexate. Absenteeism (number of days missed or unfit to work), presenteeism (self-judgment of the effects of RA on job or household performance), and employment status were collected from self-reports at baseline and varying time points during the study. Household and work place outcomes were generally similar for homemakers and employed workers. Over 2 years, patients who received combination therapy missed approximately half as many days as patients who received methotrexate (17.4 versus 36.9 days for employed workers; 7.9 versus 18.6 days for homemakers). Presenteeism was lower (reflecting better productivity) for combination therapy than methotrexate monotherapy. The likelihood of gaining/retaining employment over 2 years was greater for combination therapy than methotrexate monotherapy (odds ratio 1.530, 95% confidence interval 1.038-2.255; P = 0.0318). Baseline radiographic progression was an independent predictor for retaining/gaining employment at 2 years. Compared with methotrexate monotherapy, combination therapy was associated with more positive work outcomes: less absenteeism, less presenteeism, and greater likelihood of gaining/retaining employment. Radiographic progression at baseline was predictive of the ability to retain or gain employment.

  16. 2016 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis.

    PubMed

    Combe, Bernard; Landewe, Robert; Daien, Claire I; Hua, Charlotte; Aletaha, Daniel; Álvaro-Gracia, Jose María; Bakkers, Margôt; Brodin, Nina; Burmester, Gerd R; Codreanu, Catalin; Conway, Richard; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Fonseca, Joao; Raza, Karim; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Smolen, Josef S; Skingle, Diana; Szekanecz, Zoltan; Kvien, Tore K; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette; van Vollenhoven, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    Since the 2007 recommendations for the management of early arthritis have been presented, considerable research has been published in the field of early arthritis, mandating an update of the 2007 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for management of early arthritis. In accordance with the 2014 EULAR Standardised Operating Procedures, the expert committee pursued an approach that was based on evidence in the literature and on expert opinion. The committee involved 20 rheumatologists, 2 patients and 1 healthcare professional representing 12 European countries. The group defined the focus of the expert committee and target population, formulated a definition of 'management' and selected the research questions. A systematic literature research (SLR) was performed by two fellows with the help of a skilled librarian. A set of draft recommendations was proposed on the basis of the research questions and the results of the SLR. For each recommendation, the categories of evidence were identified, the strength of recommendations was derived and the level of agreement was determined through a voting process. The updated recommendations comprise 3 overarching principles and 12 recommendations for managing early arthritis. The selected statements involve the recognition of arthritis, referral, diagnosis, prognostication, treatment (information, education, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions), monitoring and strategy. Eighteen items were identified as relevant for future research. These recommendations provide rheumatologists, general practitioners, healthcare professionals, patients and other stakeholders with an updated EULAR consensus on the entire management of early arthritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in early rheumatoid arthritis: anti‐citrulline autoreactivity is associated with up regulation of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Hueber, Wolfgang; Tomooka, Beren H; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Kidd, Brian A; Drijfhout, Jan W; Fries, James F; van Venrooij, Walther J; Metzger, Allan L; Genovese, Mark C; Robinson, William H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify peripheral blood autoantibody and cytokine profiles that characterise clinically relevant subgroups of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis using arthritis antigen microarrays and a multiplex cytokine assay. Methods Serum samples from 56 patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis of <6 months' duration were tested. Cytokine profiles were also determined in samples from patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (n = 21), and from healthy individuals (n = 19). Data were analysed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Dunn's adjustment for multiple comparisons, linear correlation tests, significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and hierarchical clustering software. Results Distinct antibody profiles were associated with subgroups of patients who exhibited high serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, IL13, IL15 and granulocyte macrophage colony‐stimulating factor. Significantly increased autoantibody reactivity against citrullinated epitopes was observed in patients within the cytokine “high” subgroup. Increased levels of TNFα, IL1α, IL12p40 and IL13, and the chemokines eotaxin/CCL11, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 and interferon‐inducible protein 10, were present in early rheumatoid arthritis as compared with controls (p<0.001). Chemokines showed some of the most impressive differences. Only IL8/CXCL8 concentrations were higher in patients with PsA/ankylosing spondylitis (p = 0.02). Conclusions Increased blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines are associated with autoantibody targeting of citrullinated antigens and surrogate markers of disease activity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Proteomic analysis of serum autoantibodies, cytokines and chemokines enables stratification of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis into molecular subgroups. PMID:16901957

  18. Pneumococcal septic arthritis in adults: clinical analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Belkhir, L; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H; Vandercam, B; Marot, J C; Cornu, O; Lambert, M; Yombi, J C

    2014-01-01

    Septic arthritis (SA) is a rheumatological emergency that can lead to rapid joint destruction and irreversible loss of function. The most common pathogen causing SA is Staphylococcus aureus which is responsible for 37-65% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is traditionally described as an uncommon cause of SA of a native joint. The objective of our study was to analyse clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of all cases of pneumococcal septic arthritis treated in our institution, and to compare them with other series published in the literature. We conducted a retrospective study of pneumococcal SA identified among all cases of SA diagnosed in a teaching hospital of one thousand beds between 2004 and 2009. Diagnosis was based on culture of joint liquid or by the presence of pneumococcal bacteraemia and purulent (more than 50 000/mm(3) white blood cells with more than 90% neutrophils) joint fluid aspiration. Among 266 cases of SA, nine patients (3·3%) were diagnosed as having pneumococcal SA. The median age was 75 years. The main affected joint was the knee (7/9). No patient had more than one joint involved. Four patients suffered from concomitant pneumonia. Joint culture and blood cultures were positive in 7/9 and 5/9, respectively. Median (range) length of stay was 18 days (3-47 days). One patient with associated pneumococcal bacteraemia died 19 days after admission. Seven patients recovered completely. Streptococcus pneumoniae is now being increasingly recognized as a common agent of SA. This organism is frequently associated with pneumococcal pneumonia or bacteraemia, particularly in patients with advanced age and comorbidities. Direct inoculation of joint fluid into blood culture medium BACTEC system increases the probability of microbiological diagnosis. The prognosis is usually favourable if the disease is promptly recognized and treated (antibiotic therapy combined with joint drainage).

  19. Clinical and serological predictors of remission in rheumatoid arthritis are dependent on treatment regimen.

    PubMed

    Ma, Margaret H Y; Scott, Ian C; Dahanayake, Chanaka; Cope, Andrew P; Scott, David L

    2014-07-01

    Early intensive treatment is now the cornerstone for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the era of personalized medicine, when treatment is becoming more individualized, it is unclear from the current literature whether all patients with RA benefit equally from such intensive therapies. We investigated the benefit of different treatment regimens on remission rates when stratified to clinical and serological factors. The Combination Anti-rheumatic Drugs in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CARDERA) trial recruited patients with RA of less than 2 years' duration who had active disease. The trial compared 4 treatment regimens: methotrexate monotherapy, 2 different double therapy regimens (methotrexate and cyclosporine or methotrexate and prednisolone) and 3-drug therapy. Clinical predictors included age, male sex, and tender joint count (TJC) and serological biomarkers included rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Patients who were male, over 50 years, had ≥ 6 TJC, were RF-IgM-positive, or ACPA-positive were more likely to achieve remission at 24 months using 3-drug therapy compared to monotherapy (OR 2.99, 4.95, 2.71, 2.54, and 3.52, respectively). There were no differences in response to monotherapy and 3-drug therapy if patients were female, under 50 years, had < 6 TJC, or were seronegative. Early intensive regimens have become the gold standard in the treatment of early RA. Our study suggests that this intensive approach is only superior to monotherapy in certain subsets of patients. Although these are unlikely to be the only predictors of treatment response, our study brings us a step closer to achieving personalized medicine in RA.

  20. What are the goals and principles of management in the early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Bykerk, Vivian Patricia; Keystone, Edward Clark

    2005-02-01

    The management of patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires an awareness of the potential issues and needs that are unique to each patient with regards to their perceptions of their disease, physical needs and nutritional issues. Arthritis specialists should have a clear approach to the goals of management that are specific to patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). In this chapter, evidence for the goals and principles of management in the early treatment of RA is discussed. Patient education, the role of self-management, physical therapies, exercise, diet and drug management are addressed. This chapter aims to provide clinicians with a clear understanding of which interventions have supporting evidence and where further research is required. Where evidence for patients with ERA is lacking, evidence from patients with established RA is reviewed.

  1. Clinical and serological characteristics of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Carlos; Maldonado, Génessis; Paredes, Carlos; Ferro, Christian; Moreno, Mario; Vera, Claudia; Vargas, Sara; Calapaqui, Wendy; Vallejo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, wherein late diagnosis and treatment leads to deformities and disability. Objective The aim of the study was to assess and describe the clinical and immunological characteristics, activity status of the disease, and functional capacity in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with RA. Methods This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted on a population of patients with prediagnosed RA from public and private Ecuadorian rheumatology clinics. This study investigated 400 patients with a mean age of 50 years, 353 (82.25%) of which were female. Results The study showed that 44.3%, 83.5%, 60.3%, 41.8%, 37.5%, and 11.5% had an acute onset of the disease, symmetrical polyarthritis, morning stiffness exceeding 1 h, dry eyes, dry mouth, and rheumatoid nodules, respectively. A total of 89.7% presented with positive rheumatoid factor, and 96.5% were anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive. Conclusion This is the largest Ecuadorian cohort of patients with RA; clinical features are similar to those of other Latin American populations. PMID:28652830

  2. Clinical and serological characteristics of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Carlos; Maldonado, Génessis; Paredes, Carlos; Ferro, Christian; Moreno, Mario; Vera, Claudia; Vargas, Sara; Calapaqui, Wendy; Vallejo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, wherein late diagnosis and treatment leads to deformities and disability. The aim of the study was to assess and describe the clinical and immunological characteristics, activity status of the disease, and functional capacity in a cohort of Ecuadorian patients with RA. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted on a population of patients with prediagnosed RA from public and private Ecuadorian rheumatology clinics. This study investigated 400 patients with a mean age of 50 years, 353 (82.25%) of which were female. The study showed that 44.3%, 83.5%, 60.3%, 41.8%, 37.5%, and 11.5% had an acute onset of the disease, symmetrical polyarthritis, morning stiffness exceeding 1 h, dry eyes, dry mouth, and rheumatoid nodules, respectively. A total of 89.7% presented with positive rheumatoid factor, and 96.5% were anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive. This is the largest Ecuadorian cohort of patients with RA; clinical features are similar to those of other Latin American populations.

  3. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patrick D W; Brown, Andrew K; Edwards, Christopher J; O'Reilly, David T; Ostör, Andrew J K; Quinn, Mark; Taggart, Allister; Taylor, Peter C; Wakefield, Richard J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-07-01

    RA has a substantial impact on both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective is to advance the understanding of modern management principles in light of recent evidence concerning the condition's diagnosis and treatment. A group of practicing UK rheumatologists formulated contemporary management principles and clinical practice recommendations concerning both diagnosis and treatment. Areas of clinical uncertainty were documented, leading to research recommendations. A fundamental concept governing treatment of RA is minimization of cumulative inflammation, referred to as the inflammation-time area under the curve (AUC). To achieve this, four core principles of management were identified: (i) detect and refer patients early, even if the diagnosis is uncertain: patients should be referred at the first suspicion of persistent inflammatory polyarthritis and rheumatology departments should provide rapid access to a diagnostic and prognostic service; (ii) treat RA immediately: optimizing outcomes with conventional DMARDs and biologics requires that effective treatment be started early-ideally within 3 months of symptom onset; (iii) tight control of inflammation in RA improves outcome: frequent assessments and an objective protocol should be used to make treatment changes that maintain low-disease activity/remission at an agreed target; (iv) consider the risk-benefit ratio and tailor treatment to each patient: differing patient, disease and drug characteristics require long-term monitoring of risks and benefits with adaptations of treatments to suit individual circumstances. These principles focus on effective control of the inflammatory process in RA, but optimal uptake may require changes in service provision to accommodate appropriate care pathways.

  4. Spanish Cultural Adaptation of the Questionnaire Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients.

    PubMed

    García-Gavín, J; Pérez-Pérez, L; Tinazzi, I; Vidal, D; McGonagle, D

    2017-12-01

    The Early Arthritis for Psoriatic patients (EARP) questionnaire is a screening tool for psoriatic arthritis. The original Italian version has good measurement properties but the EARP required translation and adaptation for use in Spain. This article describes the cultural adaptation process as a step prior to validation. We used the principles of good practice for the cross-cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcomes measurement established by the International Society Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research. The steps in this process were preparation, forward translation, reconciliation, back-translation and review, harmonization, cognitive debriefing and review, and proofreading. During preparation the developers of the original questionnaire were asked for their permission to adapt the EARP for use in Spain and to act as consultants during the process. The original questionnaire was translated into Spanish by native Spanish translators, who made slight changes that were approved by the questionnaire's developers. The Spanish version was then back-translated into Italian; that version was reviewed to confirm equivalence with the original Italian text. The reconciled Spanish EARP was then tested for comprehensibility and interpretation in a group of 35 patients. All the patients answered all items without making additional comments. This cultural adaptation of the EARP questionnaire for Spanish populations is the first step towards its later use in routine clinical practice. The application of a cross-cultural adaptation method ensured equivalence between the original and Spanish versions of the EARP. The Spanish questionnaire will be validated in a second stage. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Analysis of clinical and imaging characteristics of infectious sacroiliac arthritis and review of literatures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yanyan; Zhu, Jian; Jin, Jingyu; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jianglin; Huang, Feng

    2015-05-01

    To study the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with infectious sacroiliac arthritis. Twenty-one patients diagnosed with infectious sacroiliac arthritis were analyzed retrospectively between 2000 and 2014. The chief complaint was pain in hip and lumbosacral area. Their clinical features, laboratory tests and pathological examination results as well as CT/MRI/PET-CT images were evaluated. There were nine males and thirteen females eighteen (85.7%) patients had unilateral sacroiliac joint involvement. Among these patients, three were diagnosed with brucellosis sacroiliac arthritis (BSI), eight patients with tuberculosis sacroiliac arthritis (TSI), and ten patients with non-brucellosis and non-tuberculosis infectious sacroiliac arthritis (ISI). For those patients with non-brucellosis and non-tuberculosis infectious sacroiliac arthritis, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were dramatically increased. Twelve patients were diagnosed pathologically including 6 ISI, 2 BSI and 4 TSI. Twelve patients and seventeen patients were scanned by CT and MRI respectively. Two patients undertook PET-CT examination. Antibiotic therapy showed significant therapeutic effects in all patients. Infectious sacroiliac arthritis patients with hip or lumbosacral pain as the chief complaint can be easily misdiagnosed as spondyloarthritis. Comprehensive analysis of clinical features, imaging and laboratory findings is essential for accurate diagnosis.

  6. Rationale of Cruciate Retaining Design in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of Clinical Analysis and its Role in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Munis; Sharma, Om Prakash; Priyavadhana, Sruthi; Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, proponents of total knee designs (cruciate retaining and posterior stabilised) have conducted several long-term studies to claim the potential of these designs in several subsets of patients. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has also been one such domain where numerous studies were conducted in the past. A general perception among majority of arthroplasty surgeons is that, posterior stabilised (PS) is the implanted design of choice among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, with the available literature there is a significant disparity related to the selection of implants in patients with rheumatoid RA. In this review of literature, an attempt is made to identify the clinical performance and role of one such implant design, the cruciate retaining (CR) prosthesis in rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted after a series of advanced search in the following medical databases; Pub med, Biomed central, Cochrane and Google scholar for articles related to long term follow up studies of cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis using the keywords cruciate retaining prosthesis, total knee arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis. The available data demonstrate that the CR design is attributed with an excellent long term survivorship and functional outcome even in follow up studies up to twenty-five years. The advantages of using a CR design are long term survivorship, controlled femoral roll back and preservation of bone stock. Thus, the data gathered in this review lead to a consideration that the CR design is an implant design on par with PS design in patients with RA.

  7. Rationale of Cruciate Retaining Design in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of Clinical Analysis and its Role in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Munis; Sharma, Om Prakash; Priyavadhana, Sruthi; Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the years, proponents of total knee designs (cruciate retaining and posterior stabilised) have conducted several long-term studies to claim the potential of these designs in several subsets of patients. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has also been one such domain where numerous studies were conducted in the past. A general perception among majority of arthroplasty surgeons is that, posterior stabilised (PS) is the implanted design of choice among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, with the available literature there is a significant disparity related to the selection of implants in patients with rheumatoid RA. In this review of literature, an attempt is made to identify the clinical performance and role of one such implant design, the cruciate retaining (CR) prosthesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Method: The review was conducted after a series of advanced search in the following medical databases; Pub med, Biomed central, Cochrane and Google scholar for articles related to long term follow up studies of cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis using the keywords cruciate retaining prosthesis, total knee arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis. Results: The available data demonstrate that the CR design is attributed with an excellent long term survivorship and functional outcome even in follow up studies up to twenty-five years. Conclusion: The advantages of using a CR design are long term survivorship, controlled femoral roll back and preservation of bone stock. Thus, the data gathered in this review lead to a consideration that the CR design is an implant design on par with PS design in patients with RA. PMID:29114338

  8. Sternoclavicular Arthritis as a Clinical Presentation for Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Rosenkranz, Margalit; Nowalk, Andrew J; Zuckerbraun, Noel S

    2018-04-01

    Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and can lead to dermatologic, neurologic, cardiac, and musculoskeletal manifestations. The arthritis of Lyme disease is typically monoarticular, with the knee being most commonly involved. Lyme arthritis of small joints has not previously been well described. We report 3 children who presented with sternoclavicular joint swelling and who were found to have Lyme disease based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. This description of sternoclavicular Lyme arthritis highlights the importance of considering Lyme disease in the differential and diagnostic workup of new onset, small joint arthritis in patients presenting from or with travel to Lyme endemic regions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Effectiveness of early adalimumab therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients from Reuma.pt - EARLY PsA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Helena; Eusébio, Mónica; Borges, Joana; Gonçalves, Diana; Ávila-Ribeiro, Pedro; Faria, Daniela Santos; Lopes, Carina; Rovisco, João; Águeda, Ana; Nero, Patrícia; Valente, Paula; Cravo, Ana Rita; Santos, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients initiating adalimumab (ADA), with short- and long-term disease duration and to evaluate the potential effect of concomitant conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARD) or glucocorticoids. Methods Analyses included adult PsA patients registered in the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) between June 2008-June 2016 who received ADA for ≥3 months. Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC) response, tender and swollen joint count, inflammatory parameters, patient (PtGA) and physician global assessment (PhGA), Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28), and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) were compared between patients with <5 years of disease (early PsA) and those with ≥5 years of disease duration (late PsA). Time to achieving PsARC response was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 135 PsA patients treated with ADA, 126 had information on disease duration (earlyPsA, n=41). PsARC response was achieved by 72.9% of the patients (88.0% early PsA vs 62.2% late PsA; P=0.022) after 3 months and by 85.4% after 24 months (100% early PsA vs 75.9% late PsA; P=0.044). Early PsA patients achieved significantly less painful joints (2.7 vs 6.7, p=0.006), lower mean C-reactive protein (0.5 mg/dL vs 1.3 mg/dL; P=0.011), and PhGA (18.3 vs 28.1; P=0.020) at 3 months. In the long term, early PsA patients also had fewer swollen joints (0.3 vs 1.7; P=0.030) and lower PhGA (6.3 vs 21.9; P<0.001), C-reactive protein (0.4 mg/dL vs 1.0 mg/dL; P=0.026), and DAS28 (2.2 vs 3.2; P=0.030). HAQ-DI decreased in both groups reaching a mean value at 24 months of 0.4 and 0.8 (P=ns) in early and late PsA, respectively. Early PsA patients obtained PsARC response more rapidly than late PsA (3.8 and 7.4 months, respectively; P=0.008). Concomitant csDMARDs showed clinical benefit (2-year PsARC response, 88.3% vs 60.0%; P=0.044). Concomitant glucocorticoids

  10. Aggressive treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis: recognizing the window of opportunity and treating to target goals.

    PubMed

    Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Cicero, Marco P

    2010-11-01

    Evidence supports the use of aggressive therapy for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical outcomes in patients with early RA can improve with a treat-to-target approach that sets the goal at disease remission. The current selection of antirheumatic therapies, including conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), has made disease remission a realistic target for patients with early RA. The challenge is selecting the optimal antirheumatic drug or combination of drugs for initial and subsequent therapy to balance the clinical benefits, risks, and economic considerations. In some cases, the use of biologic agents as part of the treatment regimen has shown superior results compared with conventional DMARDs alone in halting the progression of disease, especially in reducing radiographic damage. However, the use of biologic agents as initial therapy is challenged by cost-effectiveness analyses, which favor the use of conventional DMARDs. The use of biologic agents may be justified in certain patients with poor prognostic factors or those who experience an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs as a means to slow or halt disease progression and its associated disability. In these cases, the higher cost of treatment with biologic agents may be offset by decreased societal costs, such as lost work productivity, and increased health-related quality of life. Further research is needed to understand optimal strategies for balancing costs, benefits, and risks of antirheumatic drugs. Some key questions are (1) when biologic agents are appropriate for initial therapy, and (2) when to conclude that response to conventional DMARDs is inadequate and biologic agents should be initiated.

  11. Peer-to-peer mentoring for individuals with early inflammatory arthritis: feasibility pilot

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Sharron; Veinot, Paula; Embuldeniya, Gayathri; Brooks, Sydney; Sale, Joanna; Huang, Sicong; Zhao, Alex; Richards, Dawn; Bell, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of early peer support to improve the health and quality of life of individuals with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Design Feasibility study using the 2008 Medical Research Council framework as a theoretical basis. A literature review, environmental scan, and interviews with patients, families and healthcare providers guided the development of peer mentor training sessions and a peer-to-peer mentoring programme. Peer mentors were trained and paired with a mentee to receive (face-to-face or telephone) support over 12 weeks. Setting Two academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants Nine pairs consisting of one peer mentor and one mentee were matched based on factors such as age and work status. Primary outcome measure Mentee outcomes of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/biological treatment use, self-efficacy, self-management, health-related quality of life, anxiety, coping efficacy, social support and disease activity were measured using validated tools. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes. Peer mentor self-efficacy was assessed using a self-efficacy scale. Interviews conducted with participants examined acceptability and feasibility of procedures and outcome measures, as well as perspectives on the value of peer support for individuals with EIA. Themes were identified through constant comparison. Results Mentees experienced improvements in the overall arthritis impact on life, coping efficacy and social support (effect size >0.3). Mentees also perceived emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental support. Mentors also reported benefits and learnt from mentees’ fortitude and self-management skills. The training was well received by mentors. Their self-efficacy increased significantly after training completion. Participants’ experience of peer support was informed by the unique

  12. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciT

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitutionmore » of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.« less

  13. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciT

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitutionmore » of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.« less

  14. Do Genetic Susceptibility Variants Associate with Disease Severity in Early Active Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian C; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Walker, Jemma; Quist, Jelmar; Spain, Sarah L; Tan, Rachael; Steer, Sophia; Okada, Yukinori; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cope, Andrew P; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-07-01

    Genetic variants affect both the development and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have expanded the number of RA susceptibility variants. We tested the hypothesis that these associated with disease severity in a clinical trial cohort of patients with early, active RA. We evaluated 524 patients with RA enrolled in the Combination Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Early RA (CARDERA) trials. We tested validated susceptibility variants - 69 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), 15 HLA-DRB1 alleles, and amino acid polymorphisms in 6 HLA molecule positions - for their associations with progression in Larsen scoring, 28-joint Disease Activity Scores, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores over 2 years using linear mixed-effects and latent growth curve models. HLA variants were associated with joint destruction. The *04:01 SNP (rs660895, p = 0.0003), *04:01 allele (p = 0.0002), and HLA-DRβ1 amino acids histidine at position 13 (p = 0.0005) and valine at position 11 (p = 0.0012) significantly associated with radiological progression. This association was only significant in anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive patients, suggesting that while their effects were not mediated by ACPA, they only predicted joint damage in ACPA-positive RA. Non-HLA variants did not associate with radiograph damage (assessed individually and cumulatively as a weighted genetic risk score). Two SNP - rs11889341 (STAT4, p = 0.0001) and rs653178 (SH2B3-PTPN11, p = 0.0004) - associated with HAQ scores over 6-24 months. HLA susceptibility variants play an important role in determining radiological progression in early, active ACPA-positive RA. Genome-wide and HLA-wide analyses across large populations are required to better characterize the genetic architecture of radiological progression in RA.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Triple Therapy Versus Etanercept Plus Methotrexate in Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hawre; O'Dell, James R; Bridges, S Louis; Cofield, Stacey; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Mikuls, Ted R; Moreland, Larry W; Michaud, Kaleb

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of all 4 interventions in the Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) clinical trial: immediate triple (IT), immediate etanercept (IE), step-up triple (ST), and step-up etanercept (SE). Step-up interventions started with methotrexate and added either etanercept or sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine to patients with persistent disease activity. We built a Markov cohort model that uses individual-level data from the TEAR trial, published literature, and supplemental clinical data. Costs were in US dollars, benefits in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), perspective was societal, and the time horizon was 5 years. The immediate strategies were more efficacious than step-up strategies. SE and IE were more costly than ST and IT, primarily due to treatment cost differences. In addition, IT was the least expensive and most effective strategy when the time horizon was 1 and 2 years. When the time horizon was 5 years, IE was marginally more effective than IT (3.483 versus 3.476 QALYs), but IE was substantially more expensive than IT ($148,800 versus $52,600), producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $12.5 million per QALY. These results were robust to both one-way deterministic and joint probabilistic sensitivity analyses. IT was highly cost-effective in the majority of scenarios. Although IE was more effective in 5 years, a substantial reduction in the cost of biologic agents was required in order for IE to become cost-effective in early aggressive RA under willingness-to-pay thresholds that most health care settings may find acceptable. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Identification of a transitional fibroblast function in very early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Filer, Andrew; Ward, Lewis S C; Kemble, Samuel; Davies, Christopher S; Munir, Hafsa; Rogers, Rebekah; Raza, Karim; Buckley, Christopher Dominic; Nash, Gerard B; McGettrick, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Synovial fibroblasts actively regulate the inflammatory infiltrate by communicating with neighbouring endothelial cells (EC). Surprisingly, little is known about how the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) alters these immunomodulatory properties. We examined the effects of phase of RA and disease outcome (resolving vs persistence) on fibroblast crosstalk with EC and regulation of lymphocyte recruitment. Methods Fibroblasts were isolated from patients without synovitis, with resolving arthritis, very early RA (VeRA; symptom ≤12 weeks) and established RA undergoing joint replacement (JRep) surgery. Endothelial-fibroblast cocultures were formed on opposite sides of porous filters. Lymphocyte adhesion from flow, secretion of soluble mediators and interleukin 6 (IL-6) signalling were assessed. Results Fibroblasts from non-inflamed and resolving arthritis were immunosuppressive, inhibiting lymphocyte recruitment to cytokine-treated endothelium. This effect was lost very early in the development of RA, such that fibroblasts no longer suppressed recruitment. Changes in IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) signalling appeared critical for the loss of the immunosuppressive phenotype. In the absence of exogenous cytokines, JRep, but not VeRA, fibroblasts activated endothelium to support lymphocyte. Conclusions In RA, fibroblasts undergo two distinct changes in function: first a loss of immunosuppressive responses early in disease development, followed by the later acquisition of a stimulatory phenotype. Fibroblasts exhibit a transitional functional phenotype during the first 3 months of symptoms that contributes to the accumulation of persistent infiltrates. Finally, the role of IL-6 and TGF-β1 changes from immunosuppressive in resolving arthritis to stimulatory very early in the development of RA. Early interventions targeting ‘pathogenic’ fibroblasts may be required in order to restore protective regulatory processes. PMID:28847766

  17. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  18. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis with dry synovitis: clinical case and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Dias, Bruno Leonardo Scofano; Imamura, Erica Ueno; Izumi, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Lúcia Virgínia de Melo; Borigato, Eliana Valverde Magro

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a term that encompasses all forms of arthritis that begin before the age of 16 years, persist for more than 6 weeks and are of unknown cause. Dry synovitis is still not completely understood nor commonly described. It is associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and must be considered in patients with minimal swelling but pain and stiffness along with flexion contractures as well as other evidence of an inflammatory process (lab changes and/or other symptoms, such as uveitis or rash), and often follow a destructive course. The authors present a case of a brazilian child with a rheumatoid factor- negative polyarthritis compatible with the subtype dry synovitis, who had great clinical and functional improvement after participation in rehabilitation activities and beginning of pharmacological treatment usually used in Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, including immunossuppressive therapy.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis clinical features and management strategies at an urban tertiary facility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rais, Rehan; Saeed, Mohammad; Haider, Rimsha; Jassani, Zahra; Riaz, Amir; Perveen, Tahira

    2014-12-01

    To determine the presentation patterns, biologically vulnerable patient groups and treatment strategies of rheumatoid arthritis. The retrospective study was conducted at the Rheumatology Clinic of Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, and comprised data of rheumatology patients who presented between September 2006 and September 2012. After screening all the files, rheumatoid arthritis cases were identified. Data collection was done using a questionnaire that included patient demographics, co-morbidities, clinical manifestations and drug therapy. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2300 files screened, 500(21.7%) related to patients of rheumatoid arthritis. The mean age at presentation of these 500 patients was 41±15 years. There were 367(73.4%) women and they presented at an earlier age compared to men (p<0.024). Erosions were present in 198(40%) patients on X-rays and 22(4.4%) had joint deformities. Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis was associated with higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (p<0.014), but did not differ from seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in terms of Disease Activity Score-28 levels (p<0.21). The skewed gender distribution was likely an effect of rheumatoid arthritis biology rather than due to issues of healthcare accessibility. Seronegative RA is likely to present late though it is as destructive as the seropositive disease.

  20. Septic Arthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Clinical and Functional Outcomes Based on Graft Retention or Removal.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Brian R; Arroyo, William; Cotter, Eric J; Zacchilli, Michael A; Garcia, E'Stephan J; Owens, Brett D

    2018-03-01

    There remains a debate over whether to retain the index anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft in the setting of septic arthritis. To evaluate and compare clinical outcomes for the treatment of septic arthritis after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in those with and without early graft retention. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The Military Health System was queried for all ACLR procedures performed between 2007 and 2013. Inclusion criteria required active military status, primary ACLR with secondary septic arthritis, and minimum 24-month surveillance. Demographic, clinical, and surgical variables were evaluated using descriptive statistics and regression analysis for factors influencing selected outcomes. Of 9511 ACLR procedures, 31 (0.32%) were identified as having secondary septic arthritis requiring urgent arthroscopic irrigation and debridement and intravenous antibiotics (mean, 6.3 weeks). The majority (62%) were treated in the subacute (2 weeks to 2 months) setting. Index ACLR was performed with a hamstring autograft (n = 17, 55%), soft tissue allograft (n = 11, 35%), and patellar tendon autograft (n = 3, 10%). The graft was retained in 71% (n = 22) of patients, while 29% (n = 9) underwent early graft debridement. At a mean 26.9-month follow-up, 48% of patients (n = 15) had returned to the military. Graft removal was not predictive of return to active duty ( P = .29). The presence of postoperative complications, including symptomatic postinfection arthritis (22.6%) and arthrofibrosis (9.7%), was the only variable predictive of inability to return to duty (odds ratio, 27.5 [95% CI, 3.24-233.47]; P = .002). Seven of 9 patients who underwent graft debridement underwent revision ACLR, and all 7 had stable knees at final follow-up compared with 68% (15/22) in the graft retention group. Arthroscopic debridement with early graft removal and staged revision ACLR remains a viable option for restoring knee stability (100%), although the rate of return to active duty was

  1. Septic Arthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Clinical and Functional Outcomes Based on Graft Retention or Removal

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Brian R.; Arroyo, William; Cotter, Eric J.; Zacchilli, Michael A.; Garcia, E’Stephan J.; Owens, Brett D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: There remains a debate over whether to retain the index anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft in the setting of septic arthritis. Purpose: To evaluate and compare clinical outcomes for the treatment of septic arthritis after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in those with and without early graft retention. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The Military Health System was queried for all ACLR procedures performed between 2007 and 2013. Inclusion criteria required active military status, primary ACLR with secondary septic arthritis, and minimum 24-month surveillance. Demographic, clinical, and surgical variables were evaluated using descriptive statistics and regression analysis for factors influencing selected outcomes. Results: Of 9511 ACLR procedures, 31 (0.32%) were identified as having secondary septic arthritis requiring urgent arthroscopic irrigation and debridement and intravenous antibiotics (mean, 6.3 weeks). The majority (62%) were treated in the subacute (2 weeks to 2 months) setting. Index ACLR was performed with a hamstring autograft (n = 17, 55%), soft tissue allograft (n = 11, 35%), and patellar tendon autograft (n = 3, 10%). The graft was retained in 71% (n = 22) of patients, while 29% (n = 9) underwent early graft debridement. At a mean 26.9-month follow-up, 48% of patients (n = 15) had returned to the military. Graft removal was not predictive of return to active duty (P = .29). The presence of postoperative complications, including symptomatic postinfection arthritis (22.6%) and arthrofibrosis (9.7%), was the only variable predictive of inability to return to duty (odds ratio, 27.5 [95% CI, 3.24-233.47]; P = .002). Seven of 9 patients who underwent graft debridement underwent revision ACLR, and all 7 had stable knees at final follow-up compared with 68% (15/22) in the graft retention group. Conclusion: Arthroscopic debridement with early graft removal and staged revision ACLR remains a viable option for restoring knee

  2. Improving physical activity in arthritis clinical trial (IMPAACT): study design, rationale, recruitment, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Lee, Jungwha; Feinglass, Joseph; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2014-11-01

    Over 21 million Americans report an arthritis-attributable activity limitation. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two of the most common/disabling forms of arthritis. Various forms of physical activity (PA) can improve a variety of health outcomes and reduce health care costs, but the proportion of the US population engaging in the recommended amount of PA is low and even lower among those with arthritis. The Improving Motivation for Physical Activity in Arthritis Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) is a randomized clinical trial that studied the effects of a lifestyle PA promotion intervention on pain and physical function outcomes. The IMPAACT intervention was based on a chronic care/disease management model in which allied health professionals promote patient self-management activities outside of traditional physician office encounters. The program was a motivational interviewing-based, individualized counseling and referral intervention, directed by a comprehensive assessment of individual patient barriers and strengths related to PA performance. The specific aims of IMPAACT were to test the efficacy of the IMPAACT intervention for persons with arthritis (N=185 persons with RA and 155 persons with knee OA) in improving arthritis-specific and generic self-reported pain and Physical Function outcomes, observed measures of function, and objectively measured and self-reported PA levels. Details of the stratified-randomized study design, subject recruitment, and data collection are described. The results from IMPAACT will generate empiric evidence pertaining to increasing PA levels in persons with arthritis and result in widely applicable strategies for health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis: a status report from the ClinicalTrials.gov website.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jisna R; Ranganathan, Prabha

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study are to describe the characteristics of clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) listed in ClinicalTrials.gov and examine existing trends in study design, funding sources, outcomes, and drugs under investigation. We conducted a survey of ongoing clinical trials in RA registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov website. We used the advanced search option and applied the following inclusion criteria, "rheumatoid arthritis", "open studies", "interventional", and "adults 18 years or older". Of 127 eligible trials, 53.5% of the studies were either phase 3 or 4, and 40.2% were phase 1, 2, and 2/3. Two-thirds of the trials were randomized (70.9%), and over half were, in addition, double-blinded (53.5%) and placebo-controlled (53.5%). Universities were listed as the primary sponsor for 18.9% of the trials and pharmaceutical industry for 73.2%. Majority of the trials were multi-center studies (93%) conducted outside the United States (54.3%). The most frequently used endpoint was drug efficacy (54.3%) followed by drug safety (25.2%). Most industry-funded trials were open for less than 12 months, whereas most university-funded trials were open for more than 24 months (58% each). Biologic therapies were the focus of most trials in the registry (78.5%). Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 and 4 trials form the majority of ongoing clinical trials in RA. The preponderance of industry funding of RA trials and the short duration of such trials are troubling trends which need to be addressed.

  4. Low prevalence of work disability in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) and early rheumatoid arthritis at enrollment into a multi-site registry: results from the catch cohort.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Lauren; Boyd, Tristan; Bykerk, Vivian; de Leon, Faye; Li, Lihua; Boire, Gilles; Hitchon, Carol; Haraoui, Boulos; Thorne, J Carter; Pope, Janet

    2013-02-01

    We determined the prevalence of work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and undifferentiated early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) patients at first enrollment into the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) who met the 2010 ACR criteria versus those not meeting criteria, to determine the impact of meeting new criteria on work disability status. Data at first visit into the cohort were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of other variables in our database with work disability. 1,487 patients were enrolled in the CATCH study, a multi-site observational, prospective cohort of patients with EIA. 934 patients were excluded (505 based on missing criteria for ACR 2010 classification, as anti-CCP was absent, and 429 were not working for other reasons). Of the 553 patients included, 71 % were female with mean disease duration of 6.4 months. 524 (94.8 %) were employed while 29 (5.2 %) reported work disability at first visit. There were no differences between those meeting 2010 ACR criteria versus those who did not. Baseline characteristics associated with work disability were male gender, age, education, income, HAQ, and positive RF status. The mean HAQ score in work disabled patients was 1.4 versus 0.9 in those who were working (p < 0.001). Disease activity score (DAS28) was not associated with work disability (p = 0.069), nor was tender joint count, swollen joint count, anti-CCP, patient global assessment, or SF-12v2. In the regression model, work disability was associated with lower income levels (p = 0.01) and worse HAQ scores (OR 2.33; p = 0.001), but not significantly associated with male gender (p = 0.08), older age (>50 years; p = 0.3), lower education (p = 0.3) or RF positivity (p = 0.6). We found rates of work disability to be low at entry into this EIA cohort compared to previous studies. There may be potential for intervention in ERA to prevent the development of work

  5. Twenty‐Year Outcome and Association Between Early Treatment and Mortality and Disability in an Inception Cohort of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Gwinnutt, James M.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; MacGregor, Alexander J.; Chipping, Jacqueline R.; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 20 years from symptom onset, and to assess the association between early treatment (with disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs/steroids) and mortality and disability during follow‐up. Methods Patients recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990 and 1994 who met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism RA criteria at baseline were included in this analysis. Demographic and clinical variables were collected at baseline and at years 1–3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Disease activity (swollen joint count [SJC]/tender joint count [TJC]), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), and mortality over 20 years were determined. Associations between treatment group (early treatment [ET], treatment ≤6 months after symptom onset; late treatment [LT], treatment >6 months after symptom onset; never treatment [NT], no treatment) and mortality and disability were assessed using weighted pooled logistic regression and weighted multilevel mixed‐effects linear regression, respectively. Inverse weights were used to account for confounding by indication and censoring. Results This study included 602 patients with RA (median age 56 years [interquartile range 44–68 years]; 65.9% women). The median SJCs and TJCs were low during the follow‐up period (1–3 swollen joints and 3–6 tender joints). The median HAQ DI score increased after year 1 but remained at low/moderate levels (median 1.25 after year 10). The risk of mortality was reduced in the ET and LT groups compared with that in the NT group. The ET group and the NT group had comparable HAQ DI scores during the follow‐up period (β = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] −0.06, 0.12), while the HAQ DI score was increased in the LT group (for LT versus NT, β = 0.10 [95% CI 0.02, 0.17]). Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of

  6. Dilemmas of participation in everyday life in early rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative interview study (The Swedish TIRA Project).

    PubMed

    Sverker, Annette; Östlund, Gunnel; Thyberg, Mikael; Thyberg, Ingrid; Valtersson, Eva; Björk, Mathilda

    2015-01-01

    To explore the experiences of today's patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with respect to dilemmas of everyday life, especially regarding patterns of participation restrictions in valued life activities. A total of 48 patients, aged 20-63, three years post-RA diagnosis were interviewed using the Critical Incident Technique. Transcribed interviews were condensed into meaningful units describing actions/situations. These descriptions were linked to ICF participation codes according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) linking rules. Dilemmas in everyday life were experienced in domestic life, interpersonal interactions and relationships, community, social and civic life. Most dilemmas were experienced in domestic life, including participation restrictions in, e.g. gardening, repairing houses, shovelling snow, watering pot plants, sewing or walking the dog. Also many dilemmas were experienced related to recreation and leisure within the domain community, social and civic life. The different dilemmas were often related to each other. For instance, dilemmas related to community life were combined with dilemmas within mobility, such as lifting and carrying objects. Participation restrictions in today's RA patients are complex. Our results underline that the health care needs to be aware of the patients' own preferences and goals to support the early multi-professional interventions in clinical practice. Implications of Rehabilitation Today's rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients experience participation restrictions in activities not included in International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set for RA or in traditionally questionnaires with predefined activities. The health care need to be aware of the patients' own preferences and goals to meet the individual needs and optimize the rehabilitation in early RA in clinical practice.

  7. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with septic arthritis: A hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; Blanco, Antonio; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Gadea, Ignacio; García-Cañete, Joaquín; Sandoval, Enrique; Valdazo, María; Esteban, Jaime

    2014-06-01

    To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, etiology, underlying conditions, and outcomes of patients with primary septic arthritis and no prosthetic joints at a university hospital. A retrospective study was performed between 2005 and 2012. Records from the Microbiology Department were reviewed, and patients with a positive culture of synovial fluid or biopsy were selected for the study. Clinical charts were reviewed using a designed protocol. 41 patients were diagnosed with septic arthritis with a positive culture. Most were diagnosed with monoarticular (85.37%) and monomicrobial (92.68%) arthritis. The most commonly involved joint was the knee (34.15%). The most frequent underlying conditions were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (58.54%). Two cases of chronic arthritis, both caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected. The most frequently used antibiotic combinations were cloxacillin + ciprofloxacin and vancomycin + ciprofloxacin. Surgical treatment included needle aspiration, open joint debridement, or arthroscopic techniques. Twelve cases had a poor outcome (destructive articular disease), and 3 patients died from staphylococcal sepsis. In our hospital, septic arthritis is primarily acute, monoarticular, and monomicrobial; affects higher joints, is caused by S. aureus, and occurs in adult patients with underlying diseases. Outcome is good in most patients, although more than 25% of cases had articular sequels.

  8. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with septic arthritis: A hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; Blanco, Antonio; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Gadea, Ignacio; García-Cañete, Joaquín; Sandoval, Enrique; Valdazo, María; Esteban, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, etiology, underlying conditions, and outcomes of patients with primary septic arthritis and no prosthetic joints at a university hospital. Methods A retrospective study was performed between 2005 and 2012. Records from the Microbiology Department were reviewed, and patients with a positive culture of synovial fluid or biopsy were selected for the study. Clinical charts were reviewed using a designed protocol. Results 41 patients were diagnosed with septic arthritis with a positive culture. Most were diagnosed with monoarticular (85.37%) and monomicrobial (92.68%) arthritis. The most commonly involved joint was the knee (34.15%). The most frequent underlying conditions were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (58.54%). Two cases of chronic arthritis, both caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected. The most frequently used antibiotic combinations were cloxacillin + ciprofloxacin and vancomycin + ciprofloxacin. Surgical treatment included needle aspiration, open joint debridement, or arthroscopic techniques. Twelve cases had a poor outcome (destructive articular disease), and 3 patients died from staphylococcal sepsis. Conclusions In our hospital, septic arthritis is primarily acute, monoarticular, and monomicrobial; affects higher joints, is caused by S. aureus, and occurs in adult patients with underlying diseases. Outcome is good in most patients, although more than 25% of cases had articular sequels. PMID:25104892

  9. Reduction in Serum Uric Acid May Be Related to Methotrexate Efficacy in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Data from the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason J.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Dresser, George K.; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Thorne, Carter; Tin, Diane; Jamal, Shahin; Keystone, Edward C.; Pope, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The mechanism of action of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is complex. It may increase adenosine levels by blocking its conversion to uric acid (UA). This study was done to determine if methotrexate lowers UA in early RA (ERA). METHODS Data were obtained from Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort, an incident ERA cohort. All ERA patients with serial UA measurements were included, comparing those with methotrexate use vs. no methotrexate exposure (controls). Analyses were exploratory. Patients with concomitant gout or taking UA-lowering therapies were excluded. RESULTS In total, 49 of the 2,524 ERA patients were identified with data available for both pre-methotrexate UA levels and post-methotrexate UA levels (300 µmol/L and 273 µmol/L, respectively; P = 0.035). The control group not taking methotrexate had a mean baseline UA level of 280 µmol/L and a follow-up level of 282 µmol/L (P = 0.448); mean change in UA with methotrexate was −26.8 µmol/L vs. 2.3 µmol/L in the no methotrexate group (P = 0.042). Methotrexate users with a decrease in UA had a disease activity score of 2.37 for 28 joints when compared with the controls (3.26) at 18 months (P = 0.042). Methotrexate users with decreased UA had a lower swollen joint count (SJC) of 0.9 at 18 months, whereas methotrexate users without lowering of UA had an SJC of 4.5 (P = 0.035). Other analyses were not significant. CONCLUSIONS Methotrexate response is associated with lowering of serum UA in ERA compared to nonusers. This may be due to changes in adenosine levels. Methotrexate response is associated with lower UA and fewer swollen joints compared to nonresponders. PMID:27081318

  10. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part I: Clinical classifications and radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewska, Genowefa; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals at the developmental age. Radiography is the primary modality employed in the diagnostic imaging in order to identify changes typical of this disease entity and rule out other bone-related pathologies, such as neoplasms, posttraumatic changes, developmental defects and other forms of arthritis. The standard procedure involves the performance of comparative joint radiographs in two planes. Radiographic changes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis are detected in later stages of the disease. Bone structures are assessed in the first place. Radiographs can also indirectly indicate the presence of soft tissue inflammation (i.e. in joint cavities, sheaths and bursae) based on swelling and increased density of the soft tissue as well as dislocation of fat folds. Signs of articular cartilage defects are also seen in radiographs indirectly – based on joint space width changes. The first part of the publication presents the classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and discusses its radiographic images. The authors list the affected joints as well as explain the spectrum and specificity of radiographic signs resulting from inflammatory changes overlapping with those caused by the maturation of the skeletal system. Moreover, certain dilemmas associated with the monitoring of the disease are reviewed. The second part of the publication will explain issues associated with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, which are more and more commonly applied in juvenile idiopathic arthritis for early detection of pathological features as well as the disease complications. PMID:27679726

  11. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  12. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Results Participants’ mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. Conclusion This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA. PMID:22554167

  13. Long-term outcomes of destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis - description of four clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Sjöwall, Christopher; Hannonen, Pekka; Rannio, Tuomas; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2016-06-03

    Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a milder course of progression compared to seropositive disease. However, long-term follow-up data of the clinical course of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis are sparse. Here we describe four cases with a rare disease entity of aggressive destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis with 20-35 years of follow-up. The four cases are women with an initial presentation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in 1980-1996 and have received disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs since the diagnosis. In all cases, the condition has been refractory to treatments and evolved into a severe disease with destructions of the wrists, sub-talar and ankle joints, as well as large joints but not small joints of fingers and toes. All cases are negative with regard to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and antibodies against carbamylated proteins. This report adds to the existing literature, making the reader aware of this sub-type of inflammatory arthritis which despite being seronegative, can have devastating disease consequences. The report highlights the need for further research into this field in order to better understand this disease sub-type, the pathogenesis, disease course and outcomes.

  14. The utility of clinical decision tools for diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Caroline; Lowe, Adrian; Hall, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have a higher risk of low bone mineral density than normal age matched populations. There is limited evidence to support cost effectiveness of population screening in rheumatoid arthritis and case finding strategies have been proposed as a means to increase cost effectiveness of diagnostic screening for osteoporosis. This study aimed to assess the performance attributes of generic and rheumatoid arthritis specific clinical decision tools for diagnosing osteoporosis in a postmenopausal population with rheumatoid arthritis who attend ambulatory specialist rheumatology clinics. Methods A cross-sectional study of 127 ambulatory post-menopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis was performed. Patients currently receiving or who had previously received bone active therapy were excluded. Eligible women underwent clinical assessment and dual-energy-xray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density assessment. Clinical decision tools, including those specific for rheumatoid arthritis, were compared to seven generic post-menopausal tools to predict osteoporosis (defined as T score < -2.5). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values and area under the curve were assessed. The diagnostic attributes of the clinical decision tools were compared by examination of the area under the receiver-operator-curve. Results One hundred and twenty seven women participated. The median age was 62 (IQR 56–71) years. Median disease duration was 108 (60–168) months. Seventy two (57%) women had no record of a previous DXA examination. Eighty (63%) women had T scores at femoral neck or lumbar spine less than -1. The area under the ROC curve for clinical decision tool prediction of T score <-2.5 varied between 0.63 and 0.76. The rheumatoid arthritis specific decision tools did not perform better than generic tools, however, the National Osteoporosis Foundation score could potentially reduce the number of unnecessary DXA

  15. Could early rheumatoid arthritis resolve after periodontitis treatment only?: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Simonetta; Biondo, Michela I; Fiorentino, Chiara; Argento, Giuseppe; Paolantonio, Michele; Di Murro, Carlo; Malagnino, Vito A; Canzoni, Marco; Diamanti, Andrea Picchianti; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated polyarthritis; currently no pathogenic agent has been identified as a disease trigger. A patient with RA, presumably caused by periodontal infection, whose remission has been observed after periodontitis treatment in absence of specific RA therapy, is reported here for the first time, to our knowledge. A 61-year-old male patient presented migrant arthritis associated with antibodies against citrullinated protein antigens positivity. The clinical features allowed to make RA diagnosis according to the 2010 European League against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology RA classification criteria. X-ray of the second upper molar showed chronic apical periodontitis. After its treatment, arthritis remission has been observed in the absence of specific RA therapy. It has been suggested that periodontitis may have a trigger role in RA pathogenesis. This could be explained by the enzymatic action of Porphyromonas gingivalis, probably leading to break tolerance to collagen. The identification and subsequent treatment of periodontitis should therefore be considered pivotal in RA prophylaxis and management.

  16. Interleukin-27 inhibits ectopic lymphoid-like structure development in early inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bombardieri, Michele; Greenhill, Claire J.; McLeod, Louise; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rocher-Ros, Vidalba; Cardus, Anna; Williams, Anwen S.; Pitzalis, Costantino; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) reminiscent of secondary lymphoid organs often develop at sites of chronic inflammation where they contribute to immune-mediated pathology. Through evaluation of synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we now show that low interleukin-27 (IL-27) expression corresponds with an increased incidence of ELS and gene signatures associated with their development and activity. The presence of synovial ELS was also noted in mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) after the onset of inflammatory arthritis. Here, pathology was associated with increased synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, homeostatic chemokines, and transcriptional regulators linked with lymphoid neogenesis. In both clinical and experimental RA, synovial ELS coincided with the heightened local expression of cytokines and transcription factors of the Th17 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell lineages, and included podoplanin-expressing T cells within lymphoid aggregates. IL-27 inhibited the differentiation of podoplanin-expressing Th17 cells, and an increased number of these cells were observed in IL-27R–deficient mice with inflammatory arthritis. Thus, IL-27 appears to negatively regulate ELS development in RA through control of effector T cells. These studies open new opportunities for patient stratification and treatment. PMID:26417004

  17. Comparison of composite measures of disease activity in an early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Veena K; Yoon, Jeonglim; Khanna, Dinesh; Park, Grace S; Furst, Daniel E; Elashoff, David A; Jawaheer, Damini; Sharp, John T; Gold, Richard H; Keystone, Edward C; Paulus, Harold E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate concordance and agreement of the original DAS44/ESR‐4 item composite disease activity status measure with nine simpler derivatives when classifying patient responses by European League of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) criteria, using an early rheumatoid factor positive (RF+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient cohort. Methods Disease‐modifying anti‐rheumatic drug‐naïve RF+ patients (n = 223; mean duration of symptoms, 6 months) were categorised as ACR none/20/50/70 responders. One‐way analysis of variance and two‐sample t tests were used to investigate the relationship between the ACR response groups and each composite measure. EULAR reached/change cut‐point scores were calculated for each composite measure. EULAR (good/moderate/none) responses for each composite measure and the degree of agreement with the DAS44/ESR‐4 item were calculated for 203 patients. Results Patients were mostly female (78%) with moderate to high disease activity. A centile‐based nomogram compared equivalent composite measure scores. Changes from baseline in the composite measures in patients with ACRnone were significantly less than those of ACR20/50/70 responders, and those for ACR50 were significantly different from those for ACR70. EULAR reached/change cut‐point scores for our cohort were similar to published cut‐points. When compared with the DAS44/ESR‐4 item, EULAR (good/moderate/none) percentage agreements were 92 with the DAS44/ESR‐3 item, 74 with the Clinical Disease Activity Index, and 80 with the DAS28/ESR‐4 item, the DAS28/CRP‐4 item and the Simplified Disease Activity Index. Conclusion The relationships of nine different RA composite measures against the DAS44/ESR‐4 item when applied to a cohort of seropositive patients with early RA are described. Each of these simplified status and response measures could be useful in assessing patients with RA, but the specific measure selected should be pre‐specified and

  18. Periodontitis in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective follow-up study in Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Design Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. Settings and participants The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Outcome measures Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Results Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem

  19. Periodontitis in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective follow-up study in Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria

    2017-01-31

    To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem to affect the results. Moderate periodontitis was more frequent in

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Christina; Whitehead, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood, occurring in approximately 1:500 children. Despite a recent expansion in treatment options and improvement of outcomes, significant morbidity still occurs. This article outlines the clinical manifestations, assessment, detection of complications, treatment options and monitoring requirements, with the aid of guidelines recently published by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, which provide practical support for general practitioners to ensure best practice care and to prevent lifelong disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. General practice plays an important role in the early detection, initial management and ongoing monitoring of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Early detection involves understanding the classification framework for subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and being aware of the clinical manifestations and how to look for them, through history, examination and appropriate investigation. The major extra-articular manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are uveitis and growth disturbance. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, biologic agents, and corticosteroids. Management using a multidisciplinary approach can prevent long term sequelae. Unfortunately, approximately 50% of children will have active disease as adults.

  1. Effective Treatment for Rapid Improvement of Both Disease Activity and Self-Reported Physical Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Konijn, Nicole P C; van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Boers, Maarten; den Uyl, Debby; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Kerstens, Pit; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Nurmohamed, Michael; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Lems, Willem F

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between disease activity and self-reported physical activity (PA) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis during the first year of treatment with combination therapy. PA was measured with the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity at baseline, 13 weeks, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks after start of treatment in the context of the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis-Light trial. The reported PA classified patients as meeting or not meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA guideline (cutoff: 150 minutes of moderate-to-intense activity per week). Other measurements included the Disease Activity Score (DAS). Since both treatment arms showed equal treatment effect, these were analyzed as 1 group with simple before-after analyses and generalized estimating equations (GEE). In these analyses, 140 patients (86% of the trial population, 66% women, mean age 52 years) with complete data were included. At entry, 69% of the patients met the WHO PA guideline, increasing to 90% at week 13, and remaining stable at 89% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Mean DAS improved from 4.0 to 1.8 during the first year of treatment (P < 0.001). In GEE analyses, DAS decreases were significantly associated with PA increases (P = 0.008). Patients with clinically relevant responses (expressed as DAS remission, European League Against Rheumatism good response or American College of Rheumatology criteria for 70% improvement response) showed higher PA levels compared to nonresponders, regardless of the definition of response, for both the WHO and Dutch PA guideline. Early rheumatoid arthritis patients using combination therapy improved both disease activity and PA, a beneficial effect persisting for at least 1 year. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Comparison of rheumatoid arthritis clinical trial outcome measures: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer J; Bolognese, James A; Felson, David T

    2003-11-01

    Isolated studies have suggested that continuous measures of response may be better than predefined, dichotomous definitions (e.g., the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria [ACR20]) for discriminating between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatments. Our goal was to determine the statistical power of predefined dichotomous outcome measures (termed "a priori"), compared with that of continuous measures derived from trial data in which there was no predefined response threshold (termed "data driven"), and to evaluate the sensitivity to change of these measures in the context of different treatments and early versus later-stage disease. In order to generalize beyond results from a single trial, we performed simulation studies. We obtained summary data from trials comparing disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and from comparative coxib-placebo trials to test the power of 2 a priori outcomes, the ACR20 and improvement of the Disease Activity Score (DDAS), as well as 2 data-driven outcomes. We studied patients with early RA and those with later-stage RA (duration of <4 years and 4-9 years, respectively). We performed simulation studies, using the interrelationship of ACR core set measures in the trials to generate multiple trial data sets consistent with the original data. The data-driven outcomes had greater power than did the a priori measures. The DMARD comparison was more powerful in early disease than in later-stage disease (the sample sizes needed to achieve 80% power for the most powerful test were 64 for early disease versus 100 for later disease), but the coxib-versus-placebo comparison was less powerful in early disease than in later disease (the sample sizes needed to achieve 80% power were 200 and 100, respectively). When the effects of treatment on core set items were small and/or inconsistent, power was reduced, particularly for a less broadly based outcome (e.g., DDAS) compared with the ACR20. The simulation studies demonstrate

  3. Medical ozone increases methotrexate clinical response and improves cellular redox balance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    León Fernández, Olga Sonia; Viebahn-Haensler, Renate; Cabreja, Gilberto López; Espinosa, Irainis Serrano; Matos, Yanet Hernández; Roche, Liván Delgado; Santos, Beatriz Tamargo; Oru, Gabriel Takon; Polo Vega, Juan Carlos

    2016-10-15

    Medical ozone reduced inflammation, IL-1β, TNF-α mRNA levels and oxidative stress in PG/PS-induced arthritis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical ozone effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate and methotrexate+ozone, and to compare between them. A randomized clinical study with 60 patients was performed, who were divided into two groups: one (n=30) treated with methotrexate (MTX), folic acid and Ibuprophen (MTX group) and the second group (n=30) received the same as the MTX group+medical ozone by rectal insufflation of the gas (MTX+ozone group). The clinical response of the patients was evaluated by comparing Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated (Anti-CCP) levels, reactants of acute phase and biochemical markers of oxidative stress before and after 20 days of treatment. MTX+ozone reduced the activity of the disease while MTX merely showed a tendency to decrease the variables. Reactants of acute phase displayed a similar picture. MTX+ozone reduced Anti-CCP levels as well as increased antioxidant system, and decreased oxidative damage whereas MTX did not change. Glutathione correlated with all clinical variables just after MTX+ozone. MTX+ozone increased the MTX clinical response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. No side effects were observed. These results suggest that ozone can increase the efficacy of MTX probably because both share common therapeutic targets. Medical ozone treatment is capable of being a complementary therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Triple DMARD treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis modulates synovial T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wechalekar, Mihir D.; Guo, Yanxia; Yin, Xuefeng; Weedon, Helen; Proudman, Susanna M.; Smith, Malcolm D.; Nagpal, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional effects of a combination of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tDMARD; methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) in synovial tissues obtained from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. While combination DMARD strategies have been investigated for clinical efficacy, very little data exists on the potential molecular mechanism of action. We hypothesized that tDMARD would impact multiple biological pathways, but the specific pathways were unknown. Methods Paired synovial biopsy samples from early RA patients before and after 6 months of tDMARD therapy were collected by arthroscopy (n = 19). These biopsies as well as those from subjects with normal synovium (n = 28) were profiled by total RNA sequencing. Results Large differences in gene expression between RA and control biopsies (over 5000 genes) were identified. Despite clinical efficacy, the expression of a restricted set of less than 300 genes was reversed after 6 months of treatment. Many genes remained elevated, even in patients who achieved low disease activity. Interestingly, tDMARD downregulated genes included those involved in T cell activation and signaling and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation and function. Conclusions We have identified transcriptomic signatures that characterize synovial tissue from RA patients with early disease. Analysis after 6 months of tDMARD treatment highlight consistent alterations in expression of genes related to T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation. These results provide novel insight into the biology of early RA and the mechanism of tDMARD action and may help identify novel drug targets to improve rates of treatment-induced disease remission. PMID:28863153

  5. Triple DMARD treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis modulates synovial T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation pathways.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Alice M; Wechalekar, Mihir D; Guo, Yanxia; Yin, Xuefeng; Weedon, Helen; Proudman, Susanna M; Smith, Malcolm D; Nagpal, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional effects of a combination of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tDMARD; methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) in synovial tissues obtained from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. While combination DMARD strategies have been investigated for clinical efficacy, very little data exists on the potential molecular mechanism of action. We hypothesized that tDMARD would impact multiple biological pathways, but the specific pathways were unknown. Paired synovial biopsy samples from early RA patients before and after 6 months of tDMARD therapy were collected by arthroscopy (n = 19). These biopsies as well as those from subjects with normal synovium (n = 28) were profiled by total RNA sequencing. Large differences in gene expression between RA and control biopsies (over 5000 genes) were identified. Despite clinical efficacy, the expression of a restricted set of less than 300 genes was reversed after 6 months of treatment. Many genes remained elevated, even in patients who achieved low disease activity. Interestingly, tDMARD downregulated genes included those involved in T cell activation and signaling and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation and function. We have identified transcriptomic signatures that characterize synovial tissue from RA patients with early disease. Analysis after 6 months of tDMARD treatment highlight consistent alterations in expression of genes related to T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation. These results provide novel insight into the biology of early RA and the mechanism of tDMARD action and may help identify novel drug targets to improve rates of treatment-induced disease remission.

  6. Age-Related Differences in Collagen-Induced Arthritis: Clinical and Imaging Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Gerwing, Tracy D; Pratt, Isaac V; Cooper, David M L; Silver, Tawni I; Rosenberg, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    Arthritis is among the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Although intraarticular inflammation is the feature common among all patients with chronic arthritis there are, in addition to age at onset, clinical characteristics that further distinguish the disease in pediatric and adult populations. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of microCT (µCT) and ultrasonography in characterizing pathologic age-related differences in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Juvenile (35 d old) and young adult (91 d old) male Wistar rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and incomplete Freund adjuvant to induce polyarthritis. Naïve male Wistar rats served as controls. All paws were scored on a scale of 0 (normal paw) to 4 (disuse of paw). Rats were euthanized at 14 d after the onset of arthritis and the hindpaws imaged by µCT and ultrasonography. Young adult rats had more severe signs of arthritis than did their juvenile counterparts. Imaging demonstrated that young adult CIA rats exhibited more widespread and severe skeletal lesions of the phalanges, metatarsals, and tarsal bones, whereas juvenile CIA rats had more localized and less proliferative and osteolytic damage that was confined predominantly to the phalanges and metatarsals. This report demonstrates the utility of imaging modalities to compare juvenile and young adult rats with CIA and provides evidence that disease characteristics and progression differ between the 2 age groups. Our observations indicate that the CIA model could help discern age-related pathologic processes in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:24326225

  7. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry in polymyalgia rheumatica, RS3PE and early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Y; Matsuda, M; Ishii, W; Gono, T; Ikeda, S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pictures of poly-myalgia rheumatica (PMR) and remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) are often indistinguishable from those of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To investigate whether there is a difference in immunological aspects among these 3 disorders, we performed a phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Eleven patients with early RA, 14 with PMR and 11 with RS3PE were enrolled in this study. After separation of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood using the Ficoll-Hypaque method, surface markers and intracellular cytokines of lymphocytes were analyzed by 2- or 3-color flow cytometry. Both PMR and RS3PE showed a significant decrease in CD8+CD25+ cells (p<0.05), and significant increases in CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-4- (p<0.05), CD8+IFN-gamma+IL-4- (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and CD4+TNF-alpha+ cells (p<0.05) compared with early RA. CD3+CD4+ cells were higher in PMR than in RS3PE (p<0.01), but there were no significant differences in any other phenotypes between these disorders. A decrease in activated cytotoxic/suppressor T cells and increases in circulating Th1 and Tc1 cells may be common characteristics of PMR and RS3PE in comparison with early RA. Both disorders are clearly different from early RA, and probably belong to the same disease entity with regard to phenotypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  8. Secular Changes in Clinical Features at Presentation of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Increase in Comorbidity But Improved Inflammatory States.

    PubMed

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Norton, Sam; Carpenter, Lewis; Dixey, Josh; Andrew Walsh, David; Kiely, Patrick; Young, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To examine secular trends in demographics, clinical manifestations, and comorbidity on first presentation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prior to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment. A total of 2,701 patients were recruited over 25 years to 2 UK-based RA inception cohorts: the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (9 centers; 1986-2001) and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (23 centers; 2002-2012). Trends in demographic and baseline clinical/laboratory and radiographic variables and comorbidities were estimated using mixed-effects models, including random effects for recruitment center. Age at onset increased from 53.2 to 57.7 years in 1990 and 2010, respectively (2.6 months/year; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.2, 4.1). Sex ratio, the proportion living in deprived areas, and smoking status were unchanged (P > 0.05) and there were no changes in the proportion seropositive or erosive at baseline (P > 0.05). After controlling for treatment at the time of assessment, erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased and hemoglobin increased over time (P > 0.05); however, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Disease Activity Score (DAS), the DAS in 28 joints, and joint counts were unchanged (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of comorbidity increased from 29.0% in 1990 to 50.7% in 2010, mainly due to cardiovascular and non-cardiac vascular conditions, including hypertension. There was a significant increase in body mass index (0.15 units/year; 95% CI 0.11, 0.18), resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity from 13.3% in 1990 to 33.6% in 2010. Age at onset and comorbidity burden, especially obesity, have increased at RA presentation over 25 years, reflecting wider demographic trends at the population level. In contrast, there were no accompanying changes in disease severity assessed by composite markers of disease activity, radiographic erosions, seropositivity, or HAQ at presentation. Treatment strategies in early RA should take

  9. Prognosis of seronegative patients in a large prospective cohort of patients with early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Lillian; Pope, Janet E; Orav, John E; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Keystone, Edward C; Thorne, J Carter; Tin, Diane; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are believed to be associated with more severe rheumatoid arthritis; however, studies in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) have yielded conflicting results. Our study determined the prognosis of baseline ACPA-negative and RF-negative patients. Patients enrolled in the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort had IgM RF and IgG anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies 2 (anti-CCP2) measured at baseline. Remission was defined as a Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) < 2.6 using logistic regression accounting for confounders at 12-month and 24-month followup. Of the 841 patients, 216 (26%) were negative for both RF and anti-CCP2. Compared to seropositive subjects, seronegative subjects were older (57 ± 15 vs 51 ± 14 yrs), more males proportionately (31% vs 23%), and had shorter length of symptoms (166 ± 87 vs 192 ± 98 days), and at baseline had higher mean swollen joint count (SJC; 8.8 ± 6.8 vs 6.5 ± 5.6), DAS28 (5.0 ± 1.6 vs 4.8 ± 1.5), and erosive disease (32% vs 24%, p < 0.05). Treatment was similar between the 2 groups. At 24-month followup, seronegative compared to seropositive subjects had greater mean change (Δ ± SD) in disease activity measures: ΔSJC counts (-6.9 ± 7.0 vs -5.1 ± 5.9), ΔDAS28 (-2.4 ± 2.0 vs -1.8 ± 1.8), and ΔC-reactive protein (-11.0 ± 17.9 vs -6.4 ± 17.5, p < 0.05). Accounting for confounders, antibody status was not significantly associated with remission. However, at 12-month followup, ACPA-positive subjects were independently more likely to have new erosive disease (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.45-5.94). Although seronegative subjects with EIA have higher baseline DAS28 compared to seropositive subjects, they have a good response to treatment and are less likely to develop erosive disease during followup.

  10. Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Abdul Hadi; Raghavendra Rao, Nidagurthi Guggilla; Avanapu, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of present research was to develop matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam filled in capsule for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and Methods: Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam were prepared by direct compression method using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. To assess the compatibility, FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixture were performed. The formulated batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, estimation of drug content, in vitro drug release, drug release kinetics, and stability studies. Results: When FTIR and DSC studies were performed it was found that there was no interaction between lornoxicam and polymers which used. All the physicochemical properties of prepared matrix-mini-tablets were found to be in normal limits. The percentage of drug content was found to be 99.60±0.07%. Our optimized matrix mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F30 released lornoxicam after a lag time of 5.02±0.92 hr, 95.48±0.65 % at the end of 8 hr and 99.90±0.83 % at the end of 12 hr. Stability was also found for this formulation as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Conclusion: A novel colon targeted delivery system of lornoxicam was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24967065

  11. A randomised controlled trial of occupational therapy for people with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A; Young, A; Kidao, R

    2004-01-01

    Occupational therapy (OT) aims at improving performance of daily living tasks, facilitating successful adjustments in lifestyle, and preventing losses of function. To evaluate the effects of a pragmatic, comprehensive OT programme on self management and health status of people with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (<2.5 years). A randomised, controlled "assessor blinded" trial was conducted with assessments made at entry, 6, 12, and 24 months. Main outcomes were AIMS2: physical function (PF), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), and Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES). Groups had similar disease duration (9 months OT (n = 162) v 10 months control (n = 164)). The OT group received 7.57 (SD 3.04) hours of therapy. Self management significantly increased in the OT group. Otherwise, there were no significant differences in any outcome measures, or between groups, by ACR functional class: AIMS2: PF (F = 0.04; p = 0.96); pain VAS (F = 0.29; p = 0.74); total ASES score (F = 0.93; p = 0.39). OT improved self management but not health status in early RA. Functional ability remains reasonably good for many in the first five years, so preventive benefits of self management may not yet be apparent and longer follow up is needed. Although many considered the education and therapy useful, insufficient numbers in the OT group used self management sufficiently to make a difference. Behavioural approaches can improve adherence and, potentially, the long term benefits. Future research should evaluate OT as a complex intervention and develop programmes from a theoretical and evidence base.

  12. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional signature associated with early rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals at high risk to develop the disease

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Segura, N.; Bastian, Y.; Santiago-Algarra, D.; Castillo-Ortiz, J. D.; Alemán-Navarro, A. L.; Jaime-Sánchez, E.; Gomez-Moreno, M.; Saucedo-Toral, C. A.; Lara-Ramírez, Edgar E.; Zapata-Zuñiga, M.; Enciso-Moreno, L.; González-Amaro, R.; Ramos-Remus, C.; Enciso-Moreno, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the loss of tolerance in the early and preclinical stages of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this work was to identify the transcriptional profile and signaling pathways associated to non-treated early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and subjects at high risk. Several biomarker candidates for early RA are proposed. Methods Whole blood total RNA was obtained from non-treated early RA patients with <1 year of evolution as well as from healthy first-degree relatives of patients with RA (FDR) classified as ACCP+ and ACCP- according to their antibodies serum levels against cyclic citrullinated peptides. Complementary RNA (cRNA) was synthetized and hybridized to high-density microarrays. Data was analyzed in Genespring Software and functional categories were assigned to a specific transcriptome identified in subjects with RA and FDR ACCP positive. Specific signaling pathways for genes associated to RA were identified. Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate these genes as biomarkers. Results A characteristic transcriptome of 551 induced genes and 4,402 repressed genes were identified in early RA patients. Bioinformatics analysis of the data identified a specific transcriptome in RA patients. Moreover, some overlapped transcriptional profiles between patients with RA and ACCP+ were identified, suggesting an up-regulated distinctive transcriptome from the preclinical stages up to progression to an early RA state. A total of 203 pathways have up-regulated genes that are shared between RA and ACCP+. Some of these genes show potential to be used as progression biomarkers for early RA with area under the curve of ROC > 0.92. These genes come from several functional categories associated to inflammation, Wnt signaling and type I interferon pathways. Conclusion The presence of a specific transcriptome in whole blood of RA patients suggests the activation

  14. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Arterial Hypertension and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Ismet H; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Lahu, Ali; Kryeziu, Avni; Durmishi, Bastri; Bajraktari, Halit; Bahtiri, Elton

    2017-08-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that worsens during the course of the disease and can cause disability. Early RA refers to the onset of symptoms within the past 3 months. In RA, increased levels of mediators of inflammation may cause arterial stiffness consequently leading to arterial hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic arterial hypertension in early RA patients as well as the correlation with parameters of inflammation. One hundred and seventy-nine early RA patients diagnosed in agreement with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/ European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria were consecutively included in the study. CRP (C-reactive protein) and anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides) serum levels, WBC (white blood cells) count and ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), likewise DAS-28 (28-joint disease activity score) were determined in all included patients. Parametric tests were used to compare the characteristics of the groups and to test the correlation of the variables. Statistical data analysis revealed that a majority of the patients were females (n = 141; 78.7%); the mean age at RA onset was 49.13 ± 12.13 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 44.13 % (n = 79). In comparison with the normotensive patients, the hypertensive patients were older and had significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28. A highly significant positive correlation between all the study parameters and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. Presence of significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28 in hypertensive patients indicate that inflammation is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. In this context, early screening for arterial hypertension and adequate therapeutic measures should be considered in early RA patients.

  15. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Arterial Hypertension and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Lahu, Ali; Kryeziu, Avni; Durmishi, Bastri; Bajraktari, Halit; Bahtiri, Elton

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that worsens during the course of the disease and can cause disability. Early RA refers to the onset of symptoms within the past 3 months. In RA, increased levels of mediators of inflammation may cause arterial stiffness consequently leading to arterial hypertension. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic arterial hypertension in early RA patients as well as the correlation with parameters of inflammation. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-nine early RA patients diagnosed in agreement with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/ European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria were consecutively included in the study. CRP (C-reactive protein) and anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides) serum levels, WBC (white blood cells) count and ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), likewise DAS-28 (28-joint disease activity score) were determined in all included patients. Parametric tests were used to compare the characteristics of the groups and to test the correlation of the variables. RESULTS: Statistical data analysis revealed that a majority of the patients were females (n = 141; 78.7%); the mean age at RA onset was 49.13 ± 12.13 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 44.13 % (n = 79). In comparison with the normotensive patients, the hypertensive patients were older and had significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28. A highly significant positive correlation between all the study parameters and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. CONCLUSION: Presence of significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28 in hypertensive patients indicate that inflammation is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. In this context, early screening for arterial hypertension and adequate therapeutic measures should be considered in early RA patients. PMID:28932306

  16. Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in rats and humans with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy: imaging synovial neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhao, Zhenfang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-24

    To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP). X-ray images were also obtained and assessed by a radiologist. Immunohistochemistry of αvβ3 and CD31confirmed the onset of synovial neoangiogenesis. The effect of bevacizumab on rheumatoid arthritis was followed with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy volunteer were scanned with 99mTc-3PRGD2. Two weeks after immunization, a significant increase in 99mTc-3PRGD2 was observed in the joints of the rheumatoid arthritis model though uptake in osteoarthritis model and untreated controls was low. 99mTc-MDP whole body scans failed to distinguish early rheumatoid arthritis joints from healthy controls. The expression of αvβ3 and CD31was significantly higher in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis rats compared to normal controls. In serial 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy studies, 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake increased in parallel with disease progression. Bevacizumab anti-angiogenetic therapy both improved the symptoms of the rheumatoid arthritis rats and significantly decreased 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake. Significantly higher 99mTc-3PRGD2 accumulation was also observed in rheumatoid arthritis joints in the patient. Our findings indicate that 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy could detect early rheumatoid arthritis by imaging the associated synovial neoangiogenesis, and may be useful in disease management.

  17. Aspergillus arthritis: analysis of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of 31 reported cases.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Henry, Michael; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Denning, David W; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J

    2017-04-01

    Aspergillus arthritis is a debilitating form of invasive aspergillosis. Little is known about its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory features, treatment, and prognosis. Cases of Aspergillus arthritis were reviewed in the English literature from 1967 through 2015 for variables of arthritis with Aspergillus spp. recovered from joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, symptoms, signs, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Among 31 evaluable cases, 87% were males and 13% pediatric. Median age was 50 y (range 1-83 y). Seventeen (55%) patients were immunosuppressed with such conditions as hematological malignancies (26%), corticosteroids (39%), and/or transplantation (26%). Approximately one-half (52%) of patients had hematogenous seeding of the joint, and more than 80% had de novo infection with no prior antifungal therapy. Oligoarticular infection (2-3 joints) occurred in 45% and contiguous osteomyelitis was present in 61%. Clinical manifestations included pain (87%), edema (26%), and limited function (23%), with knees (35%), intervertebral discs (26%), and hips (16%) being most commonly infected. Aspergillus fumigatus constituted 77% of cases followed by Aspergillus flavus in 13%, Aspergillus niger in 3%, and not specified in 7%. Median ESR was 90 mm/hr and median CRP was 3.6 mg/dl. Median synovial fluid WBC was 17,200/μL (7,300-128,000) with 72% PMNs (range 61-92). Osteolysis occurred in 35%, and soft-tissue extension 47%. Nineteen patients (61%) were managed with combined medical and surgical therapy, 10 (32%) with medical therapy only, and 2 (6%) surgery only. Amphotericin B and itraconazole were the most frequently used agents with median duration of therapy of 219 days (range 30-545). Surgical interventions included debridement in 61%, drainage 19%, and amputation 6%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 71% and relapse occurred in 16%. Medical therapy was reinstituted with successful outcome in

  18. Relationship Between Work Productivity and Clinical Characteristics in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Mejía, Carlos Eduardo; Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio Ángel; Colunga-Pedraza, Iris Jazmín; Azpiri-López, José Ramón; Wah-Suárez, Martín; Wimer-Castillo, Blanca Otilia; Salazar-Sepúlveda, Laura Leticia

    2018-03-01

    This study assesses the relationship between the ability to perform productive activities and the clinical characteristics of RA, such as disease activity, quality of life, functional capacity, workload, pharmacotherapy, and comorbidities. A cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted. Patients aged 18-75years with a diagnosis of RA according to ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria who attended regularly to the Rheumatology service in the period between January and March 2017 were included. The questionnaires, WPAI-AR, HAQ-DI and RAQoL, were applied. RA disease activity was measured by DAS28-PCR. Correlations were made between the clinical data obtained and work productivity and activity impairment measured by WPAI-AR. Two hundred four patients with a diagnosis of RA were included, of whom 92.6% were women. Mean age was 54.46±9.3years. Regarding the percentage of impairment of daily life activities, we found a significant difference between employed and unemployed patients (P≤.002). A positive correlation was found between RA activity measured by DAS28-PCR, quality of life, and functional ability with the percentages of absenteeism, presenteeism, overall productivity loss, and impairment of daily life activities. A correlation between RA disease activity, functional capacity, quality of life, and working impairment was found. The strongest association was established with the degree of functional capacity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized clinical trials as reflexive-interpretative process in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    de Jorge, Mercedes; Parra, Sonia; de la Torre-Aboki, Jenny; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Patients in randomized clinical trials have to adapt themselves to a restricted language to capture the necessary information to determine the safety and efficacy of a new treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of patients with rheumatoid arthritis after completing their participation in a biologic therapy randomized clinical trial for a period of 3 years. A qualitative approach was used. The information was collected using 15 semi-structured interviews of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Data collection was guided by the emergent analysis until no more relevant variations in the categories were found. The data were analysed using the grounded theory method. The objective of the patients when entering the study was to improve their quality of life by initiating the treatment. However, the experience changed the significance of the illness as they acquired skills and practical knowledge related to the management of their disease. The category "Interactional Empowerment" emerged as core category, as it represented the participative experience in a clinical trial. The process integrates the follow categories: "weight of systematisation", "working together", and the significance of the experience: "the duties". Simultaneously these categories evolved. The clinical trial monitoring activities enabled patients to engage in a reflexive-interpretative mechanism that transformed the emotional and symbolic significance of their disease and improved the empowerment of the patient. A better communicative strategy with the health professionals, the relatives of the patients, and the community was also achieved.

  20. Infection rates in patients from five rheumatoid arthritis (RA) registries: contextualising an RA clinical trial programme

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Hisashi; Askling, Johan; Berglind, Niklas; Franzen, Stefan; Frisell, Thomas; Garwood, Christopher; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Ho, Meilien; Holmqvist, Marie; Novelli Horne, Laura; Inoue, Eisuke; Michaud, Kaleb; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Reed, George; Symmons, Deborah; Tanaka, Eiichi; Tran, Trung N; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Wesby-van Swaay, Eveline; Nyberg, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of serious infections. Comparing infection rates across RA populations is complicated by differences in background infection risk, population composition and study methodology. We measured infection rates from five RA registries globally, with the aim to contextualise infection rates from an RA clinical trials population. Methods We used data from Consortium of Rheumatology Research of North America (CORRONA) (USA), Swedish Rheumatology Quality of Care Register (Sweden), Norfolk Arthritis Register (UK), CORRONA International (multiple countries) and Institute of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis (Japan) and an RA clinical trial programme (fostamatinib). Within each registry, we analysed a main cohort of all patients with RA from January 2000 to last available data. Infection definitions were harmonised across registries. Sensitivity analyses to address potential confounding explored subcohorts defined by disease activity, treatment change and/or prior comorbidities and restriction by calendar time or follow-up. Rates of infections were estimated and standardised to the trial population for age/sex and, in one sensitivity analysis also, for Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score. Results Overall, age/sex-standardised rates of hospitalised infection were quite consistent across registries (range 1.14–1.62 per 100 patient-years). Higher and more consistent rates across registries and with the trial programme overall were seen when adding standardisation for HAQ score (registry range 1.86–2.18, trials rate 2.92) or restricting to a treatment initiation subcohort followed for 18 months (registry range 0.99–2.84, trials rate 2.74). Conclusion This prospective, coordinated analysis of RA registries provided incidence rate estimates for infection events to contextualise infection rates from an RA clinical trial programme and demonstrated relative comparability of hospitalised infection

  1. Is HLA-B27 increased in patients diagnosed with undifferentiated arthritis? Results from the Leiden early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van Gaalen, Floris; van den Berg, Rosaline; Verhoog, Inge; Schonkeren, Joris; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette; Huizinga, Tom; van der Heijde, Désirée M

    2014-10-01

    Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is a common form of arthritis. According to the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for peripheral spondyloarthritis (pSpA), HLA-B27 can be used to help classify patients with pSpA. We tested whether HLA-B27 is increased in patients diagnosed with UA. Prevalence of HLA-B27 was compared between healthy controls and patients with UA. SpA features were compared between HLA-B27-positive and -negative UA, and SpA. We found 10.1% of UA (38/375) versus 7.2% (403/5584) of controls were HLA-B27-positive (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1; p = 0.037). HLA-B27-positive patients with UA had more SpA features than HLA-B27-negative patients (mean 1.6, SD 1.0, and 0.9 SD 0.6; p < 0.001), but patients with SpA had significantly more SpA features (mean 4.5, SD 1.5; p < 0.001). Family history and preceding infection were features more common in HLA-B27-positive than in HLA-B27-negative UA (15.8% vs 1.3%, p = 0.04 and 15.8% vs 2.6%, p = 0.04). After HLA-B27 testing, 21 additional patients (5.6%) with UA could potentially have been classified with pSpA according to the ASAS criteria. HLA-B27 is more common in patients with UA than in controls. However, the yield of HLA-B27 testing in UA is low. Our results suggest that HLA-B27 testing should be reserved for patients with additional SpA features.

  2. A thermographic and clinical comparison of three intra-articular steroid preparations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H A; Ring, E F; Bacon, P A

    1979-01-01

    We have compared three intra-articular steroid preparations in a double blind study on 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and bilateral synovitis of the knees. One knee was injected with 1.0 ml of either prednisolone t-butyl acetate, methyl prednisolone acetate, or triamcinolone hexacetonide, and the patients were followed up for 6 weeks with regular clinical and thermographic assessments. Thermographic improvement was seen with all 3 drugs but was greatest initially and longest lasting with triamcinolone. No significant systemic improvement was seen with any drug after a single injection, though all 3 steroid preparations suppressed endogenous cortisol. PMID:373651

  3. IL-6-driven STAT signalling in circulating CD4+ lymphocytes is a marker for early anticitrullinated peptide antibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Amy E; Pratt, Arthur G; Sedhom, Mamdouh A K; Doran, John Paul; Routledge, Christine; Hargreaves, Ben; Brown, Philip M; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Isaacs, John D; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2016-02-01

    A previously identified signal transduction and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) target-enriched gene signature in circulating CD4+ T cells of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was prominent in autoantibody-negative individuals. Here, interleukin (IL)-6-mediated STAT signalling was investigated in circulating lymphocytes of an independent early arthritis patient cohort, seeking further insight into RA pathogenesis and biomarkers of potential clinical utility. Constitutive and IL-6-induced expression of phosphorylated STAT1 (pSTAT1) and pSTAT3 was determined in T and B cells using Phosflow cytometric analysis in patients with RA and controls. Contemporaneous levels of serum cytokines were measured by immunoassay. Induced gene expression was measured in cultured CD4+T cells by quantitative real-time PCR. Among circulating lymphocytes of 187 patients with early arthritis, constitutive pSTAT3 correlated with serum IL-6 levels maximally in CD4+ T cells. Increased constitutive pSTAT3, but not pSTAT1, was observed in circulating CD4+ T cells of patients with early anticitrullinated peptide autoantibody (ACPA)-negative RA compared with disease controls, and these levels decreased alongside markers of disease activity with IL-6R-targeted treatment. Among patients presenting with seronegative undifferentiated arthritis (UA) the ratio of constitutive pSTAT3:pSTAT1 in CD4+ T cells contributed substantially to an algorithm for predicting progression to classifiable RA during a median of 20 months follow-up (area under receiver operator characteristic curve=0.84; p<0.001). Our findings support a particular role for IL-6-driven CD4+ T cell activation via STAT3 during the induction of RA, particularly as a feature of ACPA-negative disease. CD4+ T cell pSTAT measurements show promise as biomarkers of UA-RA progression and now require independent validation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  4. Serum soluble CD30 in early arthritis: a sign of inflammation but not a predictor of outcome.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, E; Matinlauri, I; Kautiainen, H; Luosujärvi, R; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate serum soluble CD30 levels (sCD30) in an early arthritis series and assess their ability to predict the outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and undifferentiated arthritis (UA) at one year follow-up. Serum sCD30 levels were measured by ELISA from 92 adult patients with RA and UA at baseline and from 60 adult controls. The patients were followed up for one year in the Kuopio 2000 Arthritis Survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine cut off points of sCD30 in RA and UA that select the inflammatory disease from controls. Sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio, and their 95 % CIs were calculated for sCD30 levels in RA and UA. Median serum sCD30 levels were higher in RA 25.1 (IQ range 16.3-38.6) IU/ml (p<0.001) and in UA 23.4 (15.4-35.6) IU/ml (p<0.001) than in controls 15.1 (10.7-20.8) IU/ml. No differences were recorded between RA and UA (p=0.840). Serum sCD30 levels at baseline did not predict remission at one year follow-up. Serum sCD30 levels were higher in RA and UA than in controls at baseline but they did not predict remission at one year follow-up in this series.

  5. 14-3-3η Autoantibodies: Diagnostic Use in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Boire, Gilles; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Wichuk, Stephanie; Turk, Samina; Boers, Maarten; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Bykerk, Vivian; Keystone, Ed; Tak, Paul Peter; van Kuijk, Arno W; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Desiree; Murphy, Mairead; Marotta, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    To describe the expression and diagnostic use of 14-3-3η autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 14-3-3η autoantibody levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescent multiplexed assay in 500 subjects (114 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naive patients with early RA, 135 with established RA, 55 healthy, 70 autoimmune, and 126 other non-RA arthropathy controls). 14-3-3η protein levels were determined in an earlier analysis. Two-tailed Student t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests compared differences among groups. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and diagnostic performance was estimated by area under the curve (AUC), as well as specificity, sensitivity, and likelihood ratios (LR) for optimal cutoffs. Median serum 14-3-3η autoantibody concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients with early RA (525 U/ml) when compared with healthy controls (235 U/ml), disease controls (274 U/ml), autoimmune disease controls (274 U/ml), patients with osteoarthritis (259 U/ml), and all controls (265 U/ml). ROC curve analysis comparing early RA with healthy controls demonstrated a significant (p < 0.0001) AUC of 0.90 (95% CI 0.85-0.95). At an optimal cutoff of ≥ 380 U/ml, the ROC curve yielded a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 91%, and a positive LR of 8.0. Adding 14-3-3η autoantibodies to 14-3-3η protein positivity enhanced the identification of patients with early RA from 59% to 90%; addition of 14-3-3η autoantibodies to anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and/or rheumatoid factor (RF) increased identification from 72% to 92%. Seventy-two percent of RF- and ACPA-seronegative patients were positive for 14-3-3η autoantibodies. 14-3-3η autoantibodies, alone and in combination with the 14-3-3η protein, RF, and/or ACPA identified most patients with early RA.

  6. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Plass, Anne Marie C; Lems, Willem F; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Background The Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial has proved that combination therapy with prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine is superior to sulphasalazine monotherapy in suppressing disease activity and radiological progression of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, 5 years of follow‐up proved that COBRA therapy results in sustained reduction of the rate of radiological progression. Despite this evidence, Dutch rheumatologists seem reluctant to prescribe COBRA therapy. Objective To explore the reasons for the reluctance in Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe COBRA therapy. Methods A short structured questionnaire based on social–psychological theories of behaviour was sent to all Dutch rheumatologists (n = 230). Results The response rate was 50%. COBRA therapy was perceived as both effective and safe, but complex to administer. Furthermore, rheumatologists expressed their concern about the large number of pills that had to be taken, the side effects of high‐dose prednisolone and the low dose of methotrexate. Although the average attitude towards the COBRA therapy was slightly positive (above the neutral point), the majority of responding rheumatologists had a negative intention (below the neutral point) to prescribe COBRA therapy in the near future. Conclusion The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient‐related consequences of the therapy. PMID:17392349

  7. Women's accounts of help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis from symptom onset to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C

    2014-12-01

    As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men's reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women's help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women's accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. The women's accounts featured masculine practices associated with men's help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and 'normal' life. Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women's help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity measures: American College of Rheumatology recommendations for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jaclyn; Caplan, Liron; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L; Neogi, Tuhina; Michaud, Kaleb; Saag, Kenneth G; O'Dell, James R; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2012-05-01

    Although the systematic measurement of disease activity facilitates clinical decision making in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), no recommendations currently exist on which measures should be applied in clinical practice in the US. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) convened a Working Group (WG) to comprehensively evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of available RA disease activity measures and derive recommendations for their use in clinical practice. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Disease Activity Measures Working Group conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify RA disease activity measures. Using exclusion criteria, input from an Expert Advisory Panel (EAP), and psychometric analysis, a list of potential measures was created. A survey was administered to rheumatologists soliciting input. The WG used these survey results in conjunction with the psychometric analyses to derive final recommendations. Systematic review of the literature resulted in identification of 63 RA disease activity measures. Application of exclusion criteria and ratings by the EAP narrowed the list to 14 measures for further evaluation. Practicing rheumatologists rated 9 of these 14 measures as most useful and feasible. From these 9 measures, the WG selected 6 with the best psychometric properties for inclusion in the final set of ACR-recommended RA disease activity measures. We recommend the Clinical Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein), Patient Activity Scale (PAS), PAS-II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures, and Simplified Disease Activity Index because they are accurate reflections of disease activity; are sensitive to change; discriminate well between low, moderate, and high disease activity states; have remission criteria; and are feasible to perform in clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Clinical Benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-Linolenic Acid in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Veselinovic, Mirjana; Vasiljevic, Dragan; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Petrovic, Snjezana; Tomic-Lucic, Aleksandra; Savic, Maja; Zivanovic, Sandra; Stojic, Vladislava; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2017-03-25

    (1) Background: Marine n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ɤ-linolenic acid (GLA) are well-known anti-inflammatory agents that may help in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Their effects were examined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; (2) Methods: Sixty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were involved in a prospective, randomized trial of a 12 week supplementation with fish oil (group I), fish oil with primrose evening oil (group II), or with no supplementation (group III). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were done at the beginning and at the end of the study; (3) Results: The Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28 score), number of tender joints and visual analogue scale (VAS) score decreased notably after supplementation in groups I and II ( p < 0.001). In plasma phospholipids the n -6/ n -3 fatty acids ratio declined from 15.47 ± 5.51 to 10.62 ± 5.07 ( p = 0.005), and from 18.15 ± 5.04 to 13.50 ± 4.81 ( p = 0.005) in groups I and II respectively. The combination of n -3 PUFA and GLA (group II) increased ɤ-linolenic acid (0.00 ± 0.00 to 0.13 ± 0.11, p < 0.001), which was undetectable in all groups before the treatments; (4) Conclusion: Daily supplementation with n -3 fatty acids alone or in combination with GLA exerted significant clinical benefits and certain changes in disease activity.

  10. Psoriatic arthritis: an update.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, A; Laiz-Alonso, A

    2014-12-01

    Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis and clinical aspects of the disease justify the present review. Studies have identified common inflammatory pathways related to the innate immune response, such as the IL-12/IL-23 axis, along with numerous genes that affect susceptibility to both diseases and influence phenotypic development. Interest has grown in biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis or prognosis or to predict joint destruction and the response to treatment. Recent reports describe important differences between the effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologics on the process of new bone formation. Other issues that have been discussed include the need for reliable screening methods, particularly for early detection of oligoarticular arthritis, and for protocols to guide referral to specialists, especially in newly created multidisciplinary practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional disability and health-related quality of life in South Africans with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, B; Musenge, E; Ally, M; Meyer, P W A; Anderson, R; Tikly, M

    2012-10-01

    The severity and predictors of functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a cohort of South Africans with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were investigated. Changes in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) following 12 months of traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were studied in previously DMARD-naïve adults with disease duration ≤ 2 years. The majority of the 171 patients were female (82%), Black Africans (89%) with a mean (SD) symptom duration of 11.6 (7.0) months. In the 134 patients seen at 12 months, there were significant improvements in the HAQ and all domains of the SF-36 but 92 (69%) still had substantial functional disability (HAQ > 0.5) and 89 (66%) had suboptimal mental health [SF-36 mental composite score (MCS) < 66.6]. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (p = 0.05) and high baseline HAQ score (p < 0.01) predicted substantial functional disability at 12 months. Unemployment (p = 0.03), high baseline pain (p = 0.02), and HAQ score (p = 0.04) predicted suboptimal mental health, with a trend towards a low level of schooling being significant (p = 0.08). Early RA has a broad impact on HRQoL in indigent South Africans, with a large proportion of patients still showing substantial functional disability and suboptimal mental health despite 12 months of DMARD therapy. Further research is needed to establish the role of interventions including psychosocial support, rehabilitation programmes, and biological therapy to improve physical function and HRQoL in this population.

  12. Immune response profiling in early rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of a novel interaction of treatment response with viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It remains challenging to predict the outcomes of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to identify immune response signatures that correlate with clinical treatment outcomes in patients with RA. Methods A cohort of 71 consecutive patients with early RA starting treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) was recruited. Disease activity at baseline and after 21 to 24 weeks of follow-up was measured using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Immune response profiling was performed by analyzing multi-cytokine production from peripheral blood cells following incubation with a panel of stimuli, including a mixture of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lysates. Profiles identified via principal components analysis (PCA) for each stimulus were then correlated with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. A clinically meaningful improvement in the DAS28 was defined as a decrease of ≥1.2. Results A profile of T-cell cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ) produced in response to CMV/EBV was found to correlate with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. At baseline, a higher magnitude of the CMV/EBV immune response profile predicted inadequate DAS28 improvement (mean PCA-1 scores: 65.6 versus 50.2; P = 0.029). The baseline CMV/EBV response was particularly driven by IFN-γ (P = 0.039) and IL-4 (P = 0.027). Among patients who attained clinically meaningful DAS28 improvement, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score increased from baseline to follow-up (mean +11.6, SD 25.5), whereas among patients who responded inadequately to DMARD therapy, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score decreased (mean -12.8, SD 25.4; P = 0.002). Irrespective of the ΔDAS28, methotrexate use was associated with up-regulation of the CMV/EBV response. The CMV/EBV profile was associated with positive CMV IgG (P <0.001), but not EBV IgG (P = 0.32), suggesting this response was related to

  13. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  14. Clinical Value of FDG-PET/CT for the Evaluation of Rheumatic Diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Polymyalgia Rheumatica, and Relapsing Polychondritis.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kazuo; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Mimori, Akio

    2017-07-01

    FDG is a tracer for visualizing glucose metabolism. PET/CT using FDG is widely used for the diagnosis of cancer, because glycolysis is elevated in cancer cells. Similarly, active inflammatory tissue also exhibits elevated glucose metabolism because of glycolysis in activated macrophages and proliferating fibroblasts. Elevated FDG uptake by active inflammatory tissues, such as those affected by arthritis, vasculitis, lymphadenitis, and chondritis, has enabled the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases using FDG-PET/CT. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic inflammation of the joints resulting in synovitis. Several clinical studies of RA have demonstrated that FDG uptake in affected joints reflects the disease activity of RA, with strong correlations between FDG uptake and various clinical parameters having been noted. Furthermore, the use of FDG-PET for the sensitive detection and early monitoring of the response to RA therapy has been reported. RA is sometimes associated with subclinical vasculitis, which is related to systemic inflammation. FDG-PET/CT can be used to evaluate subclinical vasculitis in the aorta or carotid artery. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an autoimmune musculoskeletal disease of unknown etiology characterized by pain and stiffness in the shoulder, neck, and pelvic girdle, but not in the small finger joints in the hands, together with fever, fatigue, and weight loss. There is no specific test for PMR, and its diagnosis is based on clinical diagnostic criteria and the exclusion of other diseases with similar symptoms. However, FDG-PET/CT reveals a characteristic FDG uptake by the bursitis in ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, lumbar or cervical spinous process, and scapulohumeral joint. A combination of FDG-PET/CT findings showed a high diagnostic value for PMR in a differential diagnosis from RA. FDG-PET/CT is also very useful for evaluating large vessel vasculitis, which is often associated with PMR. Relapsing polychondritis is a

  15. Hepcidin plasma levels are not associated with changes in haemoglobin in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Østgård, R D; Glerup, H; Jurik, A G; Kragstrup, T W; Stengaard-Pedersen, K; Hetland, M L; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Junker, P; Deleuran, B W

    2017-11-01

    A reduction in haemoglobin level is a frequent complication among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Hepcidin has been linked to disturbed erythropoiesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in hepcidin in patients with early RA. Hepcidin plasma concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with early RA (n = 80) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 40). Haemoglobin and other iron-related proteins were also measured. At baseline, all patients had active disease and were treatment naïve. Patients were treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and with additional adalimumab (ADA, n = 42) or placebo (PLA, n = 38) during 52 weeks, using a treat-to-target strategy, aiming for a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) < 3.2. At baseline, hepcidin levels [median (interquartile range)] were 9.7 ng/mL (5.2-19.4 ng/mL) in DMARD + ADA and 11.3 ng/mL (5.9-19.1 ng/mL) in DMARD + PLA. Both were significantly higher than seen in HV (6.0 ng/mL (3.3-9.3 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). After 12 months, both treatment regimens resulted in normalization of hepcidin. DAS28 correlated with hepcidin at baseline (r = 0.48, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between levels of haemoglobin and hepcidin at baseline or during the 52 week follow-up. No change in haemoglobin levels was seen as a function of hepcidin changes. In a mixed statistical model, no single factor was connected with the regulation of haemoglobin in early RA. The changes in hepcidin were not associated with changes in haemoglobin levels. Thus, hepcidin could not be used as a prognostic marker in patients with early RA.

  16. Clinical efficacy of Shiva Guggulu and Simhanada Guggulu in Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shweta A; Joshi, Nayan P; Pandya, Dilip M

    2012-04-01

    Amavata is the second most common joint disorders. Nowadays erroneous dietary habits, lifestyle and environment have led to various autoimmune disorders i.e. Amavisajanya Vikaara and Amavata is one among them. Rheumatoid arthritis can be correlated with Amavata in view of its clinical features. Many research studies have been done to solve this clinical enigma, but an effective, safe, less complicated treatment is still required for the management of Amavata. In the present study, 24 patients of Amavata were registered and randomly grouped into two. In group A, Shiva Guggulu 6 g/day in divided doses and in group B, Simhanada Guggulu 6 g/day in divided doses were given for 8 weeks. On analysis of the results, it was found that Simhanada Guggulu provided better results as compared to Shiva Guggulu in the management of Amavata.

  17. Measurement of Erythrocyte Methotrexate Polyglutamate Levels: Ready for Clinical Use in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Danila, Maria I.; Hughes, Laura B.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Morgan, Sarah L.; Baggott, Joseph E.; Arnett, Donna K.; Bridges, S. Louis

    2013-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most commonly prescribed and most effective drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given the partial response of many patients and the side effect profile of the drug, there is considerable interest in identification of biomarkers to guide MTX therapy in RA. Upon entering cells, MTX is polyglutamated. Measuring methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX PGs) levels in circulating red blood cells (RBC) has been proposed as an objective measure that can help to optimize MTX therapy in RA. There is conflicting data with regard to the clinical utility of measurement of MTX PGs measurements as a predictor of the efficacy or toxicity of low-dose MTX effects in RA. Should large, randomized clinical trials of this assay show consistent, reproducible, long-term correlations between MTX PG levels and efficacy and toxicity, this test could become a prominent tool for clinicians to optimize the use of MTX in RA. PMID:20665136

  18. The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis: novel links between disease-associated autoantibodies and radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Nielsen, Morten Aagaard; Rhodes, Christopher; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hetland, Merete Lund; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Junker, Peter; Østergaard, Mikkel; Hvid, Malene; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Robinson, William H; Sokolove, Jeremy; Deleuran, Bent

    2016-03-11

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and bone erosions. Current therapies can compromise immunity, leading to risk of infection. The interleukin-20 receptor (IL-20R) axis comprising IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 and their shared receptors activates tissue homeostasis processes but not the immune system. Consequently, modulation of the IL-20R axis may not lead to immunosuppression, making it an interesting drug target. We evaluated the role of the IL-20R axis in RA and associations between plasma cytokine levels and clinical disease. Plasma IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 levels were measured in early RA patients during a treat-to-target strategy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The IL-20R1 and IL-22R1 levels in paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells and synovial fluid mononuclear cells from a different cohort of RA patients were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Monocytes/macrophages were stimulated with heat-aggregated human immunoglobulin immune complexes and immune complexes containing citrullinated fibrinogen, and osteoclasts were incubated with IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 (but not IL-19) were increased in early RA patients compared with healthy controls (both P < 0.002) and decreased after 6 months of treatment (both P < 0.0001). The expression of IL-22R1 (but not IL-20R1) was increased on monocytes from RA synovial fluid compared with monocytes from both RA and healthy control peripheral blood. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were increased in rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive compared with negative early RA patients (all P < 0.0001). Immune complexes stimulated the production of the IL-20R cytokines by monocytes/macrophages. Increased baseline plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were associated with Sharp-van der Heijde score progression after 24

  19. Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subtypes Using Symptom Profiles, Clinical Chemistry and Metabolomics Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroën, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493

  20. Prognostic factors in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study revealing early predictors and outcome after 14.9 years.

    PubMed

    Flatø, Berit; Lien, Gunhild; Smerdel, Anna; Vinje, Odd; Dale, Knut; Johnston, Virginia; Sørskaar, Dag; Moum, Torbjørn; Ploski, Rafal; Førre, Øystein

    2003-02-01

    To describe the physical and psychosocial outcome in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), compared with subjects in the general population, and to determine patient characteristics, HLA alleles, and disease variables within the first 6 months of disease onset that predict persistent disease, joint erosions, and physical disability. A cohort of 268 (85%) of 316 patients with JRA first admitted to the hospital between 1980 and 1985 were examined after a median of 14.9 years (range 11.7-25.1) of disease duration. Controls matched for age, sex, and geographic region were randomly selected from the general population. Patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical examinations and radiographs of the hips, ankles, and affected joints were obtained. HLA-DRB1 and DPB1 alleles were determined by genotyping and HLA-B27 by serologic testing. Physical and psychosocial health status was assessed using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). At followup, 133 patients with JRA (50%) were in remission, 63 (24%) had developed joint erosions, and 93 (36%) had impaired physical functioning (HAQ > 0.0). Patients had greater disability, more bodily pain, and poorer general health than controls. Comparable levels of education, social function, and mental health were found, but the patients had higher rates of unemployment than controls (19% vs 7%; p < 0.001). Predictors of persistent disease and joint erosions were: young onset age and large numbers of affected joints, long duration of elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and positive IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) within the first 6 months. Additionally, persistent disease was predicted by the presence of DRB1*08, and joint erosions were predicted by symmetric arthritis and DRB1*08 and HLA-B27 in combination. DRB1*01 was a predictor of joint erosions in the pauciarticular onset type (n = 163). Predictors of physical disability were: female sex, symmetric

  1. Axial Disease in Psoriatic Arthritis study: defining the clinical and radiographic phenotype of psoriatic spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Deepak R; Sengupta, Raj; Nightingale, Alison; Lindsay, Mark; Korendowych, Eleanor; Robinson, Graham; Jobling, Amelia; Shaddick, Gavin; Bi, Jing; Winchester, Robert; Giles, Jon T; McHugh, Neil J

    2017-04-01

    To compare the prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of psoriatic spondyloarthritis (PsSpA) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A prospective single-centre cross-sectional observational study recruited consecutive PsA and AS cases. Participants completed outcome measures, and underwent clinical examination, axial radiographic scoring and HLA- sequencing. Multivariable analyses are presented. The 402 enrolled cases (201 PsA, 201 AS; fulfilling classification criteria for respective conditions) were reclassified based upon radiographic axial disease and psoriasis, as: 118 PsSpA, 127 peripheral-only PsA (pPsA), and 157 AS without psoriasis (AS) cases. A significant proportion of patients with radiographic axial disease had PsSpA (118/275; 42.91%), and often had symptomatically silent axial disease (30/118; 25.42%). Modified New York criteria for AS were fulfilled by 48/201 (23.88%) PsA cases, and Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis criteria by 49/201 (24.38%) AS cases. pPsA compared with PsSpA cases had a lower frequency of HLA-B*27 (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.25). Disease activity, metrology and disability were comparable in PsSpA and AS. A significant proportion of PsSpA cases had spondylitis without sacroiliitis (39/118; 33.05%); they less frequently carried HLA-B*27 (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.33). Sacroiliac joint complete ankylosis (adjusted OR, OR adj 2.96; 95% CI 1.42 to 6.15) and bridging syndesmophytes (OR adj 2.78; 95% CI 1.49 to 5.18) were more likely in AS than PsSpA. Radiographic axial disease was more severe in AS than PsSpA (Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index Score: adjusted incidence risk ratio 1.13; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.19). In a combined cohort of patients with either PsA or AS from a single centre, 24% fulfilled classification criteria for both conditions. The pattern of axial disease was influenced significantly by the presence of skin psoriasis and HLA-B*27 . Published by the BMJ Publishing

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Sickle-Cell Population: Pathophysiologic Insights, Clinical Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Isabel M; Ozeri, David J; Saperstein, Yair; Alvarez, Milena Rodriguez; Leon, Su Zhaz; Koci, Kristaq; Francis, Sophia; Singh, Soberjot; Salifu, Moro

    2018-01-01

    The advent of hydroxyurea and advanced medical care, including immunizations has led to improved survival among patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). This prolonged survival however, introduces a chronic inflammatory disorder, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), which presents at a relatively older age and is rarely reported among SCD patients. In this review, we highlight the epidemiological association of SCD-RA and discuss the underlying common pathogenetic mechanisms, such as endothelial dysfunction, the role of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. We also point to the difficulties in ascertaining the clinical diagnosis of RA in SCD patients. Finally, we provide rationale for therapeutic options available for RA and the challenges in the management of these patients with agents that are known to increase the risk of infection and immunosuppression such as steroids, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biologics. PMID:29375934

  3. [Hematologic, biochemical, and immunological tests in clinical practice of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Naoichiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2013-07-01

    In clinical practice of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), various kinds of laboratory tests are required for diagnosis, assessment of the disease activity, assessment of complications and risk factors before starting therapy, and assessment of adverse effects during the therapy. Anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis are common in active RA. During RA therapies, liver function tests (including ALT and AST) and renal function tests (including serum creatinine and urinalysis) should be performed. Anti-CCP antibody is an especially useful marker for diagnosis of RA, and the presence of the antibody has been included in ACR/EULAR 2010 RA classification criteria. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after immunosuppressive therapies is a potentially serious complication. HBc and/or HBs antibodies should be measured before starting the therapies even if HBs antigen is negative, and appropriate interventions including measurement of HBV-DNA and starting prophylaxis (entecavir is recommended) should be performed.

  4. Interleukins and interleukin receptors in rheumatoid arthritis: Research, diagnostics and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Magyari, Lili; Varszegi, Dalma; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Sarlos, Patricia; Farago, Bernadett; Javorhazy, Andras; Sumegi, Katalin; Banfai, Zsolt; Melegh, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, resulting in a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder. It may affect many tissues and organs, but it primarily affects the flexible joints. In clinical practice patient care generates many questions about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. It is challenging for health care specialists to keep up to date with the medical literature. This review summarizes the pathogenesis, the polymorphisms of interleukin and interleukin genes and the standard available and possible future immunologic targets for RA treatment. The identification of disease-associated interleukin and interleukin receptor genes can provide precious insight into the genetic variations prior to disease onset in order to identify the pathways important for RA pathogenesis. The knowledge of the complex genetic background may prove useful for developing novel therapies and making personalized medicine based on the individual’s genetics. PMID:25232528

  5. [The clinical significance of hepcidin detection in the patients with anemia and rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Galushko, E A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) varies from 30 to 70%. 25% of the cases are diagnosed within 1 year after onset of the disease. On the whole, anemia in RA is described as anemia of a chronic disease (ACD). Pathogenesis ofACD is a multifactor process underlain by an immune mechanism: cytokines and cells ofthe reticuloendothelial system cause changes in iron homeostasis, proliferation of erythroid precursors, erythropoietin production and lifespan of erythrocytes. The key pathogenetic factor is disordered iron metabolism. IL-6 increasing hepatic production acute-phase protein (hepcidin) is the most important cytokine involved in ACD pathogenesis. Hence the necessity to measure its serum level for differential diagnostics of anemic syndrome in patients with RA and the choice of effective basal therapy. Recent data on the therapeutic potency of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor inhibitor) demonstrate not its safety and sustainable beneficial clinical effect in combination with the favourable action on hemoglobin profile and reduction offatigue.

  6. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. The effect of an educational intervention, based on clinical simulation, on the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ávila, Daniel G; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Gil, Fabián; Mora, Sergio A; Tobar, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Juan M; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational tool for general physicians, based on rheumatological clinical simulation, for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. A randomized clinical study was carried out, in which the physician research subjects were assigned to one of two groups: the experimental group (educational intervention for rheumatoid arthritis with clinical simulation) or the control group (educational intervention for the basic aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis). Four weeks after the educational intervention, the members of both groups completed an examination that included four clinical cases with real patients, two clinical cases with two clinical simulation models and six virtual clinical cases. In this examination, the participants noted clinical findings, established a diagnosis and defined the complementary tests they would request, if necessary, to corroborate their diagnosis. A total of 160 doctors participated (80 in the active educational intervention for rheumatoid arthritis and 80 in the control group), of whom 89 were women (56%). The mean age was 35 (standard deviation 7.7) years. Success was defined as a physician correctly diagnosing at least 10 of the 12 cases presented. A significant difference of 81.3% (95% confidence interval 72-90%; p < 0.001) in success was found in favour of the active group (88.8% versus 7.5%). A greater number of correct answers was found in the active group compared with the control group in the detection of clinical findings and in the number of complementary tests requested (p < 0.001). The study showed the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on clinical simulation to improve the diagnostic approach to rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The results open a new horizon in the teaching of rheumatology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Chronic comorbidity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kroot, E J; van Gestel, A M; Swinkels, H L; Albers, M M; van de Putte, L B; van Riel, P L

    2001-07-01

    To study the presence of chronic coexisting diseases in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its effect on RA treatment, disease course, and outcome during the first years of the disease. From January 1985 to December 1990, 186 patients with recent onset RA were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. Between January 1991 and November 1992 patients were interviewed on the basis of a comorbidity questionnaire. For analysis the diseases were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) medical diagnoses. Disease activity during the period of followup was measured by the Disease Activity Score. Outcome in terms of physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and radiological damage (Sharp's modified version) over 3 and 6 year periods was determined. In the group of 186 patients, with mean disease duration of 4.3 years at January 1991, 50 patients (27%) reported at least one chronic coexisting disease. The most frequently reported coexisting diseases were of cardiovascular (29%), respiratory (18%), or dermatological (11%) origin. For the major part (66%) chronic coexisting diseases were already present before onset of RA. No statistically significant differences in use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or corticosteroids were observed between RA patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases. No statistically significant differences were found in disease activity or in outcome in terms of physical disability and radiological damage over 3 and 6 year periods between the 2 groups with RA. The results showed that about 27% of patients with RA in this inception cohort had at least one chronic coexisting disease. Treatment, disease course, and outcome did not differ between patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases during the first years of the disease.

  9. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Rheumatoid Arthritis Small Text Medium Text Large Text Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease affecting about ...

  10. "During early implementation you just muddle through": factors that impacted a statewide arthritis program's implementation.

    PubMed

    Conte, Kathleen P; Marie Harvey, S; Turner Goins, R

    2017-12-01

    The need to scale-up effective arthritis self-management programs is pressing as the prevalence of arthritis increases. The CDC Arthritis Program funds state health departments to work with local delivery systems to embed arthritis programs into their day-to-day work. To encourage organizational ownership and sustainability of programs, funding is restricted to offset program start-up costs. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that impacted the success of implementing an evidence-based arthritis self-management program, funded by the CDC Arthritis Program, into the Oregon Extension Service. We interviewed staff and partners involved in implementation who had and had not successfully delivered Walk With Ease (N = 12) to identify barriers and facilitators to scaling-up. Document analysis of administrative records was used to triangulate and expand on findings. Delivery goals defined by the funder were not met in Year 1: only 3 of the expected 28 programs were delivered. Barriers to implementation included insufficient planning for implementation driven by pressure to deliver programs and insufficient resources to support staff time. Facilitators included centralized administration of key implementation activities and staffs' previous experience implementing new programs. The importance of planning and preparing for implementation cannot be overlooked. Funders, however, eager to see deliverables, continue to define implementation goals in terms of program reach, exclusive of capacity-building. Lack of capacity-building can jeopardize staff buy-in, implementation quality, and sustainability. Based on our findings coupled with support from implementation literature, we offer recommendations for future large-scale implementation efforts operating under such funding restrictions.

  11. Determining early referral criteria for patients with suspected inflammatory arthritis presenting to primary care physicians: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Almoallim, Hani; Janoudi, Nahid; Attar, Suzan M; Garout, Mohammed; Algohary, Shereen; Siddiqui, Muhammad Irfanullah; Alosaimi, Hanan; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Badokhon, Amira; Algasemi, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for inflammatory arthritis can greatly improve patient outcome. We aimed to provide standardized and validated criteria for use by primary care physicians (PCPs) in the identification of individuals requiring referral to a rheumatologist. We analyzed the predictive value of a wide variety of demographic variables, patient-reported complaints, physical examination results, and biomarkers in order to identify the most useful factors for indicating a requirement for referral. Patients for this cross-sectional study were enrolled from various centers of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, if they were ≥18 years of age and presented to a PCP with small joint pain that had been present for more than 6 weeks. A total of 203 patients were enrolled, as indicated by the sample size calculation. Each patient underwent a standardized physical examination, which was subsequently compared to ultrasound findings. Biomarker analysis and a patient interview were also carried out. Results were then correlated with the final diagnosis made by a rheumatologist. A total of 9 variables were identified as having high specificity and good predictive value: loss of appetite, swelling of metacarpophalangeal joint 2 or 5, swelling of proximal inter-phalangeal joint 2 or 3, wrist swelling, wrist tenderness, a positive test for rheumatoid factor, and a positive test for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Nine variables should be the basis of early referral criteria. It should aid PCPs in making appropriate early referrals of patients with suspected inflammatory arthritis, accelerating diagnosis and initiation of treatment.

  12. Management of rheumatoid arthritis in Spain (emAR II). Clinical characteristics of the patients.

    PubMed

    Maese, Jesús; García De Yébenes, María Jesús; Carmona, Loreto; Hernández-García, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    There is a wide variability in the diagnostic and therapeutic methods in rheumatoid arthritis (AR) in Spain, according to prior studies. The quality of care could benefit from the application of appropriate clinical practice standards; we present a study on the variability of clinical practice. Descriptive review of clinical records (CR) of patients aged 16 or older diagnosed with RA, selected by stratified sampling of the Autonomous Communities in two stages per Hospital Center and patient. Collected analysis of sociodemographic data, evolution, follow-up, joint count, reactants, function, job history, Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) and other. We obtained valid information of 1,272 RA patients. The ESR, CRP and rheumatoid factor (RF) were regularly used parameters. The percentages of missing data in tender (TJN) and swollen (SJN) joint counts were 8.2% and 9.6% respectively; regarding the VAS we found 53.6% (patient), 59.1% (pain), and 72% in the physician VAS. Despite having clinical practice guidelines on RA, there still exists a significant variability in RA management in our country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacogenomics of Methotrexate Membrane Transport Pathway: Can Clinical Response to Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Predicted?

    PubMed

    Lima, Aurea; Bernardes, Miguel; Azevedo, Rita; Medeiros, Rui; Seabra, Vítor

    2015-06-16

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as predictors of patients' therapeutic outcome variability. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the influence of SNPs in genes encoding for MTX membrane transport proteins in order to predict clinical response to MTX. Clinicopathological data from 233 RA patients treated with MTX were collected, clinical response defined, and patients genotyped for 23 SNPs. Genotype and haplotype analyses were performed using multivariate methods and a genetic risk index (GRI) for non-response was created. Increased risk for non-response was associated to SLC22A11 rs11231809 T carriers; ABCC1 rs246240 G carriers; ABCC1 rs3784864 G carriers; CGG haplotype for ABCC1 rs35592, rs2074087 and rs3784864; and CGG haplotype for ABCC1 rs35592, rs246240 and rs3784864. GRI demonstrated that patients with Index 3 were 16-fold more likely to be non-responders than those with Index 1. This study revealed that SLC22A11 and ABCC1 may be important to identify those patients who will not benefit from MTX treatment, highlighting the relevance in translating these results to clinical practice. However, further validation by independent studies is needed to develop the field of personalized medicine to predict clinical response to MTX treatment.

  14. Pharmacogenomics of Methotrexate Membrane Transport Pathway: Can Clinical Response to Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Predicted?

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Aurea; Bernardes, Miguel; Azevedo, Rita; Medeiros, Rui; Seabra, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used as predictors of patients’ therapeutic outcome variability. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the influence of SNPs in genes encoding for MTX membrane transport proteins in order to predict clinical response to MTX. Methods: Clinicopathological data from 233 RA patients treated with MTX were collected, clinical response defined, and patients genotyped for 23 SNPs. Genotype and haplotype analyses were performed using multivariate methods and a genetic risk index (GRI) for non-response was created. Results: Increased risk for non-response was associated to SLC22A11 rs11231809 T carriers; ABCC1 rs246240 G carriers; ABCC1 rs3784864 G carriers; CGG haplotype for ABCC1 rs35592, rs2074087 and rs3784864; and CGG haplotype for ABCC1 rs35592, rs246240 and rs3784864. GRI demonstrated that patients with Index 3 were 16-fold more likely to be non-responders than those with Index 1. Conclusions: This study revealed that SLC22A11 and ABCC1 may be important to identify those patients who will not benefit from MTX treatment, highlighting the relevance in translating these results to clinical practice. However, further validation by independent studies is needed to develop the field of personalized medicine to predict clinical response to MTX treatment. PMID:26086825

  15. Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in rats and humans with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy: imaging synovial neoangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhao, Zhenfang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP). X-ray images were also obtained and assessed by a radiologist. Immunohistochemistry of αvβ3 and CD31confirmed the onset of synovial neoangiogenesis. The effect of bevacizumab on rheumatoid arthritis was followed with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy volunteer were scanned with 99mTc-3PRGD2. Results: Two weeks after immunization, a significant increase in 99mTc-3PRGD2 was observed in the joints of the rheumatoid arthritis model though uptake in osteoarthritis model and untreated controls was low. 99mTc-MDP whole body scans failed to distinguish early rheumatoid arthritis joints from healthy controls. The expression of αvβ3 and CD31was significantly higher in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis rats compared to normal controls. In serial 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy studies, 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake increased in parallel with disease progression. Bevacizumab anti-angiogenetic therapy both improved the symptoms of the rheumatoid arthritis rats and significantly decreased 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake. Significantly higher 99mTc-3PRGD2 accumulation was also observed in rheumatoid arthritis joints in the patient. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy could detect early rheumatoid arthritis by imaging the associated synovial neoangiogenesis, and may be useful in disease management. PMID:27992368

  16. Clinical features and types of articular involvement in patients with psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Salim; Pamuk, Ömer Nuri; Akker, Mustafa; Ak, Recep

    2015-06-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a psoriasis-associated inflammatory arthritis which causes joint destruction. There are some epidemiologic data about PsA; however, there are no sufficient data from Turkey. Herein, we evaluated the frequency of PsA in the Thrace region of Turkey according to hospital-based data. In addition, we evaluated clinical features and types of joint involvement in PsA patients. We included 172 PsA patients fulfilling CASPAR criteria admitted to the Division of Rheumatology, Trakya University Medical Faculty, between 2003 and 2012. Data from Turkish Statistical Institution was used to calculate the incidence and prevalence of PsA. Patients' demographic features, durations of psoriasis and PsA, number of tender and swollen joints, treatment modalities, laboratory data, and X-ray film findings were recorded from hospital files. The annual incidence of PsA was 2.8/100,000. The mean annual incidence was 3.47/100,000 in females and 2.15/100,000 in males. The overall prevalence of PsA in our region was 27.9/100,000 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 23.7-32.1) in individuals >16 years. The prevalence of PsA was higher in females than in males (34.7/100,000 vs. 21.5/100,000). Polyarthritis was present in 67 (38.9 %), oligoarthritis in 47 (27.3 %), spondyloarthritis in 39 (22.6 %), and distal interphalangeal (DIP) arthritis in 19 (11.0 %) patients. The duration of psoriasis was significantly longer in polyarticular PsA patients than in DIP and oligoarticular groups (p values = 0.016 and 0.018, respectively). The number of swollen joints correlated with age (r = 0.21, p = 0.006), duration of psoriasis (r = 0.20, p = 0.01), number of tender joints (r = 0.92, p ≤ 0.001), ESR (r = 0.24, p = 0.001), and CRP (r = 0.17, p = 0.026). The frequency of PsA in Thrace region is similar to that in low-frequency regions. The most frequent type of involvement was polyarticular, and it correlated with the duration of psoriasis

  17. Serum Biomarkers for Discrimination between Hepatitis C-Related Arthropathy and Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Siloşi, Isabela; Boldeanu, Lidia; Biciuşcă, Viorel; Bogdan, Maria; Avramescu, Carmen; Taisescu, Citto; Padureanu, Vlad; Boldeanu, Mihail Virgil; Dricu, Anica; Siloşi, Cristian Adrian

    2017-06-19

    In the present study, we aimed to estimate the concentrations of cytokines (interleukin 6, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α) and auto-antibodies (rheumatoid factor IgM isotype, IgM-RF, antinuclear auto-antibodies, ANA, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies IgG isotype, IgG anti-CCP3.1, anti-cardiolipin IgG isotype, IgG anti-aCL) in serum of patients with eRA (early rheumatoid arthritis) and HCVrA (hepatitis C virus-related arthropathy) and to assess the utility of IL-6, TNF-α together with IgG anti-CCP and IgM-RF in distinguishing between patients with true eRA and HCVrA, in the idea of using them as differential immunomarkers. Serum samples were collected from 54 patients (30 diagnosed with eRA-subgroup 1 and 24 with HCVrA-subgroup 2) and from 28 healthy control persons. For the evaluation of serum concentrations of studied cytokines and auto-antibodies, we used immunoenzimatique techniques. The serum concentrations of both proinflammatory cytokines were statistically significantly higher in patients of subgroup 1 and subgroup 2, compared to the control group ( p < 0.0001). Our study showed statistically significant differences of the mean concentrations only for ANA and IgG anti-CCP between subgroup 1 and subgroup 2. We also observed that IL-6 and TNF-α better correlated with auto-antibodies in subgroup 1 than in subgroup 2. In both subgroups of patients, ROC curves indicated that IL-6 and TNF-α have a higher diagnostic utility as markers of disease. In conclusion, we can say that, due to high sensitivity for diagnostic accuracy, determination of serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α, possibly in combination with auto-antibodies, could be useful in the diagnosis and distinguishing between patients with true eRA and HCV patients with articular manifestation and may prove useful in the monitoring of the disease course.

  18. Ultrasound in Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Plagou, Athena; Teh, James

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound is currently performed in everyday rheumatologic practice. It is used for early diagnosis, to monitor treatment results, and to diagnose remission. The spectrum of pathologies seen in arthritis with ultrasound includes early inflammatory features and associated complications. This article discusses the spectrum of ultrasound features of arthritides seen in rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases in adults, such as Sjögren syndrome, lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ultrasound findings in spondyloarthritis, osteoarthritis, and crystal-induced diseases are presented. Ultrasound-guided interventions in patients with arthritis are listed, and the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical, biochemical, and radiographic effects of aminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, S H; Hacking, L; Willocks, L; Bruce, F; Pitkeathly, D A

    1989-01-01

    A placebo controlled, double blind study of aminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate (APD), given by monthly intravenous infusion, was conducted in 40 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Biochemical markers of increased bone resorption, such as fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio, were suppressed significantly in the APD group to approximately 50% and 60% of the pretreatment level respectively, and serum calcium fell transiently after the first APD infusion. There was no significant effect on disease activity in either the APD or placebo groups as judged by clinical (grip strength, morning stiffness, visual analogue score) or laboratory (haemoglobin, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein) criteria. An exception was the articular index which improved to a similar degree in both groups, falling from (mean (SEM] 13.8 (1.8) to 7.2 (2.2) in the APD group and from 13.7 (1.9) to 6.8 (1.5) in the placebo group. Radiological progression occurred to a similar degree in both groups as assessed by the Sharp index (mean (SEM) 86 (13.1) v 95 (12.9)-APD group; 103 (15.1) v 110 (15.8)-placebo group), but there was no significant change in the Larsen index in either group (mean (SEM) 53 (4.2) v 57 (3.8)-APD; 62 (5.8) v 63 (5.6)-placebo). The lack of effect on radiological progression in the APD group indicates that focal erosive disease may either have progressed as the result of a non-osteoclast related mechanism, or that the intensity of bone resorption was too great to be inhibited by the doses of APD used. The biochemical response to APD presumably reflected inhibition of bone resorption at other sites, suggesting that further studies of the effects of bisphosphates on periarticular and systemic osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis may be of the interest. PMID:2658875

  20. Age at onset determines severity and choice of treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disease activity, severity and comorbidity contribute to increased mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of age at disease onset on prognostic risk factors and treatment in patients with early disease. Methods In this study, 950 RA patients were followed regularly from the time of inclusion (<12 months from symptom onset) for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tender and/or swollen joints, Visual Analogue Scale pain and global scores, and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)) and function (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)). Disease severity, measured on the basis of radiographs of the hands and feet (erosions based on Larsen score), extraarticular disease, nodules, and comorbidities and treatment (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), corticosteroids, biologics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) were recorded at the time of inclusion and at 5 years. Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPAs)) and genetic markers (human leucocyte antibody (HLA) shared epitope and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22)) were analysed at the time of inclusion. Data were stratified as young-onset RA (YORA) and late-onset RA (LORA), which were defined as being below or above the median age at the time of onset of RA (58 years). Results LORA was associated with lower frequency of ACPA (P < 0.05) and carriage of PTPN22-T variant (P < 0.01), but with greater disease activity at the time of inclusion measured on the basis of ESR (P < 0.001), CRP (P < 0.01) and accumulated disease activity (area under the curve for DAS28 score) at 6 months (P < 0.01), 12 months (P < 0.01) and 24 months (P < 0.05), as well as a higher HAQ score (P < 0.01) compared with YORA patients. At baseline and 24 months, LORA was more often associated with erosions (P < 0.01 for both) and higher

  1. Does psychological stress in patients with clinically suspect arthralgia associate with subclinical inflammation and progression to inflammatory arthritis?

    PubMed

    Boer, Aleid C; Ten Brinck, Robin M; Evers, Andrea W M; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2018-05-03

    Within established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), stress can have pro-inflammatory effects by activating the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system. It is unknown if stress levels also promote inflammation during RA development. We studied whether the psychological stress response was increased in clinically suspect arthralgia (CSA) and if this associated with inflammation at presentation with arthralgia and with progression to clinical arthritis. In 241 CSA patients, psychological stress was measured by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) at first presentation and during follow-up. Systemic inflammation was measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and joint inflammation by 1.5 T-MRI of wrist, MCP, and MTP joints. At baseline, 12% (24/197) of CSA patients had a high psychological stress response according to the MHI-5. This was not different for patients presenting with or without an elevated CRP, with or without subclinical MRI-detected inflammation and for patients who did or did not develop arthritis. Similar findings were obtained with the PSS-10. When developing clinical arthritis, the percentage of patients with 'high psychological stress' increased to 31% (p = 0.025); during the first year of treatment this decreased to 8% (p = 0.020). 'High psychological stress' in non-progressors remained infrequent over time (range 7-13%). Stress was associated with fatigue (p = 0.003) and wellbeing (p < 0.001). Psychological stress was not increased in the phase of arthralgia, raised at the time of diagnoses and decreased thereafter. The lack of an association with inflammation in arthralgia and this temporal relationship, argue against psychological stress having a significant contribution to progression from CSA to inflammatory arthritis.

  2. Call for action: how to improve use of patient-reported outcomes to guide clinical decision making in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fautrel, Bruno; Alten, Rieke; Kirkham, Bruce; de la Torre, Inmaculada; Durand, Frederick; Barry, Jane; Holzkaemper, Thorsten; Fakhouri, Walid; Taylor, Peter C

    2018-06-01

    Current guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) recommend early treatment and a treat-to-target goal of remission or low disease activity. Over the past decade, this approach has been extremely successful in reducing disease activity and joint damage in patients with RA. At the same time, however, overall patient perception of well-being appears to have decreased with respect to outcome measures considered important by patients themselves, such as pain, fatigue, physical function and quality of life. The timely and effective use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) could encourage physicians to focus more on the impact of RA on patients and how patients are feeling. This in turn would facilitate shared decision making between patients and physicians, ultimately leading to a more patient-centered approach and improved patient care. Indeed, PROs provide information about individual patients that complements information provided by physical assessment and composite scores, and can also be used to guide patient care, such as determining whether a clinic visit is needed or whether treatment modifications are necessary. This is particularly important for patients who do not achieve the aspirational target of remission or low disease activity with pharmacological treatment. A number of validated PRO questionnaires are available, but how and which PROs should be incorporated into rheumatology clinical practice as part of the decision-making process is still controversial. Combining PROs with technology, such as computer adaptive tests, electronic PRO systems, web-based platforms and patient dashboards, could further aid PRO integration into daily rheumatology clinical practice.

  3. Definition of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis based on the simplified and the clinical disease activity index.

    PubMed

    Aletaha, Daniel; Martinez-Avila, Jose; Kvien, Tore K; Smolen, Josef S

    2012-07-01

    The simplified disease activity index (SDAI) and the clinical disease activity index (CDAI) are established instruments to measure disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, no validated response definitions for the SDAI and CDAI are available. The authors aimed to define minor, moderate and major response criteria for the SDAI. The authors used data from two clinical trials on infliximab versus methotrexate in early (ASPIRE) or established (ATTRACT) RA, and identified the three SDAI cutpoints based on the best agreement (by κ statistics) with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 responses. Cutpoints were then tested for different aspects of validity in the trial datasets and in a Norwegian disease modifying antirheumatic drug prescription dataset (NOR-DMARD). Based on agreement with the ACR response, the minor, moderate and major responses were identified as SDAI 50%, 70% and 85% improvement. These cutpoints had good face validity concerning the disease activity states achieved by the different response definitions. Construct validity was shown by a clear association of increasing SDAI response categories with increasing levels of functional improvement, achievement of better functional states and lower annual radiographic progression. Across SDAI 50/70/85, the sensitivities regarding a patient-perceived improvement decreased (73%/39%/22%) and the specificities increased (61%/89%/96%) in a meaningful way. Further, the cutpoints discriminated the different treatment arms in ASPIRE and ATTRACT. The same cutpoints were used for the CDAI, with similar results in the validation analyses. These new response criteria expand the usefulness of the SDAI and CDAI for their use as endpoints in clinical trials beyond the definition of disease activity categories.

  4. Anti-MCV antibodies predict radiographic progression in Greek patients with very early (<3 months duration) rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barouta, Georgia; Katsiari, Christina G; Alexiou, Ioannis; Liaskos, Christos; Varna, Areti; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Germenis, Anastasios E; Sakkas, Lazaros I

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) antibodies in very early rheumatoid arthritis (VERA) and in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-one patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) of <3 months duration, 141 with established RA, 53 with other rheumatic diseases, and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study. Anti-MCV, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF) were determined and hand radiographs were recorded. Patients were assessed prospectively for 2 years, and hand radiographs were repeated. Diagnostic performance of anti-MCV was studied with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Forty-six percent of UA patients progressed to RA at 2 years. In VERA patients, sensitivity of anti-MCV was 52 %, compared to 44 % of anti-CCP and 37 % of RF, while specificity was 91 %, compared to 91 % of RF and 84 % of anti-CCP. Anti-MCV were detected in 25 % of VERA patients negative for both anti-CCP and RF. In established RA, anti-MCV did not sustain its diagnostic performance. By multivariable analysis, anti-MCV, but not anti-CCP or RF, showed significant correlation with radiographic progression in VERA patients. In established RA, anti-MCV, anti-CCP, and RF were associated with active disease (p ≤ 0.03) and joint damage (p ≤ 0.004). By multivariate analysis, the strongest factors for radiographic damage were disease duration (p = 0.000), HAQ score (p = 0.000), and RF (p = 0.002). In conclusion, in patients with very early UA, anti-MCV predict both progression to RA and radiological damage, and therefore, anti-MCV antibody testing may be useful in every day practice.

  5. Gait changes precede overt arthritis and strongly correlate with symptoms and histopathological events in pristane-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in the rat has been described as an animal model of inflammatory arthritis which exhibits features similar to rheumatoid arthritis in humans, such as a chronic, destructive, and symmetrical involvement of peripheral joints. However, so far little is known about the earliest inflammatory events and their influence on locomotor behaviour during the course of PIA. To investigate this issue a detailed analysis of the pathologic changes occurring during the prodromal and early stages of PIA was performed. Methods Arthritis was induced in DA.rats by injection of 150 μl 2,6,10,4-tetramethyl-pentadecane (pristane) at the base of the tail and changes in locomotor behaviour of the affected paws were monitored using the CatWalk quantitative gait analysis system. The pathologic events occurring in the joints of pristane-injected animals were studied before onset, at onset, and during acute phase of arthritis by histological methods. Results Gait analysis revealed that changes in locomotion such as reduced paw print areas and stance phase time are already apparent before the onset of clinically discernible arthritis symptoms (erythema, paw swelling) and correlate with PIA scores. In agreement with these findings, inflammatory tenosynovitis could be observed by histology already before the onset of erythema and swelling of the respective paws. In the most heavily affected rats also irregularities in step sequence patterns occurred A kinetic analysis of clinical and histological findings demonstrated that gait changes precede the pathological changes occurring during the acute phase of pristane-induced arthritis. Conclusions Gait analysis allows for pinpointing the initial inflammatory changes in experimental arthritis models such as pristane-induced arthritis. Analysis of early clinically relevant symptoms in arthritis models may facilitate the search for novel therapeutics to interfere with pain, inflammation and joint destruction

  6. Clinical Incidence of Sacroiliac Joint Arthritis and Pain after Sacropelvic Fixation for Spinal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Sainoh, Takeshi; Takaso, Masashi; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Arai, Gen; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Masashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sacroiliac fixation using iliac screws for highly unstable lumbar spine has been reported with an improved fusion rate and clinical results. On the other hand, there is a potential for clinical problems related to iliac fixation, including late sacroiliac joint arthritis and pain. Materials and Methods Twenty patients were evaluated. Degenerative scoliosis was diagnosed in 7 patients, failed back syndrome in 6 patients, destructive spondyloarthropathy in 4 patients, and Charcot spine in 3 patients. All patients underwent posterolateral fusion surgery incorporating lumbar, S1 and iliac screws. We evaluated the pain scores, bone union, and degeneration of sacroiliac joints by X-ray imaging and computed tomography before and 3 years after surgery. For evaluation of low back and buttock pain from sacroiliac joints 3 years after surgery, lidocaine was administered in order to examine pain relief thereafter. Results Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. All patients showed bone union at final follow-up. Degeneration of sacroiliac joints was not seen in the 20 patients 3 years after surgery. Patients showed slight low back and buttock pain 3 years after surgery. However, not all patients showed relief of the low back and buttock pain after injection of lidocaine into the sacroiliac joint, indicating that their pain did not originate from sacroiliac joints. Conclusion The fusion rate and clinical results were excellent. Also, degeneration and pain from sacroiliac joints were not seen within 3 years after surgery. We recommend sacroiliac fixation using iliac screws for highly unstable lumbar spine. PMID:22318832

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Acupuncture on Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated Mechanisms: A Systemic Review.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review is to investigate the detailed existing scientific information about the clinical efficacy of acupuncture on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) conditions and to reveal the proposed mechanisms. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), NCCAM (The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine), and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1974 to 2018. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. 43 studies were recruited. Each research was analyzed for study design, subject characteristics, intervention, selected acupoints, assessment parameters, proposed mechanisms, and results/conclusions. In our review, we concluded that acupuncture alone or combined with other treatment modalities is beneficial to the clinical conditions of RA without adverse effects reported and can improve function and quality of life and is worth trying. Several important possible mechanisms were summarized including anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidative effect, and regulation of immune system function. However, there is still inconsistency regarding the clinical efficacy and lack of well-designed human/animal double-blinded RCTs. Future discussion for further agreement on taking traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory into consideration as much as possible is a top priority.

  8. Managing Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Updates and Three Strategic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Chodara, Ann M; Wattiaux, Aimée; Bartels, Christie M

    2017-04-01

    ᅟ: The increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well known; however, appropriate management of this elevated risk in rheumatology clinics is less clear. By critically reviewing literature published within the past 5 years, we aim to clarify current knowledge and gaps regarding CVD risk management in RA. We examine recent guidelines, recommendations, and evidence and discuss three approaches: (1) RA-specific management including treat-to-target and medication management, (2) assessment of comprehensive individual risk, and (3) targeting traditional CVD risk factors (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity) at a population level. Considering that 75% of US RA visits occur in specialty clinics, further research is needed regarding evidence-based strategies to manage and reduce CVD risk in RA. This review highlights clinical updates including US cardiology and international professional society guidelines, successful evidence-based population approaches from primary care, and novel opportunities in rheumatology care to reduce CVD risk in RA.

  9. Cinnamon Consumption Improves Clinical Symptoms and Inflammatory Markers in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Farideh; Rezaeyan Safar, Mahnaz; Rajaei, Elham; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hosein

    2018-05-03

    This study evaluated the effect of cinnamon on disease activity, serum levels of some inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular risk factors in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 36 women with RA were randomly divided to 2 groups, receiving 4 capsules of either 500 mg cinnamon powder or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, liver enzymes, serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood pressure, and clinical symptoms were determined at baseline and end of the week 8. At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease of serum levels of CRP (p < 0.001) and TNF-α (p < 0.001) in the cinnamon group as compared to the placebo group. Diastolic blood pressure was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.017). Compared with placebo, cinnamon intake significantly reduced the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) (p < 0.001), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (p < 0.001), and tender (TJC) (p < 0.001) and swollen joints (SJC) (p < 0.001) counts. No significant changes were observed for FBS, lipid profile, liver enzymes, or ESR. Cinnamon supplementation can be a safe and potential adjunct treatment to improve inflammation and clinical symptoms in patients with RA.

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis: what do MRI and ultrasound show

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Lennart; Teh, James

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory arthritis, affecting approximately 1% of the world’s population. Its pathogenesis has not been completely understood. However, there is evidence that the disease may involve synovial joints, subchondral bone marrow as well as intra- and extraarticular fat tissue, and may lead to progressive joint destruction and disability. Over the last two decades, significant improvement in its prognosis has been achieved owing to new strategies for disease management, the emergence of new biologic therapies and better utilization of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy have been recognized as essential for improving clinical outcomes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the potential of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging to visualize all tissues typically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, the diagnosis of early disease remains difficult due to limited specificity of findings. This paper summarizes the pathogenesis phenomena of rheumatoid arthritis and describes rheumatoid arthritis-related features of the disease within the synovium, subchondral bone marrow and articular fat tissue on MRI and ultrasound. Moreover, the paper aims to illustrate the significance of MRI and ultrasound findings in rheumatoid arthritis in the diagnosis of subclinical and early inflammation, and the importance of MRI and US in the follow-up and establishing remission. Finally, we also discuss MRI of the spine in rheumatoid arthritis, which may help assess the presence of active inflammation and complications. PMID:28439423

  11. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    PubMed Central

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  12. Phrasing of the patient global assessment in the rheumatoid arthritis ACR/EULAR remission criteria: an analysis of 967 patients from two databases of early and established rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Gossec, Laure; Kirwan, John Richard; de Wit, Maarten; Balanescu, Andra; Gaujoux-Viala, Cecile; Guillemin, Francis; Rat, Anne-Christine; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno; Kvien, Tore K; Dougados, Maxime

    2018-06-01

    The ACR/EULAR Boolean remission criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include a strict cutoff for patient global assessment (PGA, value ≤ 1/10). Near-remission corresponds to remission for joint counts and C-reactive protein but with PGA > 1. The objective was to explore whether the contribution of PGA to remission and near-remission varied according to the wording of the PGA and in relation to disease duration. In patients with early arthritis (N = 731, French ESPOIR cohort) or established RA (N = 236 patients from across Europe), frequency of remission versus near-remission was assessed according to the phrasing used for PGA (global health versus disease activity). In 967 patients (mean [standard deviation] age 49.7 [12.7] years, 76.7% women), remission was infrequent: range 12.9-16.7% (according to wording of PGA) in early RA and 6.8-7.2% in established RA. Near-remission was more frequent: 13.0-16.8% in early RA and 13.1-13.6% in established RA. The ratio of remission to near-remission was higher in the early arthritis cohort (0.8-1.3 versus 0.5-0.5 in established RA). Using the disease activity PGA led to more remission and less near-remission than the global health PGA in the early arthritis cohort (12.9 vs 16.7% near-remission, respectively, p = 0.047) but not in established RA. The proportion of patients who can be classified as remission or near-remission differs in early RA compared to establish RA and depends upon the formulation of the PGA question. PGA referring to disease activity and not global health may be preferred in early disease, if the objective is more alignment with inflammation assessment.

  13. Intraarticular triamcinolone hexacetonide injection in children with chronic arthritis: a survey of clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, M H; Lee, W I; Chen, L C; Lin, S J; Huang, J L

    1999-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of the intraarticular steroid(IAS) injection in the management of arthritis and the possible related complications in children with chronic arthritis. We evaluated 11 children of chronic arthritis (4 girls and 7 boys), age of onset ranged from 2-13.6 years, who had persistent arthritis treated with IAS from November 1994 to June 1997. The results of injections showed that the beneficial effect was noted within one day to 2 weeks without significant adverse reactions, remission exceeding 6 months was seen in 10 of 11 patients (in 14 of 18 joints). According to subgroups of chronic arthritis, the remission rate of IAS injection in children with pauciarticular arthritis reached 100%. A significant fall in C-reactive protein (CRP) between pre- and post-IAS injection (p = 0.03), but there were no differences in hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBCs), thrombocytes (Plts), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and osteocalcin level. No injection-related complications were found. In conclusion, the IAS injection was an effective and safe treatment in children with chronic arthritis with no obvious complications especially in pauciarticular arthritis.

  14. Transitional care in clinical networks for young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: current situation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cruikshank, Mary; Foster, Helen E; Stewart, Jane; Davidson, Joyce E; Rapley, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Clinical networks for paediatric and adolescent rheumatology are evolving, and their effect and role in the transition process between paediatric and adult services are unknown. We therefore explored the experiences of those involved to try and understand this further. Health professionals, young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and their families were recruited via five national health service paediatric and adolescent rheumatology specialist centres and networks across the UK. Seventy participants took part in focus groups and one-to-one interviews. Data was analysed using coding, memoing and mapping techniques to identify features of transitional services across the sector. Variation and inequities in transitional care exist. Although transition services in networks are evolving, development has lagged behind other areas with network establishment focusing more on access to paediatric rheumatology multidisciplinary teams. Challenges include workforce shortfalls, differences in service priorities, standards and healthcare infrastructures, and managing the legacy of historic encounters. Providing equitable high-quality clinically effective services for transition across the UK has a long way to go. There is a call from within the sector for more protected time, staff and resources to develop transition roles and services, as well as streamlining of local referral pathways between paediatric and adult healthcare services. In addition, there is a need to support professionals in developing their understanding of transitional care in clinical networks, particularly around service design, organisational change and the interpersonal skills required for collaborative working. Key messages • Transitional care in clinical networks requires collaborative working and an effective interface with paediatric and adult rheumatology.• Professional centrism and historic encounters may affect collaborative relationships within clinical networks.• Education

  15. Clinical, diagnostic and pathologic features of presumptive cases of Chlamydia pecorum-associated arthritis in Australian sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn; Moore, Cecily; Shearer, Patrick; Jelocnik, Martina; Bommana, Sankhya; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-09-08

    Arthritis is an economically significant disease in lambs and is usually the result of a bacterial infection. One of the known agents of this disease is Chlamydia pecorum, a globally recognised livestock pathogen associated with several diseases in sheep, cattle and other hosts. Relatively little published information is available on the clinical, diagnostic and pathologic features of C. pecorum arthritis in sheep, hindering efforts to enhance our understanding of this economically significant disease. In this case series, a combination of standard diagnostic testing used routinely by veterinarians, such as the Chlamydia complement fixation text (CFT), veterinary clinical examinations, and additional screening via C. pecorum specific qPCR was used to describe putative chlamydial infections in five sheep flocks with suspected ovine arthritis. Five separate cases involving multiple lambs (aged six to ten months) of different breeds with suspected C. pecorum arthritis are presented. In two of the five cases, arthritic lambs exhibited marked depression and lethargy. Arthritis with concurrent conjunctivitis was present in four out of five lamb flocks examined. Chlamydia CFT demonstrated medium to high positive antibody titres in all flocks examined. C. pecorum shedding was evident at multiple sites including the conjunctiva, rectum and vagina, as determined via qPCR. Two of the five flocks received antimicrobials and all flocks recovered uneventfully regardless of treatment. This case series highlights the features a field veterinarian may encounter in cases of suspected ovine chlamydial arthritis. Our analysis suggests a presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial arthritis in lambs can be made when there is evidence of joint stiffness with or without synovial effusion and elevated chlamydia antibody titres. C. pecorum-specific qPCR was found to be a useful ancillary diagnostic tool, detecting Chlamydia positivity in low or negative CFT titre animals. Variables such as symptom

  16. Relationship of clinical factors to the use of Cox-2 selective NSAIDs within an arthritis population in a large HMO.

    PubMed

    Bull, Scott A; Conell, Carol; Campen, David H

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the degree to which physicians use clinical factors to focus use of Cox-2 selective NSAIDs within an arthritis population. Diagnostic codes in the medical records of a large group-model HMO in northern California with approximately 3 million members were examined to identify patients with either rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or non-RA (osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease). RA and non-RA patients were stratified in deciles of relative risk for gastrointestinal (GI) complications according to patient characteristics identified on the Standardized Calculator of Risk for Events (SCORE) that were associated with use of Cox-2 selective NSAIDs. (The SCORE tool stratifies patients by risk of serious GI complications using patient characteristics that are assigned points during an office visit, including age, health status, diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroid use, and history of GI ulcer or bleed.) The second stage of analysis examined the percentage of arthritis patients in each SCORE-risk decile who received a Cox-2 selective NSAID, lower-risk NSAID, or traditional NSAID during calendar year 1999. The study population consisted of 144,360 members with an arthritis diagnosis, approximately 4.8% of members in this HMO. The mean age was 62.8 years (SD = 14.1), 61% were female, 10,449 (7%) had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 133,911 (93%) had non-rheumatoid arthritis. A diagnosis of RA was the most significant predictor of Cox-2 NSAID use (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.6-3.5), followed by a history of GI problems (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.4- 1.6). Female gender, chronic steroid use, and age each increased the odds of receiving a Cox-2 selective NSAID by about 35% (P<0.001 for all). Approximately 8.3% of patients in the highest decile of risk and 1.5% of patients in the lowest decile of risk received a Cox-2 selective NSAID. Clinical characteristics of patients identified on the SCORE (GI-risk) tool were strongly associated with use of Cox-2-selective NSAIDs in

  17. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Kaplan, Irina V; Kwok, Kenneth; Geier, Jamie; Benda, Birgitta; Soma, Koshika; Wang, Lisy; Riese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further assess the potential role of Janus kinase inhibition in the development of malignancies, we performed an integrated analysis of data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme. Methods Malignancy data (up to 10 April 2013) were pooled from six phase II, six Phase III and two long-term extension (LTE) studies involving tofacitinib. In the phase II and III studies, patients with moderate-to-severe RA were randomised to various tofacitinib doses as monotherapy or with background non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), mainly methotrexate. The LTE studies (tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily) enrolled patients from qualifying prior phase I, II and III index studies. Results Of 5671 tofacitinib-treated patients, 107 developed malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)). The most common malignancy was lung cancer (n=24) followed by breast cancer (n=19), lymphoma (n=10) and gastric cancer (n=6). The rate of malignancies by 6-month intervals of tofacitinib exposure indicates rates remained stable over time. Standardised incidence ratios (comparison with Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) for all malignancies (excluding NMSC) and selected malignancies (lung, breast, lymphoma, NMSC) were within the expected range of patients with moderate-to-severe RA. Conclusions The overall rates and types of malignancies observed in the tofacitinib clinical programme remained stable over time with increasing tofacitinib exposure. PMID:25902789

  18. Clinical management algorithm of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: interdisciplinary panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Bou, Rosa; Adán, Alfredo; Borrás, Fátima; Bravo, Beatriz; Calvo, Inmaculada; De Inocencio, Jaime; Díaz, Jesús; Escudero, Julia; Fonollosa, Alex; de Vicuña, Carmen García; Hernández, Victoria; Merino, Rosa; Peralta, Jesús; Rúa, María-Jesús; Tejada, Pilar; Antón, Jordi

    2015-05-01

    Uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) typically involves the anterior chamber segment, follows an indolent chronic course, and presents a high rate of uveitic complications and a worse outcome as compared to other aetiologies of uveitis. Disease assessment, treatment, and outcome measures have not been standardized. Collaboration between pediatric rheumatologists and ophthalmologists is critical for effective management and prevention of morbidity, impaired vision, and irreparable visual loss. Although the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group recommendations have been a great advance to help clinicians to improve consistency in grading and reporting data, difficulties arise at the time of deciding the best treatment approach in the individual patient in routine daily practice. For this reason, recommendations for a systematized control and treatment strategies according to clinical characteristics and disease severity in children with JIA-related uveitis were developed by a panel of experts with special interest in uveitis associated with JIA. A clinical management algorithm organized in a stepwise regimen is here presented.

  19. Emotions related to participation restrictions as experienced by patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative interview study (the Swedish TIRA project).

    PubMed

    Östlund, Gunnel; Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Thyberg, Mikael; Valtersson, Eva; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Psychological distress is a well-known complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but knowledge regarding emotions and their relationship to participation restrictions is scarce. The objective of the study was to explore emotions related to participation restrictions by patients with early RA. In this study, 48 patients with early RA, aged 20-63 years, were interviewed about participation restrictions using the critical incident technique. Information from transcribed interviews was converted into dilemmas and linked to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) participation codes. The emotions described were condensed and categorized. Hopelessness and sadness were described when trying to perform daily activities such as getting up in the mornings and getting dressed, or not being able to perform duties at work. Sadness was experienced in relation to not being able to continue leisure activities or care for children. Examples of fear descriptions were found in relation to deteriorating health and fumble fear, which made the individual withdraw from activities as a result of mistrusting the body. Anger and irritation were described in relation to domestic and employed work but also in social relations where the individual felt unable to continue valued activities. Shame or embarrassment was described when participation restrictions became visible in public. Feelings of grief, aggressiveness, fear, and shame are emotions closely related to participation restrictions in everyday life in early RA. Emotions related to disability need to be addressed both in clinical settings in order to optimize rehabilitative multi-professional interventions and in research to achieve further knowledge.

  20. Optical imaging: new tools for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, David; Jiang, Yebin; Wang, Xueding

    2010-10-01

    Conventional radiography, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging are the current imaging modalities used for clinical evaluation of arthritis which is highly prevalent and a leading cause of disability. Some of these types of imaging are also used for monitoring disease progression and treatment response of arthritis. However, their disadvantages limit their utilities, such as ionizing radiation for radiography, CT, and nuclear imaging; suboptimal tissue contrast resolution for radiography, CT, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging; high cost for CT and MRI and nuclear imaging; and long data-acquisition time with ensuing patient discomfort for MRI. Recently, there have been considerable advances in nonionizing noninvasive optical imaging which has demonstrated promise for early diagnosis, monitoring therapeutic interventions and disease progression of arthritis. Optical based molecular imaging modalities such as fluorescence imaging have shown high sensitivity in detection of optical contrast agents and can aid early diagnosis and ongoing evaluation of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Optical transillumination imaging or diffuse optical tomography may differentiate normal joint clear synovial fluid from turbid and pink medium early in the inflammatory process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to evaluate fluid composition from joints affected by arthritis. Hemodynamic changes such as angiogenesis, hypervascularization, and hypoxia in arthritic articular tissue can potentially be observed by diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography. Optical measurements could also facilitate quantification of hemodynamic properties such as blood volume and oxygenation levels at early stages of inflammatory arthritis. Optical imaging provides methodologies which should contribute to detection of early changes and monitoring of progression in pathological characteristics of arthritis, with relatively simple instrumentation.

  1. The evolving clinical profile of abatacept (CTLA4–Ig): a novel co-stimulatory modulator for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abatacept (CTLA4–Ig) is a novel fusion protein designed to modulate the T cell co-stimulatory signal mediated through the CD28–CD80/86 pathway. Clinical trials have provided preliminary evidence of the efficacy of this compound in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This review describes the molecular and biologic bases for the use of abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes the current clinical data on its safety and effectiveness in this disease. PMID:15833145

  2. Two-year efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Notario Ferreira, Irene; Ferrer González, Miguel Angel; Morales Garrido, Pilar; González Utrilla, Alfonso; García Sanchez, Antonio; Soto Pino, María José; Suero Rosario, Evelyn; Caro Hernández, Cristina; Añón Oñate, Isabel; Pérez Albaladejo, Lorena; Cáliz Cáliz, Rafael

    To evaluate the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice, retention rates of the drug and predictors of response. We performed a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, open-label study in patients receiving TCZ (8mg/kg/4 weeks) in a clinical practice setting. The clinical responses were evaluated using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, and the low activity and remission rates according to the Disease Activity Score 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI). The EULAR response rate was 86.63% and the DAS28 remission rate was 53.7% after 6 months of treatment; rates of low disease activity were 52.9% on CDAI and 47.1% on DAS28 at month 24. There were no statistically significant differences in EULAR response, rates of low activity and remission on DAS28 between patients receiving TCZ alone and those receiving TCZ in combination therapy, or between patients positive or negative for rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. The naïve biological therapy patients showed better remission and low activity rates after 6 months of treatment. The retention rate was 61% at month 24. Adverse events were among the most frequent causes of discontinuation. Tocilizumab is effective in RA, has a similar efficacy when used alone or in combination with synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and shows high retention rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  3. Obesity and rates of clinical remission and low MRI inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    George, Michael D; Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul; Baker, Daniel G; Baker, Joshua F

    2017-10-01

    Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of obesity on achieving clinical and imaging definitions of low disease activity. This study evaluated 470 patients with RA from GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD randomised clinical trials. Included patients had blinded clinical disease activity measures and MRI at baseline, 24 and 52 weeks. Synovitis, osteitis and total inflammation scores were determined using the RA MRI scoring system. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared odds of achieving Disease Activity Score using 28 joints and C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) remission, low component measures, or low MRI inflammation measures at 24 weeks in patients with obesity versus no obesity. At 24 weeks, patients with obesity were significantly less likely to achieve DAS28(CRP) remission (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.92, p=0.03). In contrast, patients with obesity had similar odds of achieving low synovitis (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.72, p=0.84) and inflammation scores (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.61 to 2.22, p=0.64) and greater odds of achieving low osteitis scores (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.10 to 3.84, p=0.02) versus normal weight patients. Patients with RA and obesity have lower rates of DAS28 remission but similar rates of low MRI activity compared with patients without obesity, suggesting that obesity and its associated comorbidities can bias clinical disease activity measures. NCT00361335 and NCT00264550; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. [Demographic and clinical features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Piauí, Brazil--evaluation of 98 patients].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria do Socorro Teixeira Moreira; Almeida, João Vicente Moreira; Bertolo, Manoel Barros

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian epidemiological studies on rheumatoid arthritis are scarce, mainly in the northeast; thus many data currently available originate from the international literature. To describe demographic, clinical and serological characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed-up by the same physician, in state of Piauí, Brazil. Data were collected between August 2010 and March 2013, in three health services of Piauí that provided health care in Rheumatology: a university-affiliated hospital, a public outpatient clinic and a private clinic. The numbers represent mean ± SD or percentage: 47.5±11.03 years-old non-Caucasian woman, non-smoker (59.2%), low educational level, mean disease duration of 7.7 years ± 7.6, and major extra-articular manifestations were rheumatoid nodules (19.4%) and sicca syndrome (46.9%). Features of rheumatoid arthritis obtained in this study are similar to those found in some national and international studies, but we observed higher female preponderance and illiteracy rate, in addition to a moderately severe erosive disease on average, with frequent sicca and other extra-articular manifestations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. [Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine

    2017-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis is rare. It is associated with poor prognosis in terms of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of a 61-year old patient with spontaneous Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis. He suffered from complicated diabetes associated with positive blood cultures and synovial fluid cultures. Patient's evolution was favorable thanks to early diagnosis and initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy. Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis is rare. On that basis we conducted a literature review of cases of Proteus mirabilis pyogenic arthritis to highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment and evolution of these diseases. Diagnosis is commonly based on microbiological analysis, early articular puncture biopsy is performed before the initiation of antibiotic treatment, direct examination, culture and antibiogram which are useful as guidance for antibiotic therapy. Septic arthritis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency; early management of this disease allows total healing without after-effects.

  6. Novel joint selection methods can reduce sample size for rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints.

    PubMed

    Allen, John C; Thumboo, Julian; Lye, Weng Kit; Conaghan, Philip G; Chew, Li-Ching; Tan, York Kiat

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether novel methods of selecting joints through (i) ultrasonography (individualized-ultrasound [IUS] method), or (ii) ultrasonography and clinical examination (individualized-composite-ultrasound [ICUS] method) translate into smaller rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical trial sample sizes when compared to existing methods utilizing predetermined joint sites for ultrasonography. Cohen's effect size (ES) was estimated (ES^) and a 95% CI (ES^L, ES^U) calculated on a mean change in 3-month total inflammatory score for each method. Corresponding 95% CIs [nL(ES^U), nU(ES^L)] were obtained on a post hoc sample size reflecting the uncertainty in ES^. Sample size calculations were based on a one-sample t-test as the patient numbers needed to provide 80% power at α = 0.05 to reject a null hypothesis H 0 : ES = 0 versus alternative hypotheses H 1 : ES = ES^, ES = ES^L and ES = ES^U. We aimed to provide point and interval estimates on projected sample sizes for future studies reflecting the uncertainty in our study ES^S. Twenty-four treated RA patients were followed up for 3 months. Utilizing the 12-joint approach and existing methods, the post hoc sample size (95% CI) was 22 (10-245). Corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS were 11 (7-40) and 11 (6-38), respectively. Utilizing a seven-joint approach, the corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS methods were nine (6-24) and 11 (6-35), respectively. Our pilot study suggests that sample size for RA clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints may be reduced using the novel methods, providing justification for larger studies to confirm these observations. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Analysis of Closed Claims in the Clinical Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Makiko DaSilva; Saito, Yuichi; Oyama, Yasuaki; Oiso, Giichiro; Moriyama, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite an increasing awareness of the risk of medical errors, few data sources are available to highlight the characteristics and patterns of medical errors in the clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study aimed to evaluate medical malpractice claims associated with the management of RA and other autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTDs). Methods: We analyzed 38 ACTD-associated closed claims extracted from a total of 8530 claims processed between July 2004 and June 2014 by the Tokyo headquarters office of Sompo Japan Nipponkoa Incorporated, a leading malpractice insurer in Japan. Results: RA was the most common ACTD assessed in this study, accounting for 20 cases. Although the male-to-female ratio among these cases was 5:15, in accordance with the general demographic distribution of RA, the proportion of patients older than 60 years (77.8%) was relatively high as the general range of RA susceptibility is 30–50 years. The analysis of allegation types among RA cases revealed statistically significant differences from non-RA cases (Fisher's exact test) as well as the following key findings: diagnosis-related allegations were absent (P < 0.01), whereas medication-related allegations were distinctively common (P = 0.02). Clinical processes related to the assessment process were most vulnerable to breakdown and leading to negligence identified with subsequent medication-related allegations, particularly among RA cases. Conclusions: The characteristics of malpractice claims associated with RA management, including the high frequency of medication-related allegations, breakdowns in the assessment process, and high claim numbers among patients older than 60 years, suggest the importance of caution exercised by physicians when administering immunosuppressants for the clinical treatment of RA. PMID:28584209

  8. Validating and assessing the sensitivity of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index-derived Short Form-6D in patients with early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Sogol S; Maranian, Paul M; Paulus, Harold E; Kaplan, Robert M; Ranganath, Veena K; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Puja P; Khanna, Dinesh

    2009-06-01

    New methodologies allow the scores for the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) to be translated into preferences/utility scores. We evaluated the construct validity of the HAQ-DI-derived Short Form-6D (SF-6D) score and assessed its responsiveness to change over 6- and 12-month followup periods in patients with early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients (n=277) participating in an RA observational study completed self-reported measures of symptoms and the HAQ-DI at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Total Sharp scores, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were assessed along with clinical data. Construct validity was assessed by examining the association between SF-6D score and patient-reported and clinical measures using Spearman correlation coefficients. The responsiveness of SF-6D to change was assessed using patient and physician assessments of the disease as clinical anchors. The magnitude of responsiveness was calculated using SF-6D effect size (ES). Mean SF-6D scores were 0.690, 0.720, and 0.723 at baseline and 6 and 12-month followup, respectively. Baseline patient-reported measures had moderate to high correlations with baseline SF-6D (r=0.43 to 0.52); whereas clinical measures had negligible to low correlations with SF-6D (r=0.001 to 0.32). ES was moderate for the groups that were deemed to have improved (ES 0.63-0.75) but negligible to small for those that did not (ES 0.13-0.46). Our data support the validity and responsiveness of the HAQ-DI derived SF-6D score in an early RA cohort. These results support the use of the HAQ-DI derived SF-6D in RA cohorts and clinical trials lacking preference-based measures.

  9. Determination of the minimal clinically important difference for seven fatigue measures in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pouchot, Jacques; Kherani, Raheem B.; Brant, Rollin; Lacaille, Diane; Lehman, Allen J.; Ensworth, Stephanie; Kopec, Jacek; Esdaile, John M.; Liang, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of seven measures of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. Study Design and Setting A cross-sectional study design based on inter-individual comparisons was used. Six to eight subjects participated in a single meeting and completed seven fatigue questionnaires (nine sessions were organized and 61 subjects participated). After completion of the questionnaires, the subjects had five one-on-one 10-minute conversations with different people in the group to discuss their fatigue. After each conversation, each patient compared their fatigue to their conversational partner’s on a global rating. Ratings were compared to the scores of the fatigue measures to estimate the MCID. Both non-parametric and linear regression analyses were used. Results Non-parametric estimates for the MCID relative to “little more fatigue” tended to be smaller than those for “little less fatigue”. The global MCIDs estimated by linear regression were: FSS 20.2, VT 14.8, MAF 18.7, MFI 16.6, FACIT–F 15.9, CFS 9.9, RS 19.7, for normalized scores (0 to 100). The standardized MCIDs for the seven measures were roughly similar (0.67 to 0.76). Conclusion These estimates of MCID will help to interpret changes observed in a fatigue score and will be critical in estimating sample size requirements. PMID:18359189

  10. Bee venom acupuncture for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Ah; Son, Mi Ju; Choi, Jiae; Jun, Ji Hee; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-11-07

    To assess the clinical evidence for bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched 14 databases up to March 2014 without a language restriction. Patients with RA. BVA involved injecting purified, diluted BV into acupoints. We included trials on BVA used alone or in combination with a conventional therapy versus the conventional therapy alone. Morning stiffness, pain and joint swelling Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor, the number of joints affected by RA and adverse effects likely related to RA. A total of 304 potentially relevant studies were identified; only one RCT met our inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, BVA may more effectively improve joint pain, swollen joint counts, tender joint counts, ESR and CRP but was not shown to improve morning stiffness. There is low-quality evidence, based on one trial, that BVA can significantly reduce pain, morning stiffness, tender joint counts, swollen joint counts and improve the quality of life of patients with RA compared with placebo (normal saline injection) control. However, the number of trials, their quality and the total sample size were too low to draw firm conclusions. PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013005853. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A randomized multicenter clinical trial of 99 Tc-methylene diphosphonate in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Rong; Liang, Jun; Sun, Lingyun; Zhang, Zhuoli; Liu, Xiangyuan; Huang, Cibo; Zhu, Ping; Zuo, Xiaoxia; Gu, Jieruo; Li, Xiangpei; Li, Xingfu; Liu, Yi; Feng, Ping; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate ( 99 Tc-MDP, Yunke Pharmaceutical industry) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 120 patients with active RA were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (receiving oral meloxicam tablets); Group B (receiving intravenous drip of 99 TC-MDP); Group C (receiving combination treatment of intravenous drip of 99 Tc-MDP and oral meloxicam tablets). The main clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 14 days of therapy. After 14 days of treatment, American College of Rheumatology 20 response was 15.62%, 34.04% and 48.78% in the three groups, respectively. The incidence of adverse events in three groups were 3.13%, 8.51% and 9.76% respectly, and has no significant difference. In addition, biochemical markers of bone metabolism including bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), all improved in the three groups, although more significant in Group B than Group A, and more significant in the combination group than monotherapy groups. 99 Tc-MDP has good efficacy and safety in the treatment of active RA patients; the benefit was more remarkable when 99 Tc-MDP was combined with NSAIDs. 99 Tc-MDP may also have potential to improve bone metabolism. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Acetabular overcoverage in the horizontal plane: an underdiagnosed trigger of early hip arthritis. A CT scan study in young adults.

    PubMed

    Valera, Màrius; Ibáñez, Natalia; Sancho, Rogelio; Llauger, Jaume; Gich, Ignasi

    2018-01-01

    Acetabular overcoverage promotes hip osteoarthritis causing a pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Acetabular coverage in the horizontal plane is usually poorly defined in imaging studies and may be misdiagnosed. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of acetabular overcoverage measured in the frontal plane and in the horizontal plane by CT scan and to determine its relationship with other anatomic features in the onset of hip arthritis in young adults. We compared prospectively CT scans from two groups of adults of 55 years or younger: the patient group (n = 30) consisted of subjects with diagnosis of early hip arthritis (Tönnis Grade I or II) and the control group (n = 31) consisted of subjects with healthy hips. Two independent observers analyzed centre edge angle (CEA), acetabular anteversion angle (AAA), anterior sector acetabular angle (AASA), posterior sector acetabular angle (PASA), horizontal acetabular sector angle (HASA), femoral anteversion angle (FAVA), alpha angle (AA), and Mckibbin Instability Index (MI). Angles measuring the acetabular coverage on the horizontal plane (AASA, PASA and, HASA) were significantly higher in the patient group (p < 0.001, p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between CEA and HASA in patients (r = 0.628) and in controls (r = 0.660). However, a high CEA (> 35º) was strongly associated with a high HASA (> 160º) in patients (p = 0.024) but not in controls (p = 0.21), suggesting that pincer should be simultaneously present in the horizontal and frontal plane to trigger hip degeneration. No significant association was detected between a high alpha angle (> 60º) and a high CEA (> 35º suggesting that a mixed pincer-cam aetiology was not prevalent in our series. Multivariate regression analysis showed the most significant predictors of degenerative joint disease were HASA (p = 0.008), AA (p = 0.048) and ASAA (p = 0

  13. Supporting safe driving with arthritis: developing a driving toolkit for clinical practice and consumer use.

    PubMed

    Vrkljan, Brenda H; Cranney, Ann; Worswick, Julia; O'Donnell, Siobhan; Li, Linda C; Gélinas, Isabelle; Byszewski, Anna; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Marshall, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a series of focus groups to explore the information needs of clinicians and consumers related to arthritis and driving. An open coding analysis identified common themes across both consumer and clinician-based focus groups that underscored the importance of addressing driving-related concerns and the challenges associated with assessing safety. The results revealed that although driving is critical for maintaining independence and community mobility, drivers with arthritis experience several problems that can affect safe operation of a motor vehicle. Findings from this study are part of a broader research initiative that will inform the development of the Arthritis and Driving toolkit. This toolkit outlines strategies to support safe mobility for people with arthritis and will be an important resource in the coming years given the aging population.

  14. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  15. European perspective on the management of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical utility of tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Śladowska, Katarzyna; Malinowska-Lipień, Iwona; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kózka, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Xeljanz ® (tofacitinib) is an oral small-molecule inhibitor that reversibly inhibits Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-dependent cytokine signaling, thus reducing inflammation. As a result of these mechanisms, effects on the immune system such as a moderate decrease in the total lymphocyte count, a dose-dependent decrease in natural killer (NK) cell count, and an increase in B-cell count have been observed. Therefore, tofacitinib provides an innovative approach to modulating the immune and inflammatory responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is especially important in individuals who do not respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors or show a loss of response over time. The aim of this article was to review studies on the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of tofacitinib in patients with RA. Tofacitinib has been shown to reduce symptoms of RA and improve the quality of life in the analyzed groups of patients. Moreover, it showed high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in Phase III randomized clinical trials on RA and was the first JAK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the RA therapy, thus providing a useful alternative treatment strategy. Randomized controlled studies revealed a significant benefit over placebo in efficacy outcomes (American College of Rheumatology [ACR] 20 and ACR50 response rates); accordingly, clinically meaningful improvements in patient-related outcomes compared with placebo have been reported. The safety profile seems acceptable, although some severe adverse effects have been observed, including serious infections, opportunistic infections (including tuberculosis and herpes zoster), malignancies, and cardiovascular events, which require strict monitoring irrespective of the duration of tofacitinib administration. As an oral drug, tofacitinib offers an alternative to subcutaneous or intravenous biologic drugs and

  16. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Kaplan, Irina V; Kwok, Kenneth; Geier, Jamie; Benda, Birgitta; Soma, Koshika; Wang, Lisy; Riese, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further assess the potential role of Janus kinase inhibition in the development of malignancies, we performed an integrated analysis of data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme. Malignancy data (up to 10 April 2013) were pooled from six phase II, six Phase III and two long-term extension (LTE) studies involving tofacitinib. In the phase II and III studies, patients with moderate-to-severe RA were randomised to various tofacitinib doses as monotherapy or with background non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), mainly methotrexate. The LTE studies (tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily) enrolled patients from qualifying prior phase I, II and III index studies. Of 5671 tofacitinib-treated patients, 107 developed malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)). The most common malignancy was lung cancer (n=24) followed by breast cancer (n=19), lymphoma (n=10) and gastric cancer (n=6). The rate of malignancies by 6-month intervals of tofacitinib exposure indicates rates remained stable over time. Standardised incidence ratios (comparison with Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) for all malignancies (excluding NMSC) and selected malignancies (lung, breast, lymphoma, NMSC) were within the expected range of patients with moderate-to-severe RA. The overall rates and types of malignancies observed in the tofacitinib clinical programme remained stable over time with increasing tofacitinib exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. An algorithm to identify rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sara; Hider, Samantha L; Raza, Karim; Stack, Rebecca J; Hayward, Richard A; Mallen, Christian D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multisystem, inflammatory disorder associated with increased levels of morbidity and mortality. While much research into the condition is conducted in the secondary care setting, routinely collected primary care databases provide an important source of research data. This study aimed to update an algorithm to define RA that was previously developed and validated in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods The original algorithm consisted of two criteria. Individuals meeting at least one were considered to have RA. Criterion 1: ≥1 RA Read code and a disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) without an alternative indication. Criterion 2: ≥2 RA Read codes, with at least one ‘strong’ code and no alternative diagnoses. Lists of codes for consultations and prescriptions were obtained from the authors of the original algorithm where these were available, or compiled based on the original description and clinical knowledge. 4161 people with a first Read code for RA between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 were selected from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, successor to the GPRD), and the criteria applied. Results Code lists were updated for the introduction of new Read codes and biological DMARDs. 3577/4161 (86%) of people met the updated algorithm for RA, compared to 61% in the original development study. 62.8% of people fulfilled both Criterion 1 and Criterion 2. Conclusions Those wishing to define RA in the CPRD, should consider using this updated algorithm, rather than a single RA code, if they wish to identify only those who are most likely to have RA. PMID:26700281

  18. Development of the American College of Rheumatology’s Rheumatoid Arthritis Electronic Clinical Quality Measures

    PubMed Central

    Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Desai, Sonali; Lacaille, Diane; Neogi, Tuhina; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Genovese, Mark; Myslinski, Rachel; Fisk, Natalie; Francisco, Melissa; Newman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) rely on computer algorithms to extract data from electronic health records (EHRs). On behalf of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), we sought to develop and test eCQMs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Drawing from published ACR guidelines, a working group developed candidate RA process measures and subsequently assessed face validity through an interdisciplinary panel of health care stakeholders. A public comment period followed. Measures that passed these levels of review were electronically specified using the Quality Data Model, which provides standard nomenclature for data elements (category, datatype, value sets) obtained through an EHR. For each eCQM, 3 clinical sites using different EHR systems tested the scientific feasibility and validity of measures. Measures appropriate for accountability were presented for national endorsement. Results Expert panel validity ratings were high for all measures (median 8–9 out of 9). Health system performance on the eCQMs was 53.6% for RA disease activity assessment, 69.1% for functional status assessment, 93.1% for disease modifying drug (DMARD) use and 72.8% for tuberculosis screening. Kappa statistics, evaluating whether the eCQM validly captured data obtained from manual EHR chart review, demonstrated moderate to substantial agreement (0.54 for functional status assessment, 0.73 for tuberculosis screening, 0.84 for disease activity, and 0.85 for DMARD use). Conclusion Four eCQMs for RA have achieved national endorsement and are recommended for use in federal quality reporting programs. Implementation and further refinement of these measures is ongoing in the ACR’s registry, the Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness (RISE). PMID:27564778

  19. European perspective on the management of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical utility of tofacitinib

    PubMed Central

    Kawalec, Paweł; Śladowska, Katarzyna; Malinowska-Lipień, Iwona; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kózka, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Xeljanz® (tofacitinib) is an oral small-molecule inhibitor that reversibly inhibits Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-dependent cytokine signaling, thus reducing inflammation. As a result of these mechanisms, effects on the immune system such as a moderate decrease in the total lymphocyte count, a dose-dependent decrease in natural killer (NK) cell count, and an increase in B-cell count have been observed. Therefore, tofacitinib provides an innovative approach to modulating the immune and inflammatory responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is especially important in individuals who do not respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors or show a loss of response over time. The aim of this article was to review studies on the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of tofacitinib in patients with RA. Tofacitinib has been shown to reduce symptoms of RA and improve the quality of life in the analyzed groups of patients. Moreover, it showed high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in Phase III randomized clinical trials on RA and was the first JAK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the RA therapy, thus providing a useful alternative treatment strategy. Randomized controlled studies revealed a significant benefit over placebo in efficacy outcomes (American College of Rheumatology [ACR] 20 and ACR50 response rates); accordingly, clinically meaningful improvements in patient-related outcomes compared with placebo have been reported. The safety profile seems acceptable, although some severe adverse effects have been observed, including serious infections, opportunistic infections (including tuberculosis and herpes zoster), malignancies, and cardiovascular events, which require strict monitoring irrespective of the duration of tofacitinib administration. As an oral drug, tofacitinib offers an alternative to subcutaneous or intravenous biologic drugs and should

  20. Health assessment questionnaire score is the best predictor of 5-year quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean-David; Dougados, Maxime; Goupille, Philippe; Cantagrel, Alain; Meyer, Olivier; Sibilia, Jean; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Combe, Bernard

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate and determine prognostic factors of 5-year quality of life in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of 191 patients with RA and disease duration < 1 year was prospectively followed over 5 years. The outcome measure was quality of life as assessed by the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2). Univariate analysis, then stepwise multiple logistic regression, was used to find independent baseline prognostic variables. After accounting for death, loss of followup, and missing data, 158 patients (82.72%) were included in the analysis. The mean AIMS2 physical, symptom, psychological, social interaction, and work scores after 5 years were 1.6 (range 0-6.88), 4.0 (0-10), 3.48 (0-9.22), 4.06 (0-8.69), and 1.87 (0-8.13), respectively. The AIMS2 physical component was significantly correlated with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score at 5 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the baseline values able to predict the 5-year physical, psychological, symptom, social interaction, and work status were, respectively: HAQ score and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), body mass index (BMI), HAQ; erosion score and sex, HAQ; ESR and anti-perinuclear antibody; matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) level, joint space narrowing, and tender joint scores; HAQ score and age. The multidimensional structure of the AIMS2 allowed us to assess the 5-year health-related quality of life in early RA. Using this instrument as an outcome variable, prognostic factors were selected and varied widely depending on the evaluated domain. The baseline HAQ score was the best predictive factor of 4 of the 5 domains of the AIMS2.

  1. Predictors of satisfactory improvements in pain for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in a treat-to-target study.

    PubMed

    Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Siemons, Liseth; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify baseline predictors of achieving patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI) in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. Baseline and 6 month data were used from patients included in the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring remission induction cohort study. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant predictors of achieving an absolute improvement of 30 mm or a relative improvement of 50% on a visual analogue scale for pain. At 6 months, 125 of 209 patients (59.8%) achieved an absolute PPSI and 130 patients (62.2%) achieved a relative PPSI in pain. Controlling for baseline pain, having symmetrical arthritis was the strongest independent predictor of achieving an absolute [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, P = 0.03] or relative (OR 3.44, P = 0.01) PPSI. Additionally, anti-CCP positivity (OR 2.04, P = 0.04) and having ≤12 tender joints (OR 0.29, P = 0.01) were predictive of achieving a relative PPSI. The total explained variance of baseline predictors was 30% for absolute and 18% for relative improvements, respectively. Symmetrical joint involvement, anti-CCP positivity and fewer tender joints at baseline are prognostic signs for achieving satisfactory improvement in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sustained inhibition of progressive joint damage with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: 2-year results from the randomised controlled trial IMAGE.

    PubMed

    Tak, Paul P; Rigby, William; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Peterfy, Charles; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Stohl, William; Healy, Emma; Hessey, Eva; Reynard, Mark; Shaw, Tim

    2012-03-01

    In the IMAGEstudy, rituximab plus methotrexate (MTX) inhibited joint damage and improved clinical outcomes at 1 year in MTX-naïve patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to assess joint damage progression and clinical outcomes over 2 years. Patients (n=755) were randomised to receive rituximab 2×500 mg+MTX, 2×1000 mg+MTX or placebo+MTX. The placebo-controlled period continued to week 104. Two-year end points were defined as secondary or exploratory and included change in total Genant-modified Sharp score (mTSS), total erosion score and joint space narrowing score from baseline to week 104. Clinical efficacy and physical function end points were also assessed. At 2 years, rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX maintained inhibition of progressive joint damage versus MTX alone (mTSS change 0.41 vs 1.95; p<0.0001 (79% inhibition)), and a higher proportion of patients receiving rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX had no radiographic progression over 2 years compared with those receiving MTX alone (57% vs 37%; p<0.0001). Contrary to 1-year results, exploratory analysis of rituximab 2×500 mg+MTX at 2 years showed that progressive joint damage was slowed by ∼61% versus placebo+MTX (mTSS, exploratory p=0.0041). Improvements in clinical signs and symptoms and physical function seen after 1 year in rituximab-treated patients versus those receiving placebo were maintained at year 2. Safety profiles were similar between groups. Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX was associated with sustained improvements in radiographic, clinical and functional outcomes over 2 years. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT00299104.

  3. Early Remission Is a Realistic Target in a Majority of Patients with DMARD-naive Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rannio, Tuomas; Asikainen, Juha; Kokko, Arto; Hannonen, Pekka; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed remission rates at 3 and 12 months in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were naive for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and who were treated in a Finnish rheumatology clinic from 2008 to 2011. We compared remission rates and drug treatments between patients with RA and patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA). Data from all DMARD-naive RA and UA patients from the healthcare district were collected using software that includes demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity, medications, and patient-reported outcomes. Our rheumatology clinic applies the treat-to-target principle, electronic monitoring of patients, and multidisciplinary care. Out of 409 patients, 406 had data for classification by the 2010 RA criteria of the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism. A total of 68% were female, and mean age (SD) was 58 (16) years. Respectively, 56%, 60%, and 68% were positive for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF), and RF/anti-CCP, and 19% had erosive disease. The median (interquartile range) duration of symptoms was 6 (4-12) months. A total of 310 were classified as RA and 96 as UA. The patients with UA were younger, had better functional status and lower disease activity, and were more often seronegative than the patients with RA. The 28-joint Disease Activity Score (3 variables) remission rates of RA and UA patients at 3 months were 67% and 58% (p = 0.13), and at 12 months, 71% and 79%, respectively (p = 0.16). Sustained remission was observed in 57%/56% of RA/UA patients. Patients with RA used more conventional synthetic DMARD combinations than did patients with UA. None used biological DMARD at 3 months, and only 2.7%/1.1% of the patients (RA/UA) used them at 12 months (p = 0.36). Remarkably high remission rates are achievable in real-world DMARD-naive patients with RA or UA.

  4. Management of Early- and Late-Stage Rheumatoid Arthritis: Are Physiotherapy Students' Intended Behaviours Consistent with Canadian Best Practice Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Lineker, Sydney C.; Hallett, Christina; Tumber, Jake; Fernando, Nalin; Hul, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study examined whether physiotherapy students in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum intend to implement best practices for management of clients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method: Physiotherapy students (n=49) completed a subsection of the ACREU Primary Care Survey to evaluate the concordance between intended behaviours and Canadian best practices for early- and late-stage RA, before and after completing the relevant PBL content. Changes in scores were assessed using McNemar's test for dependent proportions. Results: Most students indicated that they would recommend treatments or referrals for physiotherapy/exercise, education, and occupational therapy or joint protection pre- and post-PBL (>83% and >95%, respectively). Post-PBL, more students recommended referral to a rheumatologist and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for both early and late RA; however, the increase was significant only for early RA (p=0.013 and 0.031 for referral to rheumatologist and DMARDs, respectively). More students recommended psychosocial support at both stages of RA post-PBL (early RA: p<0.001; late RA: p=0.031). Although more students recommended DMARDs post-PBL, only 8 students in total made this recommendation (16%), and fewer students considered use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Most students (94%) did not recommend referral to a surgeon for early or late RA. Conclusion: Intended behaviour of physiotherapy students was more consistent with Canadian best practice guidelines for managing clients with early- and late-stage RA following the PBL curriculum. Further study is required to determine whether the students were less aware of best practices related to pharmacologic interventions and timely referral to appropriate specialists, or whether they considered these issues to be outside their scope of practice. PMID:23729962

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...

  6. Utility of circulating serum miRNAs as biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in animal models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kung, L H W; Zaki, S; Ravi, V; Rowley, L; Smith, M M; Bell, K M; Bateman, J F; Little, C B

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if serum microRNA (miRNA) signatures were biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in preclinical mouse models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory arthritis. Cartilage degeneration was induced in 10-12 week old male C57BL6 mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or intra-articular injection of methylated-bovine-serum-albumin (AIA), with sham-operated or saline-injected control animals (n = 6/treatment/time). Total serum RNA and knee joints were isolated at 1, 4 and 16 weeks post-induction. Cartilage degeneration was scored histologically. Serum miRNA expression profiling was performed using Agilent microarrays and validated by qPCR. DMM-operated and AIA mice had characteristic cartilage degeneration (proteoglycan loss, chondrocyte hypertrophy, structural damage), that increased significantly with time compared with controls, and with distinct temporal differences between arthritis models. However, expression profiling revealed no statistically significant dysregulation of serum miRNAs between AIA vs saline-injected or DMM vs sham-operated control mice at the critical early disease stages. The inability to detect DMM or AIA serum miRNA signatures compared with controls was not due to the insensitivity of the expression profiling approach since significant changes were observed in miRNA expression between the arthritis models and between time points. While distinct patterns of progressive cartilage degradation were induced in the arthritis models, we were unable to identify any serum miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in early stages of disease compared with controls. This suggests circulating serum miRNAs may not be useful as cartilage biomarkers in distinguishing the early or progressive stages of arthritis cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Inflammation on Metabolomic Profiles in Patients With Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stephen P; Kapoor, Sabrina R; Viant, Mark R; Byrne, Jonathan J; Filer, Andrew; Buckley, Christopher D; Kitas, George D; Raza, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Inflammatory arthritis is associated with systemic manifestations including alterations in metabolism. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy–based metabolomics to assess metabolic fingerprints in serum from patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those with early arthritis. Methods. Serum samples were collected from newly presenting patients with established RA who were naive for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, matched healthy controls, and 2 groups of patients with synovitis of ≤3 months' duration whose outcomes were determined at clinical followup. Serum metabolomic profiles were assessed using 1-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Discriminating metabolites were identified, and the relationships between metabolomic profiles and clinical variables including outcomes were examined. Results. The serum metabolic fingerprint in established RA was clearly distinct from that of healthy controls. In early arthritis, we were able to stratify the patients according to the level of current inflammation, with C-reactive protein correlating with metabolic differences in 2 separate groups (P < 0.001). Lactate and lipids were important discriminators of inflammatory burden in both early arthritis patient groups. The sensitivities and specificities of models to predict the development of either RA or persistent arthritis in patients with early arthritis were low. Conclusion. The metabolic fingerprint reflects inflammatory disease activity in patients with synovitis, demonstrating that underlying inflammatory processes drive significant changes in metabolism that can be measured in the peripheral blood. The identification of metabolic alterations may provide insights into disease mechanisms operating in patients with inflammatory arthritis. PMID:23740368

  8. N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and mortality risk in early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Registry (NOAR)

    PubMed Central

    Mirjafari, Hoda; Welsh, Paul; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Wilson, Paddy; Marshall, Tarnya; Edlin, Helena; Bunn, Diane; Chipping, Jacqueline; Lunt, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M; Sattar, Naveed; Bruce, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    Background We measured N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), a marker of cardiac dysfunction, in an inception cohort with early inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and assessed its association with disease phenotype, cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause and CVD related mortality. Methods Subjects with early IP were recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register from January 2000 to December 2008 and followed up to death or until March 2010 including any data from the national death register. The associations of baseline NT-pro-BNP with IP related factors and CVD were assessed by linear regression. Cox proportional hazards models examined the independent association of baseline NT-pro-BNP with all-cause and CVD mortality. Results We studied 960 early IP subjects; 163 (17%) had prior CVD. 373 (39%) patients had a baseline NT-pro-BNP levels ≥100 pg/ml. NT-pro-BNP was associated with age, female gender, HAQ score, CRP, current smoking, history of hypertension, prior CVD and the presence of carotid plaque. 92 (10%) IP subjects died including 31 (3%) from CVD. In an age and gender adjusted analysis, having a raised NT-pro-BNP level (≥100 pg/ml) was associated with both all-cause and CVD mortality (adjusted HR (95% CI) 2.36 (1.42 to 3.94) and 3.40 (1.28 to 9.03), respectively). These findings were robust to adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors and prevalent CVD. Conclusions In early IP patients, elevated NT-pro-BNP is related to HAQ and CRP and predicts all-cause and CVD mortality independently of conventional CVD risk factors. Further study is required to identify whether NT-pro-BNP may be clinically useful in targeting intensive interventions to IP patients at greatest risk of CVD. PMID:23511225

  9. International patient and physician consensus on a psoriatic arthritis core outcome set for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip; Shea, Judy A; Gossec, Laure; Leung, Ying Ying; Tillett, William; Elmamoun, Musaab; Callis Duffin, Kristina; Campbell, Willemina; Christensen, Robin; Coates, Laura; Dures, Emma; Eder, Lihi; FitzGerald, Oliver; Gladman, Dafna; Goel, Niti; Grieb, Suzanne Dolwick; Hewlett, Sarah; Hoejgaard, Pil; Kalyoncu, Umut; Lindsay, Chris; McHugh, Neil; Shea, Bev; Steinkoenig, Ingrid; Strand, Vibeke; Ogdie, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    To identify a core set of domains (outcomes) to be measured in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) clinical trials that represent both patients' and physicians' priorities. We conducted (1) a systematic literature review (SLR) of domains assessed in PsA; (2) international focus groups to identify domains important to people with PsA; (3) two international surveys with patients and physicians to prioritise domains; (4) an international face-to-face meeting with patients and physicians using the nominal group technique method to agree on the most important domains; and (5) presentation and votes at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conference in May 2016. All phases were performed in collaboration with patient research partners. We identified 39 unique domains through the SLR (24 domains) and international focus groups (34 domains). 50 patients and 75 physicians rated domain importance. During the March 2016 consensus meeting, 12 patients and 12 physicians agreed on 10 candidate domains. Then, 49 patients and 71 physicians rated these domains' importance. Five were important to >70% of both groups: musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, structural damage, pain and physical function. Fatigue and participation were important to >70% of patients. Patient global and systemic inflammation were important to >70% of physicians. The updated PsA core domain set endorsed by 90% of OMERACT 2016 participants includes musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, pain, patient global, physical function, health-related quality of life, fatigue and systemic inflammation. The updated PsA core domain set incorporates patients' and physicians' priorities and evolving PsA research. Next steps include identifying outcome measures that adequately assess these domains. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Analysis of non-melanoma skin cancer across the tofacitinib rheumatoid arthritis clinical programme.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Martin, George; Mariette, Xavier; Terry, Ketti K; Chen, Yan; Geier, Jamie; Andrews, John; Kaur, Mandeep; Fan, Haiyun; Nduaka, Chudy I

    2017-01-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) across the tofacitinib RA development programme. NMSC events (through August 2013) were identified in patients receiving tofacitinib in two Phase (P)1, eight P2, six P3 and two long-term extension (LTE) studies. In P123 studies, tofacitinib was administered at various doses (1-30 mg twice daily [BID], 20 mg once daily), as monotherapy or with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, mainly methotrexate. In LTE studies, patients from qualifying P123 studies received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. Crude incidence rates (IRs; patients with events/100 patient-years) for first NMSC event were evaluated across doses and over time. In the overall population, comprising data from 18 studies (15,103 patient-years), 83 of 6092 tofacitinib-treated patients had NMSC events. The IR for NMSC (0.55 [95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69] overall population) was stable up to 84 months of observation. IRs for tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID in combined P123 trials were 0.61 (0.34-1.10) and 0.47 (0.24-0.90), respectively. Corresponding IRs for LTE studies were 0.41 (0.26-0.66) and 0.79 (0.60-1.05). The IR for NMSC across the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme was low and remained stable over time. The IR for NMSC in LTE studies was numerically but not significantly higher with tofacitinib 10 versus 5 mg BID; an inverse dose relationship was observed in P123 trials. Longer follow-up is required to confirm these results.

  11. Erosive arthritis in systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of a distinct clinical and serological subset.

    PubMed

    Richter Cohen, M; Steiner, G; Smolen, J S; Isenberg, D A

    1998-04-01

    Erosive arthritis (EA) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be debilitating and deforming with uncertain factors for risk, although antibodies to the A2 hnRNP core protein, known as anti-RA33, have been associated with EA. Two hundred patients under long-term follow-up for SLE were evaluated for EA and associated clinical and serological abnormalities. In addition, sera were tested in a masked fashion for anti-RA33 antibodies in a total of 60 patients: 10 with EA and 50 age-, sex- and ethnically matched controls. Ten of 200 (5%) patients with SLE, mainly non-white women, had EA. There were trends for increased renal involvement (P = 0.06), Sjögren's syndrome (P = 0.07) and Raynaud's phenomenon (P = 0.03) in patients with EA compared to those without EA. Rheumatoid factor (RF) was increased in patients with EA (P < 0.02), as were antibodies to double-stranded DNA (P < 0.05), Sm (P < 0.01) and La/SS-B (P < 0.001). Anti-RA33 antibodies were present in 70% with EA compared to 28% without EA (P < 0.05). RF correlated with anti-RA33 antibodies in patients with EA, but not with the presence of anti-RA33 alone. Thus, anti-RA33 antibodies may identify those patients with SLE who are at risk for EA, and an association with RF suggests a common immune response or pathological mechanism in autoimmune erosive joint disease.

  12. [Clinical randomized study of bee-sting therapy for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-De; Zhang, Jin-Lu; Zheng, Han-Guang; Liu, Feng-Yun; Chen, Ying

    2008-06-01

    To observe the clinical effect of bee-sting (venom) therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred RA patients were randomly divided into medication (control) group and bee-venom group, with 50 cases in each. Patients of control group were treated with oral administration of Methotrexate (MTX, 7.5 mg/w), Sulfasalazine (0.5 g,t. i.d.), Meloxicam (Mobic,7. 5 mg, b. i. d.); and those of bee-venom group treated with Bee-sting of Ashi-points and the above-mentioned Western medicines. Ashi-points were selected according to the position of RA and used as the main acupoints, supplemented with other acupoints according to syndrome differentiation. The treatment was given once every other day and all the treatments lasted for 3 months. Compared with pre-treatment, scores of joint swelling degree, joint activity, pain, and pressing pain, joint-swelling number, grasp force, 15 m-walking duration, morning stiff duration in bee-venom group and medication group were improved significantly (P<0.05, 0.01). Comparison between two groups showed that after the therapy, scores of joint swelling, pain and pressing pain, joint-swelling number and morning stiff duration, and the doses of the administered MTX and Mobic in bee-venom group were all significantly lower than those in medication group (P<0.05, 0.01); whereas the grasp force in been-venom group was markedly higher than that in medication group (P<0.05). In addition, the relapse rate of bee-venom group was obviously lower than that of medication group (P<0.05; 12% vs 32%). Combined application of bee-venom therapy and medication is superior to simple use of medication in relieving RA, and when bee-sting therapy used, the commonly-taken doses of western medicines may be reduced, and the relapse rate gets lower.

  13. Ultrasound resistive index, power Doppler, and clinical parameters in established rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Melissa Cláudia; do Prado, Aline Defaveri; Piovesan, Deise Marcela; Bredemeier, Markus; da Silveira, Inês Guimarães; Mendonça, José Alexandre; Staub, Henrique Luiz

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a useful tool for the evaluation of sinovial vascularization and proliferation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accordingly, resistive index (RI) on spectral Doppler (sD) US provides a quantitative analysis of vascular inflammation, but its utility in the evaluation of RA activity has not been established. Our objective was to determine the association of RI with other US parameters of synovitis and with clinical disease activity in established RA. Patients with positive power Doppler (pD) were included in a prospective cross-sectional study. Disease activity and disability were evaluated using the Disease Activity Score in 28-joints (DAS28) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), respectively. Gray scale (GS) synovitis, pD, and sD analyses were performed by one of two examiners in wrists and the second and third metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. The 10-joint GS and 10-joint pD scores and mean RI were then calculated. Weighted kappa (WK) values were employed to assess interobserver reability, and correlations were tested using the Spearman coefficient. Ninety-five RA patients (median duration of disease of 7 years and mean DAS28 of 4.32 ± 1.66) were included. WK values in real-time US were 0.77 for synovitis, 0.87 for pD, and 0.68 for RI. There were no significant correlations of RI with 10-joint GS, 10-joint pD, DAS28, joint counts, or HAQ (P > 0.10 for all tests). Patients in remission had a mean RI similar to those with high disease activity (0.62 ± 0.10, n = 15 versus 0.63 ± 0.13, n = 34, respectively). The addition of the RI score did not seem to improve US performance in patients with established RA.

  14. Plasma zinc and its relationship to clinical symptoms and drug treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Z; El-Ghobarey, A F; Fell, G S; Brown, D H; Dunlop, J; Dick, W C

    1980-01-01

    Total plasma zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on different therapeutic treatments were determined in conjunction with total serum proteins, serum albumin and globulin, and articular index of joint tenderness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, serum copper, and serum iron. There were significantly lower zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than in patients on levamisole and penicillamine. Zinc levels correlated positively with serum albumin, and there was an inverse correlation between zinc levels and both ESR and globulin concentration in all rheumatoid patients. However, the correlation coefficient varied in the different treatment groups. The results of this study support the hypothesis that low plasma zinc level in rheumatoid arthritis is one of the nonspecific features of inflammation. PMID:7436558

  15. Identification of novel mutations in CD2BP1 gene in clinically proven rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhattaram Siddhartha; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowgandhi, Nannepaga; Prajwal, Bhattaram Manoj; Mohan, Alladi; Sarma, Kadainti Venkata Subbaraya; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant, auto-inflammatory disease that affects joints and skin. The disease results due to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) gene on chromosome 15q24.3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, genetically complex disease that affects the joints with occasional skin manifestations. Studies related to the pathophysiology of inflammation in these two disorders show a certain degree of overlap at genetic level. The present study was done to confirm the existence of such a genetic overlap between PAPA syndrome and RA in south Indian population. In the present study 100 patients who were clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and 100 apparently healthy controls were chosen and the 15 exons of CD2BP1 gene were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that in exon 3 thirty eight patients revealed presence of novel heterozygous missense mutations p.Glu51Asp, p.Leu57Arg and p.Ala64Thr. In exons 6, 10 and 14 eight patients showed 44 novel missense mutations and two patients showed novel frame shift mutations p.(Met123_Leu416delinsThr) and p.(Thr337Profs*52) leading to truncated protein formation. Such mutations were not seen in controls. Further, the in silico analysis revealed the mutant CD2BP1 structure showed deletion of Cdc15 and SH3 domains when superimposed with the wild type CD2BP1 structure with variable RMSD values. Therefore, these structural variations in CD2BP1 gene due to the mutations could be one of the strongest reasons to demonstrate the involvement of these gene variations in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition? What if my symptoms come back? Other organizations National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Citations Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis by JA Rindfleisch, ...

  17. Efficiency of adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis patients: dosing patterns and effectiveness in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Herráiz, Esther; Escudero-Vilaplana, Vicente; Alañón-Plaza, Estefanía; Trovato-López, Nicolás; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Morell-Baladrón, Alberto; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective, multicentre, observational study aimed to assess the mean annual doses and associated costs of three anti-tumour necrosis factor agents in daily clinical practice in rheumatoid arthritis patients, correlating these costs with disease activity. Adult rheumatoid arthritis patients were treated and followed at the Rheumatology departments of two Spanish hospitals for at least 6 months, with adalimumab, etanercept or infliximab over a 4-year period. ANOVA and multivariate statistical analyses of dosing patterns, disease activity and annualised costs were carried out. A total of 198 patients, comprising 215 cases, met the inclusion criteria (73 on adalimumab, 81 etanercept and 61 infliximab). Compared to recommended doses, mean doses of adalimumab and etanercept decreased by 7% and 19%, respectively, while the mean dose of infliximab increased by 36%. There were no statistical differences between treatments in terms of clinical effectiveness. The hazard of dose escalation was significantly higher for either adalimumab (4.4-fold) or infliximab (11.8-fold) compared to etanercept (p<0.05). Clinical control was achieved and maintained in more than half of the patients treated with reduced doses of etanercept. Associated mean patient-year costs were significantly higher in adalimumab patients (€11.962.58) (etanercept €9.594.73; infliximab €10.094.53; [p<0.05]). In rheumatoid arthritis patients, it is possible to reduce doses and associated costs of biological therapies while controlling disease activity. Mean doses used in our clinical practice were significantly lower with etanercept than with the anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies, adalimumab and infliximab. Dose differences impact directly on associated patient-year costs, and thus on treatment efficiency.

  18. The foot as a barrier in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis - an interview study among Swedish women and men.

    PubMed

    Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Valtersson, Eva; Östlund, Gunnel; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2017-12-01

    Foot impairments are related to reduced mobility and participation restrictions in daily activities in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The new biological medications are effective and reduce disease activity, but not disability to the same extent. Foot impairments are assumed to be related to participation restrictions also in patients with early RA, diagnosed after the introduction of biological medications. The knowledge of foot impairments needs to be more explored after the introduction of biological disease-modifying drugs (bDMARDs). The aim of this study was to explore the patients' perspective of foot impairments related to early RA. The sample included 59 patients (20-63 years) who were interviewed about participation dilemmas in daily life using the Critical Incident Technique. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data related to foot impairments were extracted and analyzed thematically. A research partner validated the analysis. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee. Patients with early RA described a variety of participation restrictions related to foot impairments: 1) foot hindrances in domestic life, 2) foot impairments influencing work, 3) leisure activities restricted by one's feet 4) struggling to be mobile 5) foot impairments as an early sign of rheumatic disease. There is a need to focus on foot impairments related to early RA, and for health care professionals to understand these signs. A suggestion for future research is to conduct a longitudinal follow-up of foot impairment related to medication, disease activity and disability in patients diagnosed after the introduction of bDMARDs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Sirt2 suppresses inflammatory responses in collagen-induced arthritis

    SciT

    Lin, Jiangtao; Department of Orthopaedics, Yantaishan Hospital, 91 Jiefang Road, Yantai, Shandong 264001; Sun, Bing

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression decreases in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). •Sirt2 knockout aggravates severity of arthritis in mice with CIA. •Sirt2 knockout increases levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the serum. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 and inhibits pro-inflammatory factors expression. •Sirt2 rescue abates severity of arthritis in mice with CIA. -- Abstract: Arthritis is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications and early death. However, the underling mechanisms of arthritis are still unclear. Sirtuins are a NAD{sup +}-dependent class III deacetylase family, and regulate cellular stress, inflammation, genomic stability, carcinogenesis, and energy metabolism. Among the sirtuin family members, Sirt1more » and Sirt6 are critically involved in the development of arthritis. It remains unknown whether other sirtuin family members participate in arthritis. Here in this study, we demonstrate that Sirt2 inhibits collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) using in vivo and in vitro evidence. The protein and mRNA levels of Sirt2 significantly decreased in joint tissues of mice with CIA. When immunized with collagen, Sirt2-KO mice showed aggravated severity of arthritis based on clinical scores, hind paw thickness, and radiological and molecular findings. Mechanically, Sirt2 deacetylated p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) at lysine 310, resulting in reduced expression of NF-κB-dependent genes, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1), RANTES, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13. Importantly, our rescue experiment showed that Sirt2 re-expression abated the severity of arthritis in Sirt2-KO mice. Those findings strongly indicate Sirt2 as a considerably inhibitor of the development of arthritis.« less

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Tight Control of Inflammation in Early Psoriatic Arthritis: Economic Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, John L; Meads, David M; Hulme, Claire T; Mcparland, Lucy; Brown, Sarah; Coates, Laura C; Moverley, Anna R; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Helliwell, Philip S

    2018-03-01

    Treat-to-target approaches have proved to be effective in rheumatoid arthritis, but have not been studied in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This study was undertaken to examine the cost-effectiveness of tight control (TC) of inflammation in early PsA compared to standard care. Cost-effectiveness analyses were undertaken alongside a UK-based, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Taking the perspective of the health care sector, effectiveness was measured using the 3-level EuroQol 5-domain, which allows for the calculation of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) are presented, which represent the additional cost per QALY gained over a 48-week time horizon. Sensitivity analyses are presented assessing the impact of variations in the analytical approach and assumptions on the cost-effectiveness estimates. The mean cost and QALYs were higher in the TC group: £4,198 versus £2,000 and 0.602 versus 0.561. These values yielded an ICER of £53,948 per QALY. Bootstrapped uncertainty analysis suggests that the TC has a 0.07 probability of being cost-effective at a £20,000 threshold. Stratified analysis suggests that with certain costs being controlled, an ICER of £24,639 can be calculated for patients with a higher degree of disease severity. A tight control strategy to treat PsA is an effective intervention in the treatment pathway; however, this study does not find tight control to be cost-effective in most analyses. Lower drug prices, targeting polyarthritis patients, or reducing the frequency of rheumatology visits may improve value for money metrics in future studies. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of foot orthoses for people with established rheumatoid arthritis: an exploratory clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rome, K; Clark, H; Gray, J; McMeekin, P; Plant, M; Dixon, J

    2017-05-01

    Foot orthoses are commonly prescribed as an intervention for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data relating to the cost-effectiveness of foot orthoses in people with RA are limited. The aim was to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of two types of foot orthoses in people with established RA. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to compare custom-made foot orthoses (CMFOs) and simple insoles (SIs) in 41 people with established RA. The Foot Function Index (FFI) was used to measure foot pain, disability, and functional limitation. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS), societal (patient and family) perspective, and secondary care resource use in terms of the intervention and staff time. Effects were assessed in terms of health gain expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). At baseline, 20 participants received a CMFO and 21 participants received an SI. After 16 weeks foot pain improved in both the CMFOs (p = 0.000) and the SIs (p < 0.01). However, disability scores improved for CMFOs (p < 0.001) but not for SIs (p = 0.40). The cost-effectiveness results demonstrated no difference in cost between the arms (CMFOs: £159.10; SIs: £79.10; p = 0.35), with the CMFOs being less effective in terms of cost per QALY gain (p < 0.001). In people with established RA, semi-rigid customized foot orthoses can improve pain and disability scores in comparison to simple insoles. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, the customized foot orthoses were far more expensive to manufacture, with no significant cost per QALY gain.

  2. Introduction to economic modeling for clinical rheumatologists: application to biologic agents in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marra, Carlo A; Bansback, Nick; Anis, Aslam H; Shojania, Kamran

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory, progressive musculoskeletal disease that affects 0.5-1.0% of the adult population in Western countries. The joint destruction and progressive functional disability associated with uncontrolled RA result in tremendous impacts on health-related quality of life, ability to work, and mortality. In addition, the treatment of the disease and associated complications exact a substantial economic burden to the patients, their families, and society. In the last decade, several biological agents (biologics) have been approved for use in RA, revolutionizing treatment. These biologics, which target cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor or lymphocytes such as B or T cells, reduce functional disability and substantially slow the progression of joint damage. However, because these agents typically cost ten to 100 times more than existing available older drug therapies, there has been worldwide concern regarding their impact on healthcare budgets. As such, there has been increased attention towards economic evaluation as a means to determine whether, and in which subgroup of patients, these newer, more expensive agents confer appropriate value for their additional cost. Indeed, evaluations have guided coverage decisions for both private and public health insurance agencies such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK. The use of economic evaluations to determine value for money for these agents has attracted both debate and controversy. Some of the controversy is related to the appropriateness of the structure of, and assumptions underlying, the decision models employed to estimate the long-term costs and benefits of these agents over existing therapies. To fully appreciate the debate, one must first understand the basic principles of economic evaluation and the necessity for using decision models to evaluate cost effectiveness. To understand the basic principles of economic

  3. Treating to the target of remission in early rheumatoid arthritis is cost-effective: results of the DREAM registry.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Marloes; Kievit, Wietske; Kuper, Hillechiena H; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Bernelot Moens, Hein J; Zijlstra, Theo R; den Broeder, Alfons A; van Riel, Piet L C M; Fransen, Jaap; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-12-13

    Where health economic studies are frequently performed using modelling, with input from randomized controlled trials and best guesses, we used real-life data to analyse the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a treatment strategy aiming to the target of remission compared to usual care in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We used real-life data from comparable cohorts in the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring (DREAM) registry: the DREAM remission induction cohort (treat-to-target, T2T) and the Nijmegen early RA inception cohort (usual care, UC). Both cohorts were followed prospectively using the DREAM registry methodology. All patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA and were included in the cohort at the time of diagnosis. The T2T cohort was treated according to a protocolised strategy aiming at remission (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) < 2.6). The UC cohort was treated without DAS28-guided treatment decisions. EuroQol-5D utility scores were estimated from the Health Assessment Questionnaire. A health care perspective was adopted and direct medical costs were collected. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) per patient in remission and incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were calculated over two and three years of follow-up. Two year data were available for 261 T2T patients and 213 UC patients; an extended follow-up of three years was available for 127 and 180 patients, respectively. T2T produced higher remission percentages and a larger gain in QALYs than UC. The ICER was € 3,591 per patient in remission after two years and T2T was dominant after three years. The ICUR was € 19,410 per QALY after two years and T2T was dominant after three years. We can conclude that treating to the target of remission in early RA is cost-effective compared with UC. The data suggest that in the third year, T2T becomes cost-saving.

  4. Cachexia and adiposity in rheumatoid arthritis. Relevance for disease management and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Challal, Salima; Minichiello, Emeline; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Semerano, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Altered body composition is a frequent finding in rheumatoid arthritis and is associated with the two major outcomes of the disease: disability and cardiovascular mortality. It is estimated that up to two thirds of patients may be affected by loss of lean mass, the so-called rheumatoid cachexia. Hence, body weight being equal, the relative amount of lean mass is lower and that of body fat is higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients vs. healthy controls. Both disease-related factors and other factors, like drug treatments, physical activity and nutrition contribute to modify body composition in rheumatoid arthritis. The effect of pharmacological treatments, and notably of anti-TNF drugs, on body composition is controversial. Conversely, training programs to stimulate muscle growth can restore lean mass and reduce adiposity. There is good evidence that amelioration of body composition ameliorates function and reduces disability. Currently, there is no evidence that interventions that modify body composition can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding rheumatoid arthritis from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    Broy, Susan B; Tanner, S Bobo

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the only secondary cause of osteoporosis that is considered independent of bone density in the FRAX(®) algorithm. Although input for rheumatoid arthritis in FRAX(®) is a dichotomous variable, intuitively, one would expect that more severe or active disease would be associated with a greater risk for fracture. We reviewed the literature to determine if specific disease parameters or medication use could be used to better characterize fracture risk in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Although many studies document a correlation between various parameters of disease activity or severity and decreased bone density, fewer have associated these variables with fracture risk. We reviewed these studies in detail and concluded that disability measures such as HAQ (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and functional class do correlate with clinical fractures but not morphometric vertebral fractures. One large study found a strong correlation with duration of disease and fracture risk but additional studies are needed to confirm this. There was little evidence to correlate other measures of disease such as DAS (disease activity score), VAS (visual analogue scale), acute phase reactants, use of non-glucocorticoid medications and increased fracture risk. We concluded that FRAX(®) calculations may underestimate fracture probability in patients with impaired functional status from rheumatoid arthritis but that this could not be quantified at this time. At this time, other disease measures cannot be used for fracture prediction. However only a few, mostly small studies addressed other disease parameters and further research is needed. Additional questions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimal clinically important difference and the effect of clinical variables on the ankle osteoarthritis scale in surgically treated end-stage ankle arthritis.

    PubMed

    Coe, Marcus P; Sutherland, Jason M; Penner, Murray J; Younger, Alastair; Wing, Kevin J

    2015-05-20

    There is much debate regarding the best outcome tool for use in foot and ankle surgery, specifically in patients with ankle arthritis. The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) is a validated, disease-specific score. The goals of this study were to investigate the clinical performance of the AOS and to determine a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for it, using a large cohort of 238 patients undergoing surgery for end-stage ankle arthritis. Patients treated with total ankle arthroplasty or ankle arthrodesis were prospectively followed for a minimum of two years at a single site. Data on demographics, comorbidities, AOS score, Short Form-36 results, and the relationship between expectations and satisfaction were collected at baseline (preoperatively), at six and twelve months, and then yearly thereafter. A linear regression analysis examined the variables affecting the change in AOS scores between baseline and the two-year follow-up. An MCID in the AOS change score was then determined by employing an anchor question, which asked patients to rate their relief from symptoms after surgery. Surgical treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis resulted in a mean improvement (and standard deviation) of 31.2 ± 22.7 points in the AOS score two years after surgery. The MCID of the AOS change score was a mean of 28.0 ± 17.9 points. The change in AOS score was significantly affected by the preoperative AOS score, smoking, back pain, and age. Patients undergoing arthroplasty or arthrodesis for end-stage ankle arthritis experienced a mean improvement in AOS score that was greater than the estimated MCID (31.2 versus 28.0 points). Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  7. Serum C-X-C motif chemokine 13 is elevated in early and established rheumatoid arthritis and correlates with rheumatoid factor levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that serum levels of C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), a B-cell chemokine, would delineate a subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients characterized by increased humoral immunity. Methods Serum from patients with established RA (the Dartmouth RA Cohort) was analyzed for CXCL13, rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG); other parameters were obtained by chart review. A confirmatory analysis was performed using samples from the Sherbrooke Early Undifferentiated PolyArthritis (EUPA) Cohort. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, a t-test and Spearman’s correlation analysis were utilized to determine relationships between variables. Results In both the Dartmouth and Sherbrooke cohorts, CXCL13 levels were selectively increased in seropositive relative to seronegative RA patients (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001 for the respective cohorts), with a strong correlation to both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA RF levels (P < 0.0001). There was a weaker relationship to ACPA titers (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total IgG (P = 0.02 and P = 0.14, respectively). No relationship was seen with regard to age, sex, shared epitope status or inclusion high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in either cohort or regarding the presence of baseline erosions in the Sherbrooke Cohort, whereas a modest relationship with Disease Activity Score in 28 joints CRP (DAS28-CRP) was seen in the Dartmouth cohort but not the Sherbrooke cohort. Conclusion Using both established and early RA cohorts, marked elevations of serum CXCL13 levels resided nearly completely within the seropositive population. CXCL13 levels exhibited a strong relationship with RF, whereas the association with clinical parameters (age, sex, DAS28-CRP and erosions) or other serologic markers (ACPA and IgG) was either much weaker or absent. Elevated serum CXCL13 levels may identify a subset of seropositive RA patients whose

  8. The Effect of Reduced or Withdrawn Etanercept-methotrexate Therapy on Patient-reported Outcomes in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wiland, Piotr; Dudler, Jean; Veale, Douglas; Tahir, Hasan; Pedersen, Ron; Bukowski, Jack; Vlahos, Bonnie; Williams, Theresa; Gaylord, Stefanie; Kotak, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    An analysis of a clinical trial to assess the effects of treatment reduction and withdrawal on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in patients with early, moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieved 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) low disease activity (LDA) or remission with etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) therapy. During treatment induction, patients received open-label ETN 50 mg weekly plus MTX for 52 weeks. In the reduced-treatment phase, patients with DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ≤ 3.2 at Week 39 and DAS28-ESR < 2.6 at Week 52 in the open-label phase were randomized to double-blind treatment with ETN 25 mg plus MTX, MTX, or placebo (PBO) for 39 weeks (weeks 0-39). In the third phase, patients who achieved DAS28 remission (DAS28-ESR < 2.6) or LDA (2.6 ≤ DAS28-ESR ≤ 3.2) at Week 39 in the double-blind phase had all treatment withdrawn and were observed for an additional 26 weeks (weeks 39-65). Of the 306 patients enrolled, 193 were randomized in the double-blind phase and 131 participated in the treatment-withdrawal phase. After reduction or withdrawal of ETN 50 mg/MTX, patients reduced to ETN 25 mg/MTX experienced slight, nonsignificant declines in the majority of PRO measures, whereas switching to PBO or MTX alone caused significant declines. Presenteeism and activity impairment scores were significantly better in the ETN reduced-dose group versus MTX monotherapy and PBO at Week 39 (p ≤ 0.05). In patients with early RA who achieved remission while receiving full-dose ETN/MTX, continuing combination therapy at a lower dose did not cause a significant worsening of PRO response, but switching to MTX alone or PBO did. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00913458.

  9. Trajectories of functional limitation in early rheumatoid arthritis and their association with mortality.

    PubMed

    Norton, Sam; Sacker, Amanda; Dixey, Josh; Done, John; Williams, Peter; Young, Adam

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to identify subgroups with distinct trajectories of functional (HAQ) progression over 10 years following diagnosis of RA and identify baseline characteristics associated with the trajectories and their prognostic value for mortality. Between 1986 and 1998, 1460 patients with RA symptoms <2 years and prior to disease-modifying treatment (DMARDs) were recruited to an inception cohort (Early RA Study). Standard clinical, functional and laboratory assessments were performed at presentation and annually. Deaths were tracked by the National Health Service Central Register. Growth mixture modelling was used to identify distinct trajectories of HAQ score progression and survival analysis employed to compare all-cause mortality across the trajectory classes. Four HAQ score progression classes were identified: moderate increasing (46%), low stable (6%), moderate stable (28%) and high stable (20%). Only the moderate-increasing class exhibited an accelerated decline in function over normal ageing. Compared with the moderate-increasing class, individuals with high-stable HAQ scores were more likely to be female, have more severe disease and other coexistent conditions. Low-stable class patients were more likely to be male and report less pain. The high-stable class had increased risk of mortality compared with the moderate-increasing class after adjusting for potential confounding factors, whereas low-stable and moderate-stable classes were at reduced mortality risk. The effect of RA on function is set within the first few years and is affected by comorbidity. Identifying distinct groups of patients may help to target those at greater risk of poor functional outcome and mortality.

  10. Establishing cross-discipline consensus on contraception, pregnancy and breast feeding-related educational messages and clinical practices to support women with rheumatoid arthritis: an Australian Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne E; Ackerman, Ilana N; Van Doornum, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recognising the need for a best-practice and consistent approach in providing care to women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to (1) general health, (2) contraception, (3) conception and pregnancy, (4) breast feeding and (5) early parenting, we sought to achieve cross-discipline, clinical consensus on key messages and clinical practice behaviours in these 5 areas. Design 3-round eDelphi study. In round 1, panellists provided free-text responses to open-ended questions about care for women with RA across the 5 areas. Subsequently, panellists refined and scored the synthesised responses, presented as metathemes, themes and detailed elements. Where ≥5% of panellists did not support a theme in a given round, it was removed. Setting Panel of practicing Australian rheumatologists (n=22), obstetricians/obstetric medicine physicians (n=9) and pharmacists (n=5). Results 34 (94.4%) panellists participated in all 3 rounds. The panel supported 18 themes across the 5 areas (support/strongly support: 88.2–100%) underpinned by 5 metathemes. Metathemes focused on coordination in information delivery, the mode and timing of information delivery, evidence underpinning information, engagement of the right health professionals at the right time and a non-judgemental approach to infant feeding. Themes included practices for primary prevention of chronic disease and their sequelae, the importance of contraception and planning pregnancy and breast feeding, close monitoring of medications, supporting mental well-being, managing disease activity and providing practical support for early parenting. Conclusions A cross-disciplinary clinical panel highly supported key information and clinical practices in the care for women with RA across the continuum of contraception to early parenting within a whole-person, chronic disease management approach. PMID:27633637

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rheumatoid Arthritis English Español 繁體中文 한국어 tiếng Việt Rheumatoid Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes pain, ...

  12. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  13. Psoriatic arthritis

    SciT

    Gerber, L.H.; Espinoza, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: The history and epidemiologic definition of psoriatic arthritis as a distinct entity; Psoriatic arthritis: Further epidemiologic and genetic considerations; The radiologic features of psoriatic arthritis; and Laboratory findings and pathology of psoriatic arthritis.

  14. Clinical management of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Tae; Lee, Kwang-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Both rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) are associated with poor radiologic outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In general, RA patients positive for RF or ACPA (SPRA) are considered to manifest an aggressive disease course compared with seronegative RA patients (SNRA). However, the relationship between seropositivity and measures of disease severity other than radiologic outcome is disputed. In this study, we sought to compare the clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of SNRA and SPRA patients. A total of 241 patients diagnosed with DMARD-naïve RA under either 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria or 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria were identified (40 with SNRA and 201 with SPRA). We investigated the disease activity measures including ESR, CRP, patient VAS, 28 tender/swollen joint count (28 TJC, 28 SJC) and DAS28 as well as radiologic outcomes at baseline, 1 and 2 years after conventional treatment with DMARD. Age, sex and disease duration were similar between SNRA and SPRA. However, the baseline 28 TJC (4.7±2.9 vs. 3.3±2.7, p = 0.004), 28 SJC (4.3±3.0 vs. 2.9±2.3, p = 0.001) and DAS28 (5.1±1.0 vs. 4.7±1.0, p = 0.043) components were significantly higher in SNRA than in SPRA. Over 2 years of similar treatment with DMARDs, all disease activity measures significantly improved in both groups. Comparison among populations matched for baseline disease activity showed that ΔDAS28 at 1 year was greater in SNRA than in SPRA (-2.84±1.32 vs. -3.70±1.29, p = 0.037) in high disease activity population (DAS28-ESR>5.1). Radiologic outcomes at baseline and at 1- or 2-year follow-up were similar between the 2 groups. In conclusion, SNRA patients manifested more active disease at baseline, but showed a better response to treatment compared with SPRA. SNRA does not appear to be a benign subtype of RA.

  15. Clinical responsiveness of self-report functional assessment measures for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis undergoing intraarticular corticosteroid injections.

    PubMed

    Brown, G Ted; Wright, F Virginia; Lang, Bianca A; Birdi, Nina; Oen, Kim; Stephens, Derek; McComas, Joan; Feldman, Brian M

    2005-12-15

    The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report (JAFAR), and Juvenile Arthritis Functional Status Index (JASI) are widely used functional measures for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that differ in content, format, and completion time. We compared the responsiveness and child-parent agreement of the JAFAR, CHAQ, and JASI in a prospective, multicenter study. Children and adolescents from 5 rheumatology centers were enrolled. Subjects were about to undergo therapy (intraarticular corticosteroid injections [IAS] and methotrexate or hip surgery (MTX/hip]) expected to produce a functional improvement. All subjects were studied before the intervention and at 6 weeks and 6 months posttreatment. At each study visit, the 3 measures were administered in randomized, balanced order to both parents and children. A total of 92 subjects (mean age 12.8 years) were enrolled in the study, 74 of which were in the IAS group. The responsiveness of all 3 measures was moderate to strong. The standardized response mean at 6 weeks for the IAS group on the JAFAR, CHAQ, and JASI was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.18, 0.64), 0.70 (95% CI 0.47, 0.93), and 0.36 (95% CI 0.13, 0.59), respectively. The CHAQ was somewhat more responsive to change at 6 weeks (IAS group: relative efficiency 0.34 [JAFAR], 0.27 [JASI]), but less responsive at 6 months (MTX/hip group: relative efficiency 5.1 [JAFAR], 3.9 [JASI]). All 3 questionnaires showed acceptable parent-child agreement, and overall, there were few differences between the 3 questionnaires. The functional outcome measures currently used for JIA are all adequately responsive for use in trials or in the clinic setting. The choice of which measure to use should therefore be based on the time available for completion, the intended clinical/research use, and the depth of content required.

  16. Rotator cuff surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: clinical outcome comparable to age, sex and tear size matched non-rheumatoid patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, S J; Sun, J-H; Kekatpure, A L; Chun, J-M; Jeon, I-H

    2017-09-01

    Aims This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of rotator cuff repair in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with those of patients who have no known history of the disease. We hypothesised that the functional outcomes are comparable between patients and without rheumatoid arthritis and may be affected by the level of disease activity, as assessed from C-reactive protein (CRP) level and history of systemic steroid intake. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of the institutional surgical database from May 1995 to April 2012. Twenty-nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had rotator cuff repair were enrolled as the study group. Age, sex, and tear size matched patients with no disease who were selected as the control group. The mean duration of follow-up was 46 months (range 24-92 months). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire, Constant score and visual analogue scale (VAS). All data were recorded preoperatively and at regular postoperative follow-up visits. CRP was measured preoperatively as the disease activity marker for rheumatoid arthritis. Medication history was thoroughly reviewed in the study group. Results In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, all shoulder functional scores improved after surgery (ASES 56.1-78.1, Constant 50.8-70.5 and VAS 5.2-2.5; P < 0.001). The functional outcome of surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was comparable to that of the control group (difference with control: ASES 78.1 vs. 85.5, P = 0.093; Constant 70.5 vs. 75.9, P = 0.366; VAS 2.5 vs. 1.8, P = 0.108). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an elevated CRP level (> 1 mg/dl) showed inferior clinical outcomes than those with normal CRP levels. Patients with a history of systemic steroid intake showed inferior functional outcomes than those who had not taken steroids. Conclusions Surgical intervention for rotator cuff tear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

  17. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort).

    PubMed

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A

    2017-12-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining the change in the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) over time by the change in absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment over time. Effect modification and confounding were tested for age, gender, arm of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria, HLA-B27, duration of chronic back pain, profession and medication. At baseline, in 105 axSpA patients (48% female, mean age 30.8 years, mean symptom duration 13.6 months, 92% HLA-B27 positive, 24% radiographic sacroiliitis), the mean ASDAS was 2.4 (s.d. 1.0), absenteeism 9% (s.d. 23), presenteeism 33% (s.d. 28), WPL 36% (s.d. 30) and activity impairment 37% (s.d. 25). After 1 year, the mean ASDAS decreased to 2.0 (s.d. 0.8) and absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved to 6% (s.d. 22), 26% (s.d. 26), 27% (s.d. 29) and 27% (s.d. 26), respectively. Models showed that if ASDAS decreased 1 unit, absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved by 5, 17, 16 and 18%, respectively. The impact of disease activity on work productivity was higher in patients with shorter symptom duration and the impact on absenteeism was higher in patients starting pharmacological treatment. In early axSpA patients, work productivity and daily activities are seriously impacted at baseline and 1 year. However, decreasing disease activity is associated with marked improvements in work productivity and daily activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Near-infrared Fluorescence Optical Imaging in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparison to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Michaela; Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Schicke, Bernd; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Hamm, Bernd; Backhaus, Marina; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2015-07-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) is a novel imaging technology in the detection and evaluation of different arthritides. FOI was validated in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), greyscale ultrasonography (GSUS), and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hands of 31 patients with early RA were examined by FOI, MRI, and US. In each modality, synovitis of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) 2-5, and proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) 2-5 were scored on a 4-point scale (0-3). Sensitivity and specificity of FOI were analyzed in comparison to MRI and US as reference methods, differentiating between 3 phases of FOI enhancement (P1-3). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the agreement of FOI with MRI and US. A total of 279 joints (31 wrists, 124 MCP and 124 PIP joints) were evaluated. With MRI as the reference method, overall sensitivity/specificity of FOI was 0.81/0.00, 0.49/0.84, and 0.86/0.38 for wrist, MCP, and PIP joints, respectively. Under application of PDUS as reference, sensitivity was even higher, while specificity turned out to be low, except for MCP joints (0.88/0.15, 0.81/0.76, and 1.00/0.27, respectively). P2 appears to be the most sensitive FOI phase, while P1 showed the highest specificity. The best agreement of FOI was shown for PDUS, especially with regard to MCP and PIP joints (ICC of 0.57 and 0.53, respectively), while correlation with MRI was slightly lower. FOI remains an interesting diagnostic tool for patients with early RA, although this study revealed limitations concerning the detection of synovitis. Further research is needed to evaluate its full diagnostic potential in rheumatic diseases.

  19. Subclinical Synovitis Measured by Ultrasound in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With Clinical Remission Induced by Synthetic and Biological Modifying Disease Drugs.

    PubMed

    Cruces, Marcos; Al Snih, Soham; Serra-Bonett, Natalí; Rivas, Juan C

    2017-10-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with disease in clinical remission might show subclinical synovitis, which can be related to the progress of structural joint damage. To determine and compare the degree of synovial inflammation by ultrasound (US) in patients with RA in clinical remission, treated with DMARD or combination therapy with DMARD and anti-TNF. Hospital-based cross-sectional study of 58 patients with RA in sustained remission for at least 6 months by DAS28 <2.6, who attended the Rheumatology Service at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Patients underwent clinical, functional, and laboratory assessments. Ultrasound was performed in hands measuring synovial effusion, synovial hypertrophy and power Doppler signal; using a semiquantitative 4-point scale of 0=none to 3=severe. Chi-square and t-test were used to compare the clinical, functional, laboratory and US assessments between the DMARD (N=37) and combination therapy with DMARD and anti-TNF (N=21) groups. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 58 patients, 25.9% had remission by US and 74.1% had synovial effusion or hypertrophy or positive power Doppler signal. Non-significant differences in US synovitis between the two groups were found. Persistent US activity was evident in a high percentage of rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical remission by DAS28. No differences in subclinical synovitis measured by US were found between patients with DMARD and anti-TNF-induced clinical remission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of Psoriatic Arthritis to Other Spondyloarthritides.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Ignazio; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Palazzi, Carlo; Lubrano, Ennio; Padula, Angela

    2015-11-01

    In the early 1970s, Moll and co-workers formulated the unified concept of spondyloarthritides, a group of conditions sharing similar clinical features. Subsequently, criteria for their classification have been proposed by Amor and coworkers, the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group, and the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society. Opinion, however, is divided between those who believe that the different entities of the complex represent the variable expression of the same disease ("lumpers") and those who think that these should be considered separately but under the same umbrella ("splitters"). Several sets of criteria have been proposed for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the most recent being the ClASsification for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. According to some authors, there are persuasive arguments to support the view of PsA as a distinct entity.

  1. Early, middle, or late administration of zoledronate alleviates spontaneous nociceptive behavior and restores functional outcomes in a mouse model of CFA-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Morado-Urbina, Carlos Eduardo; Alvarado-Vázquez, Perla Abigail; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Acosta-González, Rosa Issel; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate whether early, middle, or late treatment of zoledronate, an approved bisphosphonate that blocks bone resorption, can reduce nociceptive behaviors in a mouse arthritis model. Arthritis was produced by repeated intra-articular knee injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). A dose-response curve with zoledronate (3, 30, 100, and 300 μg/kg, i.p., day 4 to day 25, twice weekly for 3 weeks) was performed, and the most effective dose of zoledronate (100 μg/kg, i.p.) was initially administered at different times of disease progression: day 4 (early), day 15 (middle), or day 21 (late) and continued until day 25 after the first CFA injection. Flinching of the injected extremity (spontaneous nociceptive behavior), vertical rearings and horizontal activity (functional outcomes), and knee edema were assessed. Zoledronate improved both functional outcomes and reduced flinching behavior. At day 25, the effect of zoledronate on flinching behavior and vertical rearings was greater in magnitude when it was given early or middle rather than late in the treatment regimen. Chronic zoledronate did not reduce knee edema in CFA-injected mice nor functional outcomes in naïve mice by itself. These results suggest that zoledronate may have a positive effect on arthritis-induced nociception and functional disabilities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early, structured disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy reduces cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis--a single centre study using non-biologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumit; Sarkate, Pankaj; Ghosh, Sudip; Biswas, Monodeep; Ghosh, Alakendu

    2013-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, being a chronic disease requires long-term management of patients with drugs. The increasing cost of biologics in this era of disease management led us to devise a treatment regime, optimal for use in a developing country like India, which was economical as well as effective in controlling disease activity. To investigate if combination therapy with DMARDs can reduce cardiovascular risk in early Rheumatoid Arthritis, besides controlling disease activity. A small cohort of early Rheumatoid subjects with disease duration less than 1 year were treated with a structured DMARD regime and were followed up over a year. Disease activity score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardiac risk markers like lipid panel and carotid intima-medial thickness were monitored at 6 months and 1 year. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) of disease activity as well as cardiac risk parameters were observed. Our study showed that treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis with a combination regime of traditional DMARDs is highly effective in controlling disease activity as well as cardiovascular risk.

  3. Grape polyphenols and propolis mixture inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human leukocytes and reduces clinical scores in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mossalayi, M D; Rambert, J; Renouf, E; Micouleau, M; Mérillon, J M

    2014-02-15

    Polyphenols from red fruits and bee-derived propolis (PR) are bioactive natural products in various in vitro and in vivo models. The present study shows that hematotoxicity-free doses of grape polyphenols (GPE) and PR differentially decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from activated human peripheral blood leucocytes. While GPE inhibited the monocytes/macrophage response, propolis decreased both monokines and interferon γ (IFNγ) production. When used together, their distinct effects lead to the attenuation of all inflammatory mediators, as supported by a significant modulation of the transcriptomic profile of pro-inflammatory genes in human leukocytes. To enforce in vitro data, GPE+PR were tested for their ability to improve clinical scores and cachexia in chronic rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Extracts significantly reduced arthritis scores and cachexia, and this effect was more significant in animals receiving continuous low doses compared to those receiving five different high doses. Animals treated daily had significantly better clinical scores than corticoid-treated rats. Together, these findings indicate that the GPE+PR combination induces potent anti-inflammatory activity due to their complementary immune cell modulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Inadequate response to treat-to-target methotrexate therapy in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis: development and validation of clinical predictors.

    PubMed

    Teitsma, Xavier M; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Welsing, Paco M J; de Jong, Pascal H P; Hazes, Johanna M W; Weel, Angelique E A M; Pethö-Schramm, Attila; Borm, Michelle E A; van Laar, Jacob M; Lafeber, Floris P J G; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2018-05-14

    To identify and validate clinical baseline predictors associated with inadequate response (IR) to methotrexate (MTX) therapy in newly diagnosed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In U-Act-Early, 108 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with RA were randomised to initiate MTX therapy and treated to target until sustained remission (disease activity score assessing 28 joints (DAS28) <2.6 with four or less swollen joints for ≥24 weeks) was achieved. If no remission, hydroxychloroquine was added to the treatment regimen (ie, 'MTX+') and replaced by tocilizumab if the target still was not reached thereafter. Regression analyses were performed to identify clinical predictors for IR, defined as needing addition of a biological DMARD, to 'MTX+'. Data from the treatment in the Rotterdam Early Arthritis Cohort were used for external validation of the prediction model. Within 1 year, 56/108 (52%) patients in U-Act-Early showed IR to 'MTX+'. DAS28 (adjusted OR (OR adj ) 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.2), current smoking (OR adj 3.02, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.0) and alcohol consumption (OR adj 0.4, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9) were identified as baseline predictors. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of the prediction model was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.84); the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 65% and 80%, respectively. When applying the model to the validation cohort, the AUROC slightly decreased to 0.67 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.79) and the PPV and NPV to 54% and 80%, respectively. Higher DAS28, current smoking and no alcohol consumption are predictive factors for IR to step-up 'MTX+' in DMARD-naive patients with new-onset RA. NCT01034137; Post-results, ISRCTN26791028; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Potential of (18)F-FDG-PET as a valuable adjunct to clinical and response assessment in rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative spondyloarthropathies.

    PubMed

    Vijayant, Vishu; Sarma, Manjit; Aurangabadkar, Hrushikesh; Bichile, Lata; Basu, Sandip

    2012-12-28

    To evaluate the role of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) in various rheumatic diseases and its potential in the early assessment of treatment response in a limited number of patients. This study involved 28 newly diagnosed patients, of these 17 had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 11 had seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SSA). In the SSA group, 7 patients had ankylosing spondylitis, 3 had psoriatic arthritis, and one had non-specific SSA. Patients with RA were selected as per the American College of Rheumatology criteria. One hour after FDG injection, a whole body PET scan was performed from the skull vertex to below the knee joints using a GE Advance dedicated PET scanner. Separate scans were acquired for both upper and lower limbs. Post-treatment scans were performed in 9 patients in the RA group (at 6-9 wk from baseline) and in 1 patient with psoriatic arthropathy. The pattern of FDG uptake was analysed visually and quantified as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in a standard region of interest. Metabolic response on the scan was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively and was correlated with clinical assessment. The qualitative FDG uptake was in agreement with the clinically involved joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein values and the clinical assessment by the rheumatologist. All 17 patients in the RA group showed the highest FDG avidity in painful/swollen/tender joints. The uptake pattern was homogeneous, intense and poly-articular in distribution. Hypermetabolism in the regional nodes (axillary nodes in the case of upper limb joint involvement and inguinal nodes in lower limb joints) was a constant feature in patients with RA. Multiple other extra-articular lesions were also observed including thyroid glands (in associated thyroiditis) and in the subcutaneous nodules. Treatment response was better appreciated using SUVmax values than visual interpretation, when compared with

  6. Medical students' attitudes towards early clinical exposure in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khabaz Mafinejad, Mahboobeh; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Peiman, Soheil; Khajavirad, Nasim; Mirabdolhagh Hazaveh, Mojgan; Edalatifard, Maryam; Allameh, Seyed-Farshad; Naderi, Neda; Foroumandi, Morteza; Afshari, Ali; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-06-19

    This study was carried out to investigate the medical students' attitudes towards early clinical exposure at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2015. A convenience sample of 298 first- and second-year students, enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum, participated in an early clinical exposure program. To collect data from medical students, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions and structured questions, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was used to investigate students' attitudes toward early clinical exposure. Of the 298 medical students, 216 (72%) completed the questionnaires. The results demonstrated that medical students had a positive attitude toward early clinical exposure. Most students (80.1%) stated that early clinical exposure could familiarize them with the role of basic sciences knowledge in medicine and how to apply this knowledge in clinical settings. Moreover, 84.5% of them believed that early clinical exposure increased their interest in medicine and encouraged them to read more. Furthermore, content analysis of the students' responses uncovered three main themes of early clinical exposure, were considered helpful to improve learning: "integration of theory and practice", "interaction with others and professional development" and "desire and motivation for learning medicine". Medical students found their first experience with clinical setting valuable. Providing clinical exposure in the initial years of medical curricula and teaching the application of basic sciences knowledge in clinical practice can enhance students' understanding of the role they will play in the future as a physician.

  7. Women’s accounts of help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis from symptom onset to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C

    2018-01-01

    Background As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men’s reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women’s help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women’s accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. Results The women’s accounts featured masculine practices associated with men’s help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and ‘normal’ life. Discussion Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women’s help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. PMID:24567194

  8. QUEST‐RA: quantitative clinical assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen in standard rheumatology care in 15 countries

    PubMed Central

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Toloza, Sergio; Mäkinen, Heidi; Verstappen, Suzan M M; Hetland, Merete Lund; Naranjo, Antonio; Baecklund, Eva; Herborn, Gertraud; Rau, Rolf; Cazzato, Massimiliano; Gossec, Laure; Skakic, Vlado; Gogus, Feride; Sierakowski, Stanislaw; Bresnihan, Barry; Taylor, Peter; McClinton, Catherine; Pincus, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Objective To conduct a cross‐sectional review of non‐selected consecutive outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of standard clinical care in 15 countries for an overview of the characteristics of patients with RA. Methods The review included current disease activity using data from clinical assessment and a patient self‐report questionnaire, which was translated into each language. Data on demographic, disease and treatment‐related variables were collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. Variation in disease activity on DAS28 (disease activity score on 28‐joint count) within and between countries was graphically analysed. A median regression model was applied to analyse differences in disease activity between countries. Results Between January 2005 and October 2006, the QUEST‐RA (Quantitative Patient Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis) project included 4363 patients from 48 sites in 15 countries; 78% were female, >90% Caucasian, mean age was 57 years and mean disease duration was 11.5 years. More than 80% of patients had been treated with methotrexate in all but three countries. Overall, patients had an active disease with a median DAS28 of 4.0, with a significant variation between countries (p<0.001). Among 42 sites with >50 patients included, low disease activity of DAS28 ⩽3.2 was found in the majority of patients in seven sites in five countries; in eight sites in five other countries, >50% of patients had high disease activity of DAS28 >5.1. Conclusions This international multicentre cross‐sectional database provides an overview of clinical status and treatments of patients with RA in standard clinical care in 2005–6 including countries that are infrequently involved in clinical research projects. PMID:17412740

  9. Effect of Treat-to-target Strategies Aiming at Remission of Arterial Stiffness in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Lydia Ho-Pui; Shang, Qing; Li, Edmund Kwok-Ming; Wong, Priscilla Ching-Han; Kwok, Kitty Yan; Kun, Emily Wai-Lin; Yim, Isaac Cheuk-Wan; Lee, Violet Ka-Lai; Yip, Ronald Man-Lung; Pang, Steve Hin-Ting; Lao, Virginia Weng-Nga; Mak, Queenie Wah-Yan; Cheng, Isaac Tsz-Ho; Lau, Xerox Sze-Lok; Li, Tena Ka-Yan; Zhu, Tracy Yaner; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2018-05-15

    To determine the efficacy of 2 tight control treatment strategies aiming at Simplified Disease Activity Score (SDAI) remission (SDAI ≤ 3.3) compared to 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) remission (DAS28 < 2.6) in the prevention of arterial stiffness in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This was an open-label study in which 120 patients with early RA were randomized to receive 1 year of tight control treatment. Group 1 (n = 60) aimed to achieve SDAI ≤ 3.3 and Group 2 (n = 60), DAS28 < 2.6. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured at baseline and 12 months. A posthoc analysis was also performed to ascertain whether achieving sustained remission could prevent progression in arterial stiffness. The proportions of patients receiving methotrexate monotherapy were significantly lower in Group 1 throughout the study period. At 12 months, the proportions of patients achieving DAS28 and SDAI remission, and the change in PWV and AIx, were comparable between the 2 groups. In view of the lack of differences between the 2 groups, a posthoc analysis was performed at Month 12, including all 110 patients with PWV, to elucidate the independent predictors associated with the change in PWV. Multivariate analysis revealed that achieving sustained DAS28 remission at months 6, 9, and 12 and a shorter disease duration were independent explanatory variables associated with less progression of PWV. With limited access to biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, treatment efforts toward DAS28 and SDAI remission had similar effects in preventing the progression of arterial stiffness at 1 year. However, achieving sustained DAS28 remission was associated with a significantly greater improvement in PWV. [Clinical Trial registration: Clinicaltrial.gov NCT01768923.].

  10. Variability in depression prevalence in early rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison of the CES-D and HAD-D Scales

    PubMed Central

    Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Tennant, Alan; Cox, Sally; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The objectives of this study were to test if the CES-D and HADS-D (a) satisfy current modern psychometric standards for unidimensional measurement in an early RA sample; (b) measure the same construct (i.e. depression); and (c) identify similar levels of depression. Methods Data from the two scales completed by patients with early RA were fitted to the Rasch measurement model to show that (a) each scale satisfies the criteria of fit to the model, including strict unidimensionality; (b) that the scales can be co-calibrated onto a single underlying continuum of depression and to (c) examine the location of the cut points on the underlying continuum as indication of the prevalence of depression. Results Ninety-two patients with early RA (62% female; mean age = 56.3, SD = 13.7) gave 141 sets of paired CES-D and HAD-D data. Fit of the data from the CES-D was found to be poor, and the scale had to be reduced to 13 items to satisfy Rasch measurement criteria whereas the HADS-D met model expectations from the outset. The 20 items combined (CES-D13 and HADS-D) satisfied Rasch model expectations. The CES-D gave a much higher prevalence of depression than the HADS-D. Conclusion The CES-D in its present form is unsuitable for use in patients with early RA, and needs to be reduced to a 13-item scale. The HADS-D is valid for early RA and the two scales measure the same underlying construct but their cut points lead to different estimates of the level of depression. Revised cut points on the CES-D13 provide comparative prevalence rates. PMID:19200388

  11. Assessment of global DNA methylation in peripheral blood cell subpopulations of early rheumatoid arthritis before and after methotrexate.

    PubMed

    de Andres, María C; Perez-Pampin, Eva; Calaza, Manuel; Santaclara, Francisco J; Ortea, Ignacio; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-08-29

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression that has been insufficiently studied in the blood of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, as only T cells and total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with established RA have been studied and with conflicting results. Five major blood cell subpopulations: T, B and NK cells, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, were isolated from 19 early RA patients and 17 healthy controls. Patient samples were taken before and 1 month after the start of treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Analysis included DNA methylation with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM) and expression levels of seven methylation-specific enzymes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve early RA patients showed global DNA hypomethylation in T cells and monocytes, together with a lower expression of DNA methyltrasnferase 1 (DNMT1), the maintenance DNA methyltransferase, which was also decreased in B cells. Furthermore, significantly increased expression of ten-eleven translocation1 (TET1), TET2 and TET3, enzymes involved in demethylation, was found in monocytes and of TET2 in T cells. There was also modest decreased expression of DNMT3A in B cells and of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45A (GADD45A) in T and B cells. Treatment with MTX reverted hypomethylation in T cells and monocytes, which were no longer different from controls, and increased global methylation in B cells. In addition, DNMT1 and DNMT3A showed a trend to reversion of their decreased expression. Our results confirm global DNA hypomethylation in patients with RA with specificity for some blood cell subpopulations and their reversal with methotrexate treatment. These changes are accompanied by parallel changes in the levels of enzymes involved in methylation, suggesting

  12. A methodological approach for assessing the uptake of core outcome sets using ClinicalTrials.gov: findings from a review of randomised controlled trials of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Jamie J; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula R

    2017-05-17

    Objective  To assess the uptake of the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set using a new assessment method of calculating uptake from data in clinical trial registry entries. Design  Review of randomised trials. Setting  ClinicalTrials.gov. Subjects  273 randomised trials of drug interventions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between 2002 and 2016. Full publications were identified for completed studies from information in the trial registry or from an internet search using Google and the citation database Web of Science. Main outcome measure  The percentage of trials reporting or planning to measure the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set calculated from the information presented in the trial registry and compared with the percentage reporting the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set in the resulting trial publications. Results  The full rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set was reported in 81% (116/143) of trials identified on the registry as completed (or terminated) for which results were found in either the published literature or the registry. For trials identified on the registry as completed (or terminated), using information only available in the registry gives an estimate for uptake of 77% (145/189). Conclusions  The uptake of the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set in clinical trials has continued to increase over time. Using the information on outcomes listed for completed or terminated studies in a trial registry provides a reasonable estimate of the uptake of a core outcome set and is a more efficient and up-to-date approach than examining the outcomes in published trial reports. The method proposed may provide an efficient approach for an up-to-date assessment of the uptake of the 300 core outcome sets already published. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. [Study of echocardiographic parameters of rheumatoid arthritis black African without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations: A cross-sectional study of 73 cases in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Dodo-Siddo, M N; Diao, M; Ndiaye, M B; Ndongo, S; Kane, A; Mbaye, A; Bodian, M; Sarr, S A; Sarr, M; Ba, S; Diop, T M

    2016-04-01

    Research of cardiac involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis can prevent complications and place in a logical secondary prevention. The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic parameters in a population of Senegalese patients with rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, which included prospectively from outpatients in the internal medicine department of university hospital center Aristide Le Dantec in Dakar, Senegal, with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular disease. It focused on a sample of 73 patients of both sexes aged at least 18 years. Following clinical examination, we conducted laboratory tests (CRP, fibrinogen, ESR, rheumatoid factors: Latex and Waaler-Rose, anti-CCP, antinuclear factors and anti-ENA antibodies), ECG, echocardiography standard. Data were analyzed using a descriptive study of the different variables with the calculation of proportions for categorical variables, and the positional parameters and dispersion for quantitative variables. A total of 73 patients with rheumatoid arthritis without obvious cardiac events and meeting the criteria of definition of the ACR 1987 were included in the study. The mean age was 44.17±14.43 years with extremes of 18 and 75 years. The mean duration of RA was 5.93±4.78 years. The concept of family inflammatory arthritis was reported in 35.60% of cases and almost one in six patients had at least a factor of cardiovascular risk (16.96%). The abnormalities found in Doppler echocardiography were dominated by diastolic LV dysfunction (42.46%), increased left ventricular mass in 35.61%. Valvular leaks of variable grades were highlighted regarding all orifices but were rarely significant. The realization of echocardiography in patients with rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations helps to highlight cardiovascular

  14. Innovative strategies for early clinical R&D.

    PubMed

    Butz, Robert F; Morelli, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    Developments in translational medicine and regulatory initiatives associated with the FDA's Critical Path Initiative are creating new opportunities for innovation in early clinical R&D. The introduction of the exploratory IND process allows small, 'phase 0' clinical trials to be conducted prior to traditional phase I trials - sometimes requiring considerably less chemistry, manufacturing and controls, or preclinical support. Phase 0 clinical trials involving subtherapeutic, yet pharmacologically active, dose levels can provide an early demonstration of clinical proof of concept; such demonstration is of particular importance to small pharmaceutical and early-stage biotechnology companies. However, these opportunities for rapid entry into the clinic must be balanced by a consideration of the unique risks associated with first-in-human clinical trials, and by accounting for public concerns regarding drug safety in general. This feature review discusses how innovative clinical strategies can be used effectively in early drug development.

  15. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis Types Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Fibromyalgia Gout Childhood Arthritis Managing Arthritis Risk Factors Physical Activity ... States is osteoarthritis. Other types of arthritis include gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. Learn about these common ...

  16. Value of ultrasonography as a marker of early response to abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate: results from the APPRAISE study

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Wakefield, Richard J; Berner-Hammer, Hilde; Vittecoq, Olivier; Filippou, Georgios; Balint, Peter; Möller, Ingrid; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Naredo, Esperanza; Østergaard, Mikkel; Boers, Maarten; Gaillez, Corine; Van Holder, Karina; Le Bars, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the responsiveness of a combined power Doppler and greyscale ultrasound (PDUS) score for assessing synovitis in biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) starting abatacept plus methotrexate (MTX). Methods In this open-label, multicentre, single-arm study, patients with RA (MTX inadequate responders) received intravenous abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) plus MTX for 24 weeks. A composite PDUS synovitis score, developed by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology–European League Against Rheumatism (OMERACT–EULAR)-Ultrasound Task Force, was used to evaluate individual joints. The maximal score of each joint was added into a Global OMERACT–EULAR Synovitis Score (GLOESS) for bilateral metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs) 2–5 (primary objective). The value of GLOESS containing other joint sets was explored, along with clinical efficacy. Results Eighty-nine patients completed the 24-week treatment period. The earliest PDUS sign of improvement in synovitis was at week 1 (mean change in GLOESS (MCPs 2–5): −0.7 (95% CIs −1.2 to −0.1)), with continuous improvement to week 24. Early improvement was observed in the component scores (power Doppler signal at week 1, synovial hyperplasia at week 2, joint effusion at week 4). Comparable changes were observed for 22 paired joints and minimal joint subsets. Mean Disease Activity Score 28 (C reactive protein) was significantly reduced from weeks 1 to 24, reaching clinical meaningful improvement (change ≥1.2) at week 8. Conclusions In this first international prospective study, the composite PDUS score is responsive to abatacept. GLOESS demonstrated the rapid onset of action of abatacept, regardless of the number of joints examined. Ultrasound is an objective tool to monitor patients with RA under treatment. Trial registration number NCT00767325. PMID:26590174

  17. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  18. Comparison of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis with regard to some clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with regard to some clinical characteristics. The studied group consisted of RA seronegative patients with titters lower then 1:64 defined by Rose-Waaler test, while the control group consisted of RA seropositive patients with titters of 1:64 or higher. Examinees all belonged to the 2nd and 3rd functional classes according to ARA criteria, were between 25-60 years of age (Xb = 49.96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xbox = 6.41). In the disease onset most frequently affected joints were metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the hands, almost equally represented with regard to sero-status and sex. During the examination seropositive patients showed a higher presence of inflamation of peripheral joints of hand and foot, but only the presence of PIP of the hands was statistically significant (chi2 = 15.63, p < 0.01). Knees, talocrural joints and elbows were more frequently affected in seropositive patients, whereas humeroscapular, coxofemoral and sacroiliacal joints were more frequently affected in seronegative patients, but without significant statistical difference with regard to sero-status. The presence of affected PIP of the hands (chi2 = 9.96, p < 0.01) and knees (chi2 = 4.17, p < 0.05) with regard to sex was statistically significant in seropositive female patients, as well as the presence of atacked PIP of the hands (chi2 = 6.08, p < 0.05), and cervical vertebrae (chi2 = 6.00, p < 0.05) in seropositive male patients. There were some differences between groups with regard to sex in metatarsophalangealjoints (MTP), PIP of the foot, and other joints, but without any statistical significance. In both subsets statistically significant domination was found in affected second (chi2 = 20.85, p < 0.01) and third (chi2 = 15.70, p < 0.01) fingers of the PIP level of hands and third finger (chi2

  19. Gram staining in the diagnosis of acute septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Faraj, A A; Omonbude, O D; Godwin, P

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining of synovial fluid as a diagnostic tool in acute septic arthritis. A retrospective study was made of 22 patients who had arthroscopic lavage following a provisional diagnosis of acute septic arthritis of the knee joint. Gram stains and cultures of the knee aspirates were compared with the clinical and laboratory parameters, to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosing acute arthritis. All patients who had septic arthritis had pain, swelling and limitation of movement. CRP was elevated in 90% of patients. The incidence of elevated white blood cell count was higher in the group of patients with a positive Gram stain study (60%) as compared to patients with a negative Gram stain study (33%). Gram staining sensitivity was 45%. Its specificity was however 100%. Gram staining is an unreliable tool in early decision making in patients requiring urgent surgical drainage and washout.

  20. Primary Nonadherence, Associated Clinical Outcomes, and Health Care Resource Use Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Prescribed Treatment with Injectable Biologic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Harnett, James; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Gerber, Robert; Gruben, David; Bourret, Jeffrey; Koenig, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often suboptimal in routine clinical practice. Low or nonadherence can reduce the effectiveness of bDMARD therapies. To evaluate filling of newly prescribed initial bDMARDs for the treatment of RA and evaluate potential for characterizing treatment decisions and patient outcomes. In this retrospective cohort analysis, patients aged ≥ 18 years with an RA diagnosis (ICD-9-CM code 714.xx) were selected from a de-identified database of clinical information from the Electronic Health Record (EHR; Humedica) database linked to health care claims (Optum) from commercial and Medicare Advantage health plans (2007-2013). The first biologic prescription date in EHR was the index date. Patients were categorized as filling the prescription within 30 days (early fillers), 31-180 days (late fillers), or not at all within 180 days (nonfillers) of index date. Of 373 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 170 (45.6%), 59 (15.8%), and 144 (38.6%) were categorized as early fillers, late fillers, and nonfillers, respectively. Most prescriptions were written or ordered for tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (88.7%). Compared with late and nonfillers, early fillers were younger and more likely to be female, with higher pain scores (among those reporting pain scores) and RA severity scores pre-index, and filled more prescriptions for any reason pre-index. More nonfillers (66.0%) were Medicare patients than early (17.7%) and late (35.6%) fillers. During days 0-30 post-index, conventional synthetic DMARD use was greatest for early fillers (45.9%) and lowest among nonfillers (24.3%); however, during days 31-180 post-index, the proportion was highest for late fillers (61.0%) and lowest for nonfillers (35.4%). Of early fillers, 12.9% did not fill/receive a bDMARD after 30 days. Only 23 patients had pre/post-index pain scores, and 47 patients had a rationale for stopping or not

  1. Clinical and radiological features of rheumatoid arthritis in British black Africans.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Vinod; Seah, May-Ai; Elias, David A; Choy, Ernest H; Scott, David L; Gordon, Patrick A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiographic damage is different in British black African patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to Caucasian patients. Data on demographics, disease- and disability-related variables were obtained from all black African patients and their age-, gender- and disease-duration-matched Caucasian controls. After all features identifying the patients were concealed, X-rays of hands and feet were scored by using the Sharp/van der Heijde method. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U test, t test and chi (2) test. Sixty-four patients (32 in each ethnic group) were studied. The median age was 52 years and median disease duration 6 years. Seventy-two percent of patients were female. Black Africans and Caucasians did not differ significantly in rheumatoid factor positivity, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biological treatment use. British black African patients had significantly more tender joints and disability. Joint space narrowing was significantly greater in Caucasian patients [48 (27-85) vs 56 (34-107), p = 0.01]. Caucasian patients had more number of erosions (172 vs 220) and higher erosion score; however, the difference in the erosion scores was not statistically significant [2 (0-48) vs 4.5 (0-46), p = 0.17]. Radiographic damage was less severe in black African patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to their age-, gender- and disease-duration-matched Caucasian controls. A large prospective study is required to confirm the findings of this study and to establish the factors which might be accountable for any differences in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis in this ethnic group.

  2. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Daily, James W; Yang, Mini; Park, Sunmin

    2016-08-01

    Although turmeric and its curcumin-enriched extracts have been used for treating arthritis, no systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been conducted to evaluate the strength of the research. We systemically evaluated all RCTs of turmeric extracts and curcumin for treating arthritis symptoms to elucidate the efficacy of curcuma for alleviating the symptoms of arthritis. Literature searches were conducted using 12 electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Korean databases, Chinese medical databases, and Indian scientific database. Search terms used were "turmeric," "curcuma," "curcumin," "arthritis," and "osteoarthritis." A pain visual analogue score (PVAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were used for the major outcomes of arthritis. Initial searches yielded 29 articles, of which 8 met specific selection criteria. Three among the included RCTs reported reduction of PVAS (mean difference: -2.04 [-2.85, -1.24]) with turmeric/curcumin in comparison with placebo (P < .00001), whereas meta-analysis of four studies showed a decrease of WOMAC with turmeric/curcumin treatment (mean difference: -15.36 [-26.9, -3.77]; P = .009). Furthermore, there was no significant mean difference in PVAS between turmeric/curcumin and pain medicine in meta-analysis of five studies. Eight RCTs included in the review exhibited low to moderate risk of bias. There was no publication bias in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, these RCTs provide scientific evidence that supports the efficacy of turmeric extract (about 1000 mg/day of curcumin) in the treatment of arthritis. However, the total number of RCTs included in the analysis, the total sample size, and the methodological quality of the primary studies were not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Thus, more rigorous and larger studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of turmeric for arthritis.

  3. Comparison of clinical burden between patients with erosive hand osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis in symptomatic community-dwelling adults: the Keele clinical assessment studies

    PubMed Central

    Kloppenburg, Margreet; Marshall, Michelle; Nicholls, Elaine; Rosendaal, Frits R.; van der Windt, Danielle A.; Peat, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in the general population the clinical impact of erosive OA in interphalangeal joints (IPJs) compared with symptomatic radiographic hand OA and inflammatory arthritis. Methods. Standardized assessments with hand radiographs were performed in participants of two population-based cohorts in North Staffordshire with hand symptoms lasting ≥1 day in the past month. Erosive OA was defined as the presence of an eroded or remodelled phase in ≥1 IPJ using the Verbruggen–Veys method. Radiographic hand OA was defined as the presence of ≥1 IPJ/first carpometacarpal joint with a Kellgren–Lawrence score of ≥2. Diagnoses of inflammatory arthritis were based on medical records. Hand pain and disability were assessed with the Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index (AUSCAN). Linear regression analyses were used to compare clinical determinants between groups and calculate mean differences with 95% CIs, adjusted for age and sex. Results. Of 1076 participants with hand symptoms [60% women, mean age 64.8 years (s.d. 8.3 years)]; 80 persons (7.4%) had erosive OA. The population prevalence of erosive OA in ≥1 IPJ was 2.4% (95% CI 1.8, 3.0). Persons with erosive OA reported more pain and disability than persons with symptomatic radiographic hand OA [adjusted mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 0.3, 2.3) and 2.3 (95% CI 0.4, 4.2), respectively]. Individuals with inflammatory arthritis (n = 44) reported more pain and disability than those with erosive OA [adjusted mean difference 1.7 (95% CI 0.05, 3.4) and 6.3 (95% CI 2.8, 9.9), respectively]. Conclusion. While erosive OA has a greater impact than symptomatic radiographic hand OA in the general population, it is not as severe in terms of hand pain and disability as inflammatory RA. PMID:24046470

  4. Cardiovascular and metabolic risks in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: pragmatic clinical management based on available evidence.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Hanna; McInnes, Iain B; Sattar, Naveed

    2012-04-01

    Several studies suggest that patients with psoriasis and, in particular, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These patients are also more likely to be obese and to have diabetes and fatty liver disease. This article discusses the association between psoriasis and PsA and cardiometabolic disorders, emphasising the need for better consideration of simple lifestyle interventions. It also highlights areas for future research and proposes a simple and pragmatic test portfolio to screen for cardiovascular risk and metabolic disorders in patients at higher risk.

  5. Randomized and controlled clinical study of modified prescriptions of Simiao Pill in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin-de; Li, Guo-chun; Qian, Zu-xi; Jin, Ze-qiu; Song, Yan

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the compatibility of a modified prescription of Simiao Pill in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis and to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug through a clinical trial. A randomized and controlled clinical trial was designed based on clinical epidemiological principles. A total of 107 patients with acute gouty arthritis were enrolled and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (Group I) included 27 patients taking gout prescription I; the second group (Group II) included 27 patients taking gout prescription II; the third group (Group III) included 28 patients taking gout prescription III; and the fourth group (control group) included 25 patients taking indomethacin and Benzobromarone as a control group. The duration of the treatment in all 4 groups was two weeks. After the treatment, the index of blood uric acid, blood leukocyte count, score of clinical symptoms, etc. were observed and measured. The total clinical effective rate of the three different modified prescriptions of the Simiao Pill was above 96%, significantly superior to that of the control group (68%, P<0.05). In terms of the improvement of main symptoms, the scores of four symptoms in all TCM treatment and control groups decreased after treatment, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Moreover, the scores markedly fell more so in the three Chinese herb groups than in the control group, and especially in Group III (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood uric acid values before and after the treatment in the same group but no significant inter-group difference was seen. The modified prescriptions, based on the clinical research, clinical experience and traditional Chinese medicine theory, did show a better effect than Western medicine in this clinical study. Moreover, the prescriptions were precise, with the herbs inexpensive and readily available. The patients had good compliance with less adverse reactions noted. The

  6. People Getting a Grip on Arthritis II: An Innovative Strategy to Implement Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis Patients through Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A.; Brooks, Sydney; De Angelis, G.; Bell, Mary; Egan, Mary; Poitras, Stephane; King, Judy; Casimiro, Lynn; Loew, Laurianne; Novikov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to determine if an updated online evidence-based educational programme delivered through Facebook is effective in improving the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of patients with arthritis in relation to evidence-based self-management rehabilitation interventions for osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid…

  7. Reactive arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000440.htm Reactive arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Reactive arthritis is a group of conditions that may ...

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000431.htm Rheumatoid arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disease. It leads ...

  9. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  10. The metabolic profile in early rheumatoid arthritis: a high prevalence of metabolic obesity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Raili; Kull, Mart; Põlluste, Kaja; Aart, Annika; Eglit, Triin; Lember, Margus; Kallikorm, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in early RA patients with age-gender-matched population controls focusing on the presence of MetS in different weight categories. The study group consisted of 91 consecutive patients with early RA and 273 age- and gender-matched controls subjects. MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) criteria. Mean age in both groups was 52 years, and 72.5 % were female. The prevalence of MetS did not differ between the two groups (35.2 % in RA, 34.1 % in control group). Mean systolic blood pressure in the RA group was 137 mmHg, in control group 131 mmHg, P = 0.01, and diastolic blood pressure 85 versus 81 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.01). We found that 20 of 65 (30.8 %) of RA patients compared to 80 of 152 (52.6 %) of the control subjects with elevated blood pressure received antihypertensive treatment (P < 0.01). When comparing subgroups with normal BMI, the odds of having MetS (being metabolically obese) were higher among early RA subjects (OR 5.6, CI 1.3-23.8). Of the individual components of metabolic syndrome, we found increased prevalence of hypertension (OR 2.8, CI 1.3-6.0) and hyperglycemia (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.0) in the RA group. Recognition of abnormal metabolic status among normal-weight RA patients who have not yet developed CVD could provide a valuable opportunity for preventative intervention.

  11. Gene therapy for arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Traister, Russell S.

    2008-01-01

    Arthritis is among the leading causes of disability in the developed world. There remains no cure for this disease and the current treatments are only modestly effective at slowing the disease's progression and providing symptomatic relief. The clinical effectiveness of current treatment regimens has been limited by short half-lives of the drugs and the requirement for repeated systemic administration. Utilizing gene transfer approaches for the treatment of arthritis may overcome some of the obstacles associated with current treatment strategies. The present review examines recent developments in gene therapy for arthritis. Delivery strategies, gene transfer vectors, candidate genes, and safety are also discussed. PMID:18176779

  12. A case-study in the clinical epidemiology of psoriatic arthritis: multistate models and causal arguments

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Tom, Brian D M; Farewell, Vernon T

    2011-01-01

    In psoriatic arthritis, permanent joint damage characterizes disease progression and represents a major debilitating aspect of the disease. Understanding the process of joint damage will assist in the treatment and disease management of patients. Multistate models provide a means to examine patterns of disease, such as symmetric joint damage. Additionally, the link between damage and the dynamic course of disease activity (represented by joint swelling and stress pain) at both the individual joint level and otherwise can be represented within a correlated multistate model framework. Correlation is reflected through the use of random effects for progressive models and robust variance estimation for non-progressive models. Such analyses, undertaken with data from a large psoriatic arthritis cohort, are discussed and the extent to which they permit causal reasoning is considered. For this, emphasis is given to the use of the Bradford Hill criteria for causation in observational studies and the concept of local (in)dependence to capture the dynamic nature of the relationships. PMID:22163372

  13. Thumb Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Thumb arthritis Overview Thumb arthritis is common with aging, and occurs when cartilage wears away from the ends of the bones that form your thumb ... also known as the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint. Thumb arthritis can cause severe pain, swelling, and decreased strength ...

  14. Angiopoietin-2 serum levels correlate with severity, early onset and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    López-Mejías, Raquel; Corrales, Alfonso; Genre, Fernanda; Hernández, José L; Ochoa, Rodrigo; Blanco, Ricardo; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2), a marker of endothelial cell activation, has been proposed as a mediator of angiogenesis, which might play an important role in the regulation of endothelial integrity and inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether Angpt-2 is related to severity and CV disease in RA patients. Angpt-2 serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 290 patients with RA. A control group of 100 individuals frequency matched by age and sex and classic CV risk factors and CV disease was also assessed. Eighty-four patients with RA (28.9%) had experienced CV events. Also, extra-articular manifestations were present in 41 (14%) of these patients. Although there were not significant differences between patients and controls, a correlation between age at the time of disease onset and Angpt-2 was observed in RA patients (r=-0.31; p=0.02). Angpt-2 serum levels also correlated positively with extra-articular disease (mean±standard deviation in RA patients with and without extra-articular manifestations were 2476±1716 pg/ml and 1897±1228 pg/ml, respectively; p=0.01). Moreover, after adjustment for sex, age at RA diagnosis and CV risk factors, Angpt-2 levels were higher in RA patients with CV disease than in RA patients without CV complications (2472±1826 pg/ml vs. 1875±1101 pg/ml; p=0.05). Angpt-2 serum levels remained significantly higher in RA patients with CV disease compared to those without CV disease after additional adjustment for extra-articular manifestations (p=0.04). Our results show that Angpt-2 serum levels correlate with disease severity, early onset and CV disease in RA patients.

  15. Synoviorthesis with 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate in rheumatoid arthritis--clinical, histopathologic and arthrographic changes.

    PubMed

    Onetti, C M; Gutiérrez, E; Hliba, E; Aguirre, C R

    1982-01-01

    Synoviorthesis was performed in 217 joints from 111 patients suffering from different stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate was employed, with an average dose from 6 mCi for large joints (knees) to 0.3 mCi for small peripheral joints such as average dose from 6 mCi for large joints (knees) to 0.3 mCi for small peripheral joints such as the MCP or PIP joints. Satisfactory clinical results were observed in 84% of the cases and no significant side effects resulted after a follow-up period from 1 to 10 years. Striking effects after treatment were observed through histopathological studies (light and electron microscopy) and the use of contrast arthrography. We concluded that radioactive synovectomy with 32P-chromate is a very useful method for the local treatment of RA.

  16. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial for Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) using cognitive–behavioural approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hewlett, S; Ambler, N; Almeida, C; Blair, P S; Choy, E; Dures, E; Hammond, A; Hollingworth, W; Kirwan, J; Plummer, Z; Rooke, C; Thorn, J; Tomkinson, K; Pollock, J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fatigue is distressing, leading to unmanageable physical and cognitive exhaustion impacting on health, leisure and work. Group cognitive–behavioural (CB) therapy delivered by a clinical psychologist demonstrated large improvements in fatigue impact. However, few rheumatology teams include a clinical psychologist, therefore, this study aims to examine whether conventional rheumatology teams can reproduce similar results, potentially widening intervention availability. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of a group CB intervention for RA fatigue self-management, delivered by local rheumatology clinical teams. 7 centres will each recruit 4 consecutive cohorts of 10–16 patients with RA (fatigue severity ≥6/10). After consenting, patients will have baseline assessments, then usual care (fatigue self-management booklet, discussed for 5–6 min), then be randomised into control (no action) or intervention arms. The intervention, Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) will be cofacilitated by two local rheumatology clinicians (eg, nurse/occupational therapist), who will have had brief training in CB approaches, a RAFT manual and materials, and delivered an observed practice course. Groups of 5–8 patients will attend 6×2 h sessions (weeks 1–6) and a 1 hr consolidation session (week 14) addressing different self-management topics and behaviours. The primary outcome is fatigue impact (26 weeks); secondary outcomes are fatigue severity, coping and multidimensional impact, quality of life, clinical and mood status (to week 104). Statistical and health economic analyses will follow a predetermined plan to establish whether the intervention is clinically and cost-effective. Effects of teaching CB skills to clinicians will be evaluated qualitatively. Ethics and dissemination Approval was given by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, and participants will provide written

  17. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial for Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) using cognitive-behavioural approaches.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, S; Ambler, N; Almeida, C; Blair, P S; Choy, E; Dures, E; Hammond, A; Hollingworth, W; Kirwan, J; Plummer, Z; Rooke, C; Thorn, J; Tomkinson, K; Pollock, J

    2015-08-06

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fatigue is distressing, leading to unmanageable physical and cognitive exhaustion impacting on health, leisure and work. Group cognitive-behavioural (CB) therapy delivered by a clinical psychologist demonstrated large improvements in fatigue impact. However, few rheumatology teams include a clinical psychologist, therefore, this study aims to examine whether conventional rheumatology teams can reproduce similar results, potentially widening intervention availability. This is a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of a group CB intervention for RA fatigue self-management, delivered by local rheumatology clinical teams. 7 centres will each recruit 4 consecutive cohorts of 10-16 patients with RA (fatigue severity ≥ 6/10). After consenting, patients will have baseline assessments, then usual care (fatigue self-management booklet, discussed for 5-6 min), then be randomised into control (no action) or intervention arms. The intervention, Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) will be cofacilitated by two local rheumatology clinicians (eg, nurse/occupational therapist), who will have had brief training in CB approaches, a RAFT manual and materials, and delivered an observed practice course. Groups of 5-8 patients will attend 6 × 2 h sessions (weeks 1-6) and a 1 hr consolidation session (week 14) addressing different self-management topics and behaviours. The primary outcome is fatigue impact (26 weeks); secondary outcomes are fatigue severity, coping and multidimensional impact, quality of life, clinical and mood status (to week 104). Statistical and health economic analyses will follow a predetermined plan to establish whether the intervention is clinically and cost-effective. Effects of teaching CB skills to clinicians will be evaluated qualitatively. Approval was given by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, and participants will provide written informed consent. The copyrighted RAFT package will be freely available. Findings

  18. Anti-adalimumab antibodies in a cohort of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: incidence and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Marino, Achille; Real-Fernández, Feliciana; Rovero, Paolo; Giani, Teresa; Pagnini, Ilaria; Cimaz, Rolando; Simonini, Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    Adalimumab is a TNF-α blocker antibody similar in structure and function to natural human IgG1. Even if adalimumab is fully humanized, the development of anti-drug antibodies has been reported in several inflammatory conditions. The objective of our study was to assess the presence of anti-adalimumab antibodies (AAA) and their clinical relevance in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients on adalimumab. This is a prospective observational cohort study recruiting JIA children. Experiments were performed using a validated surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based optical assay (Biacore® T100). Disease activity was evaluated using the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score with 10 joint count (JADAS-10). The Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples, chi-square, and Fisher exact test were used to compare data. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were used to determine correlation coefficients for entered variables: demographic, clinical, and serological data. Ten (37%) out of 27 patients included in the study had at least one AAA-positive sample. Patients developed AAA between 3 and 38 months after starting adalimumab. Seven (70%) out of 10 children with AAA positivity experienced at least a relapse compared to 4 (23.5%) out of 17 AAA-negative children (r s 0.45, p < 0.017). In conclusion, using an innovative and accurate assay method, we found a high incidence of anti-drug antibodies in a cohort of adalimumab-treated JIA patients observed over a mean period of 40 weeks; the presence of anti-adalimumab antibodies seemed to be related to the number of relapses.

  19. Smokers and non smokers with rheumatoid arthritis have similar clinical status: data from the multinational QUEST-RA database.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, A; Toloza, S; Guimaraes da Silveira, I; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Hamoud, H; Peets, T; Mäkinen, H; Gossec, L; Herborn, G; Skopouli, F N; Rojkovich, B; Aggarwal, A; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Yamanaka, H; Oyoo, O; Rexhepi, S; Andersone, D; Baranauskaite, A; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N; Jacobs, J W G; Haugeberg, G; Sierakowski, S; Ionescu, R; Karateew, D; Dimic, A; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Choy, E; Bergman, M; Sokka, T

    2010-01-01

    To analyse clinical severity/activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to smoking status. The QUEST-RA multinational database reviews patients for Core Data Set measures including 28 swollen and tender joint count, physician global estimate, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), HAQ-function, pain, and patient global estimate, as well as DAS28, rheumatoid factor (RF), nodules, erosions and number of DMARDs were recorded. Smoking status was assessed by self-report as 'never smoked', 'currently smoking' and 'former smokers'. Patient groups with different smoking status were compared for demographic and RA measures. Among the 7,307 patients with smoking data available, status as 'never smoked,' 'current smoker' and 'former smoker' were reported by 65%, 15% and 20%. Ever smokers were more likely to be RF-positive (OR 1.32;1.17-1.48, p<0.001). Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in ever smokers (OR 1.41;1.24-1.59, p<0.001). The percentage of patients with erosive arthritis and extra-articular disease was similar in all smoking categories. Mean DAS28 was 4.4 (SD 1.6) in non-smokers vs. 4.0 (SD 1.6) in those who had ever smoked. However, when adjusted by age, sex, disease duration, and country gross domestic product, only ESR remained significantly different among Core Data Set measures (mean 31.7mm in non-smokers vs. 26.8mm in ever smoked category). RA patients who had ever smoked were more likely to have RF and nodules, but values for other clinical status measures were similar in all smoking categories (never smoked, current smokers and former smokers).

  20. Randomised clinical trial: gastrointestinal events in arthritis patients treated with celecoxib, ibuprofen or naproxen in the PRECISION trial.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, N D; Graham, D Y; Husni, M E; Solomon, D H; Stevens, T; Vargo, J; Wang, Q; Wisniewski, L M; Wolski, K E; Borer, J S; Libby, P; Lincoff, A M; Lüscher, T F; Bao, W; Walker, C; Nissen, S E

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate GI safety of celecoxib compared with 2 nonselective (ns) NSAIDs, as a secondary objective of a large trial examining multiorgan safety. This randomised, double-blind controlled trial analysed 24 081 patients. Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients, needing ongoing NSAID treatment, were randomised to receive celecoxib 100-200 mg b.d., ibuprofen 600-800 mg t.d.s. or naproxen 375-500 mg b.d. plus esomeprazole, and low-dose aspirin or corticosteroids if already prescribed. Clinically significant GI events (CSGIE-bleeding, obstruction, perforation events from stomach downwards or symptomatic ulcers) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were adjudicated blindly. Mean treatment and follow-up durations were 20.3 and 34.1 months. While on treatment or 30 days after, CSGIE occurred in 0.34%, 0.74% and 0.66% taking celecoxib, ibuprofen and naproxen. Hazard ratios (HR) were 0.43 (95% CI 0.27-0.68, P = 0.0003) celecoxib vs ibuprofen and 0.51 (0.32-0.81, P = 0.004) vs naproxen. There was also less IDA on celecoxib: HR 0.43 (0.27-0.68, P = 0.0003) vs ibuprofen; 0.40 (0.25-0.62, P < 0.0001) vs naproxen. Even taken with low-dose aspirin, fewer CSGIE occurred on celecoxib than ibuprofen (HR 0.52 [0.29-0.94], P = 0.03), and less IDA vs naproxen (0.42 [0.23-0.77, P = 0.005]). Corticosteroid use increased total GI events and CSGIE. H. pylori serological status had no influence. Arthritis patients taking NSAIDs plus esomeprazole have infrequent clinically significant gastrointestinal events. Co-prescribed with esomeprazole, celecoxib has better overall GI safety than ibuprofen or naproxen at these doses, despite treatment with low-dose aspirin or corticosteroids. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A five-year model to assess the early cost-effectiveness of new diagnostic tests in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Buisman, Leander R; Luime, Jolanda J; Oppe, Mark; Hazes, Johanna M W; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2016-06-10

    There is a lack of information about the sensitivity, specificity and costs new diagnostic tests should have to improve early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the early cost-effectiveness of various new diagnostic test strategies in the workup of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) at risk of having RA. A decision tree followed by a patient-level state transition model, using data from published literature, cohorts and trials, was used to evaluate diagnostic test strategies. Alternative tests were assessed as add-on to or replacement of the ACR/EULAR 2010 RA classification criteria for all patients and for intermediate-risk patients. Tests included B-cell gene expression (sensitivity 0.60, specificity 0.90, costs €150), MRI (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.60, costs €756), IL-6 serum level (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.53, costs €50) and genetic assay (sensitivity 0.40, specificity 0.85, costs €750). Patients with IA at risk of RA were followed for 5 years using a societal perspective. Guideline treatment was assumed using tight controlled treatment based on DAS28; if patients had a DAS28 >3.2 at 12 months or later patients could be eligible for starting biological drugs. The outcome was expressed in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (€2014 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) and headroom. The B-cell test was the least expensive strategy when used as an add-on and as replacement in intermediate-risk patients, making it the dominant strategy, as it has better health outcomes and lower costs. As add-on for all patients, the B-cell test was also the most cost-effective test strategy. When using a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000 per QALY gained, the IL-6 and MRI strategies were not cost-effective, except as replacement. A genetic assay was not cost-effective in any strategy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the B-cell test was consistently superior in all strategies. When

  2. Estimating the monetary value of the annual productivity gained in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis receiving etanercept plus methotrexate: interim results from the PRIZE study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Bansback, Nick; Sun, Huiying; Pedersen, Ronald; Kotak, Sameer; Anis, Aslam H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure and value the impact of combined etanercept (ETN) and methotrexate (MTX) therapy on work productivity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 52 weeks. Methods MTX- and biological-naïve patients with RA (symptom onset ≤12 months; Disease Activity Score based on a 28-joint count (DAS28) >3.2) received open-label ETN50/MTX for 52 weeks. The Valuation of Lost Productivity (VOLP) questionnaire, measuring paid and unpaid work productivity impacts, was completed approximately every 13 weeks. Bootstrapping methods were used to test changes in VOLP outcomes over time. One-year productivity impacts were compared between responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) at week 13 and non-responders using zero-inflated models for time loss and two-part models for total costs of lost productivity. Results 196 patients were employed at baseline and had ≥1 follow-up with VOLP. Compared with baseline, at week 52, patients gained 33.4 h per 3 months in paid work and 4.2 h per week in unpaid work. Total monetary productivity gains were €1322 per 3 months. Over the 1-year period, responders gained paid (231 h) and unpaid work loss (122 h) compared with non-responders, which amounted to a gain of €3670 for responders. Conclusions This is the first clinical trial to measure and value the impact of biological treatment on all the labour input components that affect overall productivity. Combination therapy with ETN50/MTX was associated with a significant productivity gain for patients with early RA who were still observed at week 52. Over the 1-year treatment period, responders at week 13 suffered significantly less productivity loss than non-responders suggesting this gain was related to treatment response. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00913458 PMID:26535135

  3. Medical students’ attitudes towards early clinical exposure in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khabaz Mafinejad, Mahboobeh; Peiman, Soheil; Khajavirad, Nasim; Mirabdolhagh Hazaveh, Mojgan; Edalatifard, Maryam; Allameh, Seyed-Farshad; Naderi, Neda; Foroumandi, Morteza; Afshari, Ali; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was carried out to investigate the medical students’ attitudes towards early clinical exposure at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2015. A convenience sample of 298 first- and second-year students, enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum, participated in an early clinical exposure program. To collect data from medical students, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions and structured questions, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was used to investigate students’ attitudes toward early clinical exposure. Results Of the 298 medical students, 216 (72%) completed the questionnaires. The results demonstrated that medical students had a positive attitude toward early clinical exposure. Most students (80.1%) stated that early clinical exposure could familiarize them with the role of basic sciences knowledge in medicine and how to apply this knowledge in clinical settings. Moreover, 84.5% of them believed that early clinical exposure increased their interest in medicine and encouraged them to read more. Furthermore, content analysis of the students’ responses uncovered three main themes of early clinical exposure, were considered helpful to improve learning: “integration of theory and practice”, “interaction with others and professional development” and “desire and motivation for learning medicine”. Conclusions Medical students found their first experience with clinical setting valuable. Providing clinical exposure in the initial years of medical curricula and teaching the application of basic sciences knowledge in clinical practice can enhance students’ understanding of the role they will play in the future as a physician. PMID:27318794

  4. Early experiences of accredited clinical informatics fellowships.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Christopher A; Pageler, Natalie M; Palma, Jonathan P; Finnell, John T; Levy, Bruce P; Yackel, Thomas R; Mohan, Vishnu; Hersh, William R

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of the clinical informatics subspecialty for physicians in 2013, over 1100 physicians have used the practice and education pathways to become board-certified in clinical informatics. Starting in 2018, only physicians who have completed a 2-year clinical informatics fellowship program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education will be eligible to take the board exam. The purpose of this viewpoint piece is to describe the collective experience of the first four programs accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education and to share lessons learned in developing new fellowship programs in this novel medical subspecialty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Applying Advanced Analytical Approaches to Characterize the Impact of Specific Clinical Gaps and Profiles on the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cordell, Karyn D; Joubin, Kathy; Haimowitz, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to add a predictive modeling approach to the meta-analysis of continuing medical education curricula to determine whether this technique can be used to better understand clinical decision making. Using the education of rheumatologists on rheumatoid arthritis management as a model, this study demonstrates how the combined methodology has the ability to not only characterize learning gaps but also identify those proficiency areas that have the greatest impact on clinical behavior. The meta-analysis included seven curricula with 25 activities. Learners who identified as rheumatologists were evaluated across multiple learning domains, using a uniform methodology to characterize learning gains and gaps. A performance composite variable (called the treatment individualization and optimization score) was then established as a target upon which predictive analytics were conducted. Significant predictors of the target included items related to the knowledge of rheumatologists and confidence concerning 1) treatment guidelines and 2) tests that measure disease activity. In addition, a striking demographic predictor related to geographic practice setting was also identified. The results demonstrate the power of advanced analytics to identify key predictors that influence clinical behaviors. Furthermore, the ability to provide an expected magnitude of change if these predictors are addressed has the potential to substantially refine educational priorities to those drivers that, if targeted, will most effectively overcome clinical barriers and lead to the greatest success in achieving treatment goals.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of clinical remission by treat to target strategy in established rheumatoid arthritis: results of the CREATE registry.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, M; de la Fuente, S; Castro-Villegas, M C; Romero-Gómez, M; Ruiz-Vílchez, D; Calvo-Gutiérrez, J; Escudero-Contreras, A; Del Prado, J R; Collantes-Estévez, E; Font, P

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the cost-effectiveness, in daily clinical practice, of the strategy of treating to the target of clinical remission (CR) in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), after 2 years of treatment with biological therapy. Adult patients with established RA were treated with biological therapy and followed up for 2 years by a multidisciplinary team responsible for their clinical management. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by the DAS28 score. The direct costs incurred during this period were quantified from the perspective of the healthcare system. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of obtaining a DAS28 < 2.6, considered as CR. The study included 144 RA patients treated with biological therapies. After 2 years of treatment, 32.6% of patients achieved CR. The mean cost of achieving CR at 2 years was 79,681 ± 38,880 euros. The strategy of treatment to the target of CR is considered the most effective, but in actual clinical practice in patients with established RA, it has a high cost.

  7. Effect of Fatigue, Older Age, Higher Body Mass Index, and Female Sex on Disability in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Treatment-to-Target Era.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Sarah; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Freeston, Jane; Tan, Ai Lyn; Emery, Paul; Tennant, Alan; Morgan, Ann W

    2018-03-01

    To compare disease activity and disability over 2 years in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after implementation of treat-to-target therapy and identify predictors of adverse outcome. The Yorkshire Early Arthritis Register (YEAR) recruited 725 patients with early RA between 2002 and 2009, treated with a step-up approach. The Inflammatory Arthritis Continuum study (IACON) recruited cases between 2010 and 2014 and treated to target. A total of 384 IACON cases met 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria. Latent growth curves of change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were compared between YEAR and IACON. Latent class growth analysis identified trajectories of change. Baseline predictors of trajectories were identified using logistic regression. The mean DAS28 over 2 years was lower in IACON than in YEAR. Latent trajectories of HAQ change in YEAR were high stable (21% of cohort), moderate reducing (35%), and low reducing (44%). Only moderate reducing (66%) and low reducing (34%) were seen in IACON. In both cohorts, female sex and fatigue predicted adverse HAQ trajectories (high stable and moderate reducing). Odds ratios (ORs) for moderate reducing compared to low reducing for women were 2.58 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.69, 4.49) in YEAR and 5.81 (95% CI 2.44, 14.29) in IACON. ORs per centimeter fatigue visual analog score were 1.13 (95% CI 1.07, 1.20) in YEAR and 1.16 (95% CI 1.12, 1.20) in IACON. Treat-to-target therapy gave more favorable trajectories of change in DAS28 and HAQ, but adverse HAQ trajectory was more likely in women with greater fatigue, suggesting such patients would benefit from interventions to improve function as well as reduce inflammation. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Risk factors of flare in rheumatoid arthritis patients with both clinical and ultrasonographic remission: a retrospective study from China.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingjing; Geng, Yan; Deng, Xuerong; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2017-08-01

    Ultrasonographic remission in addition to clinical remission is probably becoming a new target in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The current study aimed to investigate the risk factors of flare in RA patients who achieved both clinical and ultrasonographic remission. RA patients fulfilled both clinical remission and ultrasonographic remissions were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic data were collected. Durations of clinical remission before enrollment and medication strategy during follow-up were recorded. Differences between the flare and the non-flare group were analyzed. Risk factors of flare were assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. One hundred and twenty-one RA patients were included. Forty-eight patients relapsed during a median follow-up period of 12.3 months. The flare group had higher percentage of females, shorter duration of clinical remission before enrollment, higher baseline ESR and DAS28 (ESR), and lower baseline gray scale score. Univariate Cox regression revealed female, short duration of remission, high DAS28 (ESR), and failure to achieve 2010 ACR/EULAR remission criteria were risk factors of flare. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed short duration of remission was the only independent risk factor of flare (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98, P = 0.007). One more month in duration of remission led to a reduction in flare of 7.3%. Short duration of remission at baseline could be an independent risk factor of flare in RA patients who achieved both clinical and ultrasonographic remission, which implicates the significance of sustained remission in the prognosis of RA patients.

  9. American College of Rheumatology provisional criteria for defining clinical inactive disease in select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Huang, Bin; Itert, Lukasz; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2011-07-01

    To prospectively validate the preliminary criteria for clinical inactive disease (CID) in patients with select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We used the process for development of classification and response criteria recommended by the American College of Rheumatology Quality of Care Committee. Patient-visit profiles were extracted from the phase III randomized controlled trial of infliximab in polyarticular-course JIA (i.e., patients considered to resemble those with select categories of JIA) and sent to an international group of expert physician raters. Using the physician ratings as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the preliminary criteria. Modifications to the criteria were made, and these were sent to a larger group of pediatric rheumatologists to determine quantitative, face, and content validity. Variables weighted heaviest by physicians when making their judgment were the number of joints with active arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), physician's global assessment, and duration of morning stiffness. Three modifications were made: the definition of uveitis, the definition of abnormal ESR, and the addition of morning stiffness. These changes did not alter the accuracy of the preliminary set. The modified criteria, termed the "criteria for CID in select categories of JIA," have excellent feasibility and face, content, criterion, and discriminant validity to detect CID in select categories of JIA. The small changes made to the preliminary criteria set did not alter the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.954) or accuracy (91%), but have increased face and content validity. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Making the invisible visible: bioelectrical impedance analysis demonstrates unfavourable body composition in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Konijn, N P C; van Tuyl, L H D; Bultink, I E M; Lems, W F; Earthman, C P; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences between the assessment of body composition by body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The body composition of RA patients was assessed during their visit to the outpatient department of a Dutch academic hospital using BMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI). FFMI and FMI were determined by single-frequency BIA. Sixty-five consecutive RA patients (83% women, mean age 58 years, median disease duration 7 years) with moderately active disease [mean Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) = 3.40; mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI) score = 3.49] and moderate disability [mean Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score = 0.87] were included. Based on BMI, 2% of our study population were underweight, 45% had a healthy body composition, and 54% were overweight or obese. Based on BIA, 18% of the patients showed a low FFMI and 74% had a high or very high FMI. Low FFMI was found in 44% of the women with a normal BMI, and high FMI was found in 40% of the women and 75% of the men with a normal BMI. A high frequency of unfavourable body composition, predominantly reduced FFMI and elevated FMI, was found in a cohort of RA patients with moderately active disease, turning BMI into an unreliable method for assessment of body composition in RA. BIA, however, might be the preferred method to assess FFMI and FMI in RA patients in clinical practice, as it is easy to use and relatively inexpensive.

  11. Tofacitinib in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Shun; Tsai, Tsen-Fang

    2017-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous disease that has been difficult to manage until the recent advent of biologics. However, there are still unmet medical needs for newer agents. Tofacitinib is a Janus family of kinases inhibitor approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis in many countries and psoriasis in Russia. We reviewed the evidences of tofacitinib in psoriatic arthritis treatment. The efficacy and safety profiles result from Phase III clinical trials (OPAL BROADEN and OPAL BEYOND) and one open-label extension study (OPAL BALANCE). Both tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice a day were superior to placebo for American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria response at 3 months and showed significant improvement of skin, enthesitis and dactylitis. Tofacitinib is a promising treatment option for psoriatic arthritis.

  12. Improvement in latent variable indirect response joint modeling of a continuous and a categorical clinical endpoint in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanpu; Zhou, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Improving the quality of exposure-response modeling is important in clinical drug development. The general joint modeling of multiple endpoints is made possible in part by recent progress on the latent variable indirect response (IDR) modeling for ordered categorical endpoints. This manuscript aims to investigate, when modeling a continuous and a categorical clinical endpoint, the level of improvement achievable by joint modeling in the latent variable IDR modeling framework through the sharing of model parameters for the individual endpoints, guided by the appropriate representation of drug and placebo mechanism. This was illustrated with data from two phase III clinical trials of intravenously administered mAb X for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, with the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and 20, 50, and 70% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70) disease severity criteria were used as efficacy endpoints. The joint modeling framework led to a parsimonious final model with reasonable performance, evaluated by visual predictive check. The results showed that, compared with the more common approach of separately modeling the endpoints, it is possible for the joint model to be more parsimonious and yet better describe the individual endpoints. In particular, the joint model may better describe one endpoint through subject-specific random effects that would not have been estimable from data of this endpoint alone.

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific autoantibodies in patients with interstitial lung disease and absence of clinically apparent articular RA.

    PubMed

    Gizinski, Alison M; Mascolo, Margherita; Loucks, Jennifer L; Kervitsky, Alma; Meehan, Richard T; Brown, Kevin K; Holers, V Michael; Deane, Kevin D

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoantibodies in subjects with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and no articular findings of RA, supporting the hypothesis that RA-related autoimmunity may be generated in non-articular sites, such as the lung. This was a retrospective chart review utilizing clinic databases of patients with ILD to identify cases with lung disease, RA-related autoantibody positivity, and no clinical evidence of articular RA. Four patients with ILD, RF, and anti-CCP positivity and no articular findings of RA were identified. All four patients were male with a mean age at time of diagnosis of ILD of 70 years old. All had a history of smoking. Three patients died within 2 years of diagnosis of ILD and never developed articular symptoms consistent with RA; the final case met full criteria for articular RA several months after stopping immunosuppressive treatment for ILD. RF and anti-CCP can be present in smokers with ILD without clinical evidence of articular RA and in one case symptomatic ILD and autoantibody positivity preceded the development of articular RA. These findings suggest that RA-specific autoimmunity may be generated due to immunologic interactions in the lung and may be related to environmental factors such as smoking.

  14. Preventing progression from arthralgia to arthritis: targeting the right patients.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, Hanna W; da Silva, José A Pereira; Huizinga, Tom W J; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2018-01-01

    Early treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), suggesting that a 'window of opportunity', in which the disease is most susceptible to disease-modifying treatment, exists. Autoantibodies and markers of systemic inflammation can be present long before clinical arthritis, and maturation of the immune response seems to coincide with the development of RA. The pre-arthritis phase associated with symptoms such as as joint pain without clinical arthritis (athralgia) is now hypothesized to fall within the aforementioned window of opportunity. Consequently, disease modulation in this phase might prevent the occurrence of clinically apparent arthritis, which would result in a persistent disease course if untreated. Several ongoing proof-of-concept trials are now testing this hypothesis. This Review highlights the importance of adequate risk prediction for the correct design, execution and interpretation of results of these prevention trials, as well as considerations when translating these findings into clinical practice. The patients' perspectives are discussed, and the accuracy with which RA development can be predicted in patients presenting with arthralgia is evaluated. Currently, the best starting position for preventive studies is proposed to be the inclusion of patients with an increased risk of RA, such as those identified as fulfilling the EULAR definition of 'arthralgia suspicious for progression to RA'.

  15. Cost-utility of COBRA-light versus COBRA therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the COBRA-light trial

    PubMed Central

    ter Wee, Marieke M; Coupé, Veerle MH; den Uyl, Debby; Blomjous, Birgit S; Kooijmans, Esmee; Kerstens, Pit JSM; Nurmohamed, Mike T; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Boers, Maarten; Lems, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if COmbinatie therapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy is cost-effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with COBRA therapy. Methods This economic evaluation was performed next to the open-label, randomised non-inferiority COBRA-light trial in 164 patients with early RA. Non-responders to COBRA or COBRA-light received etanercept (50 mg/week) for 3–6 months. The societal perspective analysis took medical direct, non-medical direct and indirect costs into account. Costs were measured with patient cost diaries for the follow-up period of 52 weeks. Bootstrapping techniques estimated uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness ratios, presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results 164 patients were randomised to either COBRA or COBRA-light strategy. At week 52, COBRA-light proved to be non-inferior to COBRA therapy on all clinical outcome measures. The results of the base-case cost-utility analysis (intention-to-treat analyses) revealed that COBRA-light strategy is more expensive (k€9.3 (SD 0.9) compared with COBRA (k€7.2 (SD 0.8)), but the difference in costs were not significant (k€2.0; 95% CI –0.3 to 4.4). Also, both strategies produced similar quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The sensitivity analyses showed robustness of these results. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis, in which costs of etanercept were assumed to be provided as prescribed according to protocol, both arms had much higher costs: COBRA-light: k€11.5 (8.3) compared with k€8.5 (6.8) for COBRA, and the difference in costs was significant (k€2.9; 0.6 to 5.3). Conclusions In the base-case cost-utility analysis, the two strategies produced similar QALYs for similar costs. But it is anticipated that if protocol had been followed correctly, the COBRA-light strategy would have been more costly due to additional etanercept costs, for a limited health gain. Given the limited added benefit and high costs of starting

  16. Cost-utility of COBRA-light versus COBRA therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the COBRA-light trial.

    PubMed

    Ter Wee, Marieke M; Coupé, Veerle Mh; den Uyl, Debby; Blomjous, Birgit S; Kooijmans, Esmee; Kerstens, Pit Jsm; Nurmohamed, Mike T; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Boers, Maarten; Lems, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate if COmbinatie therapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy is cost-effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with COBRA therapy. This economic evaluation was performed next to the open-label, randomised non-inferiority COBRA-light trial in 164 patients with early RA. Non-responders to COBRA or COBRA-light received etanercept (50 mg/week) for 3-6 months. The societal perspective analysis took medical direct, non-medical direct and indirect costs into account. Costs were measured with patient cost diaries for the follow-up period of 52 weeks. Bootstrapping techniques estimated uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness ratios, presented in cost-effectiveness planes. 164 patients were randomised to either COBRA or COBRA-light strategy. At week 52, COBRA-light proved to be non-inferior to COBRA therapy on all clinical outcome measures. The results of the base-case cost-utility analysis (intention-to-treat analyses) revealed that COBRA-light strategy is more expensive (k€9.3 (SD 0.9) compared with COBRA (k€7.2 (SD 0.8)), but the difference in costs were not significant (k€2.0; 95% CI -0.3 to 4.4). Also, both strategies produced similar quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The sensitivity analyses showed robustness of these results. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis, in which costs of etanercept were assumed to be provided as prescribed according to protocol, both arms had much higher costs: COBRA-light: k€11.5 (8.3) compared with k€8.5 (6.8) for COBRA, and the difference in costs was significant (k€2.9; 0.6 to 5.3). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, the two strategies produced similar QALYs for similar costs. But it is anticipated that if protocol had been followed correctly, the COBRA-light strategy would have been more costly due to additional etanercept costs, for a limited health gain. Given the limited added benefit and high costs of starting etanercept in the presence of low disease

  17. Smoking in combination with antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides is associated with persistently high levels of survivin in early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High levels of the oncoprotein survivin may be detected in the majority of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Survivin is a sensitive predictor of joint damage and persistent disease activity. Survivin-positive patients are often poor responders to antirheumatic and biological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of survivin status and its significance for clinical and immunological assessment of RA patients. Methods Survivin levels were measured in 339 patients from the Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacOTherapy (BARFOT) cohort of early RA at baseline and after 24 months. The association of survivin status with joint damage (total Sharp-van der Heijde score), disease activity (Disease Activity Score based on evaluation of 28 joints (DAS28)), functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), and pain perception (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)) was calculated in the groups positive and negative for survivin on both occasions, and for the positive-negative and negative-positive groups. Results In 268 patients (79%) the levels of survivin were similar at baseline and after 24 months, 15% converted from survivin-positive to survivin-negative, and 5% from survivin-negative to survivin-positive. A combination of smoking and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (aCCP) predicted persistently (baseline and 24 months) high levels of survivin (odds ratio 4.36 (95% CI: 2.64 to 7.20), P < 0.001), positive predictive value 0.66 and specificity 0.83). The independent nature of survivin and aCCP was demonstrated by statistical and laboratory analysis. Survivin positivity on both test occasions was associated with the progression of joint damage, significantly higher DAS28 and lower rate of remission at 24 and 60 months compared to negative-negative patients. Survivin status was less associated with changes in HAQ and VAS. Conclusions Survivin is a relevant and reproducible marker of severe RA

  18. Altered Natural Killer Cell Subsets in Seropositive Arthralgia and Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Are Associated with Autoantibody Status.

    PubMed

    Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M H; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    The role of natural killer (NK) cells in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. Therefore, numerical and functional alterations of CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cells in the early stages of RA development were studied. Whole blood samples from newly diagnosed, treatment-naive, seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) patients with RA (SP RA, n = 45 and SN RA, n = 12), patients with SP arthralgia (n = 30), and healthy controls (HC, n = 41) were assessed for numbers and frequencies of T cells, B cells, and NK cells. SP status was defined as positive for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and/or rheumatoid factor (RF). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used for further analysis of NK cell phenotype and function. Total NK cell numbers were decreased in SP RA and SP arthralgia but not in SN RA. Also, NK cells from SP RA showed a decreased potency for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. A selective decrease of CD56(dim), but not CD56(bright), NK cells in SP RA and SP arthralgia was observed. This prompted investigation of CD16 (FcγRIIIa) triggering in NK cell apoptosis and cytokine expression. In vitro, CD16 triggering induced apoptosis of CD56(dim) but not CD56(bright) NK cells from HC. This apoptosis was augmented by adding interleukin 2 (IL-2). Also, CD16 triggering in the presence of IL-2 stimulated IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α expression by CD56(dim) NK cells. The decline of CD56(dim) NK cells in SP arthralgia and SP RA and the in vitro apoptosis of CD56(dim) NK cells upon CD16 triggering suggest a functional role of immunoglobulin G-containing autoantibody (anti-CCP and/or RF)-immune complexes in this process. Moreover, CD16-triggered cytokine production by CD56(dim) NK cells may contribute to systemic inflammation as seen in SP arthralgia and SP RA.

  19. Work Productivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relationship with Clinical and Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro del Moral, Rafael; Rillo, Oscar Luis; Casalla, Luciana; Morón, Carolina Bru; Citera, Gustavo; Cocco, José A. Maldonado; Correa, María de los Ángeles; Buschiazzo, Emilio; Tamborenea, Natalia; Mysler, Eduardo; Tate, Guillermo; Baños, Andrea; Herscovich, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the relationship between work productivity with disease activity, functional capacity, life quality and radiological damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. The study included consecutive employed patients with RA (ACR'87), aged over 18. Demographic, disease-related, and work-related variables were determined. The reduction of work productivity was assessed by WPAI-RA. Results. 90 patients were evaluated, 71% women. Age average is 50 years old, DAS28 4, and RAQoL 12. Median SENS is 18 and HAQ-A 0.87. Mean absenteeism was of 14%, presenting an average of 6.30 work hours wasted weekly. The reduction in performance at work or assistance was of 38.4% and the waste of productivity was of 45%. Assistance correlated with DAS28 (r = 0.446; P < 0.001), HAQ-A (r = 0.545; P < 0.001) and RAQoL (r = 0.475; P < 0.001). Lower total productivity was noticed in higher levels of activity and functional disability. Patients with SENS > 18 showed lower work productivity than those with SENS < 18 (50 versus 34; P = 0.04). In multiple regression analysis, variables associated with reduction of total work productivity were HAQ-A and RAQoL. Conclusion. RA patients with higher disease severity showed higher work productivity compromise. PMID:23320166

  20. Patient-reported outcomes as end points in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gossec, Laure; Dougados, Maxime; Dixon, William

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rheumatology, which goes with a global trend for more ‘patient-centred care’. This review considers the use of PROs in trials, including their strengths and limitations. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) trials, the most frequently used PROs to assess treatments include pain, patient global assessment, assessment of functional status, but also health-related quality of life and less commonly fatigue. Other aspects of importance for patients, such as sleep, psychological well-being or ability to cope, are rarely assessed. PROs as outcome measures in RA trials have strengths as well as limitations. PROs have face validity, they are reproducible and sensitive to change and they bring additional information beyond joint counts or acute phase reactants. However, their predictive validity for later outcomes has been little explored, some PROs show redundancy (they bring similar information) and, due to the apparently moderate link between some PROs such as fatigue and the disease process, the use of some PROs to inform treatment choices has been questioned. We suggest the choice of PROs for trials depends on the study objective and on the viewpoint of the stakeholder. There needs to be agreed prioritisation across all stakeholders about what is most important to collect in a trial, which is why a prioritisation and selection process is necessary. Trials in RA will continue to include PROs and their interpretation will become easier as our knowledge progresses. PMID:26509052

  1. Work productivity in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with clinical and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Chaparro Del Moral, Rafael; Rillo, Oscar Luis; Casalla, Luciana; Morón, Carolina Bru; Citera, Gustavo; Cocco, José A Maldonado; Correa, María de Los Ángeles; Buschiazzo, Emilio; Tamborenea, Natalia; Mysler, Eduardo; Tate, Guillermo; Baños, Andrea; Herscovich, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the relationship between work productivity with disease activity, functional capacity, life quality and radiological damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. The study included consecutive employed patients with RA (ACR'87), aged over 18. Demographic, disease-related, and work-related variables were determined. The reduction of work productivity was assessed by WPAI-RA. Results. 90 patients were evaluated, 71% women. Age average is 50 years old, DAS28 4, and RAQoL 12. Median SENS is 18 and HAQ-A 0.87. Mean absenteeism was of 14%, presenting an average of 6.30 work hours wasted weekly. The reduction in performance at work or assistance was of 38.4% and the waste of productivity was of 45%. Assistance correlated with DAS28 (r = 0.446; P < 0.001), HAQ-A (r = 0.545; P < 0.001) and RAQoL (r = 0.475; P < 0.001). Lower total productivity was noticed in higher levels of activity and functional disability. Patients with SENS > 18 showed lower work productivity than those with SENS < 18 (50 versus 34; P = 0.04). In multiple regression analysis, variables associated with reduction of total work productivity were HAQ-A and RAQoL. Conclusion. RA patients with higher disease severity showed higher work productivity compromise.

  2. Merging Veterans Affairs rheumatoid arthritis registry and pharmacy data to assess methotrexate adherence and disease activity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Grant W; Mikuls, Ted R; Hayden, Candace L; Ying, Jian; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Reimold, Andreas M; Caplan, Liron; Kerr, Gail S; Richards, J Steuart; Johnson, Dannette S; Sauer, Brian C

    2011-12-01

    The Veterans Affairs (VA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry and the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management database were linked to determine the association of methotrexate (MTX) adherence with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. For each patient, the medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated for the first episode of MTX exposure of a duration of ≥12 weeks for both new and established MTX users. High MTX adherence was defined as an MPR ≥0.80 and low MTX adherence was defined as an MPR <0.80. For each patient, the mean Disease Activity Score with 28 joints (DAS28) score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reaction protein (CRP) level observed during registry followup were compared in high- versus low-adherence groups. In 455 RA patients, the prescribed doses of MTX (mean ± SD 16 ± 4 mg versus 16 ± 4 mg; P = 0.6) were similar in high-adherence patients (n = 370) in comparison to low-adherence patients (n = 85). However, the actual observed MTX doses taken by patients were significantly higher in the high-adherence group (mean ± SD 16 ± 5 mg versus 11 ± 3 mg; P < 0.001). DAS28 (mean ± SD 3.6 ± 1.2 versus 3.9 ± 1.5; P < 0.02), ESR (mean ± SD 24 ± 18 versus 29 ± 24 mm/hour; P = 0.05), and CRP level (mean ± SD 1.2 ± 1.3 versus 1.6 ± 1.5 mg/dl; P < 0.03) were lower in the high-adherence group compared to those with low MTX adherence. These variances were not explained by differences in baseline demographic features, concurrent treatments, or whether MTX was initiated before or after VARA enrollment. High MTX adherence was associated with improved clinical outcomes in RA patients treated with MTX. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the estimated effect of adherence. These results demonstrate the advantages of being able to merge clinical observations with pharmacy databases to evaluate antirheumatic drugs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Effects of mud-bath therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibitors. Clinical evaluation and assessment of synovial inflammation by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Franco; Raffeiner, Bernd; Beltrame, Valeria; Ciprian, Luca; Coran, Alessandro; Botsios, Constantin; Perissinotto, Egle; Grisan, Enrico; Ramonda, Roberta; Oliviero, Francesca; Stramare, Roberto; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    Despite the efficacy of TNF inhibitors, most patients with psoriatic arthritis maintain a residual synovial inflammation. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mud-bath therapy on clinical picture of PsA patients treated with TNF inhibitors. The secondary outcome was to assess synovial inflammation in hand joints detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Other aims were to verify the risk of arthritis flare and to evaluate the effects of spa treatment on functional ability and on quality of life. Thirty-six patients with psoriatic arthritis, treated in the last 6 months with TNF inhibitors, were enrolled. After 1:1 randomisation, 18 patients (group A) underwent mud-bath therapy (12 mudpacks and 12 thermal baths), maintaining treatment with TNF inhibitors; 18 patients (group B) continued pharmacological therapy alone. CRP, PASI, DAS28, swollen and tender joint count, VAS pain, HAQ and SF-36 were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 45 days (T1). Synovial inflammation detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, analysed by a software system, was also assessed. A significant improvement in PASI (P<0.005), DAS28 (P<0.05), swollen joint count and tender joint count (P<0.001), and HAQ (P<0.001) between T0 and T1 was observed in group A. No patient underwent a flare-up of arthritis. Ultrasound videos demonstrated a significant appearance delay (P<0.05) and faster washout (P<0.02) of contrast dye in group A patients with respect to group B. These data suggest a decrease of residual synovial inflammation and a beneficial clinical effect of spa therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial of prefabricated versus customised foot orthoses for people with rheumatoid arthritis: the FOCOS RA trial [Foot Orthoses - Customised v Off-the-Shelf in Rheumatoid Arthritis].

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kellie S; Godwin, Jon; Hendry, Gordon J; Steultjens, Martijn; Woodburn, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Foot pain is common in rheumatoid arthritis and appears to persist despite modern day medical management. Several clinical practice guidelines currently recommend the use of foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain in people with rheumatoid arthritis. However, an evidence gap currently exists concerning the comparative clinical- and cost-effectiveness of prefabricated and customised foot orthoses in people with early rheumatoid arthritis. Early intervention with orthotics may offer the best opportunity for positive therapeutic outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the comparative clinical- and cost-effectiveness of prefabricated versus customised orthoses for reducing foot pain over 12 months. This is a multi-centre two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial comparing prefabricated versus customised orthoses in participants with early rheumatoid arthritis (< 2 years disease duration). A total of 160 (a minimum of 80 randomised to each arm) eligible participants will be recruited from United Kingdom National Health Service Rheumatology Outpatient Clinics. The primary outcome will be foot pain measured via the Foot Function Index pain subscale at 12 months. Secondary outcomes will include foot related impairments and disability via the Foot Impact Scale for rheumatoid arthritis, global functional status via the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, foot disease activity via the Rheumatoid Arthritis Foot Disease Activity Index, and health-related quality of life at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Process outcomes will include recruitment/retention rates, data completion rates, intervention adherence rates, and participant intervention and trial participation satisfaction. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses will be undertaken. Outcome measures collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months will be used to evaluate the comparative clinical- and cost- effectiveness of customised versus prefabricated orthoses for this treatment of early

  5. 2017 EULAR recommendations for a core data set to support observational research and clinical care in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Radner, Helga; Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Nikiphorou, Elena; Gossec, Laure; Hyrich, Kimme L; Zabalan, Condruta; van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Williamson, Paula R; Balanescu, Andra; Burmester, Gerd R; Carmona, Loreto; Dougados, Maxime; Finckh, Axel; Haugeberg, Glenn; Hetland, Merete Lund; Oliver, Susan; Porter, Duncan; Raza, Karim; Ryan, Patrick; Santos, Maria Jose; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette; van Riel, Piet; von Krause, Gabrielle; Zavada, Jakub; Dixon, William G; Askling, Johan

    2018-04-01

    Personalised medicine, new discoveries and studies on rare exposures or outcomes require large samples that are increasingly difficult for any single investigator to obtain. Collaborative work is limited by heterogeneities, both what is being collected and how it is defined. To develop a core set for data collection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research which (1) allows harmonisation of data collection in future observational studies, (2) acts as a common data model against which existing databases can be mapped and (3) serves as a template for standardised data collection in routine clinical practice to support generation of research-quality data. A multistep, international multistakeholder consensus process was carried out involving voting via online surveys and two face-to-face meetings. A core set of 21 items ('what to collect') and their instruments ('how to collect') was agreed: age, gender, disease duration, diagnosis of RA, body mass index, smoking, swollen/tender joints, patient/evaluator global, pain, quality of life, function, composite scores, acute phase reactants, serology, structural damage, treatment and comorbidities. The core set should facilitate collaborative research, allow for comparisons across studies and harmonise future data from clinical practice via electronic medical record systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept monotherapy in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: review of seven clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Shinichi; Sugiyama, Naonobu; Yuasa, Hirotoshi; Yamashita, Noriaki; Sugiyama, Noriko; Wagerle, Lorin Craig; Vlahos, Bonnie; Wajdula, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, including methotrexate, may not be tolerated by all patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and limited international data for etanercept (ETN) monotherapy are available. The aim of this review was to summarize the clinical program for ETN monotherapy in Japanese patients with RA, which has included a pharmacokinetic study, clinical trials for registration, long-term studies, and once-weekly dosing studies. Pharmacokinetic results showed that serum concentrations of ETN were linear with dose levels and were similar to other international studies. Across interventional studies, 652 Japanese patients with active RA were treated with ETN. In the registration studies, ETN treatment led to consistent improvement in American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 scores, European League Against Rheumatism Good Response, Disease Activity Score 28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate remission, and Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index. In the long-term studies, efficacy was maintained for up to 180 weeks. Similar results were seen in the once-weekly studies. Across the studies, more than 870 patient-years of exposure to ETN were recorded. Discontinuations owing to lack of efficacy or adverse events were modest and no new safety signals were recorded. These studies demonstrated that ETN monotherapy is efficacious and well-tolerated in Japanese patients with RA.

  7. Obstacles to the implementation of the treat-to-target strategy for rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuko; Koike, Takao; Oda, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Harigai, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the obstacles preventing the implementation of the treat-to-target (T2T) strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice. A total of 301 rheumatologists in Japan completed a questionnaire. In the first section, participants were indirectly questioned on the implementation of basic components of T2T, and in the second section, participants were directly questioned on their level of agreement and application. Although nearly all participants set treatment targets for the majority of RA patients with moderate to high disease activity, the proportion who set clinical remission as their target was 59%, with only 45% of these using composite measures. The proportion of participants who monitored X-rays and Health Assessment Questionnaires for all their patients was 44% and 14%, respectively. The proportion of participants who did not discuss treatment strategies was 44%, with approximately half of these reasoning that this was due to a proportion of patients having a lack of understanding of the treatment strategy or inability to make decisions. When participants were directly questioned, there was a high level of agreement with the T2T recommendations. Although there was a high level of agreement with the T2T recommendations, major obstacles preventing its full implementation still remain.

  8. Can we improve the performance and reporting of investigator-initiated clinical trials? Rheumatoid arthritis as an example.

    PubMed

    Landewé, Robert B M; Smolen, Josef S; Weinblatt, Michael E; Emery, Paul; Dougados, Maxime; Fleischmann, Roy; Aletaha, Daniel; Kavanaugh, Arthur; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2014-10-01

    Investigator-initiated trials, some of which have been referred to as comparative effectiveness trials, pragmatic trials, or strategy trials, are sometimes considered to be of greater clinical importance than industry-driven trials, because they address important but unresolved clinical questions that differ from the questions asked in industry-driven trials. Regulatory authorities have provided methodological guidance for industry-driven trials for the approval of new treatments, but such guidance is less clear for investigator-initiated trials. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force for the update of the recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis has critically looked at the methodological quality and conduct of many investigator-initiated trials, and has identified a number of concerns. In this Viewpoint paper, we highlight commonly encountered issues that are discussed using examples of well-known investigator-initiated trials. These issues cover three themes: (1) design choice (superiority vs non-inferiority designs); (2) statistical power and (3) convenience reporting. Since we acknowledge the importance of investigator-initiated research, we also propose a shortlist of points-to-consider when designing, performing and reporting investigator-initiated trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Demographics, clinical disease characteristics, and quality of life in a large cohort of psoriasis patients with and without psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Truong, B; Rich-Garg, N; Ehst, BD; Deodhar, AA; Ku, JH; Vakil-Gilani, K; Danve, A; Blauvelt, A

    2015-01-01

    Innovation What is already known about the topic: psoriasis (PsO) is a common skin disease with major impact on quality of life (QoL). Patient-reported data on QoL from large number of PsO patients with and without psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are limited. What this study adds: In a large cohort referred to a university psoriasis center, patients with PsO and concomitant PsA (~30% in this group) had greater degrees of skin and nail involvement and experienced greater negative impacts on QoL. Despite large numbers of patients with moderate-to-severe disease, use of systemic therapy by community practitioners was uncommon. Background PsO and PsA are common diseases that have marked adverse impacts on QoL. The disease features and patient-reported QoL data comparing PsO and PsA patients are limited. Objective To identify and compare demographics, clinical disease characteristics, and QoL scores in a large cohort of PsO patients with and without PsA. Methods All PsO patients seen in a psoriasis specialty clinic, named the Center of Excellence for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis, were enrolled in an observational cohort. Demographic, QoL, and clinical data were collected from patient-reported questionnaires and from physical examinations performed by Center of Excellence for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis dermatologists and a rheumatologists. Cross sectional descriptive data were collected and comparisons between patients with PsO alone and those with concomitant PsA are presented. Results A total of 568 patients were enrolled in the database. Mean age of PsO onset was 28 years and mean disease duration was 18 years. Those with family history had an earlier onset of PsO by ~7 years. Mean body surface area involvement with PsO was 14%. Mean body mass index was 30.7. Prevalence of PsA was 29.8%. PsA patients had a higher mean body surface area compared to patients with PsO alone (16.7% vs 13.4%, P<0.05), higher prevalence of psoriatic nail changes (54.4% vs 36%, P<0

  10. Quantitative power Doppler ultrasound measures of peripheral joint synovitis in poor prognosis early rheumatoid arthritis predict radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Sreerangaiah, Dee; Grayer, Michael; Fisher, Benjamin A; Ho, Meilien; Abraham, Sonya; Taylor, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the value of quantitative vascular imaging by power Doppler US (PDUS) as a tool that can be used to stratify patient risk of joint damage in early seropositive RA while still biologic naive but on synthetic DMARD treatment. Eighty-five patients with seropositive RA of <3 years duration had clinical, laboratory and imaging assessments at 0 and 12 months. Imaging assessments consisted of radiographs of the hands and feet, two-dimensional (2D) high-frequency and PDUS imaging of 10 MCP joints that were scored for erosions and vascularity and three-dimensional (3D) PDUS of MCP joints and wrists that were scored for vascularity. Severe deterioration on radiographs and ultrasonography was seen in 45 and 28% of patients, respectively. The 3D power Doppler volume and 2D vascularity scores were the most useful US predictors of deterioration. These variables were modelled in two equations that estimate structural damage over 12 months. The equations had a sensitivity of 63.2% and specificity of 80.9% for predicting radiographic structural damage and a sensitivity of 54.2% and specificity of 96.7% for predicting structural damage on ultrasonography. In seropositive early RA, quantitative vascular imaging by PDUS has clinical utility in predicting which patients will derive benefit from early use of biologic therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Clinical improvement of renal amyloidosis in a patient with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis who received tocilizumab treatment: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chantarogh, Songkiat; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Tim-Aroon, Thipwimol; Worawichawong, Suchin

    2017-05-12

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common rheumatic disease in children and adolescents. Although JIA may cause secondary amyloidosis, this is a rare complication in patients with JIA and other rheumatic diseases. Many previous studies have revealed that common heterozygous or homozygous mutations in the MEFV gene are associated with systemic-onset JIA (SJIA). We herein report a case involving a 19-year-old female patient with difficult-to-control SJIA. She developed progressive proteinuria without clinical signs or symptoms of edema. Renal amyloidosis was diagnosed by renal pathologic examination, which demonstrated deposition of eosinophilic amorphous material in the interlobular arteries, arterioles, and interstitium. Electron microscopy showed fibrillary material deposits with a diameter of 8 to 10 nm. A heterozygous E148Q mutation in the MEFV gene was identified. Conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and etanercept had been used to treat the SJIA, but the disease could not be controlled. Therefore, we decided to start tocilizumab to control the disease activity. However, the patient was unable to receive a standard dose of tocilizumab in the early period of treatment because of socioeconomic limitations. Her disease course was still active, and proteinuria was found. Therefore, tocilizumab was increased to a dose of 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks (standard dose of SJIA), and the patient exhibited a clinical response within 3 months. Refractory SJIA associated with renal amyloidosis is an uncommon cause of proteinuria in adolescents. Tocilizumab may be a beneficial treatment for renal amyloidosis in patients with SJIA.

  12. Monoarticular Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Vogelgesang, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    Monoarticular arthritis is inflammation characterized by joint pain, swelling, and sometimes periarticular erythema. Although chronic causes are seen, the onset is often acute. An infected joint can quickly lead to permanent damage, making it a medical emergency. However, acute gout presenting as monoarticular arthritis is often so uncomfortable it requires urgent attention. Monoarticular crystalline arthritis is common and a septic joint is a medical emergency so it is no surprise that these diagnoses come to mind with complaint of inflammation in 1 joint. However, there are many causes of monoarticular arthritis that clinicians must consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...

  14. Early clinical outcomes following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Tolver, Mette Astrup

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (TAPP) has gained increasing popularity because of less post-operative pain and a shorter duration of convalescence compared with open hernia repair technique (Lichtenstein). However, investigation of duration of convalescence with non-restrictive recommendations, and a procedure-specific characterization of the early clinical outcomes after TAPP was lacking. Furthermore, optimization of the post-operative period with fibrin sealant versus tacks for fixation of mesh, and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone versus placebo needed to be investigated in randomized clinical trials. The objective of this PhD thesis was to characterize the early clinical outcomes after TAPP and optimize the post-operative period. The four studies included in this thesis have investigated duration of convalescence and procedure-specific post-operative pain and other early clinical outcomes after TAPP. Furthermore, it has been shown that fibrin sealant can improve the early post-operative period compared with tacks, while dexamethasone showed no advantages apart from reduced use of antiemetics compared with placebo. Based on these findings, and the existing knowledge, 3-5 days of convalescence should be expected when 1 day of convalescence is recommended and future studies should focus on reducing intraabdominal pain after TAPP. Fibrin sealant can optimize the early clinical outcomes but the risk of hernia recurrence and chronic pain needs to be evaluated. Dexamethasone should be investigated in higher doses.

  15. Changing clinical patterns in rheumatoid arthritis management over two decades: sequential observational studies.

    PubMed

    Mian, Aneela N; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Scott, Ian C; Bahadur, Sardar; Filkova, Maria; Pollard, Louise; Steer, Sophia; Kingsley, Gabrielle H; Scott, David L; Galloway, James

    2016-01-27

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment paradigms have shifted over the last two decades. There has been increasing emphasis on combination disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, newer biologic therapies have become available and there is a greater focus on achieving remission. We have evaluated the impact of treatment changes on disease activity scores for 28 joints (DAS28) and disability measured by the health assessment questionnaire scores (HAQ). Four cross-sectional surveys between 1996 and 2014 in two adjacent secondary care rheumatology departments in London evaluated changes in drug therapy, DAS28 and its component parts and HAQ scores (in three surveys). Descriptive statistics used means and standard deviations (SD) or medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) to summarise changes. Spearman's correlations assessed relationships between assessments. 1324 patients were studied. Gender ratios, age and mean disease duration were similar across all cohorts. There were temporal increases in the use of any DMARDs (rising from 61% to 87% of patients from 1996-2014), combination DMARDs (1% to 41%) and biologic (0 to 32%). Mean DAS28 fell (5.2 to 3.7), active disease (DAS28 > 5.1) declined (50% to 18%) and DAS28 remission (DAS28 < 2.6) increased (8% to 28%). In contrast HAQ scores were unchanged (1.30 to 1.32) and correlations between DAS28 and HAQ weakened (Spearman's rho fell from 0.56 to 0.44). Treatment intensity has increased over time, disease activity has fallen and there are more remissions. However, these improvements in controlling synovitis have not resulted in comparable reductions in disability measured by HAQ. As a consequence the relationship between DAS28 and HAQ has become weaker over time. Although the reasons for this divergence between disease activity and disability are uncertain, focussing treatment entirely in suppressing synovitis may be insufficient.

  16. Hansen's Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis Crossover of Clinical Symptoms: A Case Series of 18 Patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Sarah M; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Stryjewska, Barbara M

    2017-12-01

    Hansen's Disease (HD) is a rare, chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the noncultivable organism Mycobacterium leprae . Arthritis is the third most common symptom of HD. Subjects with both confirmed HD on skin biopsy and chronic arthritis were identified at the National Hansen's Disease Program (NHDP). We conducted a series of medical chart reviews and extracted and logged personally deidentified data into a database and carried out descriptive analyses. Eighteen of 261 subjects presented to the NDHP with both HD and chronic arthritis between 2001 and 2015. Among these, 16 were male, 16 were white, and 15 were residents of Louisiana. The median age at diagnosis of HD was 67 years. Ten of these subjects were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous leprosy, seven were diagnosed with lepromatous, and one was diagnosed with borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Patients were symptomatic with arthritis for a median of 5.3 years before HD diagnosis. Sixty-two percent of patients (11) were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before HD diagnosis, and 10 of which were seronegative RA. Hands, feet, wrists, and elbows were most commonly reported as affected joints. Over half of the patients (61%) had completed HD multidrug therapy at the time of review, and 73% of these subjects had persistent joint pain requiring steroids or methotrexate for symptomatic control. Chronic arthritis in HD patients is present in a series of US-acquired cases of HD. Arthritis did not resolve with successful treatment of HD in most cases.

  17. The value of power Doppler ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical remission: Reclassifying disease activity?

    PubMed

    Vergara, Facundo; Ruta, Santiago; Rosa, Javier; Marín, Josefina; García-Mónaco, Ricardo; Soriano, Enrique R

    2017-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to describe the ultrasound (US) findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission, and to evaluate the ability of power Doppler (PD) US to reclassify disease activity in these patients. We included consecutive patients with RA according to 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, who were in clinical remission by the Disease Activity Score (DAS28<2.6). Twenty joints of both hands were assessed by US. PD signal was evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Three different US-modified DAS28 (US-DAS28) were constructed, replacing the clinical swollen joint count by the PD US joint count using PD score ≥1, ≥2 or ≥3, respectively. Eighty-six patients were included. Twenty-three (26.7%) patients had at least one joint with abnormal US-positive PD signal. Thirteen percent of patients were reclassified to low disease activity by applying the US-DAS28 when joints were considered active with a PD signal ≥1; 12%, when a PD signal ≥2 was considered, and 2% of the patients were reclassified when a PD score of 3 was considered. No patients were reclassified to a level of moderate or high activity applying US-DAS28. Although around a quarter of patients with RA in clinical remission showed PD US features indicating residual activity, only a small percentage were reclassified to a state of low activity and none to a level of moderate or high activity, applying the proposed US-DAS28. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Synovial features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in clinical and ultrasound remission differ under anti-TNF therapy: a clue to interpret different chances of relapse after clinical remission?

    PubMed Central

    Alivernini, Stefano; Tolusso, Barbara; Petricca, Luca; Bui, Laura; Di Sante, Gabriele; Peluso, Giusy; Benvenuto, Roberta; Fedele, Anna Laura; Federico, Franco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Gremese, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Objective To define the synovial characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in clinical and ultrasound remission achieved by combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. Methods Patients with RA in remission (n=25) (disease activity score (DAS)<1.6 for at least 6 months), patients with RA in low disease activity (LDA) (n=10) (1.6

  19. Synovial features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in clinical and ultrasound remission differ under anti-TNF therapy: a clue to interpret different chances of relapse after clinical remission?

    PubMed

    Alivernini, Stefano; Tolusso, Barbara; Petricca, Luca; Bui, Laura; Di Sante, Gabriele; Peluso, Giusy; Benvenuto, Roberta; Fedele, Anna Laura; Federico, Franco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Gremese, Elisa

    2017-07-01

    To define the synovial characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in clinical and ultrasound remission achieved by combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. Patients with RA in remission (n=25) (disease activity score (DAS)<1.6 for at least 6 months), patients with RA in low disease activity (LDA) (n=10) (1.6

  20. Early onset marfan syndrome: Atypical clinical presentation of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, A; Baykan, A; Argun, M; Pamukcu, O; Halis, H; Korkut, S; Yuksel, Z; Gunes, T; Narin, N

    2015-01-01

    Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS) is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS). The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system. PMID:26929908

  1. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Daily, James W.; Yang, Mini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although turmeric and its curcumin-enriched extracts have been used for treating arthritis, no systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been conducted to evaluate the strength of the research. We systemically evaluated all RCTs of turmeric extracts and curcumin for treating arthritis symptoms to elucidate the efficacy of curcuma for alleviating the symptoms of arthritis. Literature searches were conducted using 12 electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Korean databases, Chinese medical databases, and Indian scientific database. Search terms used were “turmeric,” “curcuma,” “curcumin,” “arthritis,” and “osteoarthritis.” A pain visual analogue score (PVAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were used for the major outcomes of arthritis. Initial searches yielded 29 articles, of which 8 met specific selection criteria. Three among the included RCTs reported reduction of PVAS (mean difference: −2.04 [−2.85, −1.24]) with turmeric/curcumin in comparison with placebo (P < .00001), whereas meta-analysis of four studies showed a decrease of WOMAC with turmeric/curcumin treatment (mean difference: −15.36 [−26.9, −3.77]; P = .009). Furthermore, there was no significant mean difference in PVAS between turmeric/curcumin and pain medicine in meta-analysis of five studies. Eight RCTs included in the review exhibited low to moderate risk of bias. There was no publication bias in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, these RCTs provide scientific evidence that supports the efficacy of turmeric extract (about 1000 mg/day of curcumin) in the treatment of arthritis. However, the total number of RCTs included in the analysis, the total sample size, and the methodological quality of the primary studies were not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Thus, more rigorous and larger studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic efficacy

  2. Clinical and Other Risk Indicators for Early Periodontitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Anne C.R.; Kent, Ralph; Van Dyke, Thomas; Sonis, Steven T.; Murray, Lora A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Periodontal diseases affect over half the adults in the U.S., disproportionately affecting minority populations. Periodontitis can be treated in early stages, but it is not clear what features indicate, or could be risk factors for, early stages of periodontal attachment loss. This study aimed to evaluate associations between clinical and other risk indicators of early periodontitis. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of 225 healthy and early periodontitis adults aged 20 to 40 years was performed. Clinical measurements, demographic information, and smoking histories were recorded. Analyses evaluated demographic and clinical associations with health and early periodontitis disease categories and periodontal attachment loss. Patterns of attachment loss at interproximal and buccal/lingual sites were evaluated. Results Subject age, plaque, and measures of gingivitis exhibited associations with attachment loss and probing depth. More periodontal attachment loss was detected in African-American and Hispanic subjects compared to Asian and Caucasian subjects. Smoking history was associated with attachment loss. At interproximal sites, lower molars most frequently had attachment loss, whereas at buccal/lingual sites, higher proportions of lower bicuspid teeth demonstrated attachment loss compared with other sites. Conclusions In this study of subjects with minimal attachment loss, gingival inflammation was associated with early periodontitis. Lower molar interproximal sites were frequently associated with interproximal attachment loss, whereas lower bicuspid teeth were at risk for gingival recession on buccal surfaces. PMID:15857098

  3. Sepsis in Obstetrics: Clinical Features and Early Warning Tools.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Sheryl E; Bogat, Mary L; Hering, Sandra L; Ottley, Charlotte; Roth, Cheryl

    Morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis has gained widespread attention on a local, state, and national level, yet, it remains a complicated disorder that can be difficult to identify in a timely manner. Sepsis in obstetric patients further complicates the diagnosis as alterations in physiology related to pregnancy can mask sepsis indicators normally seen in the general population. If early signs of sepsis go unrecognized, septic shock can develop, leading to organ dysfunction and potential death. Maternal early warning tools have been designed to assist clinicians in recognizing early indications of illness. Through use of clinical pathway-specific tools, disease processes may be detected early, subsequently benefitting patients with aggressive treatment management and intervention.This article is the second in a series of three that discuss the importance of sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy. Risk factors, causes of sepsis, signs and symptoms, and maternal early warning tools are discussed.

  4. [Clinical relevant procedures for early pregnancy diagnosis in the mare].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Sieme, H; Bartmann, C-P; Handler, J; Sobiraj, A; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    This review describes stepwise the recto-manual and transrectal ultrasonographic evidence of early pregnancy detection in the horse. The morphological and physiological conditions in the individual phases of early pregnancy are presented in correlation to the potential clinical findings. The importance of embryonic and early foetal losses is presented. Communication and documentation of findings are also addressed. The final section is devoted to the evaluation of the examination effort. In this regard, it is emphasized that the gynaecological examination for the evaluation of the pregnancy status represents a service contract.

  5. Conversion to seronegative status after abatacept treatment in patients with early and poor prognostic rheumatoid arthritis is associated with better radiographic outcomes and sustained remission: post hoc analysis of the AGREE study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Diahann T S L; Emery, Paul; Smolen, Josef S; Westhovens, Rene; Le Bars, Manuela; Connolly, Sean E; Ye, June; Toes, René E M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the T-cell costimulation blocker abatacept on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and associations between changes in serological status and clinical response. Post hoc analysis of the phase III AGREE study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. Patients were randomised to abatacept (~10 mg/kg intravenously according to weight range) or placebo, plus MTX over 12 months followed by open-label abatacept plus MTX for 12 months. Autoantibody titres were determined by ELISA at baseline and months 6 and 12 (double-blind phase). Conversion to seronegative status and its association with clinical response were assessed at months 6 and 12. Abatacept plus MTX was associated with a greater decrease in ACPA (but not RF) titres and higher rates of both ACPA and RF conversion to seronegative status versus MTX alone. More patients converting to ACPA seronegative status receiving abatacept plus MTX achieved remission according to Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C-reactive protein) or Clinical Disease Activity Index than patients who remained ACPA seropositive. Patients who converted to ACPA seronegative status treated with abatacept plus MTX had a greater probability of achieving sustained remission and less radiographic progression than MTX alone or patients who remained ACPA seropositive (either treatment). Treatment with abatacept plus MTX was more likely to induce conversion to ACPA/RF seronegative status in patients with early, erosive RA. Conversion to ACPA seronegative status was associated with better clinical and radiographic outcomes. NCT00122382.

  6. Conversion to seronegative status after abatacept treatment in patients with early and poor prognostic rheumatoid arthritis is associated with better radiographic outcomes and sustained remission: post hoc analysis of the AGREE study

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Paul; Smolen, Josef S; Westhovens, Rene; Le Bars, Manuela; Connolly, Sean E; Ye, June; Toes, René E M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the T-cell costimulation blocker abatacept on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and associations between changes in serological status and clinical response. Methods Post hoc analysis of the phase III AGREE study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. Patients were randomised to abatacept (~10 mg/kg intravenously according to weight range) or placebo, plus MTX over 12 months followed by open-label abatacept plus MTX for 12 months. Autoantibody titres were determined by ELISA at baseline and months 6 and 12 (double-blind phase). Conversion to seronegative status and its association with clinical response were assessed at months 6 and 12. Results Abatacept plus MTX was associated with a greater decrease in ACPA (but not RF) titres and higher rates of both ACPA and RF conversion to seronegative status versus MTX alone. More patients converting to ACPA seronegative status receiving abatacept plus MTX achieved remission according to Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C-reactive protein) or Clinical Disease Activity Index than patients who remained ACPA seropositive. Patients who converted to ACPA seronegative status treated with abatacept plus MTX had a greater probability of achieving sustained remission and less radiographic progression than MTX alone or patients who remained ACPA seropositive (either treatment). Conclusions Treatment with abatacept plus MTX was more likely to induce conversion to ACPA/RF seronegative status in patients with early, erosive RA. Conversion to ACPA seronegative status was associated with better clinical and radiographic outcomes. Trial registration number NCT00122382 PMID:29657830

  7. Efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of daily clinical use of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Naoki; Tsuji, Sosuke; Takatani, Ayuko; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Fukui, Shoichi; Umeda, Masataka; Nishino, Ayako; Horai, Yoshiro; Koga, Tomohiro; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Hirai, Yasuko; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Terada, Kaoru; Origuchi, Tomoki; Eguchi, Katsumi; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a real-world setting. Seventy consecutive patients, for whom tofacitinib was initiated between November 2013 and May 2016, were enrolled. All patients fulfilled the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA. All patients received 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily and were followed for 24 weeks. Clinical disease activity indicated by disease activity score (DAS)28-ESR, the simplified disease activity index, and the clinical disease activity index as well as adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which baseline variables influenced the efficacy of tofacitinib at 24 weeks. Fifty-eight patients (82.9%) continued tofacitinib at 24 weeks. Clinical disease activity rapidly and significantly decreased, and this efficacy continued throughout the 24 weeks: i.e., DAS28-ESR decreased from 5.04 ± 1.33 at baseline to 3.83 ± 1.11 at 4 weeks and 3.53 ± 1.17 at 24 weeks (P<0.0001, vs. baseline). 15 AEs including 5 herpes zoster infection occurred during tofacitinib treatment. The efficacy of tofacitinib was not changed in patients without concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX) or patients whose treatment with tocilizumab (TCZ) failed. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that the number of biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) previously used was independently associated with achievement of DAS-low disease activity. Our present study suggests that tofacitinib is effective in real-world settings even without concomitant MTX use or after switching from TCZ. Our results also suggest that its efficacy diminishes if started after use of multiple bDMARDs.

  8. Efficacy and safety at 24 weeks of daily clinical use of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Sosuke; Takatani, Ayuko; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Fukui, Shoichi; Umeda, Masataka; Nishino, Ayako; Horai, Yoshiro; Koga, Tomohiro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Hirai, Yasuko; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Terada, Kaoru; Origuchi, Tomoki; Eguchi, Katsumi; Ueki, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a real-world setting. Methods Seventy consecutive patients, for whom tofacitinib was initiated between November 2013 and May 2016, were enrolled. All patients fulfilled the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA. All patients received 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily and were followed for 24 weeks. Clinical disease activity indicated by disease activity score (DAS)28-ESR, the simplified disease activity index, and the clinical disease activity index as well as adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which baseline variables influenced the efficacy of tofacitinib at 24 weeks. Results Fifty-eight patients (82.9%) continued tofacitinib at 24 weeks. Clinical disease activity rapidly and significantly decreased, and this efficacy continued throughout the 24 weeks: i.e., DAS28-ESR decreased from 5.04 ± 1.33 at baseline to 3.83 ± 1.11 at 4 weeks and 3.53 ± 1.17 at 24 weeks (P<0.0001, vs. baseline). 15 AEs including 5 herpes zoster infection occurred during tofacitinib treatment. The efficacy of tofacitinib was not changed in patients without concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX) or patients whose treatment with tocilizumab (TCZ) failed. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that the number of biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) previously used was independently associated with achievement of DAS-low disease activity. Conclusions Our present study suggests that tofacitinib is effective in real-world settings even without concomitant MTX use or after switching from TCZ. Our results also suggest that its efficacy diminishes if started after use of multiple bDMARDs. PMID:28472115

  9. Non-Esterified Fatty Acids Profiling in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Associations with Clinical Features and Th1 Response.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López, Patricia; Ballina-García, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Since lipid compounds are known to modulate the function of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages, we hypothesize that altered levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) may underlie rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Serum levels of NEFA (palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linoleic, arachidonic -AA-, linolenic, eicosapentaenoic -EPA- and docosahexaenoic -DHA-) were quantified by LC-MS/MS after methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE)-extraction in 124 RA patients and 56 healthy controls (HC). CD4+ phenotype was studied by flow cytometry. TNFα, IL-8, VEGF, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL10, leptin and resistin serum levels were quantified by immunoassays. The effect of FA on IFNγ production by PBMC was evaluated in vitro. Lower levels of palmitic (p<0.0001), palmitoleic (p = 0.002), oleic (p = 0.010), arachidonic (p = 0.027), EPA (p<0.0001) and DHA (p<0.0001) were found in RA patients, some NEFA being altered at onset. Cluster analysis identified a NEFA profile (hallmarked by increased stearic and decreased EPA and DHA) overrepresented in RA patients compared to HC (p = 0.002), being associated with clinical features (RF, shared epitope and erosions), increased IFNγ expression in CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.002) and a Th1-enriched serum milieu (IFNγ, CCL2 and CXCL10, all p<0.005). In vitro assays demonstrated that imbalanced FA could underlie IFNγ production by CD4+ T-cells. Finally, changes on NEFA levels were associated with clinical response upon TNFα-blockade. An altered NEFA profile can be found in RA patients associated with clinical characteristics of aggressive disease and enhanced Th1 response. These results support the relevance of lipidomic studies in RA and provide a rationale for new therapeutic targets.

  10. Patellofemoral arthritis treated with resurfacing implant: Clinical outcome and complications at a minimum two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Astoul Bonorino, Juan; Carbo, Lisandro; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a series of patients treated with an anatomic inlay resurfacing implant, with a minimum two-year follow-up. Fifteen patients underwent patellofemoral-resurfacing procedures using a HemiCAP Wave Patellofemoral Inlay Resurfacing implant from 2010 to 2013. Clinical outcomes included: Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Lysholm score, Knee Society Score (KSS), and evaluation of Kujala, and Hospital for Special Surgery Patellofemoral score (HSS-PF). The postoperative complications were analyzed. Nineteen knees were evaluated; the average follow-up was 35.2months. Fourteen were women, with an average age of 54years. The pre-operative/postoperative clinical results presented a significant improvement: VAS 8/2.5, Lysholm 31.9/85.8, KSS 39.8/82.5, Kujala 32.1/79.3 and Hospital for Special Surgery Patellofemoral score (HSS-PF) 15.9/90.6. A total of 87% of patients were either satisfied or very satisfied with the overall outcome. There were no radiographic signs of loosening. Seven postoperative complications were recorded: two presented ongoing knee pain, one postoperative stiffness, one patellar bounce due to maltracking, two ilio-tibial band syndrome, and one tibial anterior tuberosity osteotomy nonunion. Two patients underwent a total knee arthroplasty conversion and were considered a failure. None of these complications were implant related. Patellofemoral inlay resurfacing for isolated patellofemoral arthritis was an effective and safe procedure with high levels of patient satisfaction. No mechanical implant failure was seen at a minimum two-year follow-up. This implant design appeared to be an alternative to the traditional patellofemoral prostheses. Concomitant osteochondral lesions, patellofemoral dysplasia or patellar maltracking might be poor prognostic factors for this type of implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled release of optimized electroporation enhances the transdermal efficiency of sinomenine hydrochloride for treating arthritis in vitro and in clinic

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shun; Zhu, Lijun; Huang, Zhisheng; Wang, Haojia; Li, Hong; Zhou, Hua; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhongqiu; Liu, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) is an ideal drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. However, high plasma concentration of systemically administered SH can release histamine, which can cause rash and gastrointestinal side effects. Topical delivery can increase SH concentration in the synovial fluid without high plasma level, thus minimizing systemic side effects. However, passive diffusion of SH was found to be inefficient because of the presence of the stratum corneum layer. Therefore, an effective method is required to compensate for the low efficiency of SH passive diffusion. In this study, transdermal experiments in vitro and clinical tests were utilized to explore the optimized parameters for electroporation of topical delivery for SH. Fluorescence experiment and hematoxylin and eosin staining analysis were performed to reveal the mechanism by which electroporation promoted permeation. In vitro, optimized electroporation parameters were 3 KHz, exponential waveform, and intensity 10. Using these parameters, transdermal permeation of SH was increased by 1.9–10.1 fold in mice skin and by 1.6–47.1 fold in miniature pig skin compared with passive diffusion. After the electroporation stimulation, the intercellular intervals and epidermal cracks in the skin increased. In clinical tests, SH concentration in synovial fluid was 20.84 ng/mL after treatment with electroporation. Therefore, electroporation with optimized parameters could significantly enhance transdermal permeation of SH. The mechanism by which electroporation promoted permeation was that the electronic pulses made the skin structure looser. To summarize, electroporation may be an effective complementary method for transdermal permeation of SH. The controlled release of electroporation may be a promising clinical method for transdermal drug administration. PMID:28670109

  12. Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes in patients with inadequately controlled rheumatoid arthritis despite ongoing treatment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter C; Alten, Rieke; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Caporali, Roberto; Bertin, Philippe; Sullivan, Emma; Wood, Robert; Piercy, James; Vasilescu, Radu; Spurden, Dean; Alvir, Jose; Tarallo, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    Despite the wide array of treatments available for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), some patients continue to report unmet clinical needs. We investigated the extent of inadequate disease control in patients with RA. Data were drawn from the Adelphi 2014 RA Disease-Specific Program in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Rheumatologists provided patient demographics, comorbidities, satisfaction with RA control and other clinical details. Patients reported their level of satisfaction and completed the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Health Questionnaire and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Patients had been on their current therapy ≥3 months and had 28-joint disease activity scores (DAS28) reported. Adequately controlled (DAS28 ≤3.2) and inadequately controlled (DAS28 >3.2) patient cohorts were compared using univariate tests. Of 1147 patients, 74% were women, the mean age was 52 years and the mean time since RA diagnosis was 7 years. Twenty-seven percent of patients had inadequately controlled RA, whereas 73% had adequately controlled RA. Inadequately controlled patients were more affected clinically versus adequately controlled patients; 69% vs 13% had moderate/severe RA, the current level of pain was 4.6 vs 2.3, and 67% vs 41% experienced flares, respectively (all p<0.0001). Inadequately controlled patients had higher rates of depression (16% vs 5%; p<0.0001), worse health state, greater work and activity impairment, and lower satisfaction rates among the patients and their physicians than the adequately controlled cohort. RA was insufficiently controlled in over a quarter of patients despite their current therapy and this had a negative impact on the patients.

  13. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance consensus clinical treatment plans for juvenile dermatomyositis with skin predominant disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Susan; Kahn, Philip; Robinson, Angela B; Lang, Bianca; Shulman, Andrew; Oberle, Edward J; Schikler, Kenneth; Curran, Megan Lea; Barillas-Arias, Lilliana; Spencer, Charles H; Rider, Lisa G; Huber, Adam M

    2017-01-11

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children. A subset of children have the rash of JDM without significant weakness, and the optimal treatments for these children are unknown. The goal of this study was to describe the development of consensus clinical treatment plans (CTPs) for children with JDM who have active skin rashes, without significant muscle involvement, referred to as skin predominant JDM in this manuscript. The Children's Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) is a North American consortium of pediatric rheumatology health care providers. CARRA members collaborated to determine consensus on typical treatments for JDM patients with skin findings without significant weakness, to develop CTPs for this subgroup of patients. We used a combination of Delphi surveys and nominal group consensus meetings to develop these CTPs. Consensus was reached on patient characteristics and outcome assessment, and CTPs were developed and finalized for patients with skin predominant JDM. Treatment option A included hydroxychloroquine alone, Treatment option B included hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate, and Treatment option C included hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and corticosteroids. Three CTPs were developed for use in children with skin predominant JDM, which reflect typical treatment approaches. These are not considered to be specific recommendations or standard of care. Using the CARRA network and prospective data collection, we will be able to apply statistical methods in the future to allow comparisons of JDM patients following these consensus treatment plans.

  14. Are behaviour and motor performances of rheumatoid arthritis patients influenced by subclinical cognitive impairments? A clinical and neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, M; Candela, M; Brugni, M; Catena, L; Mari, F; Pomponio, G; Provinciali, L; Danieli, G

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether some behavioural manifestations and poor motor performances in patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are due to subclinical cognitive defects. We performed a psychometric assessment of 30 patients affected by RA exploring several cognitive domains such as memory, visual-spatial integration, motor planning, mental flexibility, relating performances with morphological and functional neuroimaging (MRI and SPECT). We also related the cognitive data with the Ritchie and Lee indexes and other clinical parameters. We found an impairment in visual-spatial tasks in 71% of patients with a high correlation to activity and disease severity as expressed by the Ritchie and Lee indexes (p < 0.005; p < 0.01). Furthermore, we detected in 38% of patients some difficulties in mental flexibility related to the Lee Index (p < 0.05). These poor performances are related to hypoperfusion of the frontal and parietal lobes as detected by brain SPECT; this finding is more evident in patients with brain white matter alterations on MRI. Our data allow us to hypothesize that manual dexterity could be due to a disconnection between subcortical white matter and parietal-frontal lobes because of microangiopathy; furthermore, a chronic reduction in sensorial stimuli by impaired joints could lead to produce an alteration in motor planning cognitive processes.

  15. [Investigation of the clinical usefullness of leukocytapheresis on rheumatoid arthritis resistant to or failed with the other treatments].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Jin; Kimoto, Osamu; Suzuki, Daisuke; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Ogawa, Noriyoshi

    2009-12-01

    To examine therapeutic effect of leukocytapheresis (LCAP) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) resistant to various treatments. Thirteen patients with RA (mean age : 60.8+/-11.4, male : female=5 : 8), 1 who were resistant to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologics, or 2 who failed with those medicines because of side effects or complications. We performed LCAP, which was carried out once a week for a total of five sessions, with a throughput of about 0.1 L/kg. Before and after LCAP, we evaluated the effect of LCAP therapy. DAS28 (CRP) score was 5.70+/-1.12 before LCAP, 4.57+/-1.19 (P<0.05) just after the final LCAP and 4.83+/-1.35 (P<0.05) about 4 weeks after LCAP. DAS28 score decreased in all patients after LCAP. No serious adverse events were observed except temporary anemia. LCAP therapy may be useful and safe for patients with RA resistant to conventional medication. Patients who show good clinical response by LCAP needs to be clarified.

  16. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Consensus Clinical Treatment Plans for Juvenile Dermatomyositis with Persistent Skin Rash.

    PubMed

    Huber, Adam M; Kim, Susan; Reed, Ann M; Carrasco, Ruy; Feldman, Brian M; Hong, Sandy D; Kahn, Philip; Rahimi, Homaira; Robinson, Angela Byun; Vehe, Richard K; Weiss, Jennifer E; Spencer, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in children. While outcomes are generally thought to be good, persistence of skin rash is a common problem. The goal of this study was to describe the development of clinical treatment plans (CTP) for children with JDM characterized by persistent skin rash despite complete resolution of muscle involvement. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance, a North American consortium of pediatric rheumatologists and other healthcare providers, used a combination of Delphi surveys and nominal group consensus meetings to develop CTP that reflected consensus on typical treatments for patients with JDM with persistent skin rash. Consensus was reached on patient characteristics and outcome assessment. Patients should have previously received corticosteroids and methotrexate (MTX). Three consensus treatment plans were developed. Plan A added intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) if it was not already being used. Plan B added mycophenolate mofetil, while Plan C added cyclosporine. Continuation of previous treatments, including corticosteroids, MTX, and IVIG, was permitted in plans B and C. Three consensus CTP were developed for use in children with JDM and persistent skin rash despite complete resolution of muscle disease. These CTP reflect typical treatment approaches and are not to be considered treatment recommendations or standard of care. Using prospective data collection and statistical methods to account for nonrandom treatment assignment, it is expected that these CTP will be used to allow treatment comparisons, and ultimately determine the best treatment for these patients.

  17. Anxiety and depression in rheumatoid arthritis: an epidemiologic survey and investigation of clinical correlates in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Banihashemi, Arash Tehrani; Paragomi, Pedram; Hasanzadeh, Maryam; Barghamdi, Mozhgan; Ghoroghi, Shima

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatric disorders occur in a considerable proportion of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in Iranian RA patients. In the cross sectional study, 414 RA patients were enrolled prospectively during a period of 6 months from RA clinic of Rheumatology Research Center. Beck's and Cattell's inventories were applied to investigate depression and anxiety in RA patients. RA activity was measured by Disease Activity Score and patients' disability was assessed by Health Assessment Questionnaire. Levels of pain perception were stratified based on Visual Analog Scale. The prevalence of depression was 63.6 % and anxiety was in 84.1 % among RA patients. Mixed anxiety and depression was detected in 60.2 % of the study population. Functional disability was significantly associated with severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms (p < 0.001); however there was no association between disease activity and depression or anxiety (p = 0.420). There was weak correlation between disease activity score and functional disability (Spearman's rho = 0.33; p < 0.01). Severe levels of depression and anxiety were associated with higher levels of pain perception (p < 0.001). Our study stressed the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms in functional disability and pain perception of RA patients. Our results point out the multidisciplinary management of RA.

  18. [Current treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Carli, P; Landais, C; Aletti, M; Cournac, J-M; Poisnel, E; Paris, J-F

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, the management of rheumatoid arthritis has been revolutionized. Early diagnosis is essential and should allow an early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD), if possible within the first 3 three months after disease onset, aiming at disease remission and the best long-term prognosis. Recommendations for the prescription of synthetic and biologic DMARD (mainly anti-TNFalpha agents) are available since September 2007 [6] by HAS in France. The great efficacy of these drugs has been established from many clinical trials including tens of thousands of patients. However, severe adverse side effects may occur (allergy, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections, demyelination) and rheumatologists should remain vigilant. Global care of the patient includes prescription of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments (education, physical treatment, ergotherapy, psychotherapy, surgery). A good coordination between all specialists is required. Screening and treatment of extra-articular manifestations, prevention of infections, osteoporosis and cardiovascular complications are essential to allow a better long-term prognosis, and reduce disability and mortality of rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. A Phase III Study Evaluating Continuation, Tapering, and Withdrawal of Certolizumab Pegol After One Year of Therapy in Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Clifton O.; Burmester, Gerd‐Rüdiger; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Furst, Daniel E.; Mariette, Xavier; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; VanLunen, Brenda; Ecoffet, Cécile; Cioffi, Christopher; Emery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective In disease‐modifying antirheumatic drug–naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had achieved sustained low disease activity (a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate of ≤3.2 at both week 40 and week 52) after 1 year of treatment with certolizumab pegol (CZP) at a standard dose (200 mg every 2 weeks plus optimized methotrexate [MTX]), we evaluated whether continuation of CZP treatment at a standard dose or at a reduced frequency (200 mg every 4 weeks plus MTX) was superior to stopping CZP (placebo plus MTX) in maintaining low disease activity for 1 additional year. Methods A total of 293 patients from period 1 of our study were re‐randomized 2:3:2 in period 2 to CZP at a standard dose (n = 84), CZP at a reduced frequency (n = 127), or placebo plus MTX (CZP stopped) (n = 82). The primary end point was the percentage of patients who maintained low disease activity throughout weeks 52–104 without flares. We used a hierarchical testing scheme, comparing CZP at a standard dose with CZP stopped. If P < 0.05 was achieved, then CZP at a reduced frequency was compared with CZP stopped (nonresponder imputation). Results The 293 patients from period 1 represented 36% fewer patients than projected, yielding a smaller number of patients eligible for period 2. Higher proportions of patients treated with the standard and reduced frequency regimens maintained low disease activity than those who had stopped CZP (48.8% and 53.2%, respectively, versus 39.2% [P = 0.112 and P = 0.041, respectively; nominal P value, first hierarchical test not significant]). Similar trends were observed for radiographic nonprogression (change from baseline of ≤0.5 in modified Sharp/van der Heijde score; 79.2% and 77.9% of patients, respectively, versus 70.3%) and normative physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index score of ≤0.5; 71.4% and 70.6% of patients, respectively, versus 57

  20. Characterization and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis by photoacoustic imaging: a study on adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin; Shao, Xia; Chamberland, David L.; Girish, Gandikota

    2014-03-01

    Neovascularity also known as angiogenesis is an early feature of inflammatory arthritis disease. Therefore, identifying the development of neovascularity is one way to potentially detect and characterize arthritis. Laser-based photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality which may aid in detection of both early and continued development of neovascularity. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of PAI to measure angiogenesis, for the purpose of evaluating and monitoring inflammatory arthritis after treatment. The imaging results on an arthritis rat model demonstrate that 1) there is noticeable enhancement in image intensity in the arthritic ankle joints when compared to the normal joints, and 2) there is noticeable decrease in image intensity in the arthritic ankle joints after treatment when compared to the untreated arthritic joints. In order to validate the findings from PAI, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) and histology on the same joints. The diameters of the ankle joints, as a clinical score of the arthritis, were also measured at each time point.

  1. The anti-CD6 antibody itolizumab provides clinical benefit without lymphopenia in rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from a 6-month, open-label Phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, P C; Prada, D M; Moreno, E; Aira, L E; Molinero, C; López, A M; Gómez, J A; Hernández, I M; Martínez, J P; Reyes, Y; Milera, J M; Hernández, M V; Torres, R; Avila, Y; Barrese, Y; Viada, C; Montero, E; Hernández, P

    2018-02-01

    Itolizumab is a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has previously shown encouraging results, in terms of safety and positive clinical effects, in a 6-week monotherapy clinical trial conducted in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The current Phase I study evaluated the safety and clinical response for a longer treatment of 12 itolizumab intravenous doses in subjects with active RA despite previous disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. Twenty-one subjects were enrolled into four dosage groups (0·1, 0·2, 0·4 and 0·8 mg/kg). Efficacy end-points including American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) were monitored at baseline and at specific time-points during a 10-week follow-up period. Itolizumab was well tolerated up to the highest tested dose. No related serious adverse events were reported and most adverse events were mild. Remarkably, itolizumab treatment did not produce lymphopenia and, therefore, was not associated with infections. All patients achieved a clinical response (ACR20) at least once during the study. Eleven subjects (55%) achieved at least a 20% improvement in ACR just 1 week after the first itolizumab administration. The clinical response was observed from the beginning of the treatment and was sustained during 24 weeks. The efficacy profile of this 12-week treatment was similar to that of the previous study (6-week treatment). These results reinforce the safety profile of itolizumab and provide further evidence on the clinical benefit from the use of this anti-CD6 mAb in RA patients. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Mitigation of disease- and treatment-related risks in patients with psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Martin; Lundholm, Amy

    2017-03-20

    Psoriatic arthritis is a part of the family of diseases referred to as spondyloarthropathies, a diverse group of chronic inflammatory disorders with common clinical, radiographic, and genetic features. Peripheral arthritis is the most common symptom of psoriatic arthritis and patients also frequently experience involvement of the entheses, spine, skin, and nails. Due to the diverse clinical spectrum of disease severity, tissues affected, and associated comorbidities, the treatment of psoriatic arthritis can be challenging and it is necessary to mitigate risks associated with both the disease and its treatment. These risks include disease-specific, treatment-related, and psychological risks. Disease-specific risks include those associated with disease progression that can limit functional status and be mitigated through early diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Risks also arise from comorbidities that are associated with psoriatic arthritis such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal inflammation. Patient outcomes can be affected by the treatment strategy employed and the pharmacologic agents administered. Additionally, it is important for physicians to be aware of risks specific to each therapeutic option. The impact of psoriatic arthritis is not limited to the skin and joints and it is common for patients to experience quality-of-life impairment. Patients are also more likely to have depression, anxiety, and alcoholism. This article reviews the many risks associated with psoriatic arthritis and provides guidance on mitigating these risks.

  3. Hormone, metabolic peptide, and nutrient levels in the earliest phases of rheumatoid arthritis-contribution of free fatty acids to an increased cardiovascular risk during very early disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man Wai; Koopman, Frieda A; Visscher, Jan P M; de Hair, Maria J; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul Peter

    2017-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with changes in several hormones and metabolic peptides. Crosstalk between these factors and the immune system may be important for homeostasis during inflammation. Here, we studied the levels of hormones, metabolic peptides, and nutrients in individuals at risk for developing RA (at risk). In total, 18 hormones, metabolic peptides, and nutrients were measured in fasting serum samples from 45 autoantibody-positive individuals at risk, 22 RA patients, and 16 healthy subjects. Triglyceride (TG) levels were also measured in an independent validation cohort of 32 individuals at risk, 20 early arthritis patients, and 20 healthy controls. We found an elevated TG level in individuals at risk and significantly higher TG levels in RA patients compared to healthy controls. These results were confirmed in the validation cohort. Similarly, free fatty acid (FFA) levels showed an increase in individuals at risk and were significantly higher in RA patients compared to healthy controls. In RA patients, FFA levels were positively correlated with disease activity. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and norepinephrine levels were highly significantly increased in individuals at risk and RA patients compared to healthy controls. TG and FFA levels are increased in RA patients and positively correlated with disease activity parameters. The results presented here suggest a role for FFAs in the pathogenesis of RA. Furthermore, PP and norepinephrine may be a biomarker that could assist in the identification of individuals at risk.

  4. Cultural sensitivity or professional acculturation in early clinical experience?

    PubMed

    Whitford, David L; Hubail, Amal Redha

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the early clinical experience of medical students following the adaptation of an Early Patient Contact curriculum from a European culture in Ireland to an Arab culture in Bahrain. Medical students in Bahrain took part in an Early Patient Contact module modelled on a similar module from a partner medical school in Ireland. We used a qualitative approach employing thematic analysis of 54 student reflective logbooks. Particular attention was placed on reflections of cultural influences of experience in the course. Medical students undergoing this module received reported documented benefits of early clinical experience. However, students in Bahrain were exposed to cultural norms of the local Arab society including gender values, visiting the homes of strangers, language barriers and generous hospitality that led to additional challenges and learning for the medical students in acculturating to norms of the medical profession. Modules intended for curriculum adaptation between two cultures would be best served by a group of "core" learning outcomes with "secondary" outcomes culturally appropriate to each site. Within the context of the Arab culture, early clinical experience has the added benefit of allowing students to learn about both local and professional cultural norms, thereby facilitating integration of these two cultures.

  5. Treatment of very early rheumatoid arthritis with symptomatic therapy, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, or biologic agents: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Finckh, Axel; Bansback, Nick; Marra, Carlo A; Anis, Aslam H; Michaud, Kaleb; Lubin, Stanley; White, Marc; Sizto, Sonia; Liang, Matthew H

    2009-11-03

    Long-term control or remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be possible with very early treatment. However, no optimal first therapeutic strategy has been determined. To assess the potential cost-effectiveness of major therapeutic strategies for very early RA. Decision analytic model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Published data, the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases, and actual 2007 hospital costs. U.S. adults with very early RA (symptom duration early DMARD therapy with methotrexate; and early therapy with biologics and methotrexate. Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. By reducing the progression of joint erosions and subsequent functional disability, both early intervention strategies increase quality-adjusted life more than the pyramid strategy and save long-term costs. When the cost of very early intervention is factored in, the cost-effectiveness ratio of the early DMARD strategy is $4849 per QALY (95% CI, $0 to $16 354 per QALY) compared with the pyramid strategy, whereas the benefits gained through the early biologic strategy come at a substantial incremental cost. The early DMARD strategy maximizes the effectiveness of early DMARDs and reserves the use of biologics for patients with more treatment-resistant disease of longer duration, for which the incremental benefit of biologics is greater. The early biologic strategy becomes more cost-effective if drug prices are reduced, risk for death is permanently lowered through biologic therapy, patients experience drug-free remission, responders can be selected before therapy initiation, or effective alternative antirheumatic agents are available for

  6. Analysis of effectiveness, safety and optimization of tocilizumab in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mena-Vázquez, Natalia; Manrique-Arija, Sara; Rojas-Giménez, Marta; Ureña-Garnica, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Núñez, Francisco G; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice, establishing the optimized regimen and switching from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous (SC) therapy. Retrospective observational study. We included 53 RA patients treated with TCZ. The main outcome was TCZ effectiveness at week 24. Secondary outcome variables included effectiveness at week 52, therapeutic maintenance, physical function and safety. The effectiveness of optimization and the switch from IV to SC was evaluated at 3 and 6 months. The efficacy was measured with the Disease Activity Score. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon were used to evaluate effectiveness and survival time using Kaplan-Meier. The proportion of patients who achieved remission or low disease activity at weeks 24 and 52 was 75.5% and 87.3%, respectively. The mean retention time (95% confidence interval [95% CI] was 81.7 months [76.6-86.7]). Twenty-one of 53 patients (39.6%) optimized the TCZ dose and 35 patients switched from IV TCZ to SC, with no changes in effectiveness. The adverse event rate was 13.6 events/100 patient-years. Tocilizumab appears to be effective and safe in RA in clinical practice. The optimized regimen appears to be effective in most patients in remission, even when they change from IV to SC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of Methotrexate Clinical Response in Portuguese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Implication of MTHFR rs1801133 and ATIC rs4673993 Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Aurea; Monteiro, Joaquim; Bernardes, Miguel; Sousa, Hugo; Azevedo, Rita; Seabra, Vitor; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients. Methods. Study included 233 RA patients treated with MTX for at least six months. MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C polymorphisms were genotyped and clinicopathological variables were collected. Statistical analyses were performed and binary logistic regression method adjusted to possible confounding variables. Results. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that MTHFR 677TT (OR = 4.63; P = 0.013) and ATIC 675T carriers (OR = 5.16; P = 0.013) were associated with over 4-fold increased risk for nonresponse. For clinicopathological variables, noncurrent smokers (OR = 7.98; P = 0.001), patients positive to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (OR = 3.53; P = 0.004) and antinuclear antibodies (OR = 2.28; P = 0.045), with higher health assessment questionnaire score (OR = 2.42; P = 0.007), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users (OR = 2.77; P = 0.018) were also associated with nonresponse. Contrarily, subcutaneous administration route (OR = 0.11; P < 0.001) was associated with response. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MTHFR C677T and ATIC T675C genotyping combined with clinicopathological data may help to identify patients whom will not benefit from MTX treatment and, therefore, assist clinicians in personalizing RA treatment. PMID:24967362

  8. Clinical effectiveness and safety of leflunomide in inflammatory arthritis: a report from the RAPPORT database with supporting patient survey.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Morgan; Keeling, Stephanie O; Katz, Steven J; Maksymowych, Walter P; Eurich, Dean T; Hall, Jill J

    2017-07-01

    Leflunomide is indicated for the treatment of adults with rheumatoid arthritis, yet is underutilized. Given the cost of biologic therapy, understanding real-life effectiveness, safety, and sustainability of leflunomide, particularly in patients who have failed methotrexate, would be of value. The primary objective was to assess the proportion of patients achieving clinically meaningful benefit following an adequate trial of leflunomide. A retrospective analysis of a cohort supplemented with patient self-reported data using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, with a database multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of leflunomide response. Of the cohort available (N = 2591), 1671 patients with confirmed leflunomide use were included in the retrospective analysis, of whom 249 were incident users. Low disease activity (DAS-28 < 3.2) was achieved or maintained by 20% of incident users, with 19% achieving a clinical response (DAS-28 decrease ≥1.2) at 3 months. Adverse effects (AE) were reported by 29% of incident users and after 1 year, 45% remained on leflunomide. Achievement of "minimal or no joint symptoms" was reported by 34% in the 661 analyzable survey responses (39% response rate). AE were reported by 55%, with nuisance (hair loss, nausea, stomach pain) AE and diarrhea being most common. Leflunomide was discontinued by 67% of responders within 1 year. An important proportion of patients, the majority of whom had previously failed methotrexate, achieved disease response with leflunomide with a low risk of serious adverse effects, suggesting that a trial of leflunomide may be a reasonable and cost-effective strategy prior to biologic therapy.

  9. The association of clinical parameters and ultrasound verified inflammation with patients' and physicians' global assessments in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Angelika; Duftner, Christina; Ficjan, Anja; Gretler, Judith; Hermann, Josef; Husic, Rusmir; Graninger, Winfried B; Dejaco, Christian

    2016-10-01

    To study the association of clinical and/or ultrasound variables with patients' (PGA) and physicians' (EGA) global assessment of disease activity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The correlation of these parameters with the discordance between PGA and EGA, as well as with PGA/EGA changes over 6 months was also investigated. Prospective study of 83 consecutive PsA patients with 2 visits scheduled 6 months apart. All patients underwent the following assessments: tender (TJC) and swollen joint count (SJC), PASI, dactylitis and Leeds enthesitis index. PGA, patients' level of pain (pain VAS), EGA, and HAQ were also recorded. Grey scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) ultrasound were performed at 68 joints (evaluating synovia and tendons) and 14 entheses. Regression analyses were performed to assess the association of these variables with PGA and EGA. Two new variables "PGAminusEGA" and "PGAchange - EGAchange" were developed to explore the discrepancy between PGA and EGA and the consistency of PGA/EGA changes over time, respectively. The parameters explaining most of PGA and EGA variability were pain VAS (30.5%) and SJC (48.5%), respectively. The correlation between EGA and joint counts was stronger in patients with high vs. low levels of ultrasound verified inflammation. PGAminusEGA was mainly explained by pain and SJC. Pain was the most important predictor of PGA change whereas TJC and HAQ were more closely associated with EGA changes. "PGAchange-EGAchange" was linked to pain and SJC. Ultrasound scores were not linked with either of these variables. Pain VAS and joint counts are the most important clinical parameters explaining patients' and physicians' perception of disease activity, whereas the correlation of active inflammation as verified by sonography with these factors is limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Seyedbonakdar, Zahra; Mousavi, Maryam; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during 2014-2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t -tests were used for data analysis. The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2%) ( P < 0.001). In sonography, rotator cuff tendonitis is the most common periarthritis. Other findings in sonography were biceps tendinitis (10 cases), wrist tendonitis (13 cases), olecranon bursitis (9 cases), golfers elbow (4 cases), tennis elbow (4 cases), trochanteric bursitis (6 cases), anserine bursitis (6 cases), prepatellar bursitis (11 cases), and ankle tendonitis (7 cases). Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography ( P < 0.001) and 34% through Doppler sonography ( P < 0.001). The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination.

  11. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Seyedbonakdar, Zahra; Mousavi, Maryam; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during 2014–2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2%) (P < 0.001). In sonography, rotator cuff tendonitis is the most common periarthritis. Other findings in sonography were biceps tendinitis (10 cases), wrist tendonitis (13 cases), olecranon bursitis (9 cases), golfers elbow (4 cases), tennis elbow (4 cases), trochanteric bursitis (6 cases), anserine bursitis (6 cases), prepatellar bursitis (11 cases), and ankle tendonitis (7 cases). Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography (P < 0.001) and 34% through Doppler sonography (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination. PMID:28331520

  12. Incremental Validity in the Clinical Assessment of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Zhou, Xiaobin; Lackaff, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the increment of clinical validity in early childhood assessment of physical impairment (PI), developmental delay (DD), and autism (AUT) using multiple standardized developmental screening measures such as performance measures and parent and teacher rating scales. Hierarchical regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses…

  13. Paediatric rheumatology: clinical practice review. Physiotherapy and occupational therapy for juvenile chronic arthritis: custom and practice in five centres in the UK, USA and Canada

    PubMed

    Hackett; Johnson; Parkin; Southwood

    1996-07-01

    Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely accepted as being of central importance for the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). However, these approaches have rarely been subject to critical scrutiny. The aims of this report are to highlight some of the inter-centre similarities and differences observed in the implementation of physical and occupational therapy for JCA, and to emphasize the need for scientifically controlled research in this area. During a series of visits to several paediatric rheumatology units in the UK, USA and Canada, three aspects of the service were noted: treatment philosophy, physical interventions used for the treatment of JCA and quality-of life and independence training activities. There was general consensus with the philosophy that early physical intervention was a vital part of the treatment plan for JCA, although all therapists were concerned that compliance with treatment modalities was poor. Differences between units in the approach to acute arthritis, the use of foot othoses and wrist splints, the treatment of joint contractures and the use of general quality-of-life training activities were noted. Although it was widely recognized that controlled research into the efficacy of physical intervention was needed, no centre had a co-ordinated plan for such investigations. Keywords: Juvenile chronic arthritis, Physiotherapy, Occupational therapy

  14. Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-986142 in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis enhances efficacy of agents representing clinical standard-of-care.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, Kathleen M; Pulicicchio, Claudine; Pattoli, Mark A; Cheng, Lihong; Skala, Stacey; Heimrich, Elizabeth M; McIntyre, Kim W; Taylor, Tracy L; Kukral, Daniel W; Dudhgaonkar, Shailesh; Nagar, Jignesh; Banas, Dana; Watterson, Scott H; Tino, Joseph A; Fura, Aberra; Burke, James R

    2017-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren's syndrome. In the present report, we detail the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BMS-986142 and show this agent provides potent and selective inhibition of BTK (IC50 = 0.5 nM), blocks antigen receptor-dependent signaling and functional endpoints (cytokine production, co-stimulatory molecule expression, and proliferation) in human B cells (IC50 ≤ 5 nM), inhibits Fcγ receptor-dependent cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and blocks RANK-L-induced osteoclastogenesis. Through the benefits of impacting these important drivers of autoimmunity, BMS-986142 demonstrated robust efficacy in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). In both models, robust efficacy was observed without continuous, complete inhibition of BTK. When a suboptimal dose of BMS-986142 was combined with other agents representing the current standard of care for RA (e.g., methotrexate, the TNFα antagonist etanercept, or the murine form of CTLA4-Ig) in the CIA model, improved efficacy compared to either agent alone was observed. The results suggest BMS-986142 represents a potential therapeutic for clinical investigation in RA, as monotherapy or co-administered with agents with complementary mechanisms of action.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis under real-life clinical conditions: non-interventional GO-NICE study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Klaus; Burmester, Gerd R; Wassenberg, Siegfried; Bohl-Bühler, Martin; Thomas, Matthias H

    2018-06-14

    The Non Interventional Evaluation with Golumimab (GO-NICE) study aimed to document patient and treatment characteristics as well as clinical effectiveness and safety in adult patients newly treated with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor golimumab (GLM). Prospective non-interventional study with 24-month observation per patient. 158 office-based and clinical-based physicians in Germany. GLM administered in the 50 mg dose subcutaneously in monthly intervals under real-life conditions. Of the 1613 included patients, 1458 patients were eligible for final analysis: 474 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 54.9±13.4 years, 72.8% women, 64.7% biologic-naïve), 501 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA, 50.5±12.1 years, 54.1% women, 56.5% biologic-naïve) and 483 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS, 43.6±12.3 years, 66.5% men, 61.0% biologic-naïve). 664 patients completed follow-up (2-year retention rate 45.5%). Disease Activity Score 28-joint count erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) decreased from 5.0 to 2.9 after 24 months (p<0.0001) in patients with RA, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Index score decreased from 5.1 to 2.4 (p<0.0001) in patients with AS. Response rate calculated in patients with PsA by modified Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria was 67.9% after 24 months. Most adverse events were of mild or moderate nature, and no new safety signals were detected. According to the physicians' clinical assessments, treatment with GLM was successful (no adverse drug reaction and a clear or moderate therapeutic effect in an individual patient) in 55.0%-56.6% of patients with RA, PsA and AS, respectively, at month 3, increasing from 74.5% to 76.1% at month 24. GLM subcutaneously once monthly led to substantial improvements in clinical effectiveness in patients with various inflammatory rheumatic diseases who could be followed up in a real-life setting in Germany. The treatment was well tolerated, and the safety profile of GLM was consistent with that

  16. The combination of three autoantibodies, ACPA, RF and anti-CarP antibodies is highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for very early identification of individuals at risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Marije K; Böhringer, Stefan; van Delft, Myrthe A M; Jones, Jonathan D; Rigby, William F C; Gan, Ryan W; Holers, V Michael; Edison, Jess D; Deane, Kevin D; Janssen, Koen M J; Westra, Johanna; Brink, Mikael; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Huizinga, Tom W J; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; van der Woude, Diane; Toes, Rene E M; Trouw, Leendert A

    2018-05-21

    In rheumatoid arthritis(RA), the autoantibodies anti-citrullinated protein antibodies(ACPA) and rheumatoid factor(RF) are commonly used to aid RA diagnosis. Although these autoantibodies are mainly found in RA, their specificity is not optimal. It is therefore difficult to identify RA patients, especially in very early disease, based on the presence of ACPA and RF alone. Also, anti-carbamylated protein(anti-CarP) antibodies have diagnostic and prognostic value as the presence of anti-CarP antibodies associates with joint damage in RA patients and with future RA development in arthralgia patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the value of combined antibody testing in relation to prediction and diagnosis of (early) RA. A literature search resulted in twelve studies, consisting of RA patients, pre-RA individuals, disease controls, healthy first-degree relatives of RA patients or healthy controls, in which data on RF, ACPA and anti-CarP antibody-status was available. Random effects meta-analyses were carried out for several antibody combinations. The individual antibodies are highly prevalent in RA(34%-80%) compared to the control groups, but are also present in non-RA controls(0%-23%). To classify most people correctly as RA or non-RA, the combination of ACPA and/or RF often performs well(specificity:65-100, sensitivity:59-88). However, triple positivity for ACPA, RF and anti-CarP antibodies results in a higher specificity(98-100) (accompanied by a lower sensitivity(11-39)). As the rheumatology field is moving towards very early identification of RA and possible screening for individuals at maximum risk in populations with a low pre-test probability, triple positivity provides interesting information on individuals at risk to develop RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. brief report: Burnout Among Early Career Clinical Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Dilmore, Terri C.; Switzer, Galen E.; Bryce, Cindy L.; Seltzer, Deborah L.; Li, Jie; Landsittel, Douglas P.; Kapoor, Wishwa N.; Rubio, Doris M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pervasive problem among clinicians. However, little is known about burnout among early career clinical investigators, who must balance clinical responsibilities with challenges related to research. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and demographic associations with burnout in a cohort of early career clinical investigators. A cross‐sectional questionnaire was administered to 179 trainees at the University of Pittsburgh Institute for Clinical Research Education in 2007–2008. We used chi‐square analyses and Fisher’s exact test to determine whether associations between demographic characteristics and burnout were significant. Of the participants, 29 (16%) reported feeling burned out. Burnout was more prevalent among those over 35 years of age relative to their younger counterparts (29% vs. 13%, p= 0.01) and among females relative to males (22% vs. 10%, p= 0.03). With regard to race and ethnicity, burnout was most common among underrepresented minorities (30%) followed by Caucasians (18%) and Asians (3%); these differences were significant (p= 0.02). Considering the early career status of these research trainees, rates of burnout were concerning. Certain demographic subgroups—including older trainees, females, and underrepresented minorities—had particularly high rates of burnout and may benefit from interventions that provide them with skills needed to sustain successful clinical research careers. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume 3: 186–188 PMID:20718821

  18. EULAR task force recommendations on annual cardiovascular risk assessment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an audit of the success of implementation in a rheumatology outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Ikdahl, Eirik; Rollefstad, Silvia; Olsen, Inge C; Kvien, Tore K; Hansen, Inger Johanne Widding; Soldal, Dag Magnar; Haugeberg, Glenn; Semb, Anne Grete

    2015-01-01

    EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management include annual CVD risk assessments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the recording of CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) in a rheumatology outpatient clinic, where EULAR recommendations had been implemented. Further, we compared CVD-RF recordings between a regular rheumatology outpatient clinic (RegROC) and a structured arthritis clinic (AC). In 2012, 1142 RA patients visited the rheumatology outpatient clinic: 612 attended RegROC and 530 attended AC. We conducted a search in the patient journals to ascertain the rate of CVD-RF recording. The overall CVD-RF recording rate was 40.1% in the rheumatology outpatient clinic, reflecting a recording rate of 59.1% in the AC and 23.6% in the RegROC. The odds ratios for having CVD-RFs recorded for patients attending AC compared to RegROC were as follows: blood pressure: 12.4, lipids: 5.0-6.0, glucose: 9.1, HbA1c: 6.1, smoking: 1.4, and for having all the CVD-RFs needed to calculate the CVD risk by the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE): 21.0. The CVD-RF recording rate was low in a rheumatology outpatient clinic. However, a systematic team-based model was superior compared to a RegROC. Further measures are warranted to improve CVD-RF recording in RA patients.

  19. Early response to therapy predicts 6-month and 1-year disease activity outcomes in psoriatic arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Schoels, Monika M; Landesmann, Uriel; Alasti, Farideh; Baker, Daniel; Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In PsA management, remission and low disease activity represent preferential treatment targets. We aimed at evaluating the predictive value and clinical use of initial therapeutic response for subsequent achievement of these targets. Based on data of 216 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of golimumab (GO-REVEAL), we performed diagnostic testing analyses using 3- and 6-month disease activity as tests for treatment outcomes to understand the implications of early response. In regression analyses, we estimated the probabilities for achieving at least LDA. Disease activity was measured by the disease activity index for PsA (DAPSA). Three-month DAPSA levels were excellent tests for disease activity at 6 months (and at 1 year), with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.92 (and 0.88, respectively). The estimated probability for 6-month LDA could be quantified as <22% if patients did not reach at least moderate disease activity after 3 months on golimumab. Similar data were seen for early DAPSA response: patients achieving a DAPSA 85% at 3 months had an 84% probability for 6-month LDA or REM. All results were validated in an independent trial cohort of patients treated with infliximab (IMPACT 2). Three months after implementation of therapy in PsA, it is already possible to evaluate the potential for accomplishing therapeutic goals. This substantiates the choice of the 3-month assessment as essential for treatment adaptations.

  20. Phenotypic and clinical differences between Caucasian and South Asian patients with psoriatic arthritis living in North East London.

    PubMed

    Roussou, Euthalia; Chopra, Sunil; Ngandu, Danny Lunda

    2013-05-01

    To test for demographic and clinical differences between Caucasian and South Asian patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) living in the same environment and for differences between sexes. The demographic characteristics of patients attending outpatient clinics were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Clinical parameters included disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein), function (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI)) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for well-being and night pain (10 cm, where 10 = worst possible response). The first symptom experienced at disease onset and the main symptoms during the disease course were recorded in the questionnaire. A total of 217 patents were assessed of whom 151 were Caucasians and 66 were Asians. South Asian patients were significantly younger [(mean) 45.9 years [(SD)(±11.4)] for Asians and 53.1 years (±14.2) for Caucasians (p < 0.005)] and were diagnosed at an earlier age [40.7 years (±11.7) for Asians and 46.7 years (±15.8) for Caucasians (p < 0.05)] compared to Caucasians patients. Asian females with PsA had worse disease in terms of activity (ESR = 23.9 mmHg/h; BASDAI = 6.7), function (BASFI = 5.5), night pain (7.1 on VAS) and well-being (6.6 on VAS) compared with Asian males (13.2 mmHg/h, 5.3, 3.6, 4.1, 4.6, respectively) or Caucasian males and females (15.8 mmHg/h, 5.9, 5.3, 5.4, 5.4; 18.9 mmHg/h, 6.1, 6.1, 5.3, 5.8, respectively). There were no significant differences in symptoms at disease onset or the main symptoms during the disease course between Caucasian and Asian patients, although there was a trend towards more frequent enthesitis in Asian females during the course of disease suggested by pain with pressure compared to Asian males. South Asian patients may develop PsA earlier in life than Caucasian patients do, but their clinical characteristics are generally similar. Asian

  1. Modelling outcomes of complex treatment strategies following a clinical guideline for treatment decisions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tran-Duy, An; Boonen, Annelies; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Severens, Johan L

    2014-10-01

    Management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a sequence of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological response modifiers (BRMs). In most of the Western countries, the drug sequences are determined based on disease activity and treatment history of the patients. A model for realistic patient outcomes should reflect the treatment pathways relevant for patients with specific characteristics. This study aimed at developing a model that could simulate long-term patient outcomes and cost effectiveness of treatment strategies with and without inclusion of BRMs following a clinical guideline for treatment decisions. Discrete event simulation taking into account patient characteristics and treatment history was used for model development. Treatment effect on disease activity, costs, health utilities and times to events were estimated using Dutch observational studies. Long-term progression of physical functioning was quantified using a linear mixed-effects model. Costs and health utilities were estimated using two-part models. The treatment strategy recommended by the Dutch Society for Rheumatology where both DMARDs and BRMs were available (Strategy 2) was compared with the treatment strategy without BRMs (Strategy 1). Ten thousand theoretical patients were tracked individually until death. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, Monte Carlo simulations were performed with 1,000 sets of parameters sampled from appropriate probability distributions. The simulated changes over time in disease activity and physical functioning were plausible. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained of Strategy 2 compared with Strategy 1 was 124,011. At a willingness-to-pay threshold higher than 119,167, Strategy 2 dominated Strategy 1 in terms of cost effectiveness but the probability that the Strategy 2 is cost effective never exceeded 0.87. It is possible to model the outcomes of complex treatment strategies based on a

  2. Deep radiomic prediction with clinical predictors of the survival in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasirudina, Radin A.; Näppi, Janne J.; Watari, Chinatsu; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Hironaka, Toru; Kido, Shoji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    We developed and evaluated the effect of our deep-learning-derived radiomic features, called deep radiomic features (DRFs), together with their combination with clinical predictors, on the prediction of the overall survival of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). We retrospectively identified 70 RA-ILD patients with thin-section lung CT and pulmonary function tests. An experienced observer delineated regions of interest (ROIs) from the lung regions on the CT images, and labeled them into one of four ILD patterns (ground-class opacity, reticulation, consolidation, and honeycombing) or a normal pattern. Small image patches centered at individual pixels on these ROIs were extracted and labeled with the class of the ROI to which the patch belonged. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), which consists of a series of convolutional layers for feature extraction and a series of fully connected layers, was trained and validated with 5-fold cross-validation for classifying the image patches into one of the above five patterns. A DRF vector for each patch was identified as the output of the last convolutional layer of the DCNN. Statistical moments of each element of the DRF vectors were computed to derive a DRF vector that characterizes the patient. The DRF vector was subjected to a Cox proportional hazards model with elastic-net penalty for predicting the survival of the patient. Evaluation was performed by use of bootstrapping with 2,000 replications, where concordance index (C-index) was used as a comparative performance metric. Preliminary results on clinical predictors, DRFs, and their combinations thereof showed (a) Gender and Age: C-index 64.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 51.7, 77.9]; (b) gender, age, and physiology (GAP index): C-index: 78.5% [CI: 70.50 86.51], P < 0.0001 in comparison with (a); (c) DRFs: C-index 85.5% [CI: 73.4, 99.6], P < 0.0001 in comparison with (b); and (d) DRF and GAP: C-index 91.0% [CI: 84

  3. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, crystals form in the joints. But in this ... CPPD arthritis can be confused with: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Exams and Tests Most arthritic ...

  4. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breadcrumb Home Health Topics Reactive Arthritis English Español Reactive Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis is pain or swelling in ...

  5. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  6. Acute Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shirtliff, Mark E.; Mader, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection. PMID:12364368

  7. The role of ultrasound in diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis, what do we know? An updated review.

    PubMed

    Lage-Hansen, Philip Rask; Lindegaard, Hanne; Chrysidis, Stavros; Terslev, Lene

    2017-02-01

    To clarify if musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) improves early diagnosis of RA when added to the clinical examination of patients with possible arthritis. We performed a systematic literature review of original studies dealing with the value of MSUS in the early diagnosis of RA. Studies were identified using the databases of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library. Only studies in English investigating populations with non-classified arthritis or arthralgia were included. Fifteen original studies investigating the added value of MSUS in diagnosing RA were identified. They differed in sample size, study population, serology status, number of joints investigated and regarding the ultrasound machines and probes used. Thirteen out of 15 studies concluded that use of MSUS had an added value compared to clinical examination and laboratory evaluation alone for diagnosing RA. One study found that MSUS did not add substantial discriminatory value for predicting RA in an early arthritis cohort when added to routine assessment. However, in this study only 16 joints were examined (wrists and MTP 3-5 were not included). One study investigated only seropositive patients and found no significant advantage of MSUS on patient level although a trend was noted. Accordingly, two other studies found MSUS to be useful especially in seronegative patients. The use of MSUS adds value in diagnosing early RA, especially in seronegative arthritis. However, no study to date has documented any effect of DMARD initiation based on MSUS findings (subclinical arthritis) alone. More studies investigating this matter are warranted.

  8. Epidemiological profile of colombian patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a specialized care clinic.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Fernández-Avila, Daniel; Jiménez, Ruth; Cardozo, Rosa; Marín, Andrés; Soler, María Del Pilar; Gómez, Olga; Ruiz, Oscar

    Few studies report the epidemiological profile of RA patients attending clinics for comprehensive care. We describe the clinical, socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities of a cohort of patients with RA. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients according to ACR criteria/EULAR 2010 classification who have entered to the AR clinic since October 2012 until May 2014, referred from primary care. Frequencies for socio-demographic, comorbidity, state of disease activity, functional status, biomarkers and therapeutic modalities variables are described. In total, 1652 patients were included with a mean age of 58 years and a duration of 9 years. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 80% and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in 63% of patients. In total, 43.6% of patients had comorbidities: Hypertension (20.4%), osteoporosis (17.3%) and Sjögren's syndrome (10.4%). Fifty percent of the patients had moderate and high disease activity level measured by DAS-28 score, and the mean HAQ score was 0.64 (DS 1.12). Seventy three percent of patients were treated with oral disease modified anti rheumatic treatment and 63.6% of them were with methotrexate. 42.4% of the patients were treated with glucocorticoids (mean dose 6.3mg). The epidemiological behavior of a group of RA patients is reported. The presence of comorbidities is significant affecting the risk of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The definition of the epidemiological profile of this population will allow the design of research questions to resolve outstanding problems in the clinical context of this pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required.

  10. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and methods: This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2–4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required. PMID:27147781

  11. Complex rehabilitation and the clinical condition of working rheumatoid arthritis patients: does cryotherapy always overtop traditional rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Pacholec, Anna; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Bugajska, Joanna; Sadura-Sieklucka, Teresa; Kowalik, Katarzyna; Pawłowska-Cyprysiak, Karolina; Łastowiecka-Moras, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    rehabilitation. The impact of both forms of rehabilitation on patients' own prognosis of work ability in the next 2 years was not significant. Results of patients who underwent traditional approach showed decreased disease activity following the initial 3-week period; however, this improvement did not sustain to the end of follow-up, 3 months later. Complex rehabilitation in RA has a positive effect on patients' clinical condition. The rehabilitation programme that includes cryotherapy overtops traditional rehabilitation, particularly as regards improvement in locomotor function, disease activity and sustaining willingness to continue working and exerts long-lasting effect. Rehabilitation using cryotherapy is more effective in improving locomotor function, decreasing disease activity and sustaining willingness to continue working compared to traditional rehabilitation. Rehabilitation using cryotherapy significantly reduces the intensity of pain experienced by patients with RA, and this positive effect is maintained at 3 months post-rehabilitation. Complex rehabilitation, particularly treatment using cryotherapy, improves patients' subjective assessment of their overall well-being and perception of their disease. Complex rehabilitation in rheumatoid arthritis has a positive effect on patients' clinical condition.

  12. Clinical applications of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques for arthritis evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Martín Noguerol, Teodoro; Luna, Antonio; Gómez Cabrera, Marta; Riofrio, Alexie D

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed a comprehensive evaluation of articular disease, increasing the detection of early cartilage involvement, bone erosions, and edema in soft tissue and bone marrow compared to other imaging techniques. In the era of functional imaging, new advanced MRI sequences are being successfully applied for articular evaluation in cases of inflammatory, infectious, and degenerative arthropathies. Diffusion weighted imaging, new fat suppression techniques such as DIXON, dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI, and specific T2 mapping cartilage sequences allow a better understanding of the physiopathological processes that underlie these different arthropathies. They provide valuable quantitative information that aids in their differentiation and can be used as potential biomarkers of articular disease course and treatment response. PMID:28979849

  13. Participation in Clinical Research Registries: A Focus Group Study Examining Views From Patients With Arthritis and Other Chronic Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sara B; Zak, Agnes; Iversen, Maura D; Polletta, Valerie L; Shadick, Nancy A; Solomon, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Patient registries have contributed substantially to progress in clinical research in rheumatic diseases. However, not much is known about how to optimize the patient experience in such registries. We assessed patient views, motivations, and potential barriers towards participation in registry research to better understand how registries can be improved to maximize patient engagement. Focus groups were held with 23 patients (mean ± SD age 59 ± 13 years) from the Boston area and led by a bilingual moderator trained in focus group methodology, using a semistructured moderator guide. Three separate focus groups were conducted to thematic saturation: patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had registry experience, patients with any chronic illness, and Spanish-speaking patients with RA or osteoarthritis. Patients in the latter 2 groups had no prior registry experience. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Four researchers independently analyzed transcripts using open data coding to identify themes. A normative group process was used to consolidate and refine themes. Seven major themes were identified, including personalization/convenience of data collection, trust and confidentiality, camaraderie, learning about yourself and your disease, altruism, material motivators, and capturing mental health and other elements of the lived experience. We observed distinct differences in the discussion content of the Spanish-speaking patients compared to the English-speaking patients. This study identified patient attitudes towards registry research among those with and without prior experience in a registry. The results provide insight into strategies for registry design to maximize patient engagement, which can lead to more robust registry data. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Pattern of risks of rheumatoid arthritis among patients using statins: A cohort study with the clinical practice research datalink.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Hilda J I; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Vandebriel, Rob J; van Loveren, Henk; Klungel, Olaf H; van Staa, Tjeerd P

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between statin use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with special focus on describing the patterns of risks of RA during statin exposure in a large population-based cohort in the United Kingdom. In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, patients aged ≥40 years with at least one prescription of statins (1995-2009) were selected, and matched by age (+/-5 years), sex, practice and date of first prescription of statins to non-users. The follow-up period of statin use was divided into periods of current, recent and past exposure, with patients moving between these three exposure categories over time. Time-dependent Cox models were used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) of RA, adjusted for disease history and previous drug use. The study population included 1,023,240 patients, of whom 511,620 were statin users. No associations were found between RA and current (HRadj,1.06;99%CI:0.88-1.27) or past statin users (HRadj,1.18;99%CI:0.88-1.57). However, in patients who currently used statins, hazard rates were increased shortly after the first prescription of statins and then gradually decreased to baseline level. The risk of developing RA was increased in recent statin users, as compared to non-users (HRadj,1.39;99%CI:1.01-1.90). The risk of RA is substantially increased in the first year after the start of statins and then diminishes to baseline level. These findings may suggest that statins might accelerate disease onset in patients susceptible to develop RA, but in other patients, statins are probably safe and well tolerated, even after prolonged use. Alternatively, we cannot rule out that confounding by cardiovascular risk factors and ascertainment bias may have influenced the findings.

  15. Pattern of risks of rheumatoid arthritis among patients using statins: A cohort study with the clinical practice research datalink

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Hilda J. I.; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Vandebriel, Rob J.; van Loveren, Henk; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between statin use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with special focus on describing the patterns of risks of RA during statin exposure in a large population-based cohort in the United Kingdom. In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, patients aged ≥40 years with at least one prescription of statins (1995–2009) were selected, and matched by age (+/-5 years), sex, practice and date of first prescription of statins to non-users. The follow-up period of statin use was divided into periods of current, recent and past exposure, with patients moving between these three exposure categories over time. Time-dependent Cox models were used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) of RA, adjusted for disease history and previous drug use. The study population included 1,023,240 patients, of whom 511,620 were statin users. No associations were found between RA and current (HRadj,1.06;99%CI:0.88–1.27) or past statin users (HRadj,1.18;99%CI:0.88–1.57). However, in patients who currently used statins, hazard rates were increased shortly after the first prescription of statins and then gradually decreased to baseline level. The risk of developing RA was increased in recent statin users, as compared to non-users (HRadj,1.39;99%CI:1.01–1.90). The risk of RA is substantially increased in the first year after the start of statins and then diminishes to baseline level. These findings may suggest that statins might accelerate disease onset in patients susceptible to develop RA, but in other patients, statins are probably safe and well tolerated, even after prolonged use. Alternatively, we cannot rule out that confounding by cardiovascular risk factors and ascertainment bias may have influenced the findings. PMID:29474418

  16. Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Indices in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Vaghef-Mehrabany, Elnaz; Homayouni-Rad, Aziz; Alipour, Beitullah; Sharif, Sakineh-Khatoun; Vaghef-Mehrabany, Leila; Alipour-Ajiry, Serour

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that causes great pain and disability and increasing oxidative stress in patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics-live microorganisms with many health benefits, including antioxidant properties-on oxidative stress indices of patients with RA. This study is a secondary analysis from a previously published study Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 46 patients with RA were assigned to one of two groups; patients in the probiotic group received a daily capsule containing 10(8) colony forming units (CFUs) of Lactobacillus casei 01 (L. casei 01), while those in the placebo group took identical capsules containing maltodextrin, for 8 weeks. In the baseline and at the end of the study, anxiety, physical activity levels, and dietary intakes were assessed. Anthropometric parameters, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. There was no significant difference between the two groups for demographic characteristics, anthropometric parameters, physical activity, anxiety levels, or dietary intakes, throughout the course of the study. No significant within- and between-group differences were observed for MDA, TAC, or CAT. SOD activity decreased only in the probiotic group and GPx activity decreased in both study groups (p < 0.05); however, no significant between-group difference was found for these enzymes activities at the end of the study (p > 0.05). No significant effect of L. casei 01 supplementation was observed on the oxidative status of patients with RA, compared to placebo.

  17. Ottawa Panel Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Foot Care in the Management of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lucie; Toupin-April, Karine; Wells, George; Smith, Christine A; Pugh, Arlanna G; Stinson, Jennifer N; Duffy, Ciarán M; Gifford, Wendy; Moher, David; Sherrington, Catherine; Cavallo, Sabrina; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; Rahman, Prinon; Marcotte, Rachel; Taki, Jade; Bisaillon, Jacinthe; King, Judy; Coda, Andrea; Hendry, Gordon J; Gauvreau, Julie; Hayles, Martin; Hayles, Kay; Feldman, Brian; Kenny, Glen P; Li, Jing Xian; Briggs, Andrew M; Martini, Rose; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Maltais, Désirée B; Tupper, Susan; Bigford, Sarah; Bisch, Marg

    2016-07-01

    To create evidence-based guidelines evaluating foot care interventions for the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). An electronic literature search of the following databases from database inception to May 2015 was conducted: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane CENTRAL, and clinicaltrials.gov. The Ottawa Panel selection criteria targeted studies that assessed foot care or foot orthotic interventions for the management of JIA in those aged 0 to ≤18 years. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale was used to evaluate study quality, of which only high-quality studies were included (score, ≥5). A total of 362 records were screened, resulting in 3 full-text articles and 1 additional citation containing supplementary information included for the analysis. Two reviewers independently extracted study data (intervention, comparator, outcome, time period, study design) from the included studies by using standardized data extraction forms. Directed by Cochrane Collaboration methodology, the statistical analysis produced figures and graphs representing the strength of intervention outcomes and their corresponding grades (A, B, C+, C, C-, D+, D, D-). Clinical significance was achieved when an improvement of ≥30% between the intervention and control groups was present, whereas P>.05 indicated statistical significance. An expert panel Delphi consensus (≥80%) was required for the endorsement of recommendations. All included studies were of high quality and analyzed the effects of multidisciplinary foot care, customized foot orthotics, and shoe inserts for the management of JIA. Custom-made foot orthotics and prefabricated shoe inserts displayed the greatest improvement in pain intensity, activity limitation, foot pain, and disability reduction (grades A, C+). The use of customized foot orthotics and prefabricated shoe inserts seems to be a good choice for managing foot pain and function in JIA. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  18. Psoriatic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 77. Gladman DD, Chandran V. Management of psoriatic arthritis. In: Hochberg MC, Silman AJ, ...

  19. Septic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 109. Kaplan SL. Septic arthritis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  20. Thumb Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recovery Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Thumb Arthritis Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - Basal ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  1. The Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Apremilast for Treating Active Psoriatic Arthritis: A Critique of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Eleftherios; Corbett, Mark; Palmer, Stephen; Woolacott, Nerys; Bojke, Laura

    2016-11-01

    As part of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal (STA) process, the manufacturer of apremilast was invited to submit evidence for its clinical and cost effectiveness for the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) for whom disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been inadequately effective, not tolerated or contraindicated. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Centre for Health Economics at the University of York were commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper provides a description of the ERG review of the company's submission, the ERG report and submission and summarises the NICE Appraisal Committee's subsequent guidance (December 2015). In the company's initial submission, the base-case analysis resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £14,683 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for the sequence including apremilast (positioned before tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α inhibitors) versus a comparator sequence without apremilast. However, the ERG considered that the base-case sequence proposed by the company represented a limited set of potentially relevant treatment sequences and positions for apremilast. The company's base-case results were therefore not a sufficient basis to inform the most efficient use and position of apremilast. The exploratory ERG analyses indicated that apremilast is more effective (i.e. produces higher health gains) when positioned after TNF-α inhibitor therapies. Furthermore, assumptions made regarding a potential beneficial effect of apremilast on long-term Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) progression, which cannot be substantiated, have a very significant impact on results. The NICE Appraisal Committee (AC), when taking into account their preferred assumptions for HAQ progression for patients on treatment with apremilast, placebo response and monitoring costs for apremilast, concluded

  2. American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism Preliminary Definition of Remission in Rheumatoid Arthritis for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Felson, David T.; Smolen, Josef S.; Wells, George; Zhang, Bin; van Tuyl, Lilian H. D.; Funovits, Julia; Aletaha, Daniel; Allaart, Renée; Bathon, Joan; Bombardieri, Stefano; Brooks, Peter; Brown, Andrew; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Choi, Hyon; Combe, Bernard; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Furst, Dan; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Hawker , Gillian; Keystone, Edward; Khanna, Dinesh; Kirwan, John; Kvien, Tore; Landewé, Robert; Listing, Joachim; Michaud, Kaleb; Mola, Emilio Martin; Montie, Pam; Pincus, Ted; Richards, Pam; Siegel, Jeff; Simon, Lee; Sokka, Tuulikki; Strand, Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter; Tyndall, Alan; van der Heijde, Desirée; Verstappen, Suzan; White, Barbara; Wolfe, Fred; Zink, Angela; Boers, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Background With remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) an increasingly attainable goal, there is no widely used definition of remission that is stringent but achievable and could be applied uniformly as an outcome in clinical trials. Methods A committee consisting of members of the American College of Rheumatology, the European League Against Rheumatism and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Initiative (OMERACT) met to guide the process and review prespecified analyses from clinical trials of patients with RA. The committee requested a stringent definition (little, if any, active disease) and decided to use core set measures to define remission including at least joint counts and an acute phase reactant. Members were surveyed to select the level of each core set measure consistent with remission. Candidate definitions of remission were tested including those that constituted a number of individual measures in remission (Boolean approach) as well as definitions using disease activity indexes. To select a definition of remission, trial data were analyzed to examine the added contribution of patient reported outcomes and the ability of candidate measures to predict later good x-ray and functional outcomes. Results Survey results for the definition of remission pointed to indexes at published thresholds and to a count of core set measures with each measure scored as 1 or less (e.g. tender and swollen joint counts, CRP and global assessments on 0-10 scale). Analyses suggested the need to include a patient reported measure. Examination of 2 year follow-up data suggested that many candidate definitions performed comparably in terms of predicting later good x-ray and functional outcomes, although DAS28 based measures of remission did not predict good radiographic outcomes as well as did the other candidate definitions. Given these and other considerations, we propose that a patient be defined as in remission based on one of two definitions : 1: When their scores on the

  3. American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism provisional definition of remission in rheumatoid arthritis for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Felson, David T; Smolen, Josef S; Wells, George; Zhang, Bin; van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Funovits, Julia; Aletaha, Daniel; Allaart, Cornelia F; Bathon, Joan; Bombardieri, Stefano; Brooks, Peter; Brown, Andrew; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Choi, Hyon; Combe, Bernard; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Furst, Daniel; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Hawker, Gillian; Keystone, Edward; Khanna, Dinesh; Kirwan, John; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert; Listing, Joachim; Michaud, Kaleb; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montie, Pamela; Pincus, Theodore; Richards, Pamela; Siegel, Jeffrey N; Simon, Lee S; Sokka, Tuulikki; Strand, Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter; Tyndall, Alan; van der Heijde, Desirée; Verstappen, Suzan; White, Barbara; Wolfe, Frederick; Zink, Angela; Boers, Maarten

    2011-03-01

    Remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an increasingly attainable goal, but there is no widely used definition of remission that is stringent but achievable and could be applied uniformly as an outcome measure in clinical trials. This work was undertaken to develop such a definition. A committee consisting of members of the American College of Rheumatology, the European League Against Rheumatism, and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Initiative met to guide the process and review prespecified analyses from RA clinical trials. The committee requested a stringent definition (little, if any, active disease) and decided to use core set measures including, as a minimum, joint counts and levels of an acute-phase reactant to define remission. Members were surveyed to select the level of each core set measure that would be consistent with remission. Candidate definitions of remission were tested, including those that constituted a number of individual measures of remission (Boolean approach) as well as definitions using disease activity indexes. To select a definition of remission, trial data were analysed to examine the added contribution of patient-reported outcomes and the ability of candidate measures to predict later good radiographic and functional outcomes. Survey results for the definition of remission suggested indexes at published thresholds and a count of core set measures, with each measure scored as 1 or less (eg, tender and swollen joint counts, C reactive protein (CRP) level, and global assessments on a 0-10 scale). Analyses suggested the need to include a patient-reported measure. Examination of 2-year follow-up data suggested that many candidate definitions performed comparably in terms of predicting later good radiographic and functional outcomes, although 28-joint Disease Activity Score-based measures of remission did not predict good radiographic outcomes as well as the other candidate definitions did. Given these and other considerations, we

  4. American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism provisional definition of remission in rheumatoid arthritis for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Felson, David T; Smolen, Josef S; Wells, George; Zhang, Bin; van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Funovits, Julia; Aletaha, Daniel; Allaart, Cornelia F; Bathon, Joan; Bombardieri, Stefano; Brooks, Peter; Brown, Andrew; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Choi, Hyon; Combe, Bernard; de Wit, Maarten; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Furst, Daniel; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Hawker, Gillian; Keystone, Edward; Khanna, Dinesh; Kirwan, John; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert; Listing, Joachim; Michaud, Kaleb; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Montie, Pamela; Pincus, Theodore; Richards, Pamela; Siegel, Jeffrey N; Simon, Lee S; Sokka, Tuulikki; Strand, Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter; Tyndall, Alan; van der Heijde, Desirée; Verstappen, Suzan; White, Barbara; Wolfe, Frederick; Zink, Angela; Boers, Maarten

    2011-03-01

    Remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an increasingly attainable goal, but there is no widely used definition of remission that is stringent but achievable and could be applied uniformly as an outcome measure in clinical trials. This work was undertaken to develop such a definition. A committee consisting of members of the American College of Rheumatology, the European League Against Rheumatism, and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Initiative met to guide the process and review prespecified analyses from RA clinical trials. The committee requested a stringent definition (little, if any, active disease) and decided to use core set measures including, as a minimum, joint counts and levels of an acute-phase reactant to define remission. Members were surveyed to select the level of each core set measure that would be consistent with remission. Candidate definitions of remission were tested, including those that constituted a number of individual measures of remission (Boolean approach) as well as definitions using disease activity indexes. To select a definition of remission, trial data were analyzed to examine the added contribution of patient-reported outcomes and the ability of candidate measures to predict later good radiographic and functional outcomes. Survey results for the definition of remission suggested indexes at published thresholds and a count of core set measures, with each measure scored as 1 or less (e.g., tender and swollen joint counts, C-reactive protein [CRP] level, and global assessments on a 0-10 scale). Analyses suggested the need to include a patient-reported measure. Examination of 2-year followup data suggested that many candidate definitions performed comparably in terms of predicting later good radiographic and functional outcomes, although 28-joint Disease Activity Score-based measures of remission did not predict good radiographic outcomes as well as the other candidate definitions did. Given these and other considerations, we

  5. Gap Between Official Guidelines and Clinical Practice for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Iara Alves; Almeida Barros, Bruna Cipriano; do Nascimento Silveira, Miriam Sanches; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Guyatt, Gordon; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2016-05-01

    Biological agents used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated with serious adverse events. Guidelines provide standards for the prescribing and monitoring of these drugs. In São Paulo, health litigation for access to medicines has fueled the demand for biological therapy. The extent to which biological agents are being appropriately prescribed and patients are being appropriately monitored is uncertain. Our goal was to determine whether RA clinical guidelines are being translated into clinical practice for patients receiving treatment as a result of lawsuits against the government. We identified patients through records of the State Secretary of Health of São Paulo from 2003 to 2011. We consulted guidelines from 5 countries and chose those recommendations endorsed by all of the guidelines reviewed as standards. Pharmacy records provided data regarding biologic use. The guidelines recommended the use of biological agents only when patients had been receiving treatment with at least 1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) and recommended annual monit