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Sample records for early behavioral studies

  1. Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C

    2001-01-01

    In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events

  2. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  3. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Naturalistic Driving Study Investigating Self-Regulation Behavior in Early Alzheimer's Disease: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Paire-Ficout, Laurence; Lafont, Sylviane; Conte, Fanny; Coquillat, Amandine; Fabrigoule, Colette; Ankri, Joël; Blanc, Frédéric; Gabel, Cécilia; Novella, Jean-Luc; Morrone, Isabella; Mahmoudi, Rachid

    2018-05-16

    Because cognitive processes decline in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the driving abilities are often affected. The naturalistic driving approach is relevant to study the driving habits and behaviors in normal or critical situations in a familiar environment of participants. This pilot study analyzed in-car video recordings of naturalistic driving in patients with early-stage AD and in healthy controls, with a special focus on tactical self-regulation behavior. Twenty patients with early-stage AD (Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV] criteria), and 21 healthy older adults were included in the study. Data collection equipment was installed in their personal vehicles. Two expert psychologists assessed driving performance using a specially designed Naturalistic Driving Assessment Scale (NaDAS), paying particular attention to tactical self-regulation behavior, and they recorded all critical safety events. Poorer driving performance was observed among AD drivers: their tactical self-regulation behavior was of lower quality. AD patients had also twice as many critical events as healthy drivers and three times more "unaware" critical events. This pilot study using a naturalistic approach to accurately show that AD drivers have poorer tactical self-regulation behavior than healthy older drivers. Future deployment of assistance systems in vehicles should specifically target tactical self-regulation components.

  5. Early Vocabulary Delay and Behavioral/Emotional Problems in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Rescorla, Leslie; Donkersloot, Cootje; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Raat, Hein; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors tested associations between (a) parent-reported temporary vs. persistent vocabulary delay and (b) parent-reported behavioral/emotional problems in a sample of 5,497 young Dutch children participating in a prospective population-based study. Method: Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative Development…

  6. Early Childhood Television Viewing and Adolescent Behavior: The Recontact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…

  7. Early maladaptive schemas and aggressive sexual behavior: a preliminary study with male college students.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera Lúcia; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-07-01

    The influence of adverse early attachment experiences on the development of aggressive sexual behavior has been demonstrated. Nonetheless, there is a gap in the literature regarding the conceptualization of this behavior according to developmental psychopathology models. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a potential association between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and aggressive sexual behavior. A total of 166 male college students participated in the study. Participants were divided into two comparative groups according to data from the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Perpetration (SES-SFP): Group of individuals with history of aggressive sexual behavior (N = 37) and Group of individuals without history of aggressive sexual behavior (N = 129). Aggressive sexual behavior was measured by the SES-SFP, and EMSs were measured by the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). Results showed that students who have committed any form of sexually aggressive behavior exhibited significantly higher levels of EMSs from the Disconnection and Rejection domain (namely, Mistrust/Abuse schema), from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain (namely, Dependence/Incompetence schema), and from the Overvigilance and Inhibition domain (namely, Negativity/Pessimism schema). These preliminary findings suggest that the EMSs were associated with aggressive sexual behavior, but further investigation is warranted. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. A Study of Some Effects of Early Change Agent Behavior on a Group Client System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Douglas Wylie

    A study was conducted to explore some of the relationships existing between the early behavior of a change agent with a group client system and its subsequent effects on the helping relationship established between them. A review of related literature was made. The model of helping relationship which formed the basis for the design of the study…

  9. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  10. Spanking in early childhood and later behavior problems: a prospective study of infants and young toddlers.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eric P; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2004-05-01

    To explore the relationship of spanking frequency before age 2 with behavior problems near time of entry into school. Children who were younger than 2 years were followed up approximately 4 years later, after they had entered school. The likelihood of significant behavior problems at follow-up was estimated in multivariate analyses that controlled for baseline spanking frequency and other characteristics. Participants were mothers from a large-scale national study and their children. Statistical analysis included an ethnically diverse sample of 1966 children aged 0 to 23 months at baseline. Two dichotomous indicators of behavior problems were used. The first indicated that maternal rating of child behavior problems exceeded a threshold. The second indicated that a mother met with a school administrator to discuss her child's behavior problems. White non-Hispanic children who were spanked more frequently before age 2 were substantially more likely to have behavior problems after entry into school, controlling for other factors. For Hispanic and black children, associations between spanking frequency and behavior problems were not statistically significant and were not consistent across outcome measures. Among white non-Hispanic children but not among black and Hispanic children, spanking frequency before age 2 is significantly and positively associated with child behavior problems at school age. These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age.

  11. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and influences of preschoolers' sedentary behaviors in early learning centers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patricia; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Burke, Shauna M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Johnson, Andrew M

    2015-09-18

    Recent research has highlighted the need for increased evidence regarding the sedentary activity levels of preschoolers. Given the large proportion of time this population spends in various early learning facilities, the exploration of sedentary behaviors within this particular environment should be a priority. The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare sedentary time of preschoolers in three different early learning environments (i.e., full-day kindergarten [FDK], center-, and home-based childcare); and (2) to assess which characteristics (i.e., staff behaviors, sedentary environment, fixed play environment, portable play environment, sedentary opportunities) of these early learning environments influence preschoolers' sedentary time. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and June 2012. Preschoolers' sedentary time was measured using Actical(™) accelerometers at a 15 s epoch. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool was used to assess the sedentary environment of participating early learning classrooms, and those subscales (n = 5) that were evidence-informed as potentially influencing sedentary time in early learning centers were explored in the current study. A linear mixed model ANCOVA was carried out to determine the differences in sedentary time based on type of early learning environment while direct entry regression analyses were performed to describe the relationships between sedentary time and the five sedentary-specific EPAO subscale. Preschoolers (n = 218) from 28 early learning programs (i.e., 8 FDK, 9 centre-, and 8 home-based childcare facilities) participated. Accelerometry data revealed that preschoolers attending centre-based childcare engaged in the highest rate of sedentary time (41.62 mins/hr, SD = 3.78) compared to preschoolers in home-based childcare (40.72 mins/hr, SD = 6.34) and FDK (39.68 mins/hr, SD = 3.43). The models for FDK, center-based childcare, and home-based childcare, comprised each

  13. Adult correlates of early behavioral maladjustment: a study of injured drivers.

    PubMed

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Smith, Gordon; Soderstrom, Carl

    2008-10-01

    To establish whether a history of school suspension (HSS) predicts adult driver behavior. 323 injured drivers were interviewed as part of a study of psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUD) and injury. Drivers with a HSS were compared to those without HSS in relation to demographics, SES, PSUD, risky behaviors, trauma history and driving history using student's t test and chi-square. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to adjust for demographics, SES and PSUD. HSS drivers represented 31% of the population and were younger, more likely to be male and had higher rates of alcohol and drug dependence than drivers without HSS. Educational achievement was worse for drivers with HSS. Drivers with HSS were more likely to have a history of prior vehicular trauma and assault. Seat-belt non-use, drinking and driving, riding with drunk driver, binge drinking, driving fast for the thrill, license suspension and drinking and driving convictions were more common among drivers with HSS. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for demographics and SES, HSS revealed higher odds ratios for the same outcomes. After adding PSUD to the models HSS remained significant only for seat belt non use, binge drinking and previous assault history. HSS is associated with risky behaviors, repeated vehicular injury, and poor driver history. The association with driver history, however, disappears when PSUD are included in the models. The association of HSS (a marker of early behavioral maladjustment) with behavioral risks suggests that undiagnosed psychopathology may be linked to injury recidivism.

  14. Early behavioral adherence predicts short and long-term weight loss in the POUNDS LOST study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Han, Hongmei; Champagne, Catherine M.; Allen, Ray; LeBlanc, Eric; Ryan, Donna H.; Rood, Jennifer; McManus, Katherine; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test the association of early (first 6 months) adherence related to diet, self-monitoring, and attendance with changes in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. This study used data from the 24-month POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for short-and long-term weight loss. A computer tracking system was used to record data on eight indicator variables related to adherence. Using canonical correlations at the 6 and 24 month measurement periods, early behavioral adherence was associated with changes in percent weight loss and waist circumference at 6 months (R = 0.52) and 24 months (R = 0.37), but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels. Early dietary adherence was associated with changes in insulin at 6 months (R = 0.19), but not at 24 months (R = 0.08, ns). Early dietary adherence was not associated with changes in adiposity. PMID:20195742

  15. A Method For The Longitudinal Study Of Behavioral Development In Infants And Children: The Early Development Of XXY Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes preliminary results from a behavioral study of 13 male infants who were ascertained to have an XX Y sex chromosome complement at birth and who are being followed longitudinally through early ontogenesis. (CM)

  16. Predicting Transitions in Low and High Levels of Risk Behavior from Early to Middle Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monshouwer, K.; Harakeh, Z.; Lugtig, P.; Huizink, A.; Creemers, H. E.; Reijneveld, S. A.; De Winter, A. F.; Van Oort, F.; Ormel, J.; Vollebergh, W. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the joint development of substance use and externalizing problems in early and middle adolescence. First, it was tested whether the relevant groups found in previous studies i.e., those with an early onset, a late onset, and no onset or low levels of risk behavior could be identified, while using a developmental model of…

  17. Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

  18. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation as a Problem Behavior: A Comparative Study of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using a Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) framework, this paper examines the extent to which psychosocial correlates of early sexual initiation (before age 16) vary across developed nations. Methods Fifteen-year-old participants (n=5,624) in the 1997-1998 WHO collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland) and the 1996 US Add Health survey self-reported substance use (alcohol and tobacco), school attachment, positive parental communication, and early sexual intercourse experience. Stratifying by gender, we performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses controlling for family socioeconomic status, family structure, and nation fixed effects. Results Self-reported early sexual experience, substance use, school attachment and positive communication with parents varied significantly across nations for both boys and girls. In both crude and adjusted analyses, substance use was positively associated with early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations, although associations were stronger in Europe than the US (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range 1.56-3.74). School attachment was similarly inversely related to early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations (AOR range 0.63-0.94). However, positive parent communication was significantly inversely related to early sexual experience only among US females (AOR 0.50). Conclusions Findings overall supported the fit of early adolescent sexual initiation as a risk behavior within a PBT framework cross-nationally, suggesting that similar factors could be targeted to prevent early sexual initiation across some developed nations. However further research is warranted examining the temporality of these relationships. PMID:20864009

  19. Early Adolescent Friendship Selection Based on Externalizing Behavior: the Moderating Role of Pubertal Development. The SNARE Study.

    PubMed

    Franken, Aart; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian E G; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, and tobacco use). Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50 % boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first year of secondary school. The hypothesis was tested using Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling in SIENA. While taking the network structure into account, and controlling for peer influence effects, the results supported this hypothesis. Early adolescents with higher pubertal development were as likely as their peers to select friends based on similarity in externalizing behavior and especially likely to remain friends with peers who had a similar level of externalizing behavior, and thus break friendship ties with dissimilar friends in this respect. As early adolescents are actively engaged in reorganizing their social context, adolescents with a higher pubertal development are especially likely to lose friendships with peers who do not engage in externalizing behavior, thus losing an important source of adaptive social control (i.e., friends who do not engage in externalizing behavior).

  20. A comparison study of early non-psychotic deviant behavior in Afrikaner and US patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sobin, Christina; Roos, J. Louw; Pretorius, Herman; Lundy, Laura S.; Karayiorgou, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study early non-psychotic deviant behaviors in US adult schizophrenic patients recruited for a large-scale genetic study were examined (Psychiatry Research, 101, 101). Early deviance characterized a distinct subgroup of patients at rates that were consistent with earlier reports. In addition, specific early non-psychotic deviant behaviors were meaningfully associated with later disease outcomes. In the present study, we examined the demographic, syndrome course, symptom and early deviant behavior history of 109 Afrikaner probands who met criteria for DSM schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and compared them to 109 age- and gender-matched US probands. Consistent with past findings, 68% of Afrikaner probands, as compared to 67% of age- and gender-matched US probands, reported one or more forms of early non-psychotic deviance, including poor socialization, extreme fears/chronic sadness, and/or attention/learning impairment. The remaining 32 and 33% of probands, respectively, were without behavioral deviance until the onset of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The frequency and distribution of individual deviant behaviors were strikingly consistent between the samples. However, logistic regression analyses revealed different patterns of associations between the early deviant behaviors manifested and disease outcome. Afrikaner participants with early fears/chronic sadness were 3 times more likely to attempt suicide, while among US participants, this form of early deviance conferred 3.5 times more risk for later schizoaffective disorder, and 3 times greater likelihood of later sensory (tactile and/or olfactory) hallucinations. Afrikaner participants with attention/learning impairment were 2.5 times more likely to experience later auditory hallucinations, while US participants with these early difficulties were 3 times more likely to experience thought disorder. We concluded that early non-psychotic childhood deviance in this independently

  1. A comparison study of early non-psychotic deviant behavior in Afrikaner and US patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Sobin, Christina; Roos, J Louw; Pretorius, Herman; Lundy, Laura S; Karayiorgou, Maria

    2003-02-15

    In a previous study early non-psychotic deviant behaviors in US adult schizophrenic patients recruited for a large-scale genetic study were examined (Psychiatry Research, 101, 101). Early deviance characterized a distinct subgroup of patients at rates that were consistent with earlier reports. In addition, specific early non-psychotic deviant behaviors were meaningfully associated with later disease outcomes. In the present study, we examined the demographic, syndrome course, symptom and early deviant behavior history of 109 Afrikaner probands who met criteria for DSM schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and compared them to 109 age- and gender-matched US probands. Consistent with past findings, 68% of Afrikaner probands, as compared to 67% of age- and gender-matched US probands, reported one or more forms of early non-psychotic deviance, including poor socialization, extreme fears/chronic sadness, and/or attention/learning impairment. The remaining 32 and 33% of probands, respectively, were without behavioral deviance until the onset of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The frequency and distribution of individual deviant behaviors were strikingly consistent between the samples. However, logistic regression analyses revealed different patterns of associations between the early deviant behaviors manifested and disease outcome. Afrikaner participants with early fears/chronic sadness were 3 times more likely to attempt suicide, while among US participants, this form of early deviance conferred 3.5 times more risk for later schizoaffective disorder, and 3 times greater likelihood of later sensory (tactile and/or olfactory) hallucinations. Afrikaner participants with attention/learning impairment were 2.5 times more likely to experience later auditory hallucinations, while US participants with these early difficulties were 3 times more likely to experience thought disorder. We concluded that early non-psychotic childhood deviance in this independently

  2. Transactional processes in child disruptive behavior and maternal depression: A longitudinal study from early childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    GROSS, HEATHER E.; SHAW, DANIEL S.; BURWELL, REBECCA A.; NAGIN, DANIEL S.

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the utility of applying Sameroff and Chandler's transactional perspective to the study of child psychopathology, relatively few researchers have used such an approach to trace the emergence of child problem behavior from infancy to adolescence. Using a sample of 289 male toddlers from predominantly low-income families, the current study examined associations between various forms of early child disruptive behavior, subsequent trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over the course of 8 years, and adolescent problem behavior. Results indicated that early child noncompliance was the most robust predictor of more chronic and elevated trajectories of maternal depression, which in turn discriminated teacher and youth reports of adolescent antisocial behavior but not internalizing symptoms. The findings were consistent with transactional perspectives of developmental psychopathology that have emphasized the dynamic interplay between child and parent characteristics. PMID:19144227

  3. Rigidity in gender-typed behaviors in early childhood: a longitudinal study of ethnic minority children.

    PubMed

    Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E

    2013-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical appearance, dress-up play, toy play, and sex segregation were examined. High gender-typing was found across ethnic groups, and most behaviors increased in rigidity, especially from age 3 to 4 years. In addressing controversy surrounding the stability and structure of gender-typing it was found that from year to year, most behaviors showed moderately stable individual differences. Behaviors were uncorrelated within age but showed more concordance in change across time, suggesting that aspects of gender-typing are multidimensional, but still show coherence. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican, Dominican) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 and gender-stereotypical appearance, dress-up play, toy play, and sex segregation were examined. High gender-typing was found across ethnic group, and most behaviors increased in rigidity, especially from age 3 to 4. In addressing controversy surrounding the stability and structure of gender-typing it was found that from year to year, most behaviors showed moderately stable individual differences. Behaviors were uncorrelated within age, but showed more concordance in change across time, suggesting that aspects of gender-typing are multidimensional but still show coherence. PMID:23432471

  5. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  7. Selectivity in early prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.; O’Neill, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a “problem” when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one’s allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this “partner choice” model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior. PMID:25120526

  8. Friday on My Mind: The Relation of Partying with Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…

  9. [Studies of the eating behavior of Japanese quail chicks in the early postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Khekhneva, A V; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Sychev, V N

    2006-01-01

    Time of the eating reaction (response to video signals) and eating behavior shortly after hatching were studied in Japanese quail chicks whose embryonic development took place under normal or changed gravity. Chicks partially incubated in a changed gravity showed a much slower eating reaction when compared with the chicks the prenatal development of which occurred under the normal gravity. In the chicks incubated at 1 g and placed in individual cages immediately after dominating afferentation for the eating behavior was visual Observations in the study will be used as a basis for designing a technology for handling and maintenance of hatchlings of the Japanese quail as a potential heterotrophic component of space life support systems.

  10. Managing Student Behavior with Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: An Observational Study in Early Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Williams, Leslie; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive evidence-based interventions are needed to help early childhood educators manage challenging student behaviors. One such intervention, class-wide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT), is a multi-tiered behavioral intervention program based on positive behavior support principles, including four main elements: (a) teaching…

  11. Health Behavior among the Elderly in Turkey: An Early Evaluation of the Geroatlas Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Scientific investigations have revealed that behaviors about health and illness states are related to socioeconomic status, gender, and cultural factors. Chronic diseases and comorbidity are common in elderly people when compared to the rest of the population. Major problems of the elderly in Turkey are related to health behaviors, financial…

  12. Effect of socioeconomic status on behavioral problems from preschool to early elementary school - A Japanese longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2018-01-01

    Social inequalities are widely accepted to have a deleterious effect on children's mental health, and those with lower socioeconomic status generally experience more mental health issues. In this study, we examine the impact of socioeconomic situations of children's families during their early childhood on the children's social adaptation in Japanese elementary school. The current investigation consisted of two sets of data relating to two separate years (with a one-year interval). The participants included preschoolers aged five years at Time 1 (the first year) and first graders aged six years at Time 2 (the second year); 1,712 met the inclusion criteria for both years. Parents of the participants completed a self-reported questionnaire regarding their SES (i.e., family economy and mother's education) and their children's mental health. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18, Parent Report. For each SES indicator, we found an inverse relationship across all the symptom dimensions. Specifically, bivariate analyses revealed that lower family income, maternal education level, and paternal education level predict all three domains of behavioral problems (i.e., internalized problems, externalized problems, and total behavioral problems). Further, multivariate analyses revealed that lower family income consistently predicts all domains of behavioral problems, lower maternal education level predicted externalized problems and total behavioral problems, and paternal education level did not predict any clinically significant behavioral problems. In this sample, we found that, for children, family income and parental education when entering preschool were significant predictors of mental health problems after elementary school enrollment; in particular, low income and low maternal educational achievement predicted a high probability of the development of a psychiatric disorder. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of these associations could

  13. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  14. Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2013-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican American, and Dominican American) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 years, and gender-stereotypical…

  15. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  16. Knowledge and behaviors regarding early childhood caries among low-income women in Florida: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, Maryam; Gold, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the oral health knowledge and behaviors in pregnant women and mothers of young children in relation to early childhood caries to assess the need for an educational oral health program. Interviews were conducted from a sample of 103 Medicaid-eligible participants; 56 pregnant women and 47 mothers with children under the age 6 in Florida. The data were collected using a 4-page questionnaire with closed-ended questions and analyzed using SAS/STAT 9.22. Overall, 79 of 101 study participants (78%) did not receive any dental care during pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between the frequencies of mother's tooth brushing and how frequently toddlers' teeth were brushed (C=0.29; p=0.04), and the mothers' self-reported oral health ratings and how frequently they brushed their toddlers' teeth (r2=0.29; p=0.03). Mothers' oral hygiene habits are significantly related to the oral hygiene habits of their children. Oral health education, during and after pregnancy, would be beneficial to promote healthier mouths for the mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  17. Early emotional and behavioral difficulties and adult educational attainment: an 18-year follow-up of the TEMPO study.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Ariella; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Children who experience behavioral difficulties often have short and long-term school problems. However, the relationship between emotional difficulties and later academic achievement has not been thoroughly examined. Using data from the French TEMPO study (n = 666, follow-up 1991, 1999, 2009, mean age = 10.5, sd = 4.9 at baseline), we studied associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms in: (a) childhood and (b) adolescence and educational attainment by young adulthood (< vs. ≥ high school degree), accounting for participants' age, sex, juvenile academic difficulties, and family income. High levels of childhood (but not adolescent) internalizing and externalizing symptoms were associated with low educational attainment; however, in multivariate models only the association with childhood internalizing symptoms remained statistically significant (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.02). Supporting children with internalizing problems early on could help improve their long-term educational attainment.

  18. Predicting onset of cannabis use in early adolescence: the interrelation between high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior. The TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    Creemers, Hanneke E; van Lier, Pol A C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Huizink, Anja C

    2009-11-01

    Increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the prediction of onset of cannabis use 2 years later. Data from 81% (n = 1,804) of the participants (51.9% girls) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective general population study in the north of The Netherlands, were analyzed. Measures included parent-reported high-intensity pleasure, and parent- and self-reported general disruptive behavior, attention-deficit hyperactivity, oppositional problems, and conduct problems (Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 and Youth Self-Report) at ages 10-12. Onset of cannabis use was assessed at age 12-14 by means of self-reports. Analyses were carried out in Mplus. Early adolescent high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior, mainly conduct problems and to some extent attention-deficit hyperactivity, predicted the onset of cannabis use in adolescence. Although we found some mediation by general disruptive behavior, conduct problems, and attention-deficit hyperactivity, the contribution of high-intensity pleasure in predicting the onset of cannabis use was found to be mainly independent from disruptive behavior. The unique contribution of both high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior points in the direction of different pathways toward onset of cannabis use.

  19. A Behavior-Genetic Study of the Legacy of Early Caregiving Experiences: Academic Skills, Social Competence, and Externalizing Behavior in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2012-01-01

    A critique of research examining whether early experiences with primary caregivers are reflected in adaptation is that relevant longitudinal studies have generally not employed genetically informed research designs capable of unconfounding shared genes and environments. Using the twin subsample (N = 485 pairs) of the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  20. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    PubMed

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  1. Changes in processing of masked stimuli across early- and late-night sleep: a study on behavior and brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Schuknecht, Simon-Vitus; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-11-01

    Sleep has proven to support the memory consolidation in many tasks including learning of perceptual skills. Explicit, conscious types of memory have been demonstrated to benefit particularly from slow-wave sleep (SWS), implicit, non-conscious types particularly from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By comparing the effects of early-night sleep, rich in SWS, and late-night sleep, rich in REM sleep, we aimed to separate the contribution of these two sleep stages in a metacontrast masking paradigm in which explicit and implicit aspects in perceptual learning could be assessed separately by stimulus identification and priming, respectively. We assumed that early sleep intervening between two sessions of task performance would specifically support stimulus identification, while late sleep would specifically support priming. Apart from overt behavior, event-related EEG potentials (ERPs) were measured to record the cortical mechanisms associated with behavioral changes across sleep. In contrast to our hypothesis, late-night sleep appeared to be more important for changes of behavior, both for stimulus identification, which tended to improve across late-night sleep, and for priming, with the increase of errors induced by masked stimuli correlating with the duration of REM sleep. ERP components proved sensitive to presence of target shapes in the masked stimuli and to their priming effects. Of these components, the N2 component, indicating processing of conflict, became larger across early-night sleep and was related to the duration of S4 sleep, the deepest substage of SWS containing particularly high portions of EEG slow waves. These findings suggest that sleep promotes perceptual learning primarily by its REM sleep portion, but indirectly also by way of improved action monitoring supported by deep slow-wave sleep.

  2. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Romano, Megan E; Gallagher, Lisa G; Winter, Michael R; Martin, Brett R; Vieira, Veronica M; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Ozonoff, David M

    2011-12-02

    Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood. These findings should be confirmed in follow

  3. Does early childhood callous-unemotional behavior uniquely predict behavior problems or callous-unemotional behavior in late childhood?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in early childhood predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in late childhood. This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2–4 predicted aggression, rule-breaking, and CU behavior across informants at age 9.5. To test the unique predictive and convergent validity of CU behavior in early childhood, we accounted for stability in behavior problems and method effects to rule out the possibility that rater biases inflated the magnitude of any associations found. Cross-informant data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample (N = 731; female = 49%) at ages 2–4 and again at age 9.5. From age 3, CU behavior uniquely predicted aggression and rule-breaking across informants. There were also unique associations between CU behavior assessed at ages 3 and 4 and CU behavior assessed at age 9.5. Findings demonstrate that early-childhood indicators of CU behavior account for unique variance in later childhood behavior problems and CU behavior, taking into account stability in behavior problems over time and method effects. Convergence with a traditional measure of CU behavior in late childhood provides support for the construct validity of a brief early childhood measure of CU behavior. PMID:27598253

  4. Heritable and Nonheritable Pathways to Early Callous-Unemotional Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Luke W; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-09-01

    Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood signal higher risk for trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies demonstrate high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Studies also indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. In a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive mothers, the authors tested novel heritable and nonheritable pathways to preschool callous-unemotional behaviors. In an adoption cohort of 561 families, history of severe antisocial behavior assessed in biological mothers and observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors at 27 months. Despite limited or no contact with offspring, biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important nonheritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. The finding that positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors has important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious

  5. Association of Overweight with Academic Performance and Social and Behavioral Problems: An Update from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Jahns, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: Childhood overweight is a condition that is prevalent within our society, affecting more and more children each year. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child overweight and educational outcomes. Methods: Data are reported for 13,680 children in third grade from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, a…

  6. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  7. Gender-Related Quality of Parent-Child Interactions and Early Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Exploratory Study with Midwestern Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Neppl, Tricia; Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine; Jung, Tony; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

    2006-01-01

    This article reports two exploratory studies testing a model guided by a social interactional perspective, positing an inverse relation between the quality of parent-child interactions and adolescent problem behaviors. It addresses mixed findings in the literature related to gender differences. Study 1 uses cross-sectional survey data from…

  8. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  9. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in Family Study and maternal responsiveness in Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps that led children to believe they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationship moderated the future developmental trajectory: Children’s attenuated tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in Family Study indicated that the links between low tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by parental stronger discipline pressure. By influencing indirectly future developmental sequelae, early relationship may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes. PMID:24280347

  10. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  11. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Behavior Problems in Early Childhood: A Three-Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olino, Thomas M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Klein, Daniel N.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the influence of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder (MDD) on behavior problems in children. The results conclude that MDD in parents and grandparents may result in high levels of incorporation problems of MDD in children but don't indicate additional risk.

  13. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  14. Disturbed eating behavior and eating disorders in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Colton, Patricia; Olmsted, Marion; Daneman, Denis; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary

    2004-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of eating disturbances in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes to their nondiabetic peers. A cross-sectional, case-controlled study of 101 girls with type 1 diabetes, ages 9-14 years, and 303 age-matched, female nondiabetic control subjects was conducted. Participants completed a Children's Eating Disorder Examination interview. Socioeconomic status, BMI, and diabetes-related variables were assessed. Groups were compared using chi(2) analyses. Binge eating; the use of intense, excessive exercise for weight control; the combination of two disturbed eating-related behaviors; and subthreshold eating disorders were all more common in girls with type 1 diabetes. Metabolic control was not related to eating behavior in this study population. Eating disturbances, though mostly mild, were significantly more common in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes. Screening and prevention programs for this high-risk group should begin in the preteen years.

  15. Visual recognition and visually guided action after early bilateral lesion of occipital cortex: a behavioral study of a 4.6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Amicuzi, Ileana; Stortini, Massimo; Petrarca, Maurizio; Di Giulio, Paola; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Fariello, Giuseppe; Longo, Daniela; Cannatà, Vittorio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Castelli, Enrico

    2006-10-01

    We report the case of a 4.6-year-old girl born pre-term with early bilateral occipital damage. It was revealed that the child had non-severely impaired basic visual abilities and ocular motility, a selective perceptual deficit of figure-ground segregation, impaired visual recognition and abnormal navigating through space. Even if the child's visual functioning was not optimal, this was the expression of adaptive anatomic and functional brain modifications that occurred following the early lesion. Anatomic brain structure was studied with anatomic MRI and Diffusor Tensor Imaging (DTI)-MRI. This behavioral study may provide an important contribution to understanding the impact of an early lesion of the visual system on the development of visual functions and on the immature brain's potential for reorganisation related to when the damage occurred.

  16. Influence of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on behavior problems in early childhood: a three-generation study.

    PubMed

    Olino, Thomas M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Klein, Daniel N; Allen, Nicholas B; Seeley, John R; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine the influence of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) and other forms of psychopathology on behavior problems in very young offspring (G3). Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) participants who had children over a 3-year period were invited to participate in a study of infant and child development. We attempted to collect diagnostic history from the original OADP (G2) participants, their coparents, the parents of the original OADP participants (G1), and the parents of the coparents. Child (G3) outcomes at 24 months of age were based on parent reports of behavior problems. Univariate correlations indicated that G1 and G2 familial loadings for MDD were associated with higher levels of G3 internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between G1 and G2 MDD on G3 internalizing (but not externalizing) behavior problems. A higher familial loading for MDD in either the parental or grandparental generation was associated with elevated grandchild internalizing problems, but higher loadings for MDD in both generations did not convey additional risk. Parental MDD and grandparental MDD are both associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems in young grandchildren, but MDD in both the G1 and G2 generations does not confer additional risk. One important implication is that MDD in the grandparental generation is associated with increased risk to grandchildren even in the absence of parental MDD. Future studies should examine the mechanisms through which grandparental psychopathology influences behavior problems in grandchildren.

  17. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood

  18. Exploring the Relationship Between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N=312 pairs) were assessed by their parents on autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors using the Childhood Behavior Checklist. Phenotypic analyses showed that after controlling for general cognitive ability and socioeconomic status, autistic-like traits (total scale as well as social and nonsocial subscales) correlated positively with ADHD behaviors (r=0.23–0.26). Structural equation model-fitting analyses revealed that there were modest shared genetic influences between ADHD- and autistic traits (genetic correlation = 0.27) as well as some common environmental influences explaining their covariation. Implications for identifying shared biological pathways underlying autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors are discussed. PMID:19908138

  19. Colorado Early Childhood Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Planning and Evaluation Unit.

    The Colorado State Board of Education allocated Title IV-V funds in 1975 for a study of the status of early childhood education in Colorado. The purposes of the study were to: (1) gather data relevant to early childhood education on the status of all children from birth through age 5; (2) identify needs of children of this age within the state;…

  20. The utility of zebrafish to study the mechanisms by which ethanol affects social behavior and anxiety during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew O; Annan, Leonette V; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros H; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Baiamonte, Matteo; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2014-12-03

    Exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during brain development has a number of effects on social behavior but the molecular mechanisms that mediate this are not well understood. Gaining a better understanding of these factors may help to develop therapeutic interventions in the future. Zebrafish offer a potentially useful model in this regard. Here, we introduce a zebrafish model of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure. Embryos were exposed to 20mM ethanol for seven days (48hpf-9dpf) and tested as adults for individual social behavior and shoaling. We also tested their basal anxiety with the novel tank diving test. We found that the ethanol-exposed fish displayed reductions in social approach and shoaling, and an increase in anxiety in the novel tank test. These behavioral differences corresponded to differences in hrt1aa, slc6a4 and oxtr expression. Namely, acute ethanol caused a spike in oxtr and ht1aa mRNA expression, which was followed by down-regulation at 7dpf, and an up-regulation in slc6a4 at 72hpf. This study confirms the utility of zebrafish as a model system for studying the molecular basis of developmental ethanol exposure. Furthermore, it proposes a putative developmental mechanism characterized by ethanol-induced OT inhibition leading to suppression of 5-HT and up-regulation of 5-HT1A, which leads, in turn, to possible homeostatic up-regulation of 5-HTT at 72hpf and subsequent imbalance of the 5-HT system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Problematic eating and its association with early childhood caries among 46-71-month-old children using Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ): a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Anandakrishna, Latha; Bhargav, Neha; Hegde, Amitha; Chandra, Prakash; Gaviappa, Dhananjaya; Shetty, Ashmitha Kishan

    2014-01-01

    Problematic eating behavior in children presents a wide spectrum from anorexia, selective eating, and fussy eating to neophobia. Pouching of food and slow eating represents eating behavioral problems that may be relevant to pediatric dentist as far as early childhood caries (ECC) is concerned. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of problematic eating and its association with ECC among 46-71-month-old children in Bengaluru city, India. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 250 children aged 46-71 months old in various schools of Bengaluru city. All the selected children were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing, filled surfaces index. Children's eating behavior was assessed using Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) which was filled by the parents. Both descriptive statistics as well as Chi-square test was used with SPSS 16.00. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be 34%. It was observed that 81.6% of the children did not have a tendency to keep food in their mouth all the time and ECC was found to be significantly less. Furthermore, approximately 90% of the children did not have a tendency to eat too much and in those, 68% of them were caries free which was statistically significant. Prevalence of ECC was highest (52.6%) in children who ate more when they had nothing else to do. Problematic eating behavior is prevalent in the preschooler group and needs to be considered by the pediatric dentist.

  2. Pilot Study: Implementing a Brief DBT Skills Program in Schools to Reduce Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of youth engage in health risk behaviors, which are of concern, as they are associated with adverse health consequences across development. Two factors associated with engagement in such behaviors are emotion dysregulation and impulsivity. Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) is an effective intervention that enhances…

  3. Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.

  4. Dietary Practices, Addictive Behavior and Bowel Habits and Risk of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer: a Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naveed Ali; Hussain, Mehwish; ur Rahman, Ata; Farooqui, Waqas Ahmed; Rasheed, Abdur; Memon, Amjad Siraj

    2015-01-01

    The abrupt rise of colorectal cancer in developing countries is raising concern in healthcare settings. Studies on assessing relationships with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in the Pakistani population have been limited. The present investigation was designed to examine associations of dietary practices, addictive behavior and bowel habits in developing colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients in a low-resource setup. An age-gender matched case control study was conducted from October 2011 to July 2015 in Karachi, Pakistan. Cases were from the surgical oncology department of a public sector tertiary care hospital, while their two pair-matched controls were recruited from the general population. A structured questionnaire was used which included questions related to demographic characteristics, family history, dietary patterns, addictive behavior and bowel habits. A family history of cancer was associated with a 2.2 fold higher chance of developing CRC. Weight loss reduced the likelihood 7.6 times. Refraining from a high fat diet and consuming more vegetables showed protective effects for CRC. The risk of CRC was more than twice among smokers and those who consumed Asian specific addictive products as compared to those who avoid using these addictions (ORsmoking: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.08 - 4.17, ORpan: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.6 - 5.33, ORgutka: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14 - 3.97). Use of NSAID attenuated risk of CRC up to 86% (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 - 0.31). Most of the findings showed concordance with the literature elucidating protective effects of consuming vegetables and low fat diet while documenting adverse associations with family history, weight loss, constipation and hematochezia. Moreover, this study highlighted Asian specific indigenous addictive products as important factors. Further studies are needed to validate the findings produced by this research.

  5. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI) and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%), while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%). Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although longitudinal studies are necessary

  6. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  7. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  8. Profiles of Disruptive Behavior across Early Childhood: Contributions of Frustration Reactivity, Physiological Regulation, and Maternal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2008-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological…

  9. Parental corporal punishment predicts behavior problems in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Matthew K; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2007-09-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (Research Triangle Institute, 2002), this study examined the impact of corporal punishment (CP) on children's behavior problems. Longitudinal analyses were specified that controlled for covarying contextual and parenting variables and that partialed child effects. The results indicate that parental CP uniquely contributes to negative behavioral adjustment in children at both 36 months and at 1st grade, with the effects at the earlier age more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments. Parents and mental health professionals who work to modify children's negative behavior should be aware of the unique impact that CP likely plays in triggering and maintaining children's behavior problems. Broad-based family policies that reduce the use of this parenting behavior would potentially increase children's mental health and decrease the incidence of children's behavior problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  10. A study of early corrosion behaviors of FeCrAl alloys in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun; Nam, Hyo On; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2010-12-01

    Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy have been increasingly receiving attention as heavy liquid metal coolants (HLMC) for future nuclear energy systems. The compatibility of structural materials and components with lead-bismuth eutectic liquid at high temperature is one of key issues for the commercialization of lead fast reactors. In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of iron-based alumina-forming alloys (Kanthal-AF®, PM2000, MA956) were investigated by exposing to stagnant LBE environments at 500 °C and 550 °C for up to 500 h. After exposures, the thickness and chemistry of the oxide layer on the specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the oxide characteristics and the corrosion resistance were compared. In this study, it was shown that the corrosion resistance of FeCrAl ODS steels (PM2000, MA956) are superior to that of FeCrAl ferritic steel (Kanthal-AF®) in higher temperature LBE.

  11. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

  12. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  13. The Timing of Middle-Childhood Peer Rejection and Friendship: Linking Early Behavior to Early-Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a sample of 551 children surveyed yearly from ages 6 to 13 to examine the longitudinal associations among early behavior, middle-childhood peer rejection and friendedness, and early-adolescent depressive symptoms, loneliness, and delinquency. The study tested a sequential mediation hypothesis in which (a) behavior problems in the…

  14. Towards an understanding of the role of the environment in the development of early callous behavior

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Trentacosta, Christopher; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2015-01-01

    Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is Callous-Unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predict severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective. In this paper, we summarize our recent work showing that: (1) CU behavior can be identified in early childhood using items from common behavior checklists; (2) CU behavior predicts worse outcomes across early childhood; (3) CU behavior exhibits a distinct nomological network from other early externalizing behaviors; and (4) malleable environmental factors, particularly parenting, may play a role in the development of early CU behaviors. We discuss the challenges of studying contextual contributors to the development of CU behavior in terms of gene-environment correlations and present initial results from work examining CU behavior in an adoption study in which gene-environment correlations are examined in early childhood. We find that parenting is a predictor of early CU behavior even in a sample in which parents are not genetically related to the children. PMID:26291075

  15. Changes in Processing of Masked Stimuli across Early- and Late-Night Sleep: A Study on Behavior and Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleger, Rolf; Schuknecht, Simon-Vitus; Jaskowski, Piotr; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has proven to support the memory consolidation in many tasks including learning of perceptual skills. Explicit, conscious types of memory have been demonstrated to benefit particularly from slow-wave sleep (SWS), implicit, non-conscious types particularly from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By comparing the effects of early-night sleep,…

  16. The Relationship between Early Suicide Behaviors and Mental Health: Results from a Nine-Year Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ryan; Taylor, John; Clarke, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs community-level data to examine the relationship between suicide behaviors, measured at age eleven, and two mental health outcomes assessed nine-years later. Specifically, we assess the role and significance of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in substance dependence and depressive symptomatology. We evaluate these linkages…

  17. Genetic origin of the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal genetically sensitive study

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, Silvia; Rijsdijk, Frühling V.; Haworth, Claire Margaret Alison; Fañanás, Lourdes; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the association between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence. The current study fitted a cross-lagged model in a sample consisting of 4,075 twin pairs to explore (a) the role of genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from age 4 to age 12, (b) whether parent-driven and child-driven processes independently explain the association, and (c) whether there are sex differences in this relationship. Both phenotypes showed substantial genetic influence at both ages. The concurrent overlap between them was mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Causal pathways representing stability of the phenotypes and parent-driven and child-driven effects significantly and independently account for the association. Significant but slight differences were found between males and females for parent-driven effects. These results were highly similar when general cognitive ability was added asa covariate. In summary, the longitudinal association between parental negativity and behavior problems seems to be bidirectional and mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, child-driven effects were mainly genetically mediated, and parent-driven effects were a function of both genetic and shared-environmental factors. PMID:23627958

  18. Life satisfaction and maladaptive behaviors in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Early environments, glucocorticoid receptors, and behavioral epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2013-10-01

    In 1985, a brief report published in Behavioral Neuroscience established the link between neonatal handling and concentrations of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the adult rat, suggesting a neurobiological basis for the attenuated stress reactivity observed in handled versus nonhandled offspring. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of Behavioral Neuroscience, this article explores the research that preceded and followed from this brief but significant publication. Changes in hippocampal GR induced by handling were determined to be the outcome of a cascade of cellular and molecular events involving thyroid hormones, serotonin turnover, and transcription factor binding to the Nr3c1 gene, leading to increased GR mRNA and protein. Though many hypotheses were proposed for the "handling effect," the role of handling-induced changes in maternal care, particularly pup licking/grooming (LG), generated a productive scientific framework for understanding the handling phenomenon. Indeed, LG has since been demonstrated to alter GR levels through the signaling pathways described for handling. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms have been discovered to play a critical role in the effects of early life experience and particularly in the regulation of Nr3c1. Overall, the research avenues that have evolved from the initial finding of handling-induced changes in GR have broad applications to our understanding of plasticity, resilience, and the transmission of traits across generations. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. The high prevalence of impulse control behaviors in patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease: A cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vela, L; Martínez Castrillo, J C; García Ruiz, P; Gasca-Salas, C; Macías Macías, Y; Pérez Fernández, E; Ybot, I; Lopez Valdés, E; Kurtis, M M; Posada Rodriguez, I J; Mata, M; Ruiz Huete, C; Eimil, M; Borrue, C; Del Val, J; López-Manzanares, L; Rojo Sebastian, A; Marasescu, R

    2016-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease patients, impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been associated with younger age and early disease onset, yet the prevalence of ICDs in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients has yet to be studied. Thus, we set out to compare the prevalence of impulse control behaviors (ICBs) in a cohort of EOPD patients with that in age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs), as well as to analyze the association of these symptoms with the use of dopaminergic drugs and other clinical or demographic factors. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out on patients recruited from outpatient Movement Disorder Clinics, assessing ICBs using the short form of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP). In addition, depression and quality of life (QoL) were measured, along with other demographic and clinical variables. Of the 87 EOPD patients, 49 (58.3%) displayed an ICB, as did 28 of the 87 HCs (32.9%; p=0.001). Most of the EOPD patients that displayed an ICB (91.8%) were medicated with a dopamine agonist (DA) and accordingly, DA treatment was associated with a 7-fold increased risk of developing an ICB. Patients with ICBs had a higher depression score and a worse QoL. ICBs are much more prevalent in EOPD patients than in HCs and they are associated with DA intake, depression and a worse QoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  2. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  3. Fatigue and work safety behavior in men during early fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Gary; St John, Winsome

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between fatigue and work safety behavior of fathers with new babies. A total of 241 fathers completed a questionnaire at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum with items on fatigue and safety behavior at work. Results revealed that fathers worked long hours, reported a moderate-to-high physical intensity of work, and experienced interrupted sleep averaging less than 6 hours. Fathers also reported moderate fatigue at both 6 and 12 weeks postbirth, which was inversely related to safety behavior. Both fatigue and sleep history made a small but statistically significant contribution to safety behavior results at 6 and 12 weeks postbirth. Findings suggest that working fathers with babies experience fatigue during early fatherhood and are unable to recover due to interrupted and poor sleep patterns. Managers should consider the potential for fatigue to compromise work safety and develop risk management strategies that target new fathers.

  4. Influences of Biological and Adoptive Mothers’ Depression and Antisocial Behavior on Adoptees’ Early Behavior Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers’ reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior to children’s behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers’ related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood. PMID:23408036

  5. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  6. Early Childhood Education: Teacher Behaviors from a Cross Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Patricia Ann

    Reported in this document are observations of early childhood education in England, Israel, Seychelles, and China. Specifically, observations focus on (1) teacher behavior, including behavior toward individuals, small groups, and large groups or whole classes; (2) teacher demonstration behaviors; (3) teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as…

  7. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  8. Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

  9. Professors' Irritating Behavior Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the irritating behaviors of professors as experienced and reported by 232 Le Moyne College students. In this study, "irritating behavior" was understood as "actions that vex, annoy, bother, pester, frustrate, or provoke anger." The survey used in this study was developed by Larry M. Ludewig, Ph.D.,…

  10. Verbal Behavior in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at the Onset of an Early Behavioral Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivard, Melina; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was direct observation of verbal behaviors of 14 children with autism spectrum disorders at the onset of an early behavioral intervention (EBI) program delivered in a public services agency. Objectives were to (1) describe frequencies of vocal, verbal, and listener behaviors; (2) evaluate the relationship between the…

  11. Profiles of disruptive behavior across early childhood: Contributions of frustration reactivity, physiological regulation, and maternal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological regulation, and maternal behavior in the laboratory at 2 years of age. A latent profile analysis (LPA) resulted in 4 longitudinal profiles of disruptive behavior, which were differentiated by interactions between reactivity, regulation, and maternal behavior. A high profile was associated with high reactivity combined with high maternal control or low regulation combined with low maternal control. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective. PMID:18826530

  12. Trauma-Focused Early Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Intervention (TF-EICBI) in children and adolescent survivors of suicide bombing attacks (SBAs). A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Leor, Agnes; Dolberg, Orna T; Eshel, Shira Pagorek; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the impact of an early intervention (Trauma-Focused Early Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Intervention, TF-EICBI) in children and adolescents who were victims of suicide bombing attacks (SBAs) in Israel. Description of an intervention and preliminary experience in its use. An acute trauma center of a Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit in a Department of Psychiatry of a university-affiliated medical center. Ten children and adolescents who were victims of SBAs and underwent early interventions (EIG) were compared to 11 adolescent victims who received no intervention (NEIG). The EIG included all the children and adolescent survivors of various SBAs that had occurred during 1 year who presented to our hospital after the TF-EICBI was implemented (June 2001). The NEIG comprised all adolescents girls <18 years of age at follow-up who survived one SBA (at the "Dolphinarium" Discotheque) before the TF-EICBI was available. At the time of the 1-year post-SBA follow-up, all 21 subjects were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis 1 DSMIII R Disorders (SCID), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). One (10 percent) EI subject and four (36.4 percent) NEI subjects had post-traumatic stress disorder. The mean CBCL total score and most of the mean CBCL behavior problem scores were significantly higher (p < 0.021) among the NEI group members. Intervention was effective in preventing and lowering mental morbidity of children and adolescents after SBAs.

  13. Gender Attitudes in Early Childhood: Behavioral Consequences and Cognitive Antecedents.

    PubMed

    Halim, May Ling D; Ruble, Diane N; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Shrout, Patrick E; Amodio, David M

    2017-05-01

    This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency). Other-gender attitudes predicted gender-biased behavior. These patterns were observed in all ethnic groups. These findings suggest that early learning about gender categories shape young children's gender attitudes and that these gender attitudes already have consequences for children's intergroup behavior at age 5. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Gender Attitudes in Early Childhood: Behavioral Consequences and Cognitive Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Halim, May Ling D.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Amodio, David M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors that predicted children’s gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically-diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N=246, Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African-American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency). Other-gender attitudes predicted gender-biased behavior. These patterns were observed in all ethnic groups. These findings suggest that early learning about gender categories shape young children’s gender attitudes, and that these gender attitudes already have consequences for children’s intergroup behavior at age 5. PMID:27759886

  15. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Early Sexual Behavior: Gender Difference in Externalizing Behavior as a Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with increased risk for externalizing behavior problems; childhood externalizing behavior problems are linked with subsequent early sexual behavior. The present study examined the effects of PCE on early sexual initiation (sexual intercourse prior to age 15) and whether externalizing behavior in preadolescence mediated the relationship. Methods Three hundred fifty-four (180 PCE and 174 non-cocaine exposed; 192 girls, 142 boys), primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, 15-year old adolescents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents’ sexual behavior was assessed at 15 years using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Externalizing behavior was assessed at 12 years using the Youth Self-Report. Results Logistic regression models indicated that adolescents with PCE (n=69, 38%) were 2.2 times more likely (95% CI= 1.2 – 4.1, p < .01) to engage in early sexual intercourse than non-exposed peers (n=49, 28%) controlling for covariates. This relationship was fully mediated by self-reported externalizing behavior in girls but not in boys, suggesting childhood externalizing behavior as a gender moderated mediator. Blood lead level during preschool years was also related to a greater likelihood of early sexual intercourse (OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4 – 4.7, p < .002). Greater parental monitoring decreased the likelihood of early sexual intercourse, while violence exposure increased the risk. Conclusions PCE is related to early sexual intercourse, and externalizing behavior problems mediate PCE effects in female adolescents. Interventions targeting externalizing behavior may reduce early sexual initiation and thereby reduce HIV risk behaviors and early, unplanned pregnancy in girls with PCE. PMID:26088698

  16. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on early sexual behavior: Gender difference in externalizing behavior as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung O; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with increased risk for externalizing behavior problems; childhood externalizing behavior problems are linked with subsequent early sexual behavior. The present study examined the effects of PCE on early sexual initiation (sexual intercourse prior to age 15) and whether externalizing behavior in preadolescence mediated the relationship. Three hundred fifty-four (180 PCE and 174 non-cocaine exposed; 192 girls, 142 boys), primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, 15-year-old adolescents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents' sexual behavior was assessed at 15 years using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Externalizing behavior was assessed at 12 years using the Youth Self-Report. Logistic regression models indicated that adolescents with PCE (n=69, 38%) were 2.2 times more likely (95% CI=1.2-4.1, p<.01) to engage in early sexual intercourse than non-exposed peers (n=49, 28%) controlling for covariates. This relationship was fully mediated by self-reported externalizing behavior in girls but not in boys, suggesting childhood externalizing behavior as a gender moderated mediator. Blood lead level during preschool years was also related to a greater likelihood of early sexual intercourse (OR=2.6, 95% CI=1.4-4.7, p<.002). Greater parental monitoring decreased the likelihood of early sexual intercourse, while violence exposure increased the risk. PCE is related to early sexual intercourse, and externalizing behavior problems mediate PCE effects in female adolescents. Interventions targeting externalizing behavior may reduce early sexual initiation and thereby reduce HIV risk behaviors and early, unplanned pregnancy in girls with PCE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Early Military Attrition Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    military separation. Although hizh school graduation status is the primary single factor affecting attrition, age and previous employment stability...assignment like individual suitability and satisfaction do not significantly influence early attrition; the early attrition rate of nonhigh- school ...a recruit with a single previous employer. I I V IS BLANK vi * Various indicators of military job match had no significant impact on early attrition

  18. Three-dimensional, two-species magnetohydrodynamic studies of the early time behaviors of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2 barium release

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Lianghai, E-mail: xielh@nssc.ac.cn; Li, Lei; Wang, Jingdong

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional, two-species (Ba{sup +} and H{sup +}) MHD model to study the early time behaviors of a barium release at about 1 R{sub E} like Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2, with emphasis placed on the three-dimensional evolution of the barium cloud and its effects on the ambient plasma environment. We find that the perturbations caused by the cloud are the combined results of the initial injection, the radial expansion, and the diamagnetic effect and propagate as fast MHD waves in the magnetosphere. In return, the transverse expansion and the cross-B motion of barium ions aremore » constrained by the magnetic force, which lead to a field-aligned striation of ions and the decoupling of these ions from the neutrals. Our simulation shows the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity in the barium cloud. The estimated time scale for the cavity evolution might be much shorter if photoionization time scale and field aligned expansion of barium ions are considered. In addition, our two species MHD simulation also finds the snowplow effect resulting from the momentum coupling between barium ions and background H{sup +}, which creates density hole and bumps in the background H{sup +} when barium ions expanding along the magnetic field lines.« less

  19. Early marijuana initiation: The link between prenatal marijuana exposure, early childhood behavior, and negative adult roles.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    We investigated the associations among gestational factors including prenatal marijuana exposure (PME), child behavior at age 3, early age of onset of marijuana use (EAOM, <15years), and adult roles at 22years. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development (MHPCD) Project, a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure in offspring who have been studied for over 22years since the prenatal phase. Data from the prenatal, birth, 3-, and 22-year phases (N=608) were used in the present study. Age of onset of offspring substance use was determined based on data from the 14-, 16-, and 22-year phases. The subjects were of lower socioeconomic status, 43% were Caucasian and the remaining were African-American, and 48% were males. Early childhood behavior was significantly (p<0.05) related to EAOM after controlling for PME, birth and childhood environmental risk factors, and Conduct Disorder. EAOM was significantly associated with negative adult roles including increased risk of being arrested (p<0.001), lower educational attainment (p<0.001), having a child without being married (p<0.05), and unemployment at 22years (p<0.001). The correlations between PME and negative adult roles and between early childhood behavior and negative adult roles were also statistically significant. Pathway analysis demonstrated that EAOM significantly mediated the associations between PME and fulfillment of adult roles and between early childhood behavior and adult roles. There are a number of intervention points that could be targeted that would have a long-term impact on lowering the probability of EAOM and less success in adult roles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Early Conceptions in Systems Thinking in an Environmental Context: An Exploratory Study of Preschool Students' Understanding of Stocks & Flows, Behavior Over Time and Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmeister, Kristina M.

    Systems thinking allows learners to look at the world as a series of interconnected parts of a whole. A debate exists in early childhood research literature about whether or not children have the capacity to hold systems thinking conceptions due to the complex thought processing needed for systems thinking. Additionally, many researchers question whether children have enough life experience or cognitive schema to participate fully in systems thinking. However, this study's findings indicate that young children do show signs of more complex understanding in systems thinking than what previous literature suggests a young child has the ability to do. This three part research study was conducted in a universal pre-kindergarten (UPK) classroom in a first-ring suburb of a rust-belt city in the Northeastern United States. The study was grounded in a desire to uncover young children's understanding of systems thinking through everyday classroom activities. Twenty students participated in this qualitative study which utilized read-aloud, water play and the interpretation and creation of graphs through associated structured and semi-structured interviews. Data from student's observations and interviews was transcribed, segmented, coded and analyzed. This student-centered process approach (Gotwals & Alonzo, 2012) allowed for children's ideas to emerge naturally during the research tasks. Data was analyzed according to a three step analysis process using a real-world lens, a systems thinking skills lens, and the development of lower anchors for future learning progressions lens. Across a group of 20 preschool children there was an overarching theme that the ability to think in systems and utilize simple systems thinking tools, such as stock-flow maps, feedback loops and behavior over time graphs, was present. Since children are ready to reason using rudimentary systems thinking, then systems thinking opportunities should be incorporated into their informal and formal learning

  1. Ethical Behavior in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Ward, Evangeline H.

    This booklet contains two essays on ethics for early childhood educators. The first essay discusses the meaning of a code of ethics, the importance of a code of ethics for working with preschool children, ethical conflicts in day care and preschool work, and steps which may be taken to help early childhood workers resolve these conflicts. Ethical…

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the…

  3. Early Childhood Behavior Problems and the Gender Gap in Educational Attainment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Jayanti

    2016-01-01

    Why do men in the United States today complete less schooling than women? One reason may be gender differences in early self-regulation and prosocial behaviors. Scholars have found that boys' early behavioral disadvantage predicts their lower average academic achievement during elementary school. In this study, I examine longer-term effects: Do…

  4. Poverty and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood: The Mediating Role of Maternal Depression Symptoms and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…

  5. Nature and Nurture in Early Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Lucy; Llewellyn, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and research into its prevention is increasingly focusing on the earliest stages of life. Avidity of appetite has been linked to a higher risk of obesity, but studies in infancy were scarce. The Gemini twin cohort was established to investigate genetic and environmental determinants of weight trajectories in early childhood with a focus on appetite and the home environment. Gemini families have been supplying questionnaire data at regular intervals, starting when the twins were 8 months old. Analyses of data on infant appetite and weight have provided a number of important findings. Firstly, a prospective study found that appetite in infancy drives weight gain more strongly than weight drives appetite, although the two processes do coexist. A further study using a subsample of twins discordant for appetite ruled out the possibility of familial confounding, suggesting a causal role for appetite in weight. Heritability estimates for appetitive traits were moderate to high (53-84%). Finally, multivariate analyses indicated that roughly one third of the genes related to weight are also related to appetite and vice versa. Environmental factors affecting appetite in infancy are understudied, but some potential strategies for minimizing over- or underconsumption by at-risk individuals are suggested. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Drogan, Robin R.; Janney, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers analyzed studies published from 1990 to 2012 to determine early childhood practitioner involvement in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based behavioral intervention plans (BIP) for children with challenging behavior, age 6 and younger. Coding of 30 studies included practitioner involvement in FBA and BIP processes,…

  7. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  8. Using Positive Youth Development to Predict Contribution and Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Findings from the First Two Waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Bobek, Deborah L.; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2007-01-01

    Theories of positive youth development (PYD) regard such development as bases of both community contributions and lessened likelihood of risk/problem behaviors. Using data from the 4-H Study of PYD, we tested these expectations by examining if PYD in Grade 5 predicted both youth contributions and risk behaviors and depression in Grade 6. Results…

  9. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline) adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015). The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001) and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08) predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18). Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13). A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04) and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001) were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06). Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06) and lower perceived land

  10. Early effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain volumetry and behavior: a combined MRI and histology study in mice.

    PubMed

    Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Sartorius, Alexander; Gass, Peter; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K

    2017-10-01

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet. In addition, histological analyses for myelination and neurogenesis were performed. As expected, wheel running resulted in a significant increase of gray matter volume in the CA1-3 areas, the dentate gyrus and stratum granulosum of the hippocampus in the VBM analysis, while a positive effect of the cafeteria-diet was shown for the whole hippocampal CA1-3 area only in the ROI analysis, indicating a regional volume effect. It was earlier found that hippocampal neurogenesis may be related to volume increases after exercise. Interestingly, while running resulted in a significant increase in neurogenesis assessed by doublecortin (DCX)-labeling, this was not true for cafeteria diet. This indicates different underlying mechanisms for gray matter increase. Moreover, animals receiving cafeteria diet only showed mild deficits in long-term memory assessed by the puzzle-box paradigm, while executive functioning and short term memory were not affected. Our data therefore highlight that high caloric diet impacts on the brain and behavior. Physical exercise seems not to interact with these mechanisms.

  11. Predictors of Behavioral Regulation in Kindergarten: Household Chaos, Parenting and Early Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Willoughby, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral regulation is an important school readiness skill that has been linked to early executive function (EF) and later success in learning and school achievement. Although poverty and related risks as well as negative parenting have been associated with poorer EF and behavioral regulation, chaotic home environments may also play a role in understanding both early EF and later behavioral regulation at school age. To explore these relationships, a unique longitudinal and representative sample was used of 1292 children born to mothers who lived in low wealth rural America who were followed from birth into early elementary school. This study examined whether household chaos, which was measured across the first three years of life, predicted behavioral regulation in kindergarten above and beyond poverty related variables. In addition, this study tested whether parent responsivity and acceptance behaviors, measured during the first three years of life, as well as EF skills, which were measured when children were three to five years of age, mediated the relationship between early household chaos and kindergarten behavioral regulation. Results suggested that household chaos disorganization indirectly predicted kindergarten behavioral regulation through intermediate impacts on parenting behaviors and children's early EF skills. These findings suggest the importance of early household chaos disorganization, the parenting environment and early EF skills in understanding behavioral regulation, above and beyond poverty related risks. PMID:26751500

  12. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at one- and two-year follow-up in Washington, United States and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students (N = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004 (Grade 9 [G9]). Rates of lifetime, current, frequent, and heavy episodic alcohol use were higher in Victoria than Washington State, whereas rates of five antisocial behaviors were generally comparable across states. After controlling for established risk factors, few associations between alcohol use and antisocial behavior remained, except that G7 current use predicted G8 police arrests and stealing and G9 carrying a weapon and stealing; G7 heavy episodic use predicted G8 and G9 police arrests; and G7 lifetime use predicted G9 carrying a weapon. Hence, risk factors other than alcohol were stronger predictors of antisocial behaviors. PMID:25132702

  13. Delinquent-oriented attitudes mediate the relation between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behavior.

    PubMed

    Halgunseth, Linda C; Perkins, Daniel F; Lippold, Melissa A; Nix, Robert L

    2013-04-01

    Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in sixth grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by seventh grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by eighth grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Delinquent-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relation Between Parental Inconsistent Discipline and Early Adolescent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Lippold, Melissa A.; Nix, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial research supports the association between parental inconsistent discipline and early adolescent behaviors, less is understood on mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the mediating influence of delinquent-oriented attitudes in early adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 324 rural adolescents and their parents, findings revealed that inconsistent discipline in 6th grade predicted an increase in adolescent delinquent-oriented attitudes by 7th grade which, in turn, predicted both an increase in early adolescent antisocial behaviors and a decrease in socially competent behaviors by 8th grade. Therefore, it appears that accepting attitudes toward delinquency may in part develop from experiencing inconsistent discipline at home and may offer a possible explanation as to why early adolescents later engage in more antisocial and less socially competent behaviors. Findings may inform family-based preventive intervention programs that seek to decrease behavior problems and promote social competence in early adolescents. PMID:23544924

  15. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  16. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant…

  17. Early Concern and Disregard for Others as Predictors of Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and…

  18. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hydrocortisone (2× 10 mg/kg), betamethasone (2× 0.4 mg/kg) or vehicle. On postnatal day (P)15, seizures were induced by flurothyl or kainic acid (3.5 or 5.0 mg/kg). Horizontal bar holding was determined prior to seizures and again on P17. Performance in the elevated plus maze was assessed on P20-22. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreased postnatal susceptibility to flurothyl-induced clonic seizures but not to kainic acid-induced seizures. Prenatal hydrocortisone decreased postnatal weight but did not affect seizure susceptibility. Hydrocortisone alone did not affect performance in behavioral tests except for improving horizontal bar holding on P17. A combination of prenatal hydrocortisone and postnatal seizures resulted in increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to mineralocorticoid receptor blocker canrenoic acid did not attenuate, but surprisingly amplified the effects of hydrocortisone on body weight and significantly worsened horizontal bar performance. Thus, prenatal exposure to excess corticosteroids alters postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. Specific effects may depend on corticosteroid species. PMID:21429712

  19. Differential associations of early callous-unemotional, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors: multiple domains within early-starting conduct problems?

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Grabell, Adam S; Alves, Martha L; Olson, Sheryl L

    2015-06-01

    Early-starting child conduct problems (CP) are linked to the development of persistent antisocial behavior. Researchers have theorized multiple pathways to CP and that CP comprise separable domains, marked by callous-unemotional (CU) behavior, oppositional behavior, or ADHD symptoms. However, a lack of empirical evidence exists from studies that have examined whether there are unique correlates of these domains. We examined differential correlates of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors during the preschool years to test their potentially distinct nomological networks. Multimethod data, including parent and teacher reports and observations of child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at age 3 and age 6 (N = 240; 48% female). Dimensions of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors were separable within Confirmatory Factor Analyses across mother and father reports. There were differential associations between CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors and socioemotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes: CU behavior was uniquely related to lower moral regulation, guilt, and empathy. ADHD was uniquely related to lower attentional focusing and observed effortful control. Finally, CU behavior uniquely predicted increases in teacher-reported externalizing from ages 3-6 over and above covariates, and ADHD and oppositional behavior. Consistent with theory, dimensions of CU, ADHD, and oppositional behavior demonstrated separable nomological networks representing separable facets within early-starting CP. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction…

  1. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    PubMed

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Clustering of health-related behaviors among early and mid-adolescents in Tuscany: results from a representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Arata, Lucia; Pammolli, Andrea; Simi, Rita; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo; Amicizia, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background A huge amount of literature suggests that adolescents’ health-related behaviors tend to occur in clusters, and the understanding of such behavioral clustering may have direct implications for the effective tailoring of health-promotion interventions. Despite the usefulness of analyzing clustering, Italian data on this topic are scant. This study aimed to evaluate the clustering patterns of health-related behaviors. Methods The present study is based on data from the Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in Tuscany in 2010, which involved 3291 11-, 13- and 15-year olds. To aggregate students’ data on 22 health-related behaviors, factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis were performed. Results Factor analysis revealed eight factors, which were dubbed in accordance with their main traits: ‘Alcohol drinking’, ‘Smoking’, ‘Physical activity’, ‘Screen time’, ‘Signs & symptoms’, ‘Healthy eating’, ‘Violence’ and ‘Sweet tooth’. These factors explained 67% of variance and underwent cluster analysis. A six-cluster κ-means solution was established with a 93.8% level of classification validity. The between-cluster differences in both mean age and gender distribution were highly statistically significant. Conclusions Health-compromising behaviors are common among Tuscan teens and occur in distinct clusters. These results may be used by schools, health-promotion authorities and other stakeholders to design and implement tailored preventive interventions in Tuscany. PMID:27908972

  3. Clustering of health-related behaviors among early and mid-adolescents in Tuscany: results from a representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Arata, Lucia; Pammolli, Andrea; Simi, Rita; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo; Amicizia, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    A huge amount of literature suggests that adolescents' health-related behaviors tend to occur in clusters, and the understanding of such behavioral clustering may have direct implications for the effective tailoring of health-promotion interventions. Despite the usefulness of analyzing clustering, Italian data on this topic are scant. This study aimed to evaluate the clustering patterns of health-related behaviors. The present study is based on data from the Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in Tuscany in 2010, which involved 3291 11-, 13- and 15-year olds. To aggregate students' data on 22 health-related behaviors, factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis were performed. Factor analysis revealed eight factors, which were dubbed in accordance with their main traits: 'Alcohol drinking', 'Smoking', 'Physical activity', 'Screen time', 'Signs & symptoms', 'Healthy eating', 'Violence' and 'Sweet tooth'. These factors explained 67% of variance and underwent cluster analysis. A six-cluster κ-means solution was established with a 93.8% level of classification validity. The between-cluster differences in both mean age and gender distribution were highly statistically significant. Health-compromising behaviors are common among Tuscan teens and occur in distinct clusters. These results may be used by schools, health-promotion authorities and other stakeholders to design and implement tailored preventive interventions in Tuscany.

  4. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  5. Educational Achievement and Early School Behavior as Predictors of Alcohol-Use Disorders: 35-Year Follow-Up of the Woodlawn Study*

    PubMed Central

    CRUM, ROSA M.; JUON, HEE-SOON; GREEN, KERRY M.; ROBERTSON, JUDITH; FOTHERGILL, KATE; ENSMINGER, MARGARET

    2018-01-01

    Objective Using prospectively gathered data across a 35-year follow-up interval, we assessed the association of educational achievement and school behaviors with risk for the development of an alcohol-use disorder in adulthood. Method The baseline population consisted of 1,242 first-grade students in 1966–1967 residing in the Woodlawn community of Chicago, Illinois. Follow-up interviews were completed for adolescents and their mothers (1975–1976), during young adulthood (1992–1993), and midlife (2002–2003). A total of 1,052 individuals completed the young adult and/or midlife interviews and provided information to assess the presence of a lifetime alcohol-use disorder. Logistic regression with multiple imputation to account for missing information was used to assess the relationships between early-educational and school-behavior characteristics with onset of a DSM-III-R/DSM-IV alcohol-use disorder (defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Results Relatively few of the hypothesized educational predictors were associated with risk for alcohol-use disorders in adulthood. The measures found to be predictive of a subsequent alcohol-use disorder included the following: (1) math achievement among first-grade boys, (2) mothers’ report of skipping school among adolescent males, (3) self-report of skipping school among adolescent girls, and (4) school dropout. Early shyness among first-grade boys was protective for later alcohol-use disorders. Conclusions The current report supplies data on the association of educational characteristics and school behaviors with the development of an alcohol-use disorder in a population-based sample with an extended interval of follow-up. Gender-specific differences are discussed. PMID:16536131

  6. Studies of Supervisory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    A series of supervisory behavior studies that began at Mississippi State University in 1980 are summarized. The studies were instigated because of interest in effective supervision and dissatisfaction with an indepth literature search of supervision literature. The theories disclosed were fragmentary, contradictory, and impractical for use by…

  7. Reliability study of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome adapted for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Canali, Fabíola; Brucki, Sonia M D; Bertolucci, Paulo H F; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2011-12-01

    Ecological tests are useful in assessing executive function deficits and may be of value in appraising response to treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients. Our aims were to examine executive function using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients, and verify the applicability of this test battery. Forty-one older-adult controls were matched with mild Alzheimer's disease patients by age, education, and gender. There significant inter-group differences in overall profile and almost all subtests except temporal judgment, time spent on planning the first and second Zoo Map visit, number of errors when copying drawings, naming pictures and Six Modified Elements arithmetic, and dysexecutive questionnaire self-rating. The Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome item that best discriminated controls from patients was the Modified Six Elements - adapted (general index), with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 90%, (AUC = 0.91, p < 0.001). Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome was effective in detecting executive function deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease patients, particularly the task switching, time monitoring, and rule-shift subtests.

  8. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  9. The Relation Between Inattentive and Hyperactive/Impulsive Behaviors and Early Mathematics Skills.

    PubMed

    Sims, Darcey M; Purpura, David J; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Despite strong evidence that inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors are associated with mathematical difficulties in school-age children, little research has been conducted to examine the link between these constructs before the start of formal education. The purpose of this study was to examine how different manifestations of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, as measured by different assessment tools, are related to early mathematics skills in preschoolers. Eighty-two preschool children completed a measure of early mathematics and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Teachers rated children's behaviors using the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-15 Item. Sixty-five of these children completed mathematics assessments 1 year later. Teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely related to concurrent early mathematics skills, whereas CPT errors were uniquely predictive of early mathematics skills 1 year later. Findings have implications for the understanding and assessment of behavior problems that are associated with early mathematics difficulties. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Prospective associations between prosocial behavior and social dominance in early childhood: are sharers the best leaders?

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M; Guzzo, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study during early childhood (N = 96; M = 42.80; SD = 7.57) investigated the concurrent and prospective association between prosocial behavior and social dominance. Time-intensive school-based focal child sampling with continuous recording observations of prosocial behavior to peers were conducted and teacher-reports of social dominance were collected. The study documents significant prospective links between prosocial behavior to peers and increases in social dominance over time. Social dominance was not associated with changes in prosocial behavior. The findings extend past empirical work in early childhood and future directions are discussed.

  11. Behavioral development in embryonic and early juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic…

  13. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  14. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicidal Behavior: Familial and Individual Antecedents of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Brent, David A.; Ziegler, Melissa; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Burke, Ainsley; Zelazny, Jamie; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify clinical predictors of new-onset suicidal behavior in children of parents with a history of mood disorder and suicidal behavior. Method In a prospective study of offspring of parents with mood disorders, 365 offspring (average age, 20 years) of 203 parents were followed for up to 6 years. Offspring with incident suicide attempts or emergency referrals for suicidal ideation or behavior (“incident events”) were compared with offspring without such events on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident events and predictors of time to incident event. Results Offspring of probands who had made suicide attempts, compared with offspring of parents with mood disorders who had not made attempts, had a higher rate of incident suicide attempts (4.1% versus 0.6%, relative risk=6.5) as well as overall suicidal events (8.3% versus 1.9%, relative risk=4.4). Mood disorder and self-reported impulsive aggression in offspring and a history of sexual abuse and self-reported depression in parents predicted earlier time to, and greater hazard of, an incident suicidal event. Conclusions In offspring of parents with mood disorders, precursors of early-onset suicidal behavior include mood disorder and impulsive aggression as well as parental history of suicide attempt, sexual abuse, and self-reported depression. These results suggest that efforts to prevent the familial transmission of early-onset suicidal behavior by targeting these domains could reduce the morbidity of suicidal behavior in high-risk youths. PMID:17728421

  15. Predicting externalizing and internalizing behavior in kindergarten: examining the buffering role of early social support.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Krill, Sarah C; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    This study tested an ecological model predicting children's behavior problems in kindergarten from risk and protective factors (parent psychological distress, parenting behavior, and social support) during early childhood. Study participants were 1,161 sociodemographically diverse mother-child pairs that participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The predictor variables were collected at two separate time points and based on parent reports; children were an average of 2 years old at Time 1 and 3 years old at Time 2. The outcome measures were collected when children reached kindergarten and were 6 years old on average. Our results show that early maternal psychological distress, mediated by suboptimal parenting behavior, predicts children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. Moreover, early social support buffers the relations between psychological distress and later suboptimal parenting behavior and between suboptimal parenting behavior and later depressive/withdrawn behavior. Our findings have several implications for early intervention and prevention efforts. Of note, informal social support appears to play an important protective role in the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, weakening the link between psychological distress and less optimal parenting behavior and between suboptimal parenting behavior and children's withdrawal/depression symptoms. Increasing social support may be a productive goal for family and community-level intervention.

  16. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. The study sample consisted of 3,705 families from a nationally representative cohort study of urban families. Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5. Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. The models controlled for a comprehensive set of possible confounders at the child, parent, and neighborhood levels. Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children. The indirect effect of low collective efficacy on behavior problems through corporal punishment was not significant. These findings highlight the importance of multilevel interventions that promote both neighborhood collective efficacy and non-physical discipline in early childhood. PMID:28425727

  17. Longitudinal associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with behavior problems in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. The study sample consisted of 3,705 families from a nationally representative cohort study of urban families. Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5. Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. The models controlled for a comprehensive set of possible confounders at the child, parent, and neighborhood levels. Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children. The indirect effect of low collective efficacy on behavior problems through corporal punishment was not significant. These findings highlight the importance of multilevel interventions that promote both neighborhood collective efficacy and nonphysical discipline in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Predicting Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior in Kindergarten: Examining the Buffering Role of Early Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Amy E.; Krill, Sarah C.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested an ecological model predicting children’s behavior problems in kindergarten from risk and protective factors (parent psychological distress, parenting behavior, and social support) during early childhood. Method Study participants were 1161 socio-demographically diverse mother-child pairs who participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The predictor variables were collected at two separate time points and based on parent reports; children were an average of two years old at Time 1 and three years old at Time 2. The outcome measures were collected when children reached Kindergarten and were six years old on average. Results Our results show that early maternal psychological distress, mediated by sub-optimal parenting behavior, predicts children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors in kindergarten. Moreover, early social support buffers the relations between psychological distress and later sub-optimal parenting behaviors and between sub-optimal parenting behavior and later depressive/withdrawn behavior. Conclusions Our findings have several implications for early intervention and prevention efforts. Of note, informal social support appears to play an important protective role in the development of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, weakening the link between psychological distress and less optimal parenting behavior and between sub-optimal parenting behavior and children’s withdrawal/depression symptoms. Increasing social support may be a productive goal for family and community-level intervention. PMID:24697587

  19. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  20. The effect of implementation of an early detection team: A nationwide register-based study of characteristics and help-seeking behavior in first-episode schizophrenia in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Nordgaard, Julie; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-26

    In an effort to make people with signs of psychosis seek help as early as possible, Region Zealand launched in 2012 an early detection team project as the first and only in Denmark. The project consisted of a combination of easy access and an information campaign targeting the public. This nation-wide study examined characteristics and help-seeking behavior of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in the early detection region in comparison with other Danish regions. Data from the Danish National Schizophrenia register on all Danish patients diagnosed with first-episode schizophrenia during 2012 to 2015 were linked to demographic and health care data drawn from official national registers. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the difference between the early detection region and other regions controlling for demographic characteristics and utilization of mental health care services and contacts to general practitioner (GP). Patients in the early detection region were younger (OR = 0.51; CI: 0.42-0.62; p < 0.000) than in regions without early detection teams. Furthermore, they were more likely to be of Danish origin, and less likely to have contact with mental health services and GPs prior to FES. The study suggests that implementing an early detection team in combination with an information campaign contributed to detecting patients with first-episode schizophrenia earlier than in regions without the early detection team. The study gives an indication of different pathways among patients in the early detection region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Early puberty, negative peer influence, and problem behaviors in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend's deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls' race/ethnicity. Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend's deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend's deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the "other" racial/ethnic minority group only. Early puberty and friends' deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences.

  2. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-02-01

    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Nicole B.; Swingler, Margaret M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build upon early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior, and whether infant's attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion in early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that, greater EEG power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10 months were associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention, and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present in the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10-months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infant's attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities in childhood. PMID:26381926

  4. Interactions between empathy and resting heart rate in early adolescence predict violent behavior in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2017-12-01

    Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood. Controlling for child ethnicity, family income, and child antisocial behavior at age 12, empathy inversely predicted moral disengagement and juvenile petitions for violent crimes, while RHR was unrelated to all measures of violent behavior. Interactive effects were also evident such that among men with lower but not higher levels of RHR, lower empathy predicted increased violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile arrests for violent offenses, peer-reported violent behavior at age 17, self-reported moral disengagement at age 17, and self-reported violent behavior at age 20. Implications for prevention and intervention are considered. Specifically, targeting empathic skills among individuals at risk for violent behavior because of specific psychophysiological profiles may lead to more impactful interventions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to the Early Thirties: Personality and Behavioral Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N=975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations, before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:18686175

  6. Interactions between callous unemotional behaviors and executive function in early childhood predict later socioemotional functioning

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2018-01-01

    Callous unemotional (CU) behaviors are linked to aggression, behavior problems, and difficulties in peer relationships in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether early childhood CU behaviors predict aggression or peer-rejection during late-childhood or potential moderation of this relationship by executive function. The current study examined whether the interaction of CU behaviors and executive function in early childhood predicted different forms of aggression in late-childhood, including proactive, reactive, and relational aggression, as well as how much children were liked by their peers. Data from cross-informant reports and multiple observational tasks were collected from a high-risk sample (N=240; female=118) at ages 3 and 10 years old. Parent reports of CU behaviors at age 3 predicted teacher reports of reactive, proactive, and relational aggression, as well as lower peer-liking at age 10. Moderation analysis showed that specifically at high levels of CU behaviors and low levels of observed executive function, children were reported by teachers as showing greater reactive and proactive aggression, and were less-liked by peers. Findings demonstrate that early childhood CU behaviors and executive function have unique main and interactive effects on both later aggression and lower peer-liking even when taking into account stability in behavior problems over time. By elucidating how CU behaviors and deficits in executive function potentiate each other during early childhood, we can better characterize the emergence of severe and persistent behavior and interpersonal difficulties across development. PMID:27418255

  7. Early Parenting, Represented Family Relationships, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.

    2015-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068

  8. Early parenting, represented family relationships, and externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2014-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children's representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children's represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children's represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.

  9. Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majorana, Alessandra; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo

    2014-02-15

    Several maternal health determinants during the first period of life of the child, as feeding practice, smoking habit and socio-economic level, are involved in early childhood health problems, as caries development. The potential associations among early childhood caries, feeding practices, maternal and environmental smoking exposure, Socio-Economic Status (SES) and several behavioral determinants were investigated. Italian toddlers (n = 2395) aged 24-30 months were recruited and information on feeding practices, sweet dietary habit, maternal smoking habit, SES, and fluoride supplementation in the first year of life was obtained throughout a questionnaire administered to mothers. Caries lesions in toddlers were identified in visual/tactile examinations and classified using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Associations between toddlers' caries data and mothers' questionnaire data were assessed using chi-squared test. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations among caries severity level (ICDAS score), behavioral factors and SES (using mean housing price per square meter as a proxy). Caries prevalence and severity levels were significantly lower in toddlers who were exclusively breastfed and those who received mixed feeding with a moderate-high breast milk component, compared with toddlers who received low mixed feeding and those exclusively fed with formula (p < 0.01). No moderate and high caries severity levels were observed in an exclusively breastfed children. High caries severity levels were significantly associated with sweet beverages (p < 0.04) and SES (p < 0.01). Toddlers whose mothers smoked five or more cigarettes/day during pregnancy showed a higher caries severity level (p < 0.01) respect to those whose mothers did not smoke. Environmental exposure to smoke during the first year of life was also significantly associated with caries severity (odds ratio =7.14, 95% confidence interval = 6.07-7.28). No

  10. Heritable and non-heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood identify children at high risk for severe trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies have demonstrated high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to earlier callous-unemotional behaviors. Additionally, studies indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. Method Using an adoption cohort of 561 families, biological mothers reported their history of severe antisocial behavior. Observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors when children were 27 months old. Results Biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors despite having no or limited contact with offspring. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors in children not genetically related to the parent. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. Conclusions The findings elucidate heritable and non-heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important non-heritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. As positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors, these findings have important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious antisocial behavior. PMID

  11. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11-13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Of 243 students, 63% (n = 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. A change of school environment has negative effects on children's obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments.

  12. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  13. Employees' Intentions to Retire Early: A Case of Planned Behavior and Anticipated Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dam, Karen; van der Vorst, Janine D. M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the early retirement intentions of 346 older Dutch employees by extending the theory of planned behavior with anticipated work conditions. The results showed that employees who felt a pressure from their spouse to retire early had a strong intention to leave the work force before the official retirement age, that is 65.…

  14. Nutritional Findings and Early Behavioral Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausman, Lynn M.

    This study investigated the effects of a short period of severe protein malnutrition on subsequent growth and development in the squirrel monkey. A total of 12 newborn monkeys were fed a low protein diet from 2 to 8 weeks of age then rehabilitated by returning them to the 13 percent protein diet of the control group. Minimum amount of protein…

  15. Early Childhood Maltreatment and Girls' Sexual Behavior: The Mediating Role of Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Mendle, Jane; Markowitz, Anna J

    2015-09-01

    Although links between early childhood maltreatment and girls' sexual behavior in adolescence have been well established, it is unclear whether different forms of maltreatment are differentially associated with sexual outcomes and whether distinct mechanisms explain associations across maltreatment types. Using data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the present study examines whether physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical neglect in early childhood differentially predict girls' age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners in early adulthood. The study also tests whether early pubertal timing mediates the link between early maltreatment and sexual behavior (N = 6,364). Findings indicate that early sexual and physical abuse were equally predictive of earlier age at first intercourse and a greater number of sexual partners, but that only the sexual abuse-age at first intercourse link was mediated by early puberty. These results suggest that sexual abuse and physical abuse are associated with earlier and riskier sexual behavior in girls relative to no maltreatment and to similar degrees. However, only the link between sexual abuse and sexual behavior involves a biological mechanism manifested in early pubertal timing. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of behavioral concerns and early childhood expulsions on the development of early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Sarah D; Kubicek, Lorraine F; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Zundel, Claudia; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2012-05-01

    This article examines how the Colorado study Children With Social, Emotional and Behavioral Concerns and the Providers Who Support Them (S.D. Hoover, 2006) was used to advance a statewide agenda for early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado. The study involved a survey of licensed childcare providers throughout the state asking about the behavior of children in their care and their responses to that behavior. Exclusion of children from early care and education settings due to challenging behavior was found to be a significant problem taking a toll on families, children, and early care and education providers. Importantly, results from the survey indicated that the rate of exclusion of children from care due to challenging behavior was lower for family childcare providers who had access to mental health consultation. Recommendations are offered regarding the infrastructure needed to sustain mental health consultation capacity in early care and education settings, and related policies and practices. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Behavioral, Personality, and Communicative Predictors of Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior,…

  18. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  19. The Relations among Cumulative Risk, Parenting, and Behavior Problems during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined relations among cumulative risk, nurturant and involved parenting, and behavior problems across early childhood. Methods: Cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems were measured in a sample of low-income toddlers participating in a family-centered program to prevent conduct problems. Results: Path analysis…

  20. Early Career Teacher Professional Development: Bridging Simulation Technology with Evidence-Based Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Elisa; Frazier, Stacy; Lisetti, Christine; Buche, Cedric; Lunn, Stephanie; Brown, Claire; Delmarre, Alban; Chou, Tommy; Gabbard, Joseph; Morgan, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Early career teachers working in high poverty schools face of overwhelming challenges navigating disruptive behaviors with studies highlighting behavior problems as one of the strongest predictors of turnover (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). Simulation-based technology leverages important pedagogical strengths (e.g., realistic training context,…

  1. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  2. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  3. The Effect of Academic Self-Concept on ADHD and Antisocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisecco, Stewart; Wristers, Kimberly; Swank, Paul; Silva, Phil A.; Baker, David B.

    2001-01-01

    A study evaluated the effect of academic self-concept (ASC) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial behaviors in early adolescents (n=445). Results indicated that ASC is an important construct that directly contributes to the development of antisocial behaviors rather than to symptoms of ADHD. (Contains…

  4. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  5. Cognitive and Social Influences on Early Prosocial Behavior in Two Sociocultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2010-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study, we tested 2 main hypotheses: first, that an early self-concept along with self-other differentiation is a universal precursor of prosocial behavior in 19-month-olds, and second, that the importance attached to relational socialization goals (SGs) concerning interpersonal responsiveness (obedience, prosocial behavior)…

  6. Early Childhood Educators and Children with Challenging Behaviors: Implications for Teacher Preparation and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Holly Kirkland

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine what beliefs, knowledge, skills, and early childhood education teachers should acquire to effectively teach and work with children who exhibit challenging behaviors. A significant body of literature demonstrates a connection between behavioral difficulties for children and negative academic,…

  7. Affecting behavior change in individuals with diabetes: findings from the Study to Help Improve Early Evaluation and Management of Risk Factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD).

    PubMed

    Bazata, Debbra D; Robinson, Jennifer G; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus and those at high or low risk of T2DM were reflected in healthy behaviors and whether these attributes differed for T2DM respondents who did or did not see a health educator. SHIELD, a U.S. population-based study, included respondents (> or =18 years of age) with T1DM (n = 366), T2DM (n = 3897), high risk (HR, n = 5449) defined as > or =3 of the following: abdominal obesity, high body mass index, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and low risk (LR, n = 5725) defined as < or =2 factors. T2DM respondents were more likely to receive health care professional recommendations to change their lifestyle habits (56%-62%) during their average 11 visits annually than the other groups (P < .0001). More T2DM and HR respondents tried losing weight, but fewer exercised regularly than T1DM and LR (P < .0001). T2DM respondents who saw a dietitian or health educator reported better current health and expectations for better future health, tried to make healthy food choices, and followed a prescribed eating plan than those who did not see these providers (P < .01). However, < or =30% of these T2DM respondents exercised regularly, or maintained desired weight. SHIELD findings show that respondents know and understand that improving their diet or exercise will affect their health, but the majority of respondents have not translated it into a behavior. Interaction with health educators and patient-empowering support may improve the transition to behavior change.

  8. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…

  9. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  10. Genetic vulnerability interacts with parenting and early care education to predict increasing externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Shannon T; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.

  11. Genetic vulnerability interacts with parenting and early care education to predict increasing externalizing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children’s early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children. PMID:25067867

  12. The Early Study Abroad Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Phuong

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of South Korean students are going to an English-speaking country as teenagers to escape from the grueling, test-oriented Korean schools in hopes of gaining entry into American universities. American colleges and universities are starting to see more of these "early study abroad students," as they are called in South…

  13. Trajectories of Family Management Practices and Early Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899

  14. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth complications predispose to externalizing behavior is not well explored. This study aims to assess whether birth complications predispose to early adolescent externalizing behavior and to test whether Intelligence Quotient (IQ) mediates relationships between predictor and outcome variables. We used data from a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort of 1,795 3-year-old boys and girls from Mauritius to test hypotheses. Birth complications were assessed from hospital record data, malnutrition from a pediatric exam at age 3 years, psychosocial adversity from parental interviews at age 3 years, and externalizing behavior problems from parental ratings at age 11 years. We found that babies with birth complications are more likely to develop externalizing behavior problems at age 11. Low IQ was associated with birth complications and was found to mediate the link between early predictors and later externalizing behavior. These prospective, longitudinal findings have potential clinical implications for the identification of early adolescent externalizing behavior and for public health attempts to prevent the occurrence of child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:22485069

  15. Proactive aggression in early school-aged children with externalizing behavior problems: A longitudinal study on the influence of empathy in response to distress.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Peter K; Verhulp, Esmee E; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), parents and teachers of 104 six- and seven-year-old children completed the Instrument for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. At T1, parents and teachers also reported empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Findings show that low levels of parent-reported empathy at baseline were specifically associated with high parent-reported proactive aggression but not with reactive aggression. Similarly, low teacher-reported empathy was specifically related to high teacher-reported proactive aggression. Furthermore, high parent-reported but not teacher-reported empathy at baseline was associated with low proactive aggression at 12 months after controlling for proactive aggression at baseline. The conclusions support the notion that in the study of the course of aggression in clinical groups, the distinction between proactive and reactive aggression as well as the study of empathy in response to distress is relevant for a better understanding and might be taken into account in the development of future interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  18. The longitudinal effects of early behavior problems in the dementia caregiving career.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Joseph E; Kane, Robert L; Kane, Rosalie A; Newcomer, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Using multiregional, 3-year data from early career dementia caregivers, this study determines how behavior problems that occur early in the caregiving career influence time to nursing home placement and change in burden and depression over time. A Cox proportional hazards model indicated that caregivers who managed frequent behavior problems earlier are more likely to institutionalize. After controlling for important time-varying covariates in a series of growth-curve models, caregivers who were faced with severe, early behavior problems reported greater increases in burden and depression over the 3-year study period. The findings suggest the need to consider experiences early in the dementia caregiving career when accounting for key longitudinal outcomes and also emphasize the importance of attrition when attempting to model the health implications of informal long-term care over time.

  19. Early deprivation increases high-leaning behavior, a novel anxiety-like behavior, in the open field test in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Miki; Ikubo, Natsuko; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Ishihara, Kohei; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position. The high-leaning behavior was decreased by treatment with an anxiolytic, diazepam, and it was increased under intense illumination as observed in the center activity. In addition, we compared the high-leaning behavior and center activity under various illumination intensities and found that the high-leaning behavior is more sensitive to illumination intensity than the center activity in the particular illumination range. These results suggest that the high-leaning behavior is a novel anxiety-like behavior in the open field test that can complement the center activity to assess the anxiety state of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adulthood: Broadening the Scope Beyond Early Sexual Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10–15) and sexual risk-taking (ages 21–24 and 30–33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  1. Externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence: Prediction from inhibition, language, parenting, and attachment.

    PubMed

    Roskam, Isabelle

    2018-03-22

    The aim of the current research was to disentangle four theoretically sound models of externalizing behavior etiology (i.e., attachment, language, inhibition, and parenting) by testing their relation with behavioral trajectories from early childhood to adolescence. The aim was achieved through a 10-year prospective longitudinal study conducted over five waves with 111 referred children aged 3 to 5 years at the onset of the study. Clinical referral was primarily based on externalizing behavior. A multimethod (questionnaires, testing, and observations) approach was used to estimate the four predictors in early childhood. In line with previous studies, the results show a significant decrease of externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence. The decline was negatively related to mothers' coercive parenting and positively related to attachment security in early childhood, but not related to inhibition and language. The study has implications for research into externalizing behavior etiology recommending to gather hypotheses from various theoretically sound models to put them into competition with one another. The study also has implications for clinical practice by providing clear indications for prevention and early intervention.

  2. Home Literacy Exposure and Early Language and Literacy Skills in Children Who Struggle with Behavior and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason; Reeve, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…

  3. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Grace K.; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Assa'ad, Amal H.; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E.; Ryan, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. METHODS: Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8–5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7–7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0–9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. CONCLUSIONS: Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. PMID:26715608

  4. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Maya K; LeMasters, Grace K; Levin, Linda; Rothenberg, Marc E; Assa'ad, Amal H; Newman, Nicholas; Bernstein, David; Khurana-Hershey, Gurjit; Lockey, James E; Ryan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between allergic diseases and internalizing disorders has not been well characterized with regard to multiple allergic diseases or longitudinal study. The objective of this study was to examine the association between multiple allergic diseases in early childhood with validated measures of internalizing disorders in the school-age years. Children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study underwent skin testing and examinations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 years. At age 7, parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), a validated measure of childhood behavior and emotion. The association between allergic diseases at age 4, including allergic rhinitis, allergic persistent wheezing, atopic dermatitis, and allergic sensitization, and BASC-2 internalizing, anxiety, and depression T scores at age 7 was examined by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for covariates. The cohort included 546 children with complete information on allergic disease and BASC-2 outcomes. Allergic rhinitis at age 4 was significantly associated with elevated internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-5.8), anxiety (aOR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6), and depressive scores (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) at age 7. Allergic persistent wheezing was significantly associated with elevated internalizing scores (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.3). The presence of >1 allergic disease (aOR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.7-7.6) and allergic rhinitis with comorbid allergic disease(s) (aOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 2.0-9.2) at age 4 had dose-dependent associations with internalizing scores. Children with allergic rhinitis and allergic persistent wheezing at age 4 are at increased risk of internalizing behaviors at age 7. Furthermore, multiple allergic diseases had a dose-dependent association with elevated internalizing scores. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. A Comparison of the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease - A Study from South East Asia (Kashmir, India)

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Pinto, Charles; Hussain, Arshad; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Shah, Sahil; Manzoor, Mushbiq; Bhat, Mudassir; Arif, Tasleem

    2016-01-01

    Background A gradual increase in the longevity due to advancement of treatment modalities and a subsequent surge in elderly population in India have led to a growing curiosity in the geriatric age group with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) represent epiphenomena of AD. However, no comprehensive study has been carried out in South East Asia (Kashmir, India), to assess the behavioral and psychological symptoms in subtypes of AD. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess BPSD in early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Material and Methods The study was conducted in the Memory clinic of the postgraduate department of psychiatry, Government Medical College, Kashmir, India from January 2012 to March 2014. The diagnosis of AD patients was done according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. A total of 80 patients of AD were screened (40 with age of onset less than 65, and 40 with age of onset greater than 64). Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) was the instrument used for evaluating symptoms of BPSD. The data was analyzed using paired t-test. Results The mean age of presentation of EOAD and LOAD was 63.10 years and 84.28 years, respectively, and the difference between the two was found to be statistically significant. The LOAD group had significantly higher symptom severity for delusions, agitation, anxiety, disinhibition, and nighttime behavioral disturbances (NBD) than the EOAD group (p ≤.0001). Conclusion The behavioral and psychological symptoms are significantly severe in late onset subtype compared to the early onset subtype of Alzheimer’s disease in the Kashmiri (Indian) population.  PMID:27433404

  6. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    PubMed

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unraveling Mixed Hydrate Formation: Microscopic Insights into Early Stage Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2016-12-29

    The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH 4 /H 2 S/H 2 O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.

  8. Callous-unemotional behavior and early-childhood onset of behavior problems: the role of parental harshness and warmth.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-01-01

    Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) behavior are at risk of developing more severe forms of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Previous cross-sectional studies suggest that associations between parenting and conduct problems are less strong when children or adolescents have high levels of CU behavior, implying lower malleability of behavior compared to low-CU children. The current study extends previous findings by examining the moderating role of CU behavior on associations between parenting and behavior problems in a very young sample, both concurrently and longitudinally, and using a variety of measurement methods. Data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample at ages 2 to 4 (N = 364; 49% female). Parent-reported CU behavior was assessed at age 3 using a previously validated measure (Hyde et al., 2013 ). Parental harshness was coded from observations of parent-child interactions and parental warmth was coded from 5-min speech samples. In this large and young sample, CU behavior moderated cross-sectional correlations between parent-reported and observed warmth and child behavior problems. However, in cross-sectional and longitudinal models testing parental harshness, and longitudinal models testing warmth, there was no moderation by CU behavior. The findings are in line with recent literature suggesting parental warmth may be important to child behavior problems at high levels of CU behavior. In general, however, the results of this study contrast with much of the extant literature and suggest that in young children, affective aspects of parenting appear to be related to emerging behavior problems, regardless of the presence of early CU behavior.

  9. Callous-unemotional behavior and early-childhood onset of behavior problems: the role of parental harshness and warmth

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youth with callous unemotional (CU) behavior are at risk of developing more severe forms of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Previous cross-sectional studies suggest that associations between parenting and conduct problems are less strong when children or adolescents have high levels of CU behavior, implying lower malleability of behavior compared to low-CU children. The current study extends previous findings by examining the moderating role of CU behavior on associations between parenting and behavior problems in a very young sample, both concurrently and longitudinally, and using a variety of measurement methods. Methods Data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample at ages 2–4 (N = 364; 49% female). Parent-reported CU behavior was assessed at age 3 using a previously validated measure (Hyde et al., 2013). Parental harshness was coded from observations of parent-child interactions and parental warmth was coded from five-minute speech samples. Results In this large and young sample, CU behavior moderated cross-sectional correlations between parent-reported and observed warmth and child behavior problems. However, in cross-sectional and longitudinal models testing parental harshness, and longitudinal models testing warmth, there was no moderation by CU behavior. Conclusions The findings are in line with recent literature suggesting parental warmth may be important to child behavior problems at high levels of CU behavior. In general, however, the results of this study contrast with much of the extant literature and suggest that in young children, affective aspects of parenting appear to be related to emerging behavior problems, regardless of the presence of early CU behavior. PMID:24661288

  10. Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002

  11. Associations among self-concept, verbal behaviors, and group climate early in the group counseling process.

    PubMed

    Jen Der Pan, Peter; Fan, Ai Chun; Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shona Shih Hua

    2012-12-01

    In this study, relations among group members' self-concept, verbal behaviors, and group climate early in the group counseling process were assessed for college students who were randomly assigned to four counseling groups. Based on measures from the hill interaction matrix, it was observed that family, social, and action self-concepts, as well as engagement, avoidance, and conflict group climate, were correlated with several verbal behaviors. Silence and quadrant 4 (Q4), which consists of speculative and confrontative verbal behaviors at personal and relationship levels, significantly predicted and explained 43% of the variance in engagement group climate. Silence and Q3, comprised of conventional and assertive verbal behaviors at personal and relationship levels, and Q1, conventional and assertive verbal behaviors at topic and group levels, explained 66% of variance in avoidance climate. Q4 and Silence explained 33% of conflict climate variance early in the group sessions. Implications for research and counseling practice are suggested.

  12. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  13. Relations between early family risk, children’s behavioral regulation, and academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Sektnan, Michaella; McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among early family risk, children’s behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1,298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic minority status, low maternal education, low average family income from 1 – 54 months, and high maternal depressive symptoms from 1 - 54 months. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that minority status, low maternal education, and low family income had significant negative effects on reading, math, and vocabulary achievement in first grade. Modest indirect effects were also found from ethnicity, maternal education, and maternal depressive symptoms, through 54-month and kindergarten behavioral regulation to first-grade achievement. Discussion focuses on the importance of behavioral regulation for school success especially for children facing early risk. PMID:20953343

  14. Like Father, like Child: Early Life Family Adversity and Children's Bullying Behaviors in Elementary School.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Else E; Verlinden, Marina; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Arseneault, Louise; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-12-19

    Family adversity has been associated with children's bullying behaviors. The evidence is, however, dominated by mothers' perceptions of the family environment and a focus on mothers' behaviors. This prospective population-based study examined whether children's bullying behaviors were associated with mother- and father-reported family adversity, assessed before and after child birth. Peer-nominations were used to assess bullying behaviors of 1298 children in elementary school (mean age 7.5 years). The following paternal risk factors were prospectively associated with children's bullying behaviors: (1) father-reported prenatal family distress, (2) fathers' hostility at preschool age, and (3) fathers' harsh disciplinary practices at preschool age, but effect sizes were relatively small. The effect of maternal risk factors was less consistent, only mother-reported family distress in childhood was associated with children's bullying behaviors. The associations were independent of background family risk factors (i.e., life stress, contextual factors, and other background factors such as parental education and risk taking record) and early childhood externalizing problems. Moreover, our results indicated that father-reported family adversity predicted children's bullying behaviors over and above the background family risk factors, early childhood externalizing problems and mother-reported family adversity. We also demonstrated that the association of fathers' prenatal hostility and family distress with subsequent bullying behavior of their child at school was partly mediated by fathers' harsh disciplinary practices at preschool age. Our findings highlight the importance of fathers' behaviors in the development of children's bullying behaviors.

  15. Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  17. Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Background Prediction of antisocial behavior is important given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and active disregard for others in distress in toddlers and young children predict antisocial behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. Methods A representative sample of same-sex twins (N = 956) recruited in Colorado was examined. Mother-rated and researcher-observed concern and disregard for others assessed at age 14 to 36 months were examined as predictors of parent- (age 4 to 12), teacher- (age 7 to 12), and self-reported (age 17) antisocial behavior. Results Observed disregard for others predicted antisocial behavior assessed by three different informants (parents, teachers, and self), including antisocial behavior assessed 14 years later. It also predicted a higher-order antisocial behavior factor (β = .58, p < .01) after controlling for observed concern for others. Mother-rated disregard for others predicted parent-reported antisocial behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither mother-rated nor observed concern for others inversely predicted antisocial behavior. Results of twin analyses suggested that the covariation between observed disregard for others and antisocial behavior was due to shared environmental influences. Conclusions Disregard for others in toddlerhood/early childhood is a strong predictor of antisocial behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. The results suggest the potential need for early assessment of disregard for others and the development of potential interventions. PMID:23320806

  18. Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Boeldt, Debra L; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A; Waldman, Irwin D; Young, Susan E; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and active disregard for others in distress in toddlers and young children predict antisocial behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. A representative sample of same-sex twins (N=956) recruited in Colorado was examined. Mother-rated and researcher-observed concern and disregard for others assessed at age 14-36 months were examined as predictors of parent- (age 4-12), teacher- (age 7-12), and self-reported (age 17) antisocial behavior.   Observed disregard for others predicted antisocial behavior assessed by three different informants (parents, teachers, and self), including antisocial behavior assessed 14 years later. It also predicted a higher order antisocial behavior factor (β=.58, p<.01) after controlling for observed concern for others. Mother-rated disregard for others predicted parent-reported antisocial behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither mother-rated nor observed concern for others inversely predicted antisocial behavior. RESULTS of twin analyses suggested that the covariation between observed disregard for others and antisocial behavior was due to shared environmental influences. Disregard for others in toddlerhood/early childhood is a strong predictor of antisocial behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. The results suggest the potential need for early assessment of disregard for others and the development of potential interventions. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  20. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  1. Early and risky sexual behavior in a sample of rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Carver, Tracy; Li, Chia-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Early and risky sexual behavior has been studied primarily in urban adolescents. The purpose of this analysis was to identify psychosocial variables associated with sexual-risk behaviors in a sample of mostly rural adolescents. Six hypotheses were tested, using a resilience framework and data from an ongoing longitudinal study of 255 adolescents. Sexual-risk status did not differ statistically by gender (p=.654) or socioeconomic status (p=.590). However, adolescents who engaged in sexual-risk behaviors reported significantly lower religiosity (p<.003), lower parental monitoring (p=.002), lower social connectedness (p=.007), and higher levels of peer influence (p<.001) than those engaged in no sexual-risk behaviors. Adolescents engaged in sexual-risk behaviors were also engaged in significantly more other health-risk behaviors such as smoking and drinking (p<.001). Findings may be useful for developing interventions that focus on the social influences of peers and parents on rural youth. Copyright © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  2. Early-Life Soy Exposure and Gender-Role Play Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Julie L.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. Objective: We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Methods: We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Results: Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (® = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Conclusions: Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys. PMID:21813368

  3. Early-life soy exposure and gender-role play behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (β = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys.

  4. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584

  6. Personal Network Characteristics as Predictors of Change in Obesity Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2018-05-17

    The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  7. Behavior problems in late childhood: the roles of early maternal attachment and teacher-child relationship trajectories.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Erin E; Collins, Brian A; Supplee, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  8. Canadian Early-Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Children's Gendered Shy, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Heather; Bosacki, Sandra; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood educators' (ECE) perceptions of gender roles may contribute to the development of children's own gender-role identities. This qualitative study examined 40 Canadian female ECEs' perceptions of gender and children's shy, aggressive, and prosocial behaviors. Content analysis of extensive interviews revealed three themes: (1) shyness…

  9. The Structure and Stability of Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behavior during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during early adolescence. Our second aim was to determine the stability of these problems for boys and for girls over time. A total of 650, 13-14-year-olds filled out (an expanded version of) the Youth Self-Report [YSR; "Manual for the…

  10. Do Guilt- and Shame-Proneness Differentially Predict Prosocial, Aggressive, and Withdrawn Behaviors during Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…

  11. The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    This study longitudinally followed Non-Hispanic White and African American children to see whether the impact of early maternal employment on cognitive and behavioral outcomes reported at age three and four persisted into school-age years. Results indicated that maternal employment in the first year of a child's life had significant negative…

  12. Moderators of Outcome in a Brief Family-Centered Intervention for Preventing Early Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Frances; Connell, Arin; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated moderators of change in an empirically supported family-centered intervention (the Family Check-Up) for problem behavior in early childhood. Participants were 731 2- to 3-year-olds (49% girls; 28% African American, 50% European American, 13% biracial) from low-income families and had been screened for risk of family stress…

  13. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  14. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  15. Parent-Child Relationships and Dyadic Friendship Experiences as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…

  16. Genetic Vulnerability Interacts with Parenting and Early Care and Education to Predict Increasing Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental…

  17. Training Early Childhood Educators to Promote Peer Interactions: Effects on Children's Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the effects of educators' participation in an in-service training program on the aggressive and prosocial behaviors of preschool-age children. Seventeen early childhood educators were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A total of 68 preschool children, 4 from each educator's classroom, also…

  18. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  19. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  20. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  1. Early Child Care Teachers' Socialization Goals and Preferred Behavioral Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernhardt, Ariane; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Döge, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early child care teachers' culturally shaped socialization goals and preferred behavioral strategies. The participants were 183 female teachers and trainees, 93 from Osnabrück, Germany, representing an urban Western context, which can be characterized by a primary cultural orientation toward psychological autonomy and a…

  2. Patterns of Aggressive Behavior and Peer Victimization from Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Anne Powell; Brisson, Daniel; Bender, Kimberly A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra

    2011-01-01

    The developmental period characterized by the transition from childhood and elementary school to early adolescence and middle school has been associated with increases in aggressive behavior and peer victimization. Few longitudinal studies, however, have examined the stability of aggression and victimization during this critical transition. This…

  3. Longitudinal Relations among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…

  4. Contingencies in Mother-Child Teaching Interactions and Behavioral Regulation and Dysregulation in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Kemp, Christine J.; Albrecht, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    Predictable patterns in early parent-child interactions may help lay the foundation for how children learn to self-regulate. The present study examined contingencies between maternal teaching and directives and child compliance in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5 and whether they predicted children's behavioral regulation and…

  5. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  6. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  7. [Suicidal behaviors among young adults: risk factors during development from early childhood to adolescence].

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are prevalent among young people. Numerous risk factors have been implicated in their development. In the framework of the longitudinal Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, 311 young adults (143 males, 168 females) aged 19-23 years were investigated in order 1) to determine the significance of different risk factors during development in predicting suicidal behaviors in young adulthood, 2) to identify potential risk factors discriminating between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and 3) to examine whether the effect of early risk factors was mediated by later occurring predictors. Young adults with suicidal behaviors displayed a number of abnormalities during development, including high load of early family adversity, suicidal ideation and psychiatric problems in childhood and adolescence, as well as low self esteem, poor school functioning, higher levels of novelty seeking, and enhanced affiliations with deviant peers in adolescence. Independent contributions to predicting suicidal behaviors in young adults were provided by early family adversity, suicidal ideation during childhood and adolescence, and low self esteem (with regard to suicidal ideation) and novelty seeking (with regard to suicide attempt), respectively. The impact of early adversity was mediated by child and adolescent externalizing disorders and low self esteem in adolescence. Possible implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors are discussed.

  8. FGF-2 induces behavioral recovery after early adolescent injury to the motor cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-11-20

    Motor cortex injuries in adulthood lead to poor performance in behavioral tasks sensitive to limb movements in the rat. We have shown previously that motor cortex injury on day 10 or day 55 allow significant spontaneous recovery but not injury in early adolescence (postnatal day 35 "P35"). Previous studies have indicated that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) enhances behavioral recovery after neonatal cortical injury but such effect has not been studied following motor cortex lesions in early adolescence. The present study undertook to investigate the possibility of such behavioral recovery. Rats with unilateral motor cortex lesions were assigned to two groups in which they received FGF-2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were tested in a number of behavioral tests (postural asymmetry, skilled reaching, sunflower seed manipulation, forepaw inhibition in swimming). Golgi-Cox analysis was used to examine the dendritic structure of pyramidal cells in the animals' parietal (layer III) and forelimb (layer V) area of the cortex. The results indicated that rats injected with FGF-2 (but not BSA) showed significant behavioral recovery that was associated with increased dendritic length and spine density. The present study suggests a role for FGF-2 in the recovery of function following injury during early adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer-dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for first grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three second grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to third grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840

  10. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.

  11. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  12. Proinflammatory cytokines correlate with early exercise attenuating anxiety-like behavior after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jingjun; Yan, Yuzhong; Zhang, Pengyue; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Stroke may cause neuropsychiatric problems, which have negative effects on cognitive functions and behavior. Exercise plays an important role in reducing the occurrence and development of stroke, the concrete mechanism is not fully clarified. In this study, we attempted to determine whether early treadmill exercise attenuates anxiety-like behavior by regulation of inflammation after brain ischemia. We subjected adult male rats to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min and trained rats started to run on a treadmill from postoperative day 1 to day 14. The effects of treadmill on cognitive functions, anxiety-like behavior, and immune activation were analyzed by Morris water maze test, open field test, elevated plus maze test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Early treadmill exercise significantly improved cognitive function, alleviated anxiety-like behavior in ischemic rats model; this improvement was associated with significantly decreased activation of astrocytes and microglia cells and proinflammatory markers (platelet-activating factor [PAF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1]). Our results indicated that early treadmill exercise attenuated anxiety-like behavior by decreasing inflammation response, exercise conferred a great benefit of attenuating anxiety-like behavior via anti-inflammatory treatment may prove to be a novel neuroprotective strategy for stroke.

  13. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  14. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  15. Early Temperamental Antecedents of Adult Type A Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    1985-01-01

    Data for this study of 108 young adults from the New York Longitudinal Study include measures of temperament derived from two sources: interviews conducted with subjects' mothers when the children were 3 and 4 years of age and measures of Type A behavior derived from interviews with the subjects during young adulthood. (Author/NH)

  16. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from age 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower-income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower-income families. PMID:25345342

  17. Plasticity of collective behavior in a nomadic early spring folivore

    PubMed Central

    Despland, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Collective behavior in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) meets the thermal constraints of being an early spring folivore, but introduces other constraints in food choice. These are minimized by state-dependent, inter-individual, and ontogenetic variations in responses to social cues. Forest tent caterpillars use pheromone trails and tactile communication among colony members to stay together during foraging. At the group level, these rules lead to cohesive synchronized collective nomadic foraging, in which the colony travels en masse between feeding and resting sites. This paper proposes that synchronized collective locomotion prevents individuals from becoming separated from the colony and hence permits them to reap the advantages of group-living, notably collective basking to increase their body temperature above ambient and collective defense against natural enemies. However, this cohesive behavior also implies conservative foraging, and colonies can become trapped on poor food sources. High fidelity to pheromone trails leads to strong amplification of an initial choice, such that colonies seldom abandon the first food source contacted, even if a better one is nearby. The risk of this trapping is modulated both by consistent inter-individual variations in exploratory behavior and by inner state. Colonies consisting of active-phenotype or protein-deprived individuals that explore more-off trails exhibit greater collective flexibility in foraging. An ontogenetic shift toward more independent movement occurs as caterpillars grow. This leads to colony break-up as the season advances. Selection pressures facing older caterpillars favor solitary living more than in the earlier instars. Caterpillars respond to this predictably changing environment by altering their behavioral rules as they grow. PMID:23526800

  18. Early adolescence behavior problems and timing of poverty during childhood: A comparison of lifecourse models.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2017-03-01

    Poverty is a well-established risk factor for the development of behavior problems, yet little is known about how timing of exposure to childhood poverty relates to behavior problems in early adolescence. To examine the differential effects of the timing of poverty between birth and late childhood on behavior problems in early adolescence by modeling lifecourse models, corresponding to sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility models. We used the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Poverty was defined as living below the low-income thresholds defined by Statistics Canada and grouped into three time periods: between ages 0-3 years, 5-7 years, and 8-12 years. Main outcomes were teacher's report of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression at age 13 years. Structured linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate the contribution of poverty during the three selected time periods to behavior problems. Partial F-tests were used to compare nested lifecourse models to a full saturated model (all poverty main effects and possible interactions). Families who experienced poverty at all time periods were 9.3% of the original sample. Those who were poor at least one time period were 39.2%. The accumulation of risk model was the best fitting model for hyperactivity and opposition. The risk for physical aggression problems was associated only to poverty between 0 and 3 years supporting the sensitive period. Early and prolonged exposure to childhood poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems in early adolescence. Antipoverty policies targeting the first years of life and long term support to pregnant women living in poverty are likely to reduce behavior problems in early adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J; Rudolph, Karen D; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-07-01

    Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent's behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral development. © 2017 Association for Child and

  20. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Methods Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent’s behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. Results We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Conclusions Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral

  1. Early Prevention of Severe Neurodevelopmental Behavior Disorders: An Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Courtemanche, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    There is a very substantial literature over the past 50 years on the advantages of early detection and intervention on the cognitive, communicative, and social-emotional development of infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delay due to premature birth or social disadvantage. Most of these studies excluded children with severe delays or…

  2. Predicting Adult Criminal Behavior from Juvenile Delinquency: Ex-Ante vs. Ex-Post Benefits of Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White, Barry A. B.; Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses of the long-term societal benefits from early intervention (prenatal care, home visitation, and high quality preschool) for at-risk children commonly include significant savings to society in the form of reduced juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. However, a nontrivial proportion of the reported benefits of several early intervention programs are based on forecasts of criminal behavior throughout adulthood conditional on intervention effects on delinquency in adolescence. Data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an investigation of the life course of 1,539 children from low-income families born in 1979–1980, are used to investigate the bias resulting from predicting the effect of early intervention on adult criminal behavior from the effect on delinquency in adolescence. The investigation concludes that the general method used to predict adult criminal behavior results in a conservative estimate of the reduction in the cost of adult criminal behavior attributed to early intervention. PMID:27867324

  3. Predicting Adult Criminal Behavior from Juvenile Delinquency: Ex-Ante vs. Ex-Post Benefits of Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    White, Barry A B; Temple, Judy A; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-12-01

    Recent analyses of the long-term societal benefits from early intervention (prenatal care, home visitation, and high quality preschool) for at-risk children commonly include significant savings to society in the form of reduced juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. However, a nontrivial proportion of the reported benefits of several early intervention programs are based on forecasts of criminal behavior throughout adulthood conditional on intervention effects on delinquency in adolescence. Data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an investigation of the life course of 1,539 children from low-income families born in 1979-1980, are used to investigate the bias resulting from predicting the effect of early intervention on adult criminal behavior from the effect on delinquency in adolescence. The investigation concludes that the general method used to predict adult criminal behavior results in a conservative estimate of the reduction in the cost of adult criminal behavior attributed to early intervention.

  4. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  5. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  6. Do guilt- and shame-proneness differentially predict prosocial, aggressive, and withdrawn behaviors during early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-03-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness concurrently predicted more aggressive and less prosocial behavior as well as subsequent increases in prosocial behavior. Shame-proneness predicted subsequent decreases in prosocial behavior. Although girls reported a greater proneness to experience guilt and shame than boys, the associations between the two dispositional emotions and social behaviors were found to be similar across time and gender. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Trait behavioral approach sensitivity (BAS) relates to early (<150 ms) electrocortical responses to appetitive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2013-10-01

    Much past research has focused on how traits related to the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and avoidance motivation influence the almost obligatory attentional processing of aversive stimuli as measured as early as 100 ms into stimulus processing. These results fit with the functional importance assigned to the negativity bias. But do traits related to the behavioral approach system (BAS) influence attentional processing with similar rapidity? The present study addressed this unanswered question by testing whether trait BAS relates to event-related potentials (ERP) involved in rapid motivated attentional processing to appetitive stimuli. Results indicated that individual differences in BAS were correlated with larger ERP amplitudes as early as 100 ms into the processing of appetitive pictures. These results provide the first evidence linking trait approach motivational tendencies to very early stages of motivated attentional processing.

  8. Cognitive and social influences on early prosocial behavior in two sociocultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2010-07-01

    In this cross-cultural study, we tested 2 main hypotheses: first, that an early self-concept along with self-other differentiation is a universal precursor of prosocial behavior in 19-month-olds, and second, that the importance attached to relational socialization goals (SGs) concerning interpersonal responsiveness (obedience, prosocial behavior) is related to toddlers' prosocial behavior. Contrary to these predictions, the results show that mirror self-recognition, as an indicator of early self-concept, was correlated with toddlers' prosociality only in the Berlin sample (N = 38) and not in the Delhi sample (N = 39). As expected, however, Delhi mothers emphasized relational SGs more strongly than did Berlin mothers. There were no cross-cultural differences in toddlers' prosociality. On an individual level, mothers' emphasis on relational SGs (obedience) was a significant predictor of toddlers' prosocial behavior. On the basis of these results, we propose that situational helping behavior based on shared intentional relations provides an alternative developmental pathway for understanding toddlers' prosocial behavior. This view differs from the often-cited view that anticipating other people as autonomous intentional agents with their own psychological states gives rise to prosocial behavior in toddlers.

  9. Perceived neighborhood social resources as determinants of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Perkins, Douglas D; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo; Mazzardis, Sonia

    2012-09-01

    The present study aims to develop an integrative model that links neighborhood behavioral opportunities and social resources (neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood friendship and neighborhood attachment) to prosocial (sharing, helping, empathic) behavior in early adolescence, taking into account the potential mediating role of perceived support of friends. Path analysis was used to test the proposed theoretical model in a sample of 1,145 Italian early adolescents (6th through 8th graders). More perceived opportunities and social resources in the neighborhood are related to higher levels of adolescent prosocial behavior, and this relationship is partially mediated by perceived social support from friends. The results offer promising implications for future research and intervention programs that aim to modify social systems to improve child and adolescent social competencies.

  10. Nonstandard maternal work schedules during infancy: Implications for children's early behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Leerkes, Esther; Tucker, Jenna; Han, Wen-Jui

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between maternal nonstandard work schedules during infancy and children's early behavior problems, and the extent to which infant temperament may moderate these associations. Hypothesized associations were tested using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care (Phase I). Analyses focused on mothers who returned to work by the time the child was 6 months of age, and who worked an average of at least 35 h per week from 6 through 36 months. At 24 and 36 months, children whose mothers worked a nonstandard schedule had higher internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Modest, albeit inconsistent, evidence suggests that temperamentally reactive children may be more vulnerable to maternal work schedules. Maternal depressive symptoms partially mediated associations between nonstandard maternal work schedules and child behavior outcomes. PMID:19233479

  11. Case Studies Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M.

    The case histories of five students enrolled in a university course in how to study are reported. The students ranged in age from 18 to 35, included two males and three females, and varied in school experience from no college in one case and some college in two cases to college degrees in two cases. Students were initially taught to chart their…

  12. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  13. Gender Attitudes in Early Childhood: Behavioral Consequences and Cognitive Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halim, May Ling D.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Amodio, David M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive…

  14. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation Between Internalizing Problem Behaviors and Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Zaleski, Adam C; Swaim, Randall C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal relation between internalizing problem behaviors (measured with the anxious/depressed and somatic complaints subscales of the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form) and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intentions during early adolescence. In addition, a possible mediating role of perceived harm was investigated. Sixth graders and their teachers were surveyed in the sixth grade and students were surveyed again in the seventh grade. Smoking behavior and intentions were assessed with five items including lifetime use, 30-day use, tobacco user status (nonsmoker to heavy smoker), and two intentions/behavioral expectations items. In addition to perceived harm from smoking, reasons for smoking and reasons for not smoking were included on the survey. As hypothesized, teacher reports of sixth-grade internalizing problem behaviors were negatively related to seventh-grade smoking behavior and intentions. Moreover, perceived harm from smoking was negatively related to smoking and intentions. The hypothesized mediating role of perceived harm in the internalizing to smoking relationship was not supported. Potential differences in the relation between internalizing and smoking across adolescence are discussed. Specifically, the results of the present study and an examination of prior literature suggest that in early adolescence internalizing problems are negatively related to cigarette smoking, whereas in middle and late adolescence the opposite is true.

  16. Social and behavioral skills and the gender gap in early educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Diprete, Thomas A; Jennings, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Though many studies have suggested that social and behavioral skills play a central role in gender stratification processes, we know little about the extent to which these skills affect gender gaps in academic achievement. Analyzing data from the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, we demonstrate that social and behavioral skills have substantively important effects on academic outcomes from kindergarten through fifth grade. Gender differences in the acquisition of these skills, moreover, explain a considerable fraction of the gender gap in academic outcomes during early elementary school. Boys get roughly the same academic return to social and behavioral skills as their female peers, but girls begin school with more advanced social and behavioral skills and their skill advantage grows over time. While part of the effect may reflect an evaluation process that rewards students who better conform to school norms, our results imply that the acquisition of social and behavioral skills enhances learning as well. Our results call for a reconsideration of the family and school-level processes that produce gender gaps in social and behavioral skills and the advantages they confer for academic and later success. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  18. Dimensions of maternal parenting and infants’ autonomic functioning interactively predict early internalizing behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Propper, Cathi; Gueron-Sela, Noa; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger

    2015-01-01

    Developmental pathways to childhood internalizing behavior problems are complex, with both environmental and child-level factors contributing to their emergence. The authors use data from a prospective longitudinal study (n = 206) to examine the associations between dimensions of caregiving experiences in the first year of life and anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors in early childhood. Additionally, the authors examine the extent to which these associations were moderated by infants’ autonomic functioning in the first year of life indexed using measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart period (HP). Findings suggest that higher levels of maternal sensitivity in infancy are associated with fewer anxious/depressed and withdrawn behaviors at age 3 years. Negative intrusiveness was found to be positively associated with children’s anxious/depressed behaviors but not withdrawn behaviors. Further, moderation analyses suggested that the link between negative intrusive parenting during infancy and subsequent anxious/depressed behaviors is exacerbated for infants with average or low baseline HP and that positive engaging parenting during infancy was negatively related to withdrawn behaviors for infants demonstrating average to high levels baseline HP. Interestingly, RSA was not found to moderate the associations between parenting in infancy and later internalizing behavior problems suggesting that, during infancy, overall autonomic functioning may have greater implications for the development of internalizing behaviors than do parasympathetic influences alone. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:26063322

  19. Family Relationships and Parental Monitoring During Middle School as Predictors of Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth a.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of problem behavior in early adolescence. The study sample comprised 179 ethnically diverse 6th grade (46% female) students who were followed through 8th grade. Results indicated that parental monitoring and father–youth connectedness were associated with reductions in problem behavior over time, and conflict with siblings was linked with increases in problem behaviors. No associations were found for mother–youth connectedness. These findings did not differ for boys and for girls, or for families with resident or nonresident fathers. PMID:22417193

  20. Eating behaviors among early adolescent African American girls and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-12-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to determine if the girls' weight categories were associated with their or their mothers demographic characteristics, eating behaviors, nutritional intake, and health problem. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in predominantly low-income AA communities in Chicago. Forty-three dyads of early adolescent AA girls and their mothers responded to food frequency and eating habits questionnaires. There was a strong and significant correlation between mother's and daughter's kilocalories consumed (r = .61). Our study suggests that interventions aimed at improving eating behaviors in early adolescent AA girls should include their mothers.

  1. Associations between Problem Behaviors and Early Vocabulary Skills among Hispanic Dual-Language Learners in Pre-K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Soares, Denise A.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather S.; Kwok, Oi-man; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Saenz, Laura M.; Resendez, Nora M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations between problem behaviors and early learning outcomes among 138 children in dual-language pre-K programs who were identified at the beginning of the school year to be at risk for difficulties in early language and literacy development. Children's expressive and receptive vocabulary, listening comprehension, and…

  2. Using Interval-Based Systems to Measure Behavior in Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Justin D.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the current literature on the accuracy and reliability of interval systems using data from previously published experimental studies that used either human observations of behavior or computer simulations. Although multiple comparison studies provided mathematical adjustments or modifications to interval…

  3. Acoustic Emission Behavior of Early Age Concrete Monitored by Embedded Sensors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Ren, Hong-Wei; Dong, Bi-Qin; Xing, Feng

    2014-10-02

    Acoustic emission (AE) is capable of monitoring the cracking activities inside materials. In this study, embedded sensors were employed to monitor the AE behavior of early age concrete. Type 1-3 cement-based piezoelectric composites, which had lower mechanical quality factor and acoustic impedance, were fabricated and used to make sensors. Sensors made of the composites illustrated broadband frequency response. In a laboratory, the cracking of early age concrete was monitored to recognize different hydration stages. The sensors were also embedded in a mass concrete foundation to localize the temperature gradient cracks.

  4. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and problem behavior in 5-year-old offspring.

    PubMed

    Oostenbroek, Maurits H W; Kersten, Remco H J; Tros, Benjamin; Kunst, Anton E; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Finken, Martijn J J

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. At a median gestational age of 12.9 (interquartile range: 11.9-14.1) weeks, maternal blood was sampled for assessment of free T4 and TSH. Overall problem behavior, hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional problems, peer relationship problems and prosocial behavior were measured at age 5-6 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which was filled out by both parents and teachers. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia <5th percentile was associated with a 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.86) increased odds of teacher-reported hyperactivity/inattention after adjustment for confounders. By increasing the cut-off level to <10th percentile, the odds ratio became 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99-2.20). There were no associations between maternal thyroid function parameters and hyperactivity/inattention as reported by parents, nor with teacher or parent reports of other types of problem behavior. Our results partially confirm previous observations, showing that early disruptions in the maternal thyroid hormone supply may be associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring. Our study adds that there is no evidence for an effect on other types of problem behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Consequences of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Early Adversity on Behavioral Profile – Pathology or Adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Heiming, Rebecca S.; Sachser, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on how behavioral profile is shaped by early adversity in individuals with varying serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. In a recent study on 5-HTT knockout mice Heiming et al. (2009) simulated a ‘dangerous environment‘ by confronting pregnant and lactating females with odor cues of unfamiliar males, indicating the risk of infant killing. Growing up in a dangerous environment induced increased anxiety-related behavior and decreased exploratory locomotion in the offspring, the effects being most pronounced in mice lacking 5-HTT expression. We argue that these alterations in behavioral profile represent adaptive maternal effects that help the individuals to cope with adversity. In principle, such effects of adversity on behavioral profile should not automatically be regarded as pathological. Rather and in accordance with modern evolutionary theory they may represent adaptations, although individuals with 5-HTT genotype induced susceptibility to adversity may be at risk of developing pathologies. PMID:21151780

  6. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation Through Children's Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Sulik, Michael J; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children's executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semistructured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers' reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children's self-regulation, which in turn reduces children's externalizing behavior. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Patterns of Sensitivity to Parenting and Peer Environments: Early Temperament and Adolescent Externalizing Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tung, Irene; Noroña, Amanda N; Morgan, Julia E; Caplan, Barbara; Lee, Steve S; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-03-14

    Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i.e., conflict and warmth), with multi-informant ratings of age 15 aggression and rule-breaking behavior. Negative parenting predicted growth in parent-rated EB, but only for adolescents with early reactive temperament. Temperament did not affect sensitivity to positive parenting or friendship. Results are discussed in the context of differential susceptibility theory and intervention implications for adolescents. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  8. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of primary caregivers on the sexual behavior of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rose, Allison; Koo, Helen P; Bhaskar, Brinda; Anderson, Karen; White, Gregory; Jenkins, Renee R

    2005-08-01

    To describe rates of sexual intercourse initiation, anticipated level of sexual activity in the next 12 months, and other risk behaviors among fifth graders and to examine parental factors associated with such behaviors. This study is based on a cross-sectional, self-administered survey conducted with a nonrandom sample of 408 fifth graders and their caregivers. Children answered questions regarding sexual intercourse initiation, anticipated sexual activity in the next 12 months, and involvement in other risk behaviors. Caregivers answered questions about parenting factors such as monitoring behaviors, parent-child relationship quality, and parent-child communication. Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined the association of these variables with the adolescents' behaviors. Almost 5% of girls and 17% of boys reported they had engaged in sexual intercourse. Only 34% of girls and 13% of boys said they did not expect to engage in any type of sexual contact in the next 12 months if they were going with someone they "liked a lot." Parental factors associated with fewer risk behaviors and expected sexual behaviors included higher levels of monitoring, fewer communication barriers, less permissive attitudes regarding adolescent sexual behavior, higher relationship quality with child, having fewer than five children in the household, higher levels of education, and being employed. Significant gender interactions were found for several variables. Adolescents are initiating sexual intercourse at extremely young ages. To delay early sexual activity and prevent adolescent pregnancy, prevention efforts must begin during the elementary school years and include those who raise and care for the adolescent.

  10. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  11. The Influence of Early Interest Orientations and Time on Kindergartners' Academic Monitoring and Information-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neitzel, Carin; Alexander, Joyce; Johnson, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed questions about the influence of children's early childhood interests on their subsequent academic regulation and information pursuit behaviors in kindergarten. Differences in the pattern of academic behaviors employed by four groups of children who had different interest orientations were examined. Specifically, the study…

  12. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the…

  13. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  14. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  15. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  16. On Early Starters and Late Bloomers: The Development of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence Across Personality Types

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed. PMID:24007372

  17. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  18. Early Fathering as a Predictor of Later Psychosocial Functioning Among Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the role of early fathering in subsequent trajectories of social emotional and academic functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Method Participants were 128 preschool-aged children (73 boys, 55 girls) with behavior problems whose biological fathers took part in a longitudinal study. Children were 3 years of age at the beginning of the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Results Early paternal depressive symptoms predicted many aspects of children’s outcome 3 years later, including externalizing and internalizing problems, social skills deficits, and lower cognitive and academic functioning, and predicted changes in children’s externalizing, internalizing, and social problems across the preschool years. Paternal socioeconomic status (SES) also consistently predicted children’s later functioning across these domains. Furthermore, self-reported paternal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and laxness, as well as observed frequent commands were associated with later externalizing problems in children. Paternal depressive symptoms and laxness mediated the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and child functioning. Conclusions Results suggest that aspects of early father functioning play an important role in the psychosocial, cognitive, and academic development of preschool-aged children with behavior problems. PMID:23269560

  19. Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been consistently linked to the development of child problem behavior, particularly in early childhood, but few studies have examined whether reductions in maternal depression serve as a mediator in relation to changes associated with a family-based intervention. The current study addressed this issue with a sample of 731 families receiving services from a national food supplement and nutrition program. Families with toddlers between ages 2 and 3 were sereened and then randomized to a brief family intervention, the Family Check-Up, which included linked interventions that were tailored and adapted to the families needs. Follow-up intervention services were provided at age 3 and follow-up of child outcomes oecurred at ages 3 and 4. Latent growth models revealed intervention effects for early externalizing and internalizing problems from 2 to 4, and reductions in maternal depression from ages 2 to 3. In addition, reductions in maternal depression mediated improvements in both child externalizing and internalizing problem behavior after accounting for the potential mediating effects of improvements in positive parenting. The results are discussed with respect to targeting maternal depression in future intervention studies aimed at improving early child problem behavior. PMID:19338691

  20. Early fathering as a predictor of later psychosocial functioning among preschool children with behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Sharonne D; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the role of early fathering in subsequent trajectories of social emotional and academic functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Participants were 128 preschool-aged children (73 boys, 55 girls) with behavior problems whose biological fathers took part in a longitudinal study. Children were 3 years of age at the beginning of the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Early paternal depressive symptoms predicted many aspects of children's outcome 3 years later, including externalizing and internalizing problems, social skills deficits, and lower cognitive and academic functioning, and predicted changes in children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems across the preschool years. Paternal socioeconomic status (SES) also consistently predicted children's later functioning across these domains. Furthermore, self-reported paternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and laxness, as well as observed frequent commands were associated with later externalizing problems in children. Paternal depressive symptoms and laxness mediated the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and child functioning. Results suggest that aspects of early father functioning play an important role in the psychosocial, cognitive, and academic development of preschool-aged children with behavior problems.

  1. Early Steps in Automated Behavior Mapping via Indoor Sensors.

    PubMed

    Arsan, Taner; Kepez, Orcun

    2017-12-16

    Behavior mapping (BM) is a spatial data collection technique in which the locational and behavioral information of a user is noted on a plan layout of the studied environment. Among many indoor positioning technologies, we chose Wi-Fi, BLE beacon and ultra-wide band (UWB) sensor technologies for their popularity and investigated their applicability in BM. We tested three technologies for error ranges and found an average error of 1.39 m for Wi-Fi in a 36 m² test area (6 m × 6 m), 0.86 m for the BLE beacon in a 37.44 m² test area (9.6 m × 3.9 m) and 0.24 m for ultra-wide band sensors in a 36 m² test area (6 m × 6 m). We simulated the applicability of these error ranges for real-time locations by using a behavioral dataset collected from an active learning classroom. We used two UWB tags simultaneously by incorporating a custom-designed ceiling system in a new 39.76 m² test area (7.35 m × 5.41 m). We considered 26 observation points and collected data for 180 s for each point (total 4680) with an average error of 0.2072 m for 23 points inside the test area. Finally, we demonstrated the use of ultra-wide band sensor technology for BM.

  2. Early Steps in Automated Behavior Mapping via Indoor Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Arsan, Taner

    2017-01-01

    Behavior mapping (BM) is a spatial data collection technique in which the locational and behavioral information of a user is noted on a plan layout of the studied environment. Among many indoor positioning technologies, we chose Wi-Fi, BLE beacon and ultra-wide band (UWB) sensor technologies for their popularity and investigated their applicability in BM. We tested three technologies for error ranges and found an average error of 1.39 m for Wi-Fi in a 36 m2 test area (6 m × 6 m), 0.86 m for the BLE beacon in a 37.44 m2 test area (9.6 m × 3.9 m) and 0.24 m for ultra-wide band sensors in a 36 m2 test area (6 m × 6 m). We simulated the applicability of these error ranges for real-time locations by using a behavioral dataset collected from an active learning classroom. We used two UWB tags simultaneously by incorporating a custom-designed ceiling system in a new 39.76 m2 test area (7.35 m × 5.41 m). We considered 26 observation points and collected data for 180 s for each point (total 4680) with an average error of 0.2072 m for 23 points inside the test area. Finally, we demonstrated the use of ultra-wide band sensor technology for BM. PMID:29258178

  3. Is greater improvement in early self-regulation associated with fewer behavioral problems later in childhood?

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R; Searle, Amelia K; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of improvement in self-regulation achieved between ages 4 and 6 years is associated with the level of behavioral problems later in childhood. Participants were 4-year-old children (n = 510) attending preschools in South Australia. Children's level of self-regulation was assessed using the parent-completed Devereux Early Childhood Assessment when children were aged 4, 5, and 6. Children's level of behavioral problems was assessed using total, internalizing, and externalizing scores on parent- and teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQs) when children were 6 years old. Random effects regression was used to describe the changes to children's self-regulation between 4 and 6 years. Linear regression models were then used to determine the strength of the association between the extent of self-regulation improvement and level of behavioral problems. Greater improvement in self-regulation, adjusted for family characteristics and baseline self-regulation scores, was associated with lower levels of parent- (B = -3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-4.49, -2.65]) and teacher-rated SDQ total difficulties scores at 6 years (B = -2.42, 95% CI [-3.50, -1.34]). These effects remained after adjustment for level of parent-rated behavioral problems at 4 years. Similar effects were found for internalizing and externalizing scores at age 6 years. The results highlight the importance of improvements in self-regulation from 4-6 years for childhood behavioral problems during the early school years. Children with lower levels of improvement in self-regulation early in life are at risk for higher levels of behavioral problems both at home and at school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Trajectories of prosocial behavior from adolescence to early adulthood: associations with personality change.

    PubMed

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Castellani, Valeria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify heterogenic longitudinal patterns of change in prosocial behavior from adolescence to early adulthood and their association with change in Big Five Factor (BFF) personality traits from adolescence until early adulthood. Participants were 573 Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 at the first assessment and 21 at the last assessment. Using growth mixture modeling, low increasing (LI; 18%), medium quadratic (MQ; 26%), and high quadratic (HQ; 54%) trajectories of prosocial behavior were distinguished. Generally, the LI trajectory group predicted an increase in Conscientiousness over time, whereas the HQ trajectory group predicted greater change in Agreeableness and Openness. In addition, positive changes in Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness between ages 13 and 21 predicted a higher probability of belonging to the HQ prosocial group. Findings support a malleable perspective on personality and identify longterm positive pathways for youths' prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    PubMed

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  6. Neural responses to reward in childhood: relations to early behavioral inhibition and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Benson, Brenda E; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Ernst, Monique

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early temperamental profile characterized by negative reactivity to novelty, withdrawal from social situations, and increased risk for social anxiety. Previous research associated BI assessed in early childhood to striatal hypersensitivity in mid-to-late adolescence. The present study examined this association among 10 year-olds, characterized with BI at ages 24 and 36 months on measures of temperamental reactivity. Participants (n = 40) were studied at age 10 using a reward processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Child- and maternal-report of social anxiety symptoms was collected at ages 10 and 13. Findings indicate greater caudate activation and stronger striatal connectivity in high, compared to low, behaviorally inhibited children. Caudate activation related to social anxiety symptoms at both ages. These findings suggest that enhanced striatal responsivity reliably manifests among high behaviorally inhibited children as early as age 10. This may reflect hyper-sensitivity to reward or excessive motivation to avoid errors. PMID:27531387

  7. Relationships of parental monitoring and emotion regulation with early adolescents' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Wendy; Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Senocak, Natali

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating influence of parental monitoring (e.g., unsupervised time with opposite sex peers) and adolescent emotional competence on sexual behaviors, among a sample of at-risk early adolescents. This study included 376 seventh-grade adolescents (age, 12-14 years) with behavioral or emotional difficulties. Questionnaires were completed on private laptop computers and assessed adolescent Emotional Competence (including Regulation and Negativity/Lability), Unsupervised Time, and a range of Sexual Behaviors. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the independent and combined influence of Emotional Competency and Unsupervised Time on adolescent report of Sexual Behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender to account for the notable gender differences in the targeted moderators and outcome variables. Findings indicated that more unsupervised time was a risk factor for all youth but was influenced by an adolescent's ability to regulate their emotions. Specifically, for males and females, poorer Emotion Regulation was associated with having engaged in a greater variety of Sexual Behaviors. However, lower Negativity/Lability and >1× per week Unsupervised Time were associated with a higher number of sexual behaviors among females only. Based on the findings of this study, a lack of parental supervision seems to be particularly problematic for both male and female adolescents with poor emotion regulation abilities. It may be important to impact both emotion regulation abilities and increase parental knowledge and skills associated with effective monitoring to reduce risk-taking for these youth.

  8. Challenging Behaviors in Early Childhood Settings: Creating a Place for All Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart Bell, Susan; Carr, Victoria W.; Denno, Dawn; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Phillips, Louise R.

    2004-01-01

    Learn to manage a wide range of challenging behaviors in early childhood settings with this strategy-filled resource for teachers and other professionals. Based on the latest research and the authors' classroom experience, the book helps early childhood teams assess the classroom environment and link effective behavioral interventions to…

  9. BEST in CLASS: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of the Behavioral Consequences of Early Experience in Prairie Voles

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined intergenerational and epigenetic effects of early handling manipulations on the social behavior of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a monogamous rodent. Laboratory-born parents and their newborn pups were assigned to either a MAN0 “zero handling” manipulation (transfer with a cup during weekly cage changes) or a MAN1 “gloved handling” manipulation (transfer with a gloved hand). Previous studies from our laboratory (Bales et al. 2007) showed that MAN0 juvenile males that received this manipulation as pups are less alloparental and that MAN0 adult females that received this manipulation as pups display impaired pair-bonding. In the present study, when MAN0 and MAN1 pups reached adulthood, they were mated in three combinations (MAN1 female × MAN1 male; MAN0 female × MAN1 male; MAN1 female and MAN0 male). Once the pairs produced offspring, we examined their parental behavior towards their own pups. The offspring of these pairings (F2 generation) also were tested as juveniles for alloparental behavior. MAN1 females paired with a MAN0 male displayed higher levels of parenting behaviors. In the F2 generation, juvenile offspring with a MAN0 parent were less alloparental than were offspring from other pairs. These results suggest that early experiences can be transmitted intergenerationally. PMID:20457234

  11. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  12. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  13. Early-onset behavioral and neurochemical deficits in the genetic mouse model of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Elena; Oddi, Diego; Ventura, Rossella; Colamartino, Marco; Valzania, Alessandro; D’Amato, Francesca Romana; Bruinenberg, Vibeke; van der Zee, Eddy; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common human inborn errors of metabolism, caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, leading to high phenylalanine and low tyrosine levels in blood and brain causing profound cognitive disability, if untreated. Since 1960, population is screened for hyperphenylalaninemia shortly after birth and submitted to early treatment in order to prevent the major manifestations of the disease. However, the dietetic regimen (phenylalanine free diet) is difficult to maintain, and despite the recommendation to a strict and lifelong compliance, up to 60% of adolescents partially or totally abandons the treatment. The development and the study of new treatments continue to be sought, taking advantage of preclinical models, the most used of which is the PAHenu2 (BTBR ENU2), the genetic murine model of PKU. To date, adult behavioral and neurochemical alterations have been mainly investigated in ENU2 mice, whereas there are no clear indications about the onset of these deficiencies. Here we investigated and report, for the first time, a comprehensive behavioral and neurochemical assay of the developing ENU2 mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ENU2 mice are significantly smaller than WT until pnd 24, present a significant delay in the acquisition of tested developmental reflexes, impaired communicative, motor and social skills, and have early reduced biogenic amine levels in several brain areas. Our results extend the understanding of behavioral and cerebral abnormalities in PKU mice, providing instruments to an early preclinical evaluation of the effects of new treatments. PMID:28850618

  14. MAOA-uVNTR and early physical discipline interact to influence delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alexis C; Dodge, Kenneth A; Latendresse, Shawn J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Budde, John P; Goate, Alison M; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-06-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N = 250) by parent, teacher, and self-report using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype.

  15. MAOA uVNTR and Early Physical Discipline Interact to Influence Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Budde, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Dick, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002, Kim-Cohen et al. 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. Method This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N=250) by parent, teacher, and self report using Achenbach’s Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. Results We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. Conclusion The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype. PMID:19951362

  16. EARLY CHILDHOOD PREDICTORS OF LOW-INCOME BOYS' PATHWAYS TO ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE, AND EARLY ADULTHOOD.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Early Childhood Predictors of Low-Income Boys’ Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Childhood, Adolescence, and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Gilliam, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys’ early-starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current paper reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from WIC centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood, and smaller cohorts of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, as well as court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in health care settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. PMID:28026042

  18. Functional Behavioral Assessments and Intervention Plans in Early Intervention Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Michelle; Brown, Sharan E.; Johnson, Kurt L.

    2001-01-01

    This article advocates the use of functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) in the development of Individualized Family Service Plans for children with or at risk of developing behavioral disorders. It describes the FBA and BIP processes and proposes a parent collaborative model for assessment and…

  19. An emotion regulation intervention to reduce risk behaviors among at-risk early adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher D.; Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David; Brown, Larry K.; Hancock, Evan; Almy, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance early adolescents’ emotion regulation skill use and to decrease risk behaviors. Adolescents 12 to 14 years old (N = 420; 53% male) with mental health symptoms were referred for participation in either an Emotion Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) intervention consisting of twelve after-school sessions. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires on laptop computers. Using a generalized analysis of covariance controlling for baseline scores, participants in the ER intervention were less likely to be sexually active and engage in other risk behaviors, such as fighting, at the conclusion of the program. Additionally, participants in the ER intervention reported greater use of emotion regulation strategies and more favorable attitudes toward abstinence. Interventions directly targeting emotion regulation may be useful in addressing health risk behaviors of adolescents with mental health symptoms. PMID:26297499

  20. What Ever Happened To The ‘Cool’ Kids? Long-Term Sequelae Of Early Adolescent Pseudomature Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Oudekerk, Barbara; Chango, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomature behavior—ranging from minor delinquency to precocious romantic involvement—is widely viewed as a nearly normative feature of adolescence. When such behavior occurs early in adolescence, however, it was hypothesized to reflect a misguided overemphasis upon impressing peers and was considered likely to predict long-term adjustment problems. In a multi-method, multi-reporter study following a community sample of 184 adolescents from age 13 to 23, early adolescent pseudomature behavior was linked cross-sectionally to a heightened desire for peer popularity and to short-term success with peers. Longitudinal results, however, supported the study’s central hypothesis: Early adolescent pseudomature behavior predicted long-term difficulties in close relationships, as well as significant problems with alcohol and substance use, and elevated levels of criminal behavior. PMID:24919537

  1. Behavioral alterations of zebrafish larvae after early embryonic exposure to ketamine.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Antunes, Luís M; Coimbra, Ana M; Valentim, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Ketamine has been associated with pediatric risks that include neurocognitive impairment and long-term behavioral disorders. However, the neurobehavioral effects of ketamine exposure in early development remain uncertain. This study aimed to test stage- and dose-dependent effects of ketamine exposure on certain brain functions by evaluating alterations in locomotion, anxiety-like and avoidance behaviors, as well as socialization. Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of ketamine (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg mL -1 ) for 20 min during the 256-cell (2.5 h post fertilization-hpf), 50% epiboly (5.5 hpf), and 1-4 somites (10.5 hpf) stages. General exploratory activities, natural escape-like responses, and social interactions were analyzed under continuous light or under a moving light stimulus. A dose-dependent decrease in the overall mean speed was perceived in the embryos exposed during the 256-cell stage. These results were related to previously observed head and eye malformations, following ketamine exposure at this stage and may indicate possible neurobehavioral disorders when ketamine exposure is performed at this stage. Results also showed that ketamine exposure during the 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages induced a significant increment of the anxiety-like behavior and a decrease in avoidance behavior in all exposed groups. Overall, the results validate the neurodevelopmental risks of early-life exposure to ketamine.

  2. PARENTAL REPORTS OF EARLY SOCIOEMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS: DOES THE FATHER'S VIEW MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

    PubMed

    Alakortes, Jaana; Fyrstén, Jenni; Bloigu, Risto; Carter, Alice S; Moilanen, Irma K; Ebeling, Hanna E

    2017-05-01

    Although both mothers and fathers are essential sources of information to address early socioemotional/behavioral (SEB) problems, there continues to be a dearth of studies considering both parental views. A sample of 208 toddlers (M age = 19.3 months) was recruited through public child health centers. Both parents of 172 toddlers (76 boys, 96 girls) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 1-5 (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, 2000; Finnish translation by F. Almqvist, ). Correspondence (intraclass correlation coefficients; ICCs) between the maternal and paternal CBCL ratings was good (.64) for the Internalizing and excellent (.76) for the Externalizing and Total Problems scores whereas ICCs varied from .45 for the Withdrawn to .76 for the Sleep Problems and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scores. Regarding discrepancies, mothers consistently reported higher CBCL scale scores than did fathers. Most significant differences between the parental ratings were found on the Aggressive Behavior syndrome, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Interparental rating discrepancies increased with elevations in the corresponding CBCL scale scores. Positive correlations were found between maternal, but not paternal, parenting stress and interparental rating discrepancies on the CBCL. The observed differences between maternal and paternal ratings highlight the importance of gathering reports from both parents when assessing early SEB problems. The findings are more profoundly discussed in the article. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing in early adulthood: Comparison of Japanese and Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we identified the factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing among Japanese and Korean women in early adulthood. Their behavioral intentions were compared in this cross-sectional descriptive study. In total, 887 women (Japanese = 498, Korean = 389) aged 20-39 years participated in this study. Using a self-report questionnaire, knowledge, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention were surveyed. There were significant differences between Japanese and Korean women's scores on all main variables. For Japanese women, all the variables moderately correlated with behavioral intention. In comparison, for Korean women, all independent variables, except for knowledge, moderately correlated with behavioral intention. Through a multiple regression analysis, age, undergoing Papanicolaou testing, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were identified as significant predictors of behavioral intention among Japanese women. Among Korean women, job status, undergoing a Papanicolaou test, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were demonstrated as significant predictors of behavioral intention. Health professionals should consider these factors to encourage Papanicolaou testing in women in early adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Postural Complexity Differs Between Infant Born Full Term and Preterm During the Development of Early Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa A.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Galloway, James C

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Postural control differs between infants born preterm and full term at 1–3 weeks of age. It is unclear if differences persist or alter the development of early behaviors. The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare changes in postural control variability during development of head control and reaching in infants born preterm and full term. Methods Eighteen infants born preterm (mean gestational age 28.3±3.1 weeks) were included in this study and compared to existing data from 22 infants born full term. Postural variability was assessed longitudinally using root mean squared displacement and approximate entropy of the center of pressure displacement from birth to 6 months as measures of the magnitude of the variability and complexity of postural control. Behavioral coding was used to quantify development of head control and reaching. Results Group differences were identified in postural complexity during the development of head control and reaching. Infants born preterm used more repetitive and less adaptive postural control strategies than infants born full term. Both groups changed their postural complexity utilized during the development of head control and reaching. Discussion Early postural complexity was decreased in infants born preterm, compared to infants born full term. Commonly used clinical assessments did not identify these early differences in postural control. Altered postural control in infants born preterm influenced ongoing skill development in the first six months of life. PMID:24485170

  5. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class. PMID:27789957

  6. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  7. Early development and the emergence of individual differences in behavior among littermates of wild rabbit pups.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Heiko G; Bautista, Amando; Roder, Manuel; Gilbert, Caroline; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-05-01

    The ontogeny of associated individual differences in behavior and physiology during early postnatal life, and in particular the emergence of such differences among litter siblings, has been hardly explored in mammals under natural conditions. We studied such within-litter differences in behavior in European rabbit pups Oryctolagus cuniculus prior to weaning, and whether and how these differences co-varied with other individual characteristics such as postnatal body temperature and early growth. The study was conducted under semi-natural conditions in a colony of rabbits of wild origin, where the young were born and developed in nursery burrows. We equipped two siblings per litter with interscapular skin temperature loggers on postnatal day 2 and recorded temperature profiles for 48h. Individual body (skin) temperatures of pups within litters were repeatable across time, indicating the existence of consistent individual differences. Such differences within litters were associated with relative differences in pre-weaning growth, revealing that relatively warmer pups showed a greater increase in body mass during the nest period. Between postnatal days 12 and 17, after the pups had reached a developmental stage of greater mobility, we carried out different behavioral tests: a handling-restraint test, an open field test and a jump-down test from a platform. Individual responses in the former two tests were associated, as those pups showing a quicker struggling response to restraint during handling also exhibited greater exploratory activity in the open field. This correlation across contexts suggests the existence of personality types in wild rabbits at an early developmental stage. Furthermore, pups' behavioral responses were strongly associated with their relative within-litter body mass at testing. Animals with a lower body mass compared to their siblings showed a relatively quicker struggle response to handling restraint and covered a relatively larger distance in

  8. Identifying Effective Behavior Management in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Kelly Rae

    2005-01-01

    Every educator has a dream to maintain a classroom free from disruptions; one in which each child is being molded, shaped, and corrected in a loving and caring environment that inspires appropriate behavior. The purpose of this research project was to determine how to create an effective behavior management plan and effectively teach classroom…

  9. Understanding Young Children's Behavior: A Guide for Early Childhood Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jillian

    This book seeks to enable professionals who work in group settings with children ages birth to 5 years to develop a flexible and individualized approach to behavior management that is grounded in a full appreciation of a child's developmental stages and limited moral understanding. Young children's behavior is frequently a source of frustration…

  10. Effects of early stress on adult affiliative behavior.

    PubMed

    Henry, J P; Wang, S

    1998-11-01

    The recently evolved mammalian species preservative behavior as opposed to the ancient self preservative behavior involves parental care, nursing, social interaction, pair bonding and mutual defense. Gonadal steroids together with oxytocin are critical for this affiliative, attachment behavior. When there is stressful loss of control, gonadotrophins are diminished, and the self preservative, fight-flight catecholamine coping response takes priority. It is suggested that self preservation is associated with left hemispheric brain function and that species preservation is associated with right hemispheric function. Stress during infancy that is severe enough to create insecure attachment has a dissociative effect, disrupting right hemispheric emotional functioning and species preservative behavior, and a permanent bias towards self preservation can become an adult trait. In such a person with impaired affiliation, corticoid responses may be deficient. The coronary type A behavior pattern common in our society exhibits some of this deficiency in species preservative activity.

  11. The one-year impact of an emotion regulation intervention on early adolescent health risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Lansing, Amy; Almy, Brandon; Hancock, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sexual activity often begins in early adolescence, and adolescents with mental health symptoms are at greater risk for sexual activity and other health risks. This study aimed to evaluate a developmentally targeted intervention designed to enhance early adolescents’ emotion regulation competencies as a strategy for reducing health risk behaviors, including sexual initiation. Method Adolescents 12 to 14 years old (N = 420; 53% male) with mental health symptoms participated in either an Emotion Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) intervention consisting of twelve after-school sessions. Participants completed questionnaires on laptop computers at baseline, 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results Time to event analyses were used to compare intervention conditions on rate of initiation to vaginal sex. Results showed that participants in the Emotion Regulation (ER) condition were less likely to transition into vaginal sexual activity by one-year follow-up than those in the Health Promotion (HP) condition (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.94, p = .01). However, those who were sexually active did not report differences in sexual risk behaviors (e.g., condomless sex). Participants in the ER condition were significantly less likely to report violence behaviors and showed improvement on a behavioral measure of emotion identification, however they did not differ from HP participants on self-reports of emotional competence. Conclusions Emotion regulation strategies can be used to delay sexual initiation among early adolescents with mental health symptoms and may have an important role in health education. PMID:27175579

  12. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  13. Interpersonal violence, early life adversity, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual men.

    PubMed

    Chatzittofis, Andreas; Savard, Josephine; Arver, Stefan; Öberg, Katarina Görts; Hallberg, Jonas; Nordström, Peter; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the role of childhood adversity, interpersonal violence, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual disorder (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal violence in hypersexual men compared with healthy volunteers and the experience of violence in relation to suicidal behavior. Methods This case-control study includes 67 male patients with HD and 40 healthy male volunteers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used for assessing early life adversity and interpersonal violence in childhood and in adult life. Suicidal behavior (attempts and ideation) was assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (version 6.0) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale - Self-rating. Results Hypersexual men reported more exposure to violence in childhood and more violent behavior as adults compared with healthy volunteers. Suicide attempters (n = 8, 12%) reported higher KIVS total score, more used violence as a child, more exposure to violence as an adult as well as higher score on CTQ-SF subscale measuring sexual abuse (SA) compared with hypersexual men without suicide attempt. Discussion Hypersexuality was associated with interpersonal violence with higher total scores in patients with a history of suicide attempt. The KIVS subscale exposure to interpersonal violence as a child was validated using the CTQ-SF but can be complemented with questions focusing on SA for full assessment of early life adversity. Conclusion Childhood adversity is an important factor in HD and interpersonal violence might be related to suicidal behavior in hypersexual men.

  14. The Evolution of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Early Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Zimmermann, Johannes; Wegener, Andrea; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the development of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and REM sleep behavioral events (RBE) not yet fulfilling diagnostic criteria for RBD as markers for neurodegeneration in a cohort of Parkinson disease (PD) patients between their de novo baseline assessment and two-year follow-up in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Methods: Clinically confirmed PD patients and HC with video-supported polysomnography (vPSG) data at baseline were re-investigated after two years. Diagnostic scoring for RBE and RBD was performed in both groups and related to baseline findings. Results: One hundred thirteen PD patients and 102 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. Within two years, the overall occurrence of behaviors during REM sleep in PD patients increased from 50% to 63% (P = 0.02). RBD increased from 25% to 43% (P < 0.001). Eleven of 29 (38%) RBE positive PD patients and 10/56 (18%) patients with normal REM sleep at baseline converted to RBD. In HC, the occurrence of any REM behavior increased from 17% to 20% (n.s.). RBD increased from 2% to 4% (n.s.). One of 15 (7%) RBE positive HC and 1/85 (1%) HC with normal REM at baseline converted to RBD. Conclusions: RBD increased significantly in PD patients from the de novo state to two-year follow-up. We propose RBE being named “prodromal RBD” as it may follow a continuous evolution in PD possibly similar to the spreading of Lewy bodies in PD patients. RBD itself was shown as a robust and stable marker of early PD. Citation: Sixel-Döring F, Zimmermann J, Wegener A, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. The evolution of REM sleep behavior disorder in early Parkinson disease. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1737–1742. PMID:27306265

  15. Interpersonal violence, early life adversity, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual men

    PubMed Central

    Chatzittofis, Andreas; Savard, Josephine; Arver, Stefan; Öberg, Katarina Görts; Hallberg, Jonas; Nordström, Peter; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the role of childhood adversity, interpersonal violence, and suicidal behavior in hypersexual disorder (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal violence in hypersexual men compared with healthy volunteers and the experience of violence in relation to suicidal behavior. Methods This case–control study includes 67 male patients with HD and 40 healthy male volunteers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire – Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used for assessing early life adversity and interpersonal violence in childhood and in adult life. Suicidal behavior (attempts and ideation) was assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (version 6.0) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale – Self-rating. Results Hypersexual men reported more exposure to violence in childhood and more violent behavior as adults compared with healthy volunteers. Suicide attempters (n = 8, 12%) reported higher KIVS total score, more used violence as a child, more exposure to violence as an adult as well as higher score on CTQ-SF subscale measuring sexual abuse (SA) compared with hypersexual men without suicide attempt. Discussion Hypersexuality was associated with interpersonal violence with higher total scores in patients with a history of suicide attempt. The KIVS subscale exposure to interpersonal violence as a child was validated using the CTQ-SF but can be complemented with questions focusing on SA for full assessment of early life adversity. Conclusion Childhood adversity is an important factor in HD and interpersonal violence might be related to suicidal behavior in hypersexual men. PMID:28467102

  16. Peer Contexts in Schools: Avenues Toward Behavioral Health in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H J

    2015-01-01

    Peer contexts play an important role in the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. Behavioral health involves the observable academic and social behaviors that relate to and influence youths' subsequent health and development. Setting-level research on peer networks and social norms indicates these aspects of peer contexts vary by peer group, classroom, and school and dynamically relate to individual students' academic and social behaviors. Yet, although peer contexts are both influential and potentially malleable, little research examines the effects of school and classroom interventions on the development and maintenance of positive and productive peer contexts in schools. The current article identifies school structures and classroom processes theorized to directly or indirectly shift peer networks and social norms-and thereby increase the behavioral health of early adolescents in schools. We discuss the need for more rigorous and relevant research to better understand the role of schools and classrooms in strengthening these peer contexts and promoting behavioral health in early adolescence.

  17. Developmental commentary: individual and contextual influences on student-teacher relationships and children's early problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Myers, Sonya S; Pianta, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    Understanding factors associated with children's early behavioral difficulties is of vital importance to children's school success, and to the prevention of future behavior problems. Although biological factors can influence the expression of certain behaviors, the probability of children exhibiting classroom behavior problems is intensified when they are exposed to multiple risk factors, particularly negative student-teacher interactions. Children who exhibit behavior problems during early childhood and the transition to kindergarten, without intervention, can be placed on a developmental trajectory for serious behavior problems in later grades. Using a developmental systems model, this commentary provides a conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of individual and contextual factors to the development of early student-teacher relationships. Parent, teacher, and student characteristics are discussed as they are related to shaping student-teacher interactions and children's adjustment to school.

  18. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Social and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice: Sex-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lepeshko, Arina A.; Reshetnikov, Vasiliy V.

    2018-01-01

    Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual's life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day) or handling (HD, 15 min once a day) on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling), which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior. PMID:29619126

  19. Educational Inequalities in Health Behaviors at Midlife: Is There a Role for Early-life Cognition?

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  20. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.

  1. Early response in cognitive-behavior therapy for syndromes of medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kleinstäuber, Maria; Lambert, Michael J; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2017-05-25

    Early dramatic treatment response suggests a subset of patients who respond to treatment before most of it has been offered. These early responders tend to be over represented among those who are well at termination and at follow-up. Early response patterns in psychotherapy have been investigated only for a few of mental disorders so far. The main aim of the current study was to examine early response after five therapy-preparing sessions of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for syndromes of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). In the context of a randomized, waiting-list controlled trial 48 patients who suffered from ≥3 MUS over ≥6 months received 5 therapy-preparing sessions and 20 sessions of CBT for somatoform disorders. They completed self-report scales of somatic symptom severity (SOMS-7 T), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (BSI), illness anxiety and behavior (IAS) at pre-treatment, after 5 therapy-preparing sessions (FU-5P) and at therapy termination (FU-20 T). The current analyses are based on data from the treatment arm only. Repeated measure ANOVAs revealed a significant decrease of depression (d = 0.34), anxiety (d = 0.60), illness anxiety (d = 0.38) and illness behavior (d = 0.42), but no change of somatic symptom severity (d = -0.03) between pre-treatment and FU-5P. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses showed that symptom improvements between pre-treatment and FU-5P predict a better outcome at therapy termination for depression and illness anxiety, after controlling for pre-treatment scores. Mixed-effect ANOVAs revealed significant group*time interaction effects indicating differences in the course of symptom improvement over the therapy between patients who fulfilled a reliable change (i.e., early response) during the 5 therapy-preparing sessions and patients who did not reach an early reliable change. Demographic or clinical variables at pre-treatment were not significantly correlated with differential scores between pre

  2. Dissolution behavior and early bone apposition of calcium phosphate-coated machined implants

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Wan; Lee, Eun-Ung; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, In-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Calcium phosphate (CaP)-coated implants promote osseointegration and survival rate. The aim of this study was to (1) analyze the dissolution behavior of the residual CaP particles of removed implants and (2) evaluate bone apposition of CaP-coated machined surface implants at the early healing phase. Methods Mandibular premolars were extracted from five dogs. After eight weeks, the implants were placed according to drilling protocols: a nonmobile implant (NI) group and rotational implant (RI) group. For CaP dissolution behavior analysis, 8 implants were removed after 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The surface morphology and deposition of the coatings were observed. For bone apposition analysis, block sections were obtained after 1-, 2-, and 4-week healing periods and the specimens were analyzed. Results Calcium and phosphorus were detected in the implants that were removed immediately after insertion, and the other implants were composed mainly of titanium. There were no notable differences between the NI and RI groups in terms of the healing process. The bone-to-implant contact and bone density in the RI group showed a remarkable increase after 2 weeks of healing. Conclusions It can be speculated that the CaP coating dissolves early in the healing phase and chemically induces early bone formation regardless of the primary stability. PMID:24455442

  3. A Comparison of Workshop Training versus Intensive, Experiential Training for Improving Behavior Support Skills in Early Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Mashtare, Terry; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Pelham, William E.; Parham, Brittany R.; Smalls, Kalima J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective behavior support is an important component of high-quality and nurturing early childhood classroom settings. At present, there are few studies that investigate the best way to train and support teachers in these strategies. The present study compared two different training approaches: (1) a workshop that included a one-day…

  4. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  5. The Neurodevelopmental Basis of Early Childhood Disruptive Behavior: Irritable and Callous Phenotypes as Exemplars.

    PubMed

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Perlman, Susan B; Blair, R James; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Pine, Daniel S

    2018-02-01

    The arrival of the Journal's 175th anniversary occurs at a time of recent advances in research, providing an ideal opportunity to present a neurodevelopmental roadmap for understanding, preventing, and treating psychiatric disorders. Such a roadmap is particularly relevant for early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental conditions, which emerge when experience-dependent neuroplasticity is at its peak. Employing a novel developmental specification approach, this review places recent neurodevelopmental research on early childhood disruptive behavior within the historical context of the Journal. The authors highlight irritability and callous behavior as two core exemplars of early disruptive behavior. Both phenotypes can be reliably differentiated from normative variation as early as the first years of life. Both link to discrete pathophysiology: irritability with disruptions in prefrontal regulation of emotion, and callous behavior with abnormal fear processing. Each phenotype also possesses clinical and predictive utility. Based on a nomologic net of evidence, the authors conclude that early disruptive behavior is neurodevelopmental in nature and should be reclassified as an early-childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition in DSM-5. Rapid translation from neurodevelopmental discovery to clinical application has transformative potential for psychiatric approaches of the millennium. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1938: Electroencephalographic Analyses of Behavior Problem Children Herbert Jasper and colleagues found that brain abnormalities revealed by EEG are a potential causal factor in childhood behavioral disorders. (Am J Psychiatry 1938; 95:641-658 )].

  6. A multivariate twin study of early literacy in Japanese Kana

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Kakihana, Shinichiro; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This first Japanese twin study of early literacy development investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence individual differences in prereading skills in 238 pairs of twins at 42 months of age. Twin pairs were individually tested on measures of phonological awareness, kana letter name/sound knowledge, receptive vocabulary, visual perception, nonword repetition, and digit span. Results obtained from univariate behavioral-genetic analyses yielded little evidence for genetic influences, but substantial shared-environmental influences, for all measures. Phenotypic confirmatory factor analysis suggested three correlated factors: phonological awareness, letter name/sound knowledge, and general prereading skills. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses confirmed relatively small genetic and substantial shared environmental influences on the factors. The correlations among the three factors were mostly attributable to shared environment. Thus, shared environmental influences play an important role in the early reading development of Japanese children. PMID:23997545

  7. Educational inequalities in health behaviors at midlife: Is there a role for early-life cognition?

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Educational attainment is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections that can be used in situ to influence health. However, recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for education and determining health and mortality. A primary causal mechanism through which education and adolescent cognition plausibly impact health is through the modification of health behaviors. We integrate analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the National Survey of Health and Development, and the National Childhood Development Study to examine the role of adolescent cognition and education on smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife. Results suggest that adolescent cognition is associated with the propensity for education, but that associations between cognition and health behaviors are attenuated by adjusting for education. In contrast, education was robustly associated with poor health behaviors. These results support the view that education is robustly associated with health behaviors. PMID:26315501

  8. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGA<28 weeks) or on their relationship with motor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying Common Practice Elements to Improve Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Outcomes of Young Children in Early Childhood Classrooms.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Bryce D; Sutherland, Kevin S; Martinez, Ruben G; Conroy, Maureen A; Snyder, Patricia A; Southam-Gerow, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Educators are increasingly being encouraged to implement evidence-based interventions and practices to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of young children who exhibit problem behavior in early childhood settings. Given the nature of social-emotional learning during the early childhood years and the lack of a common set of core evidence-based practices within the early childhood literature, selection of instructional practices that foster positive social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes for children in early childhood settings can be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a study designed to identify common practice elements found in comprehensive intervention models (i.e., manualized interventions that include a number of components) or discrete practices (i.e., a specific behavior or action) designed to target social, emotional, and behavioral learning of young children who exhibit problem behavior. We conducted a systematic review of early childhood classroom interventions that had been evaluated in randomized group designs, quasi-experimental designs, and single-case experimental designs. A total of 49 published articles were identified, and an iterative process was used to identify common practice elements. The practice elements were subsequently reviewed by experts in social-emotional and behavioral interventions for young children. Twenty-four practice elements were identified and classified into content (the goal or general principle that guides a practice element) and delivery (the way in which a teacher provides instruction to the child) categories. We discuss implications that the identification of these practice elements found in the early childhood literature has for efforts to implement models and practices.

  10. Early social behaviors and the trajectory of peer victimization across the school years.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Niwako; Berry, Daniel; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Research has established that long-term exposure to peer victimization is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral maladjustment. Yet, relatively little is known regarding predictors of stable versus declining victimization across extended periods of time. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study used latent growth curve modeling to examine the separate and unique contributions of 3 early social behaviors in 2nd grade (aggression, anxious solitude, and prosocial behavior) to victimization across 2nd to 8th grade. Five hundred and 76 youth (M = 7.96 years, SD = .34) reported their level of exposure to victimization once a year from 2nd to 8th grade, and their teachers rated each youth on the 3 social behaviors in 2nd grade. When examined separately, the analyses revealed that (a) all 3 social behaviors contributed to 2nd-grade victimization; (b) anxious solitude and prosocial behavior contributed to the trajectory of victimization differently for boys and girls; and (c) aggression and anxious solitude contributed to significantly different levels of 8th-grade victimization in girls. Of interest, some effects were stronger in boys during elementary school and others were stronger in girls after the transition to middle school. When examined simultaneously, aggression remained the only significant predictor of 2nd-grade victimization; both anxious solitude and prosocial behavior uniquely predicted the trajectory of victimization, and aggression and anxious solitude uniquely predicted 8th-grade victimization in girls. Results are discussed with regard to prevention of prolonged victimization, with attention to gender differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yaming; Prado, Armando; Porras, Rocío; Hafez, Omar M; Bolander, John E

    2017-02-25

    The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential.

  12. Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yaming; Prado, Armando; Porras, Rocío; Hafez, Omar M.; Bolander, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential. PMID:28772590

  13. The Influence of Early Protein Energy Malnutrition on Subsequent Behavior and Intellectual Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sarita

    1990-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition in early childhood, as seen in many developing countries, influences subsequent behavior and intellectual performance. These impairments are associated with further reduction in fine motor skills and academic performance. (Author)

  14. Early Life Stress, MAOA, and Gene-Environment Interactions Predict Behavioral Disinhibition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Steer, Colin D.; Newman, Timothy K.; Gibson, Nerea; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth – 3 years) stressors to influence behavior in pre-pubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, U.K., is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first three years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3 ½ years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of pre-pubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR - stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

  15. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  16. Early life stress, MAOA, and gene-environment interactions predict behavioral disinhibition in children.

    PubMed

    Enoch, M-A; Steer, C D; Newman, T K; Gibson, N; Goldman, D

    2010-02-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth-3 years) stressors to influence behavior in prepubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK, is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first 3 years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3.5 years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1.5 and 2.5 years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of prepubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR- stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity.

  17. Effectiveness of the Preschool Version of the First Step to Success Early Intervention Program for Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Seçil; Arikan, Azru; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Aksoy, Funda; Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Preventing antisocial behaviors appearing at an early age--before they become chronic--through effective early intervention programs, has become an important issue in recent years. In Turkey, the increase in the number of children at risk of antisocial behavior makes it necessary to get these behaviors under control at an early age through some…

  18. The developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic: cognitive and behavioral consequences of early life exposure.

    PubMed

    Tolins, Molly; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Landrigan, Philip

    2014-01-01

    More than 200 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, and its carcinogenic and systemic toxicity have been extensively studied. By contrast, the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic has been less well described. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive review of the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. We reviewed the published epidemiological and toxicological literature on the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. Arsenic is able to gain access to the developing brain and cause neurotoxic effects. Animal models link prenatal and early postnatal exposure to reduction in brain weight, reductions in numbers of glia and neurons, and alterations in neurotransmitter systems. Animal and in vitro studies both suggest that oxidative stress may be a mechanism of arsenic neurotoxicity. Fifteen epidemiological studies indicate that early life exposure is associated with deficits in intelligence and memory. These effects may occur at levels of exposure below current safety guidelines, and some neurocognitive consequences may become manifest only later in life. Sex, concomitant exposures, and timing of exposure appear to modify the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. Four epidemiological studies failed to show behavioral outcomes of arsenic exposure. The published literature indicates that arsenic is a human developmental neurotoxicant. Ongoing and future prospective birth cohort studies will allow more precise definition of the developmental consequences of arsenic exposure in early life. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Predicting depression, social phobia, and violence in early adulthood from childhood behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2004-03-01

    This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Reports of childhood behavior problems were obtained from parents and children in fall 1985 and from teachers in spring 1986. Follow-up reports of violence and DSM-III-R depression and social phobia were collected from 765 respondents using standard survey items and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule in 1996. The past-year prevalences of depressive episode and social phobia were 20% and 17%, respectively. Twenty-one percent of the respondents reported two or more violent acts in the past year at age 21 years. Several available measures of childhood behavior problems as reported by parents, teachers, and children predicted violence (e.g., conduct problems, oppositional defiance); the strongest positive predictor of young adult violence was self-reported conduct problems, whereas self-reported shyness inhibited later violence. Relatively few child behavioral problems predicted social phobia (e.g., shyness). Results showed that children who reported higher, relative to lower, levels of conduct problems were nearly four times more likely to experience a depressive episode in early adulthood. Findings suggest the potential value of intervening to reduce childhood conduct problems as a prevention strategy for not only violence but also depression.

  20. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William

    2014-12-01

    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between maternal employment in the 2 years after childbearing and children's skills in first grade. There were neutral associations between maternal employment and children's first-grade skills in both countries. However, there was a slight indication that more time away from parenting was negatively linked to children's behavioral functioning in Australia and employment begun between 9 and 24 months was positively linked to cognitive skills for U.K. children of low-wage mothers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  3. Early Election Returns and the Voting Behavior of Adolescent Voters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Leon; And Others

    1971-01-01

    High school students participated in a field experiment that tested the effects of exposure to early election returns in a nonpartisan referendum. Students in the brighter classes changed their vote less frequently, but when they changed their preferences they showed a greater bandwagon effect. Students in the classes of lower academic achievement…

  4. Community based study of sleep bruxism during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Gozal, David; McNeil, Daniel W.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims for this study were to determine the prevalence of sleep-bruxism among young children, explore child behavior problems that may be associated with sleep-bruxism, and identify relations among sleep-bruxism, health problems, and neurocognitive performance. Methods The current study was a retrospective analysis of parent report surveys, and behavioral and neurocognitive assessments. Parents of 1953 preschool and 2888 first grade children indicated their child’s frequency of bruxism during sleep. A subsample of preschool children (n = 249) had additional behavioral, as well as neurocognitive assessments. Among the subsample, parents also reported on their child’s health, and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist; children were administered the Differential Ability Scales, and Pre-Reading Abilities subtests of the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. Results 36.8% of preschoolers and 49.6% of first graders were reported to brux ≥ 1 time per week. Among the preschool subsample, bruxing was independently associated with increased internalizing behaviors (β = .17). Bruxism was also associated with increased health problems (β = .19), and increased health problems were associated with decreased neurocognitive performance (β = .22). Conclusions The prevalence of sleep-bruxism was high. A dynamic and potentially clinically relevant relation exists among sleep-bruxism, internalizing behaviors, health, and neurocognition. Pediatric sleep-bruxism may serve as a sentinel marker for possible adverse health conditions, and signal a need for early intervention. These results support the need for an interdisciplinary approach to pediatric sleep medicine, dentistry, and psychology. PMID:23219144

  5. Specificity of early movie effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents' movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant's MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18-21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents' decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Specificity of Early Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Li, Zhigang; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ movie sex exposure (MSE) and movie alcohol exposure (MAE) have been shown to influence later sexual behavior and drinking, respectively. No study to date, however, has tested whether these effects generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early (i.e., before age 16) MSE and MAE on subsequent risky sex and alcohol use among a national sample of 1,228 U.S. adolescents. Participants reported their health behaviors and movie viewing up to six times between 2003 and 2009 in telephone interviews. The Beach method was used to create a population-based estimate of each participant’s MSE and MAE, which were then entered into a structural equation model (SEM) to predict lifetime risky sex and past month alcohol use at ages 18–21. For both men and women, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut. Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted risky sex and alcohol use. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. These results have implications for future media research, prevention programs for adolescent sex and alcohol use, and movie ratings that can guide parents’ decisions as to which movies are appropriate for their children. PMID:24034968

  7. The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Promote Awareness and Reduce Online Risk Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Janneke D; Brusselaers, Marjolein B J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study explored the effect of a school-based intervention on online risk awareness and behavior in order to shed light on a relatively unexplored field with high practical relevance. More than 800 Belgium primary school children (grade 4 and 6) were assessed at two measurements (n T1 = 812, 51.2 % female; n T2 = 819, 51.3 % female) before and after the intervention. Half of them received a 10 min classroom intervention indicating online risks. Children in the control group received a 10 min presentation concerning online applications without any emphasis on risks. Children in the intervention group were more likely to be aware of online risks directly after the intervention; this effect was still noticeable 4 months after. Reporting of online risk behavior in the intervention group was also higher compared to the control group who did not receive the intervention. Overall online risk awareness and online risk behavior were negatively associated and the awareness did not modulate the association between the intervention and online risk behavior. Furthermore, individual differences were assessed. Girls were more likely to be aware of online risks and asserted less online risk behavior than boys were. In line with the imperative in adolescence to become more risk taking, children in a higher grade were more likely to behave in a risky manner when online. The current study provides a valuable starting point for further research on how to decrease online risk behavior in early adolescence.

  8. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Fraaije, René H B

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

  9. Young Offenders: Early Intervention for Students with Behavioral and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The value of early intervention programs for children with delays and/or disabilities has been well accepted in the research. Providing appropriate special education services at an early age of detecting academic and behavioral/social problems has proven to be effective at eliminating or decreasing special services at a later age. This…

  10. An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Trlsha, Ed.; Thomas, Nigel, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this book is to provide a core introductory text for the many undergraduate students who are now studying early childhood. Four key themes are emphasised throughout this book: The first is the social construction of childhood. This is the idea that childhood is not a naturally given phenomenon, but the result of social…

  11. Early Life Stress Affects Mortality Rate More than Social Behavior, Gene Expression or Oxidative Damage in Honey Bee Workers

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. PMID:28122251

  12. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Moderating Effects of Low Birth Weight on Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sheinberg, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of low birth weight on the effectiveness of an early intervention program to improve cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes for children prenatally exposed to cocaine. Participants included 293 primarily minority, low SES children who were enrolled in the intervention during their first year and…

  14. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  15. Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

  16. The Association of Peer Academic Reputations in Math and Science with Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Allison M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the nature and implications of peer academic reputations in math and science classes for early adolescents' achievement beliefs and behaviors. The sample was 840 students (51% girls; 36% African American, 47% European American, 7% Latino, 6% Asian American, and 3% Other). About half the sample (47%) was from 27 fifth-grade…

  17. Early Disparities in Mathematics Gains among Poor and Non-Poor Children: Examining the Role of Behavioral Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between poverty status, mathematics achievement gains, and behavioral engagement in learning over kindergarten. Data included information on 11,680 poor, low-income, and non-poor kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). Results…

  18. The Impact of Alcohol-Specific Rules, Parental Norms about Early Drinking and Parental Alcohol Use on Adolescents' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim; Dekovic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent…

  19. Family Intervention Effects on Co-Occurring Early Childhood Behavioral and Emotional Problems: A Latent Transition Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Arin; Bullock, Bernadette Marie; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel; Wilson, Melvin; Gardner, Frances

    2008-01-01

    This study used latent transition analysis (LTA) to examine changes in early emotional and behavioral problems in children age 2 to 4 years resulting from participation in a family-centered intervention. A sample of 731 economically disadvantaged families was recruited from among participants in a national food supplement and nutrition program.…

  20. Do Actions Speak Louder than Words? Classroom Attitudes and Behavior in Relation to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron; Sentse, Miranda; Granic, Isabela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent classroom factors (i.e., classroom antibullying attitudes and behavioral norms) contributed to individual bullying, after controlling for individual difference characteristics. Participants were 2,547 early adolescents (M = 13.4 years, SD = 0.63) from 109 middle school classes. Self- and…

  1. Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

  2. Patterns of Organized Activity Participation in Urban, Early Adolescents: Associations with Academic Achievement, Problem Behaviors, and Perceived Adult Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Crean, Hugh F.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines patterns of organized activity and their concurrent association with academic achievement, problem behavior, and perceived adult support in a sample of urban, early adolescent, middle school students (mean age = 13.01; N = 2,495). Cluster analyses yielded six activity profiles: an uninvolved group (n = 775, 31.1%), a multiply…

  3. Predictors of Behavioral Regulation in Kindergarten: Household Chaos, Parenting, and Early Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral regulation is an important school readiness skill that has been linked to early executive function (EF) and later success in learning and school achievement. Although poverty and related risks, as well as negative parenting, have been associated with poorer EF and behavioral regulation, chaotic home environments may also play a role in…

  4. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  5. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  6. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  7. Teacher Perceptions Impeding Child Behavior Assessment in an Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2017-01-01

    Researchers acknowledge the utility of external consultants in helping teachers address problem behavior. To build teachers' capacity, the author explored emerging roadblocks during a consultation process. This investigation involved consultation and training on multitiered positive behavior supports for early childhood co-teaching dyads who…

  8. South Korean Early Childhood Education Teachers' Perceptions of Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Jina; Steed, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Kyungmin

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 169 South Korean early childhood education teachers regarding the importance and implementation of strategies associated with the Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support (PWPBS) framework (L. Fox & M. L. Hemmeter, 2009) to support social competence and prevent young children's challenging behavior. Analyses…

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHILD PERCEPTIONS TO ACHIEVEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN THE EARLY SCHOOL YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMBS, ARTHUR W.; SOPER, DANIEL W.

    THIS RESEARCH EXPLORED CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDREN AND THEIR BEHAVIOR DURING EARLY SCHOOL YEARS. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE IF CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SELF AND THE WORLD ARE ACCOMPANIED FROM YEAR TO YEAR BY CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) TO SEE IF A KNOWLEDGE OF A CHILD'S PERCEPTIONS CAN…

  10. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Can Early Intervention Have an Impact on Future Life? A Study of Life Events, Social Interaction, and Child Behavior among Mothers at Psychosocial Risk and Their Children Eight Years after Interaction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six mothers at psychosocial risk who had undergone interaction treatment when their children were babies were studied with respect to experienced negative life events, social network, and behavior problems in children. One reference group comprising 45 nontreated mothers at psychosocial risk and one comprising 56 mothers without psychosocial…

  12. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  13. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Results Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Conclusion Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time. PMID:26709924

  14. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  15. Differential Risk for Late Adolescent Conduct Problems and Mood Dysregulation Among Children with Early Externalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553

  16. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Damasio, A R

    1999-11-01

    The long-term consequences of early prefrontal cortex lesions occurring before 16 months were investigated in two adults. As is the case when such damage occurs in adulthood, the two early-onset patients had severely impaired social behavior despite normal basic cognitive abilities, and showed insensitivity to future consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment contingencies and failure to respond to behavioral interventions. Unlike adult-onset patients, however, the two patients had defective social and moral reasoning, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. Thus early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy.

  17. The Early Emergence of Guilt-Motivated Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Guilt serves vital prosocial functions: It motivates transgressors to make amends, thus restoring damaged relationships. Previous developmental research on guilt has not clearly distinguished it from sympathy for a victim or a tendency to repair damage in general. The authors tested 2- and 3-year-old children (N = 62 and 64, respectively) in a 2 × 2 design, varying whether or not a mishap caused harm to someone and whether children themselves caused that mishap. Three-year-olds showed greatest reparative behavior when they had caused the mishap and it caused harm, thus showing a specific effect of guilt. Two-year-olds repaired more whenever harm was caused, no matter by whom, thus showing only an effect of sympathy. Guilt as a distinct motivator of prosocial behavior thus emerges by at least 3 years. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. The relations of ego-resiliency and emotion socialization to the development of empathy and prosocial behavior across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Sulik, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children's empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress--their ego-resiliency--would be expected to affect their responses to others' emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers' emotion socialization practices and children's ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers' expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys' empathy was lower than girls' but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children's ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers' expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children's later prosocial behavior with peers.

  19. The Relations of Ego-Resiliency and Emotion Socialization to the Development of Empathy and Prosocial Behavior Across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Sulik, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored early personality and environmental predictors of the development of young children’s empathy, as well as relations of empathy to prosocial behavior with peers at a later age. How children manage their own emotions and behaviors when under stress—their ego-resiliency—would be expected to affect their responses to others’ emotions. Also, socialization experiences, such as the quality of parenting behaviors, have been associated with individual differences in empathy-related responding. We examined whether mothers’ emotion socialization practices and children’s ego-resiliency at 18 months predicted initial levels and change in empathy across five time points (24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months; N = 242), and whether empathy in turn predicted prosocial behavior with peers at 72/84 months of age. Ego-resiliency and mothers’ expressive encouragement both uniquely predicted the intercept of empathy. Boys’ empathy was lower than girls’ but improved more with age. Initial levels and growth of empathy positively predicted later prosocial behavior. Children’s ego-resiliency predicted the slope of empathy at near significance (p = .054). We also found that the intercept of empathy mediated the relation between ego-resiliency and prosocial behavior as well as the relation between mothers’ expressive encouragement and prosocial behavior. These findings suggest that both parenting and personality characteristics are relevant to the development of empathy during early childhood and might contribute to children’s later prosocial behavior with peers. PMID:24098930

  20. Parental Perceived Control and Social Support: Linkages to Change in Parenting Behaviors During Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  1. Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

  2. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Adam; Langley, Michelle C; Moore, Mark W; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-04-18

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000-22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene "symbolic" artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia.

  3. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  4. Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood: Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change.

    PubMed

    Flom, Megan; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2017-10-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors demonstrate meaningful individual differences in early childhood, even in nonclinical samples with low mean levels of CU, but the factors underlying this variation have not been examined. This study investigated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences and to sources of continuity and change in CU in toddler twins (145 monozygotic, 169 dizygotic) assessed at ages 2 and 3 years. CU, as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), was moderately stable across age (r = .45, p < .0001). Longitudinal biometric analyses revealed genetic and nonshared environmental influences on CU at both ages, with no significant contribution from shared environmental factors. Stability from age 2 to 3 was due to genetic factors, whereas change was due to both genetic and nonshared environmental influences. This genetic and nonshared environmental change was substantial, suggesting malleability of CU in early childhood. Over 50% of the genetic influences and 100% of the nonshared environmental influences on CU at age 3 were independent of those that operated at age 2. Implications of novel sources of variance across age are discussed.

  5. Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  6. Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in seven-year-old behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9. Method Two hundred and ninety one children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, where they performed a Flanker task, and event-related-potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Results Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. Additionally, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Conclusions Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. PMID:24655654

  7. Early life stress determines the effects of glucocorticoids and stress on hippocampal function: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence respectively.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Reflections on some early events related to behavior analysis of child development

    PubMed Central

    Bijou, Sidney W.

    1996-01-01

    A series of events related to the early application of behavioral principles to child behavior and development is described. The events began in the 1930s at Columbia University with a solicited letter from John B. Watson suggesting a master's degree thesis problem, and continued through the 1950s and 1960s at the University of Washington. Specifically, these happenings resulted in (a) research demonstrating that Skinner's laboratory method for studying nonhuman organisms could be profitably applied to the laboratory study of young normal children; (b) a demonstration that by successive approximations, a normal child can be operantly conditioned to respond to an arbitrary situation; (c) research showing that the effects of simple schedules of reinforcement obtained with nonhuman organisms could be duplicated in young normal and retarded children; (d) the demonstration that Skinner's operant laboratory method could be adapted to study young children in field situations; (e) research showing that operant principles can be successfully applied to the treatment of a young autistic boy with a serious visual handicap; (f) laboratory studies showing that mothers can be trained to treat their own young children who have behavior problems; (g) an in-home study demonstrating that a mother can treat her own child who has behavior problems; (h) a demonstration that operant principles can be applied effectively to teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic to children with retardation; and (i) publication of a book, Child Development: A Systematic and Empirical Theory, in collaboration with Donald M. Baer, by Prentice Hall in their Century Psychological Series. PMID:22478239

  9. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  10. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD. PMID:24847474

  11. Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2016-10-01

    The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral problems after early life stress: contributions of the hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Nacewicz, Brendon M; Sutterer, Matthew J; Cayo, Amelia A; Schaefer, Stacey M; Rudolph, Karen D; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Pollak, Seth D; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-02-15

    Early life stress (ELS) can compromise development, with higher amounts of adversity linked to behavioral problems. To understand this linkage, a growing body of research has examined two brain regions involved with socioemotional functioning-amygdala and hippocampus. Yet empirical studies have reported increases, decreases, and no differences within human and nonhuman animal samples exposed to different forms of ELS. This divergence in findings may stem from methodological factors, nonlinear effects of ELS, or both. We completed rigorous hand-tracing of the amygdala and hippocampus in three samples of children who experienced different forms of ELS (i.e., physical abuse, early neglect, or low socioeconomic status). Interviews were also conducted with children and their parents or guardians to collect data about cumulative life stress. The same data were also collected in a fourth sample of comparison children who had not experienced any of these forms of ELS. Smaller amygdala volumes were found for children exposed to these different forms of ELS. Smaller hippocampal volumes were also noted for children who were physically abused or from low socioeconomic status households. Smaller amygdala and hippocampal volumes were also associated with greater cumulative stress exposure and behavioral problems. Hippocampal volumes partially mediated the relationship between ELS and greater behavioral problems. This study suggests ELS may shape the development of brain areas involved with emotion processing and regulation in similar ways. Differences in the amygdala and hippocampus may be a shared diathesis for later negative outcomes related to ELS. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Iron Deficiency Has Brain and Behavior Effects Consistent with Dopaminergic Dysfunction123

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    To honor the late John Beard’s many contributions regarding iron and dopamine biology, this review focuses on recent human studies that test specific hypotheses about effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine system functioning. Short- and long-term alterations associated with iron deficiency in infancy can be related to major dopamine pathways (mesocortical, mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, tuberohypophyseal). Children and young adults who had iron deficiency anemia in infancy show poorer inhibitory control and executive functioning as assessed by neurocognitive tasks where pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies implicate frontal-striatal circuits and the mesocortical dopamine pathway. Alterations in the mesolimbic pathway, where dopamine plays a major role in behavioral activation and inhibition, positive affect, and inherent reward, may help explain altered social-emotional behavior in iron-deficient infants, specifically wariness and hesitance, lack of positive affect, diminished social engagement, etc. Poorer motor sequencing and bimanual coordination and lower spontaneous eye blink rate in iron-deficient anemic infants are consistent with impaired function in the nigrostriatal pathway. Short- and long-term changes in serum prolactin point to dopamine dysfunction in the tuberohypophyseal pathway. These hypothesis-driven findings support the adverse effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine biology. Iron deficiency also has other effects, specifically on other neurotransmitters, myelination, dendritogenesis, neurometabolism in hippocampus and striatum, gene and protein profiles, and associated behaviors. The persistence of poorer cognitive, motor, affective, and sensory system functioning highlights the need to prevent iron deficiency in infancy and to find interventions that lessen the long-term effects of this widespread nutrient disorder. PMID:21346104

  14. Children’s early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Stuart I.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children’s early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget’s “Moral Judgment of the Child” (Piaget, 1932/1997), “Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood” (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the “Grasp of Consciousness” (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping. PMID:25101027

  15. Children's early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Stuart I

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children's early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget's "Moral Judgment of the Child" (Piaget, 1932/1997), "Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood" (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the "Grasp of Consciousness" (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping.

  16. Individual Differences in Toddlers' Prosociality: Experiences in Early Relationships Explain Variability in Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Newton, Emily K; Thompson, Ross A; Goodman, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Latent class logistic regression analysis was used to investigate sources of individual differences in profiles of prosocial behavior. Eighty-seven 18-month-olds were observed in tasks assessing sharing with a neutral adult, instrumentally helping a neutral adult, and instrumentally helping a sad adult. Maternal mental state language (MSL) and maternal sensitivity were also assessed. Despite differing motivational demands across tasks, we found consistency in children's prosocial behavior with three latent classes: no prosocial behavior, moderate prosocial behavior, and frequent instrumental helping across emotional situations. Maternal sensitivity, MSL, and their interaction predicted toddlers' membership in the classes. These findings evidence moderate consistency in early prosocial behaviors and suggest that these capacities are motivated in early relationships with caregivers. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Studies Toward Birth and Early Mammalian Development in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Successful reproduction is the hallmark of a species' ability to adapt to its environment and must be realized to sustain life beyond Earth. Before taking this immense step, we need to understand the effects of altered gravity on critical phases of mammalian reproduction, viz., those events surrounding pregnancy, birth and the early development of offspring. No mammal has yet undergone birth in space. however studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing insights into how birth and early postnatal development will proceed in space. In this presentation, I will report the results of behavioral studies of rat mothers and offspring exposed from mid- to late pregnancy to either hypogravity (0-g) or hypergravity (1.5 or 2-g).

  18. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    PubMed

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (<30 weeks' gestation or <1250 g birth weight) and their parents/guardians. At 2 years' corrected age, parents/guardians and children completed a semistructured parent-child interaction task assessing dyad synchrony and parenting behavior (positive affect, negative affect, sensitivity, facilitation, and intrusiveness). Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  19. Toddlers with Early Behavioral Problems at Higher Family Demographic Risk Benefit the Most from Maternal Emotion Talk.

    PubMed

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.

  20. Maternal Work Early in the Lives of Children and Its Distal Associations with Achievement and Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Prause, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 69 studies (1,483 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine maternal employment during infancy/early childhood in relation to 2 major domains of child functioning: achievement and behavior problems. Analyses of studies that spanned 5 decades indicated that, with a few exceptions, early employment was not…

  1. Early Peritoneal Immune Response during Echinococcus granulosus Establishment Displays a Biphasic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide distributed helminth zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Human secondary cystic echinococcosis is caused by dissemination of protoscoleces after accidental rupture of fertile cysts and is due to protoscoleces ability to develop into new metacestodes. In the experimental model of secondary cystic echinococcosis mice react against protoscoleces producing inefficient immune responses, allowing parasites to develop into cysts. Although the chronic phase of infection has been analyzed in depth, early immune responses at the site of infection establishment, e.g., peritoneal cavity, have not been well studied. Because during early stages of infection parasites are thought to be more susceptible to immune attack, this work focused on the study of cellular and molecular events triggered early in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. Principal Findings Data obtained showed disparate behaviors among subpopulations within the peritoneal lymphoid compartment. Regarding B cells, there is an active molecular process of plasma cell differentiation accompanied by significant local production of specific IgM and IgG2b antibodies. In addition, peritoneal NK cells showed a rapid increase with a significant percentage of activated cells. Peritoneal T cells showed a substantial increase, with predominance in CD4+ T lymphocytes. There was also a local increase in Treg cells. Finally, cytokine response showed local biphasic kinetics: an early predominant induction of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-15), followed by a shift toward a Th2-type profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13). Conclusions Results reported here open new ways to investigate the involvement of immune effectors players in E. granulosus establishment, and also in the sequential promotion of Th1- toward Th2-type responses in experimental secondary cystic echinococcosis. These data would be relevant for designing rational therapies

  2. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2016-05-15

    While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Patterns of Marijuana Use and Early Sexual Behavior in Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers use marijuana more frequently than older mothers, and marijuana use may predict HIV risk behavior in offspring. Our goals were to (1) describe trajectories of marijuana use in teenage mothers and (2) determine if these trajectories were associated with early sexual behavior in their offspring. Pregnant adolescents (12–18 years) were recruited at a prenatal clinic and interviewed during pregnancy, at delivery, and during follow-up visits when offspring were 6, 10, 14 and 16 years old. At 16 years, 332 women (71 % Black, 29 % White) and their offspring were assessed. Mothers were asked about their marijuana use at each time point. Offspring reported on their sexual behavior at age 14. Trajectory analyses using growth mixture models revealed four maternal patterns of marijuana use: no use, only at the 6 year follow-up, quit by the 16 year follow-up, and used across most of the time points. The children of chronic users were more likely to have early sex. The maternal marijuana trajectory group variable remained a statistically significant predictor in multivariate models controlling for race, gender, socioeconomic status, child pubertal timing, child externalizing behavior problems, and child marijuana use. These findings suggest that a minority of teenage mothers continue to use marijuana over time. Chronic maternal marijuana use across a decade was associated with early sex in offspring (oral or vaginal sex by age 14). Early sexual behavior places these children at significantly higher risk of teenage pregnancy and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:24942139

  4. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity

    PubMed Central

    Larke, Rebecca H.; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Bales, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. PMID:28605039

  5. Infant titi monkey behavior in the open field test and the effect of early adversity.

    PubMed

    Larke, Rebecca H; Toubiana, Alice; Lindsay, Katrina A; Mendoza, Sally P; Bales, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling. Infant locomotor, vocalization, and exploratory behavior were quantified. Results indicated that age, sex, social condition, and early experience all had significant effects on infant behavior. Specifically, infants were generally more exploratory at 6 months and male infants were more exploratory than females. Infants distinguished between social and non-social conditions but made few behavioral distinctions between the attachment figure and other individuals. Infants which had adverse early life experience demonstrated greater emotional and physical independence, suggesting that early adversity led to resiliency in the novel environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Early intensive behavioral intervention: Emergence of a consumer-driven service model

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Parents are becoming influential stimulators and shapers of public policy in regard to educational services for their children. Increasingly, this advocacy has created a controversy about the role of applied behavior analysis as a foundation for early intensive behavioral intervention in autism. Uncertainties exist in policy regarding the role of behavior analysis in early intervention and the capacity of behavior analysis to field a trained work force. Based on contacts with parents of children with autism and information available in a variety of forms on the Internet, there is a rising demand for fundamentally better early intervention services that are available and accessible, provide active intervention, and are based on principles of behavior analysis. Contemporary movements in special and early education, however, appear to be nonconducive to scientifically based treatments, and school districts seem hostile to an increasing role for behavior analysis and to the establishment of services that are responsive to changing parental priorities for the education of their children with autism and related disorders. PMID:22478344

  7. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184

  8. Marijuana experiences, voting behaviors and early perspectives regarding marijuana legalization among college students from two states

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234

  9. The Implications of Endoscopic Ulcer in Early Gastric Cancer: Can We Predict Clinical Behaviors from Endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Jae Jun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Seung Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The presence of ulcer in early gastric cancer (EGC) is important for the feasibility of endoscopic resection, only a few studies have examined the clinicopathological implications of endoscopic ulcer in EGC. To determine the role of endoscopic ulcer as a predictor of clinical behaviors in EGC. Data of 3,270 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed in relation to the presence and stage of ulcer in EGC. Based on endoscopic findings, the stage of ulcer was categorized as active, healing, or scar. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM). 2,343 (71.7%) patients had endoscopic findings of ulceration in EGC. Submucosal (SM) invasion, LNM, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion, and undifferentiated-type histology were significantly higher in ulcerative than non-ulcerative EGC. Comparison across different stages of ulcer revealed that SM invasion, LNM, and LVI were significantly associated with the active stage, and that these features exhibited significant stage-based differences, being most common at the active stage, and least common at the scar stage. The presence of endoscopic ulcer and active status of the ulcer were identified as independent risk factors for LNM. Ulcerative EGC detected by endoscopy exhibited more aggressive behaviors than non-ulcerative EGC. Additionally, the endoscopic stage of ulcer may predict the clinicopathological behaviors of EGC. Therefore, the appearance of ulcers should be carefully evaluated to determine an adequate treatment strategy for EGC.

  10. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies.

  11. Early Metamorphic Insertion Technology for Insect Flight Behavior Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing “only” while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

  12. Professional behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Janna Marie

    Professional socialization is a process that individuals experience as members of a profession and consists of the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences that influence and shape their professional identity. The process of professional socialization has not been studied in the clinical laboratory science profession. Clinical laboratory science is an allied health profession that is faced by a workforce shortage that has been caused by a decrease in new graduates, decreased retention of qualified professionals, and increased retirements. Other allied health professions such as nursing, athletic training, and pharmacy have studied professional socialization as a way to identify factors that may influence the retention of early career professionals. This mixed method study, which quantitatively used Hall's Professionalism Scale (1968) in addition to qualitative focus group interviews, sought to identify the professional attitudes and behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists. Early career clinical laboratory scientists were divided into two groups based upon the amount of work experience they had; new clinical laboratory science graduates have had less than one year of work experience and novice clinical laboratory scientists had between one and three years of work experience. This study found that early career clinical laboratory scientists have established professional identities and view themselves as members of the clinical laboratory science field within four proposed stages of professional socialization consisting of pre-arrival, encounter, adaptation, and commitment. New CLS graduates and novice clinical laboratory scientists were found to be at different stages of the professional stage process. New CLS graduates, who had less than one year of work experience, were found to be in the encounter stage. Novice clinical laboratory scientists, with one to three years of work experience, were found to

  13. The Influence of Family and Teacher Factors on Early Disruptive School Behaviors: A Latent Profile Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah J.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The kindergarten year plays an important role in establishing children's academic, social, and behavioral adjustment. Early identification of children who experience difficulties with the kindergarten transition is crucial to prevent continued behavioral and emotional problems. Family and school predictors of these early behavioral patterns can…

  14. Medically complex pregnancies and early breastfeeding behaviors: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Jou, Judy; Attanasio, Laura B; Joarnt, Lauren K; McGovern, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is beneficial for women and infants, and medical contraindications are rare. Prenatal and labor-related complications may hinder breastfeeding, but supportive hospital practices may encourage women who intend to breastfeed. We measured the relationship between having a complex pregnancy (entering pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, or obesity) and early infant feeding, accounting for breastfeeding intentions and supportive hospital practices. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a nationally-representative survey of women who gave birth in 2011-2012 in a US hospital (N = 2400). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between pregnancy complexity and breastfeeding. Self-reported prepregnancy diabetes or hypertension, gestational diabetes, or obesity indicated a complex pregnancy. The outcome was feeding status 1 week postpartum; any breastfeeding was evaluated among women intending to breastfeed (N = 1990), and exclusive breastfeeding among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (N = 1418). We also tested whether breastfeeding intentions or supportive hospital practices mediated the relationship between pregnancy complexity and infant feeding status. More than 33% of women had a complex pregnancy; these women had 30% lower odds of intending to breastfeed (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98). Rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed were similar for women with and without complex pregnancies. Women who intended to breastfeed had similar rates of any breastfeeding 1 week postpartum regardless of pregnancy complexity, but complexity was associated with >30% lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week among women who intended to exclusively breastfeed (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98). Supportive hospital practices were strongly associated with higher odds of any or exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (AOR = 4.03; 95% CI, 1.81-8.94; and AOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.70-4.23, respectively). Improving clinical and hospital

  15. Development of constructivist theory of mind from middle childhood to early adulthood and its relation to social cognition and behavior.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Amy A; Parault Dowds, Susan J; Fabricius, William V; Schwanenflugel, Paula J; Suh, Go Woon

    2017-02-01

    Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1, a new measure was developed to assess participants' understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school. Results showed that the onset of constructivist ToM occurs between late childhood and early adolescence and that adolescents who have more advanced constructivist ToM have more prosocial reasoning about conflict, which in turn mediated the relation with fewer serious behavior problems in high school, after controlling for academic performance and sex. In both studies, girls showed more advanced constructivist ToM than boys in high school. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Constructivist Theory of Mind from Middle Childhood to Early Adulthood and Its Relation to Social Cognition and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Amy A.; Parault Dowds, Susan J.; Fabricius, William V.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Suh, Go Woon

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined the development of constructivist theory of mind (ToM) during late childhood and early adolescence. In Study 1 a new measure was developed to assess participants’ understanding of the interpretive and constructive processes embedded in memory, comprehension, attention, comparison, planning, and inference. Using this measure, Study 2 tested a mediational model in which prosocial reasoning about conflict mediated the relation between constructivist ToM and behavior problems in high school. Results showed that the onset of constructivist ToM occurs between late childhood and early adolescence, and that adolescents who have more advanced constructivist ToM have more prosocial reasoning about conflict, which in turn mediated the relation with fewer serious behavior problems in high school, after controlling for academic performance and sex. In both studies, females showed more advanced constructivist ToM than males in high school. PMID:27821294

  17. Using an Early Skills Assessment to Assess Outcome of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing…

  18. The analysis of behavior in orbit GSS two series of US early-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Motrunych, I. I.

    2016-09-01

    Satellites Early Warning System Series class SBIRS US Air Force must replace on GEO early series DSP Series. During 2014-2016 the authors received more than 30 light curves "DSP-18 and "Sbirs-Geo 2". The analysis of the behavior of these satellites in orbit by a coordinate and photometric data. It is shown that for the monitoring of the Earth's surface is enough to place GEO 4 unit SBIRS across 90 deg.

  19. The family environment predicts long-term academic achievement and classroom behavior following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Pathways from maternal distress and child problem behavior to adolescent depressive symptoms: a prospective examination from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.

  1. Sisters’ and Girlfriends’ Sexual and Childbearing Behavior: Effects on Early Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Felice, Marianne E.; Morgan, Maria C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined three key issues related to the effects of sisters’ and girlfriends’ sexual and childbearing behavior on early adolescent girls’ sexual outcomes. Subjects were 455 girls from predominantly minority racial backgrounds. Results indicated that number of sexually active girlfriends, number of sexually active sisters, and presence of an adolescent childbearing sister were positively associated with permissive sexual attitudes, positive intentions for future sexual activity, and a greater likelihood of being a nonvirgin. The strength of these relationships did not vary by race, but there was a greater presence of permissive social influences for African American girls than for nonblack girls. Results from multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that having both many sexually active girlfriends and an adolescent childbearing sister had particularly strong effects on permissive sexual attitudes and a nonvirgin status. PMID:24353349

  2. The Evolution of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Early Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Zimmermann, Johannes; Wegener, Andrea; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the development of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and REM sleep behavioral events (RBE) not yet fulfilling diagnostic criteria for RBD as markers for neurodegeneration in a cohort of Parkinson disease (PD) patients between their de novo baseline assessment and two-year follow-up in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Clinically confirmed PD patients and HC with video-supported polysomnography (vPSG) data at baseline were re-investigated after two years. Diagnostic scoring for RBE and RBD was performed in both groups and related to baseline findings. One hundred thirteen PD patients and 102 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. Within two years, the overall occurrence of behaviors during REM sleep in PD patients increased from 50% to 63% (P = 0.02). RBD increased from 25% to 43% (P < 0.001). Eleven of 29 (38%) RBE positive PD patients and 10/56 (18%) patients with normal REM sleep at baseline converted to RBD. In HC, the occurrence of any REM behavior increased from 17% to 20% (n.s.). RBD increased from 2% to 4% (n.s.). One of 15 (7%) RBE positive HC and 1/85 (1%) HC with normal REM at baseline converted to RBD. RBD increased significantly in PD patients from the de novo state to two-year follow-up. We propose RBE being named "prodromal RBD" as it may follow a continuous evolution in PD possibly similar to the spreading of Lewy bodies in PD patients. RBD itself was shown as a robust and stable marker of early PD. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Leadership component of type A behavior predicts physical activity in early midlife.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolin; Telama, Risto; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2012-03-01

    Research on the long-term effects of Type A behavior and its components in the prediction of physical activity in adulthood is scarce and there is a lack of prospective data that are able to show such an association. We examined the relations between components of Type A behavior and physical activity from youth to early midlife. The sample included 2,031 participants (43.8% of males) aged 9 to 24 years in 1986 from the Young Finns Study. Type A behavior was measured by the Hunter-Wolf A-B Rating Scale at three phases in 1986, 1989, and 2001. Physical activity was assessed using a short self-report questionnaire at five phases between 1986 and 2007. High Type A leadership was associated with high physical activity in 1986 (r = 0.37, P < 0.01), 1989 (r = 0.36, P < 0.01) and 2001 (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), and youth leadership also predicted high adult physical activity (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, education, occupation, smoking, body mass index, and baseline physical activity, the association remained significant. There was also a bidirectional association between Type A leadership and physical activity. Persistent physical activity during the adult years was associated with a higher Type A leadership than persistent physical inactivity (Cohen's d = 0.34, P < 0.001), even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations of other components of Type A behavior, i.e., hard-driving, eagerness-energy, and aggression with physical activity were marginal. There is a direct relation between Type A leadership and physical activity at different development phases that maybe bidirectional.

  4. 5-HTTLPR status moderates the effect of early adolescent substance use on risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Lei, Man-Kit

    2010-09-01

    A longitudinal, prospective design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between early adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior 2 years later. A genetic vulnerability factor, a variable nucleotide repeat polymorphism (VNTR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, known as 5-HTTLPR, was hypothesized to moderate the link between substance use at age 14 and risky sexual behavior at age 16. This VNTR has been associated with risk-taking behavior. African American youths in rural Georgia (N = 185) provided 2 waves of data on their substance use and sexual behavior. Genetic data were obtained via saliva samples. Substance use and sexual risk behavior were assessed using youth self-report items developed for this investigation. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the short allele of the VNTR interacted with substance use to predict sexual behavior. Substance use had little effect on sexual behavior for youths without the short allele; this effect was greatly increased for youths with the short allele. Genetic vulnerability affected the implications of early onset substance use for later sexual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Toward a conceptual framework for early brain and behavior development in autism

    PubMed Central

    Piven, J; Elison, J T; Zylka, M J

    2017-01-01

    Studies of infant siblings of older autistic probands, who are at elevated risk for autism, have demonstrated that the defining features of autism are not present in the first year of life but emerge late in the first and into the second year. A recent longitudinal neuroimaging study of high-risk siblings revealed a specific pattern of brain development in infants later diagnosed with autism, characterized by cortical surface area hyper-expansion in the first year followed by brain volume overgrowth in the second year that is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits. Together with new observations from genetically defined autism risk alleles and rodent model, these findings suggest a conceptual framework for the early, post-natal development of autism. This framework postulates that an increase in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and hyper-expansion of cortical surface area in the first year, occurring during a pre-symptomatic period characterized by disrupted sensorimotor and attentional experience, leads to altered experience-dependent neuronal development and decreased elimination of neuronal processes. This process is linked to brain volume overgrowth and disruption of the refinement of neural circuit connections and is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits in the second year of life. A better understanding of the timing of developmental brain and behavior mechanisms in autism during infancy, a period which precedes the emergence of the defining features of this disorder, will likely have important implications for designing rational approaches to early intervention. PMID:28937691

  6. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Early Childhood Classrooms in the United States and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.; Noh, Jina; Heo, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of critical features associated with positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in early childhood classrooms in the United States and South Korea. Each country has a distinct approach to providing early education for young children. There is some evidence that preschool teachers' approaches to…

  7. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Relationship between Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Unsafe Internet Usage in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    VURAL, Pınar; UNCU, Yeşim; KILIÇ, Emine Zinnur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children and adolescents are at the highest risk for negative effects of internet usage. Risk taking and erroneous decision making have been described as major behavioral characteristics of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD and its association particularly with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder are correlated with risk-taking behaviors. This study was conducted to evaluate how disruptive behavior disorder symptoms are associated with internet usage, particularly unsafe internet usage, in early adolescents. Methods A sample of 1389 secondary school students was invited to the survey. All children were given an invitation letter and Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) forms were sent to their parents. The accepted participants filled in questionnaire forms, which consisted of questions interrogating demographic information and internet usage habits. Results Responses indicated that 27.4% (n=249) of the participants encountered unwanted content unintentionally and nearly one-third (n=280, 30.4%) had chatted online with people they did not know. Additionally, respondents who had more severe ADHD symptoms were more likely to report surfing online mainly for the purpose of chatting than respondents with milder ADHD symptoms. Students with comparatively higher attention deficit scores were also significantly more likely to report meeting in person with strangers they knew only from internet chatting. Analyses have demonstrated the presence of a significant difference between study participants with and without conduct disorder as for internet overusage or meeting with their internet acquaintances. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be a significant relation between ADHD symptoms, conduct disorder and pathological and unsafe internet usage. Evaluating adolescents with ADHD and conduct disorder with this risk in mind is important in the development of both preventive and interventional strategies. PMID

  9. Behavioral adjustment of siblings of children with autism engaged in applied behavior analysis early intervention programs: the moderating role of social support.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Richard P

    2003-04-01

    There have been few studies of the impact of intensive home-based early applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism on family functioning. In the present study, behavioral adjustment was explored in 78 siblings of children with autism on ABA programs. First, mothers' ratings of sibling adjustment were compared to a normative sample. There were no reported increases in behavioral adjustment problems in the present sample. Second, regression analyses revealed that social support functioned as a moderator of the impact of autism severity on sibling adjustment rather than a mediator or compensatory variable. In particular, siblings in families with a less severely autistic child had fewer adjustment problems when more formal social support was also available to the family. The implications of these data for future research and for practice are discussed.

  10. Maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy is associated with blood pressure at age 5-6.

    PubMed

    Smarius, L J C A; Strieder, T G A; Doreleijers, T A H; Vrijkotte, T G M; de Rooij, S R

    2018-06-01

    Early life stress has been shown to contribute to alterations in biobehavioral regulation. Whereas many different forms of childhood adversities have been studied in relation to cardiovascular outcomes, very little is known about potential associations between caregivers' verbally aggressive behavior and heart rate and blood pressure in the child. This prospective study examined whether maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy is associated with heart rate or blood pressure at age 5-6. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a large prospective, population-based birth cohort, maternal verbally aggressive behavior was assessed by questionnaire in the 13th week after birth. The child's blood pressure and heart rate were measured during rest at age 5-6 (n=2553 included). Maternal verbally aggressive behavior in infancy was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) both in supine and sitting position after adjustment for sex, height and age (SBP supine B=1.01 mmHg; 95% CI [0.06; 1.95] and SPB sitting B=1.29 mmHg; 95% CI [0.12; 2.46]). Adjustment for potential confounding variables, such as other mother-infant dyad aspects, family hypertension and child's BMI, only slightly attenuated the associations (SBP supine B=0.99 mmHg; 95% CI [0.06; 1.93] and SPB sitting B=1.11 mmHg; 95% CI [-0.06; 2.27]). Maternal verbally aggressive behavior was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or heart rate at age 5-6. Maternal verbally aggressive behavior might be an important early life stressor with negative impact on blood pressure later in life, which should be further investigated. Possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children’s self-regulation, which in turn reduces children’s externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  12. Characterization of early communicative behavior in mouse models of Neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Susan E.; Chandler, Krystal C.; Anastasaki, Corina; Rieger, Michael A.; Gutmann, David H.; Dougherty, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disease caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Cognitive impairments are observed in approximately 80% of children with this disease, with 45–60% exhibiting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. In light of the high comorbidity rate between ASD and NF1, we assessed early communicative behavior by maternal-separation induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and developmental milestones in two distinct Nf1 genetically-engineered models, one modeling clinical germline heterozygous loss of Nf1 function (Nf1+/− mice), and a second with somatic biallelic Nf1 inactivation in neuroglial progenitor cells (Nf1GFAPCKO mice). We observed altered USV production in both models: Nf1+/− mice exhibited both increased USVs across development and alterations in aspects of pitch, while Nf1GFAPCKO mice demonstrated a decrease in USVs. Developmental milestones, such as weight, pinnae detachment and eye opening, were not disrupted in either model, indicating the USV deficits were not due to gross developmental delay, and likely reflected more specific alterations in USV circuitry. In this respect, increased whole-brain serotonin was observed in Nf1+/− mice, but whole-brain levels of dopamine and its metabolites were unchanged at the age of peak USV disruption, and USV alterations did not correlate with overall level of neurofibromin loss. The early communicative phenotypes reported herein should motivate further studies into the risks mediated by haploinsufficiency and biallelic deletion of Nf1 across a full battery of ASD-relevant behavioral phenotypes, and a targeted analysis of underlying circuitry disruptions. PMID:28842941

  13. Tackling the ‘dyslexia paradox’: reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5–17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in prereading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure. PMID:26836227

  14. From the macro to the micro: a geographic examination of the community context and early adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how multiple dimensions and levels of the community context associated with early adolescent problem behaviors in rural communities. Four thousand, five hundred and nine eighth-grade students in 28 rural and small town school districts in two states participated in surveys regarding substance use and delinquency in 2005. Locations of alcohol retailers, tobacco retailers, youth-serving organizations, and student residences were geocoded. Associations of the number of proximal alcohol and tobacco retailers, and youth-serving organizations with an early-adolescent problem behavior index were tested in Nonlinear Mixed Models that controlled for multiple district-level and individual characteristics. Multi-level model results demonstrated that the number of alcohol and tobacco retail locations within a one-mile radius of each adolescent's home positively associated with student-reported problem behaviors above and beyond the influence of school district and individual characteristics. Results suggest that the proximal community context added significantly to the district context when understanding the occurrence of early adolescent problem behaviors. Recognizing this variability in geographically determined risk within a community will likely enhance the effectiveness of community prevention activities.

  15. From the macro to the micro: A geographic examination of the community context and early adolescent problem behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chilenski, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how multiple dimensions and levels of the community context associated with early adolescent problem behaviors in rural communities. Four thousand, five hundred and nine eighth-grade students in 28 rural and small town school districts in two states participated in surveys regarding substance use and delinquency in 2005. Locations of alcohol retailers, tobacco retailers, youth-serving organizations, and student residences were geocoded. Associations of the number of proximal alcohol and tobacco retailers, and youth-serving organizations with an early-adolescent problem behavior index were tested in Nonlinear Mixed Models that controlled for multiple district-level and individual characteristics. Multi-level model results demonstrated that the number of alcohol and tobacco retail locations within a one-mile radius of each adolescent’s home positively associated with student-reported problem behaviors above and beyond the influence of school district and individual characteristics. Results suggest that the proximal community context added significantly to the district context when understanding the occurrence of early adolescent problem behaviors. Recognizing this variability in geographically determined risk within a community will likely enhance the effectiveness of community prevention activities. PMID:21336674

  16. Early Adversity and Learning: Implications for Typical and Atypical Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jamie L.; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Methods:…

  17. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  18. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  19. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  20. Cost Comparison of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention and Special Education for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasson, Gregory S.; Harris, Gerald E.; Neely, Wendy J.

    2007-01-01

    The financial implications of the increased prevalence of autism, though rarely discussed, will be extremely important to society. We compared the costs associated with 18 years of special education to the costs associated with the implementation of an average of 3 years of Discrete Trial Training as an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention…

  1. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  2. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a…

  3. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  4. Early School Transitions and the Social Behavior of Children with Disabilities: Selected Findings from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study. Wave 3 Overview Report from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS). NCSER 2009-3016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Daley, Tamara; Bitterman, Amy; Heinzen, Harriotte; Keller, Brad; Markowitz, Joy; Riley, Jarnee

    2009-01-01

    The Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS), funded by the U.S. Department of Education, is examining the characteristics of children receiving preschool special education, the services they receive, their transitions across educational levels, and their performance over time on assessments of academic and adaptive skills. PEELS…

  5. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Behavior and Early Smoking Initiation Among Men in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Shah, Vaibhav; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing concern for health care systems as it is projected to become the leading cause of death in the developing world. Knowledge of how smoking behavior differs across socioeconomic groups is crucial for designing effective preventive policies and alleviating the disparities. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of (1) smoking status, (2) early smoking initiation, and (3) association with socioeconomic status (SES) of the 2 among Malawian men. Cross-sectional data on 1693 men aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the latest 2013-2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Malawi. Educational qualification and wealth index quintile were used as the indicators of SES. Outcome variables were smoking status, first age of smoking being below 18 years, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco products. Multiple logistic regression models were used to see the contribution of SES to smoking status and early smoking initiation. Mean age of the sample population was 33.23 years (SD: 8.25). Prevalence of smoking, early initiation, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco were, respectively, 46.6%, 33.7%, and 6%. Compared with men who had higher education, those who had no formal education, primary-level, and secondary-level qualification had, respectively, 21% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.209; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.498-2.935), 40% (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.647-3.029), and 26% (AOR = 1.256; 95% CI = 0.593-2.661) higher odds of being a smoker. Those who had no formal education were 2.7 times (AOR = 2.734; 95% CI = 1.123-6.653) as likely to try smoking before reaching 18 years of age. Compared with the richest, those in the lowest wealth quintile had 32% lower odds (AOR = 0.676; 95% CI = 0.455-1.006) of early onset of smoking, 63% lower odds (AOR = 0.372; 95% CI = 0.201-0.690) of trying other tobacco products. Addressing the socioeconomic disparities could play

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Behavior and Early Smoking Initiation Among Men in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Shah, Vaibhav; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a growing concern for health care systems as it is projected to become the leading cause of death in the developing world. Knowledge of how smoking behavior differs across socioeconomic groups is crucial for designing effective preventive policies and alleviating the disparities. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of (1) smoking status, (2) early smoking initiation, and (3) association with socioeconomic status (SES) of the 2 among Malawian men. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 1693 men aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the latest 2013-2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Malawi. Educational qualification and wealth index quintile were used as the indicators of SES. Outcome variables were smoking status, first age of smoking being below 18 years, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco products. Multiple logistic regression models were used to see the contribution of SES to smoking status and early smoking initiation. Results: Mean age of the sample population was 33.23 years (SD: 8.25). Prevalence of smoking, early initiation, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco were, respectively, 46.6%, 33.7%, and 6%. Compared with men who had higher education, those who had no formal education, primary-level, and secondary-level qualification had, respectively, 21% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.209; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.498-2.935), 40% (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.647-3.029), and 26% (AOR = 1.256; 95% CI = 0.593-2.661) higher odds of being a smoker. Those who had no formal education were 2.7 times (AOR = 2.734; 95% CI = 1.123-6.653) as likely to try smoking before reaching 18 years of age. Compared with the richest, those in the lowest wealth quintile had 32% lower odds (AOR = 0.676; 95% CI = 0.455-1.006) of early onset of smoking, 63% lower odds (AOR = 0.372; 95% CI = 0.201-0.690) of trying other tobacco products. Conclusions

  8. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  9. Deficits in adult prefrontal cortex neurons and behavior following early post-natal NMDA antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon G; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Moy, Sheryl S; Crews, Fulton T

    2009-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with higher cognitive functions including attention and working memory and has been implicated in the regulation of impulsivity as well as the pathology of complex mental illnesses. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist treatment with dizocilpine induces cell death which is greatest in the frontal cortex on post-natal day seven (P7), however the long-term structural and behavioral effects of this treatment are unknown. This study investigates both the acute neurotoxicity of P7 dizocilpine and the persistent effects of this treatment on pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons in the adult PFC, a brain region involved in the regulation of impulsivity. Dizocilpine treatment on P7 increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity (IR) in the PFC on P8. In adult mice (P82), P7 dizocilpine treatment resulted in 50% fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons (p<0.01) and 42% fewer layer V pyramidal neurons (p<0.01) in the PFC. Double immunohistochemistry revealed cleaved caspase-3 IR in both GAD67 IR interneurons and GAD67 (-) neurons. Following dizocilpine treatment at P7, adults showed reduced time in the center of the open field suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. These findings indicate that early brain insults affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission lead to persistent brain pathology that could contribute to impulsivity and cognitive dysfunction.

  10. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.

  11. Understanding behavioral effects of early life stress using the reactive scope and allostatic load models

    PubMed Central

    HOWELL, BRITTANY R.; SANCHEZ, MAR M.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms through which early life stress leads to psychopathology are thought to involve allostatic load, the “wear and tear” an organism is subjected to as a consequence of sustained elevated levels of glucocorticoids caused by repeated/prolonged stress activations. The allostatic load model described this phenomenon, but has been criticized as inadequate to explain alterations associated with early adverse experience in some systems, including behavior, which cannot be entirely explained from an energy balance perspective. The reactive scope model has been more recently proposed and focuses less on energy balance and more on dynamic ranges of physiological and behavioral mediators. In this review we examine the mechanisms underlying the behavioral consequences of early life stress in the context of both these models. We focus on adverse experiences that involve mother–infant relationship disruption, and dissect those mechanisms involving maternal care as a regulator of development of neural circuits that control emotional and social behaviors in the offspring. We also discuss the evolutionary purpose of the plasticity in behavioral development, which has a clear adaptive value in a changing environment. PMID:22018078

  12. The Influence of Early Malnutrition on Subsequent Behavioral Development. II: Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; And Others

    The classroom behaviors of 129 Barbadian children (77 boys and 52 girls) ages 5 to 11 years, who had suffered from moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition in the first year of life were compared with children with no history of malnutrition. Data were gathered from questionnaires administered to teachers who were unaware of the children's…

  13. Observing preschoolers' social-emotional behavior: structure, foundations, and prediction of early school success.

    PubMed

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.

  14. Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael; Song, Mengli; Knudson, Joel; Haxton, Clarisse; Zeiser, Kristina; Hoshen, Gur; Ford, Jennifer; Stephan, Jennifer; Keating, Kaeli; Cassidy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in…

  15. The Implications of Endoscopic Ulcer in Early Gastric Cancer: Can We Predict Clinical Behaviors from Endoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Jae Jun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Seung Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of ulcer in early gastric cancer (EGC) is important for the feasibility of endoscopic resection, only a few studies have examined the clinicopathological implications of endoscopic ulcer in EGC. Objectives To determine the role of endoscopic ulcer as a predictor of clinical behaviors in EGC. Methods Data of 3,270 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed in relation to the presence and stage of ulcer in EGC. Based on endoscopic findings, the stage of ulcer was categorized as active, healing, or scar. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM). Results 2,343 (71.7%) patients had endoscopic findings of ulceration in EGC. Submucosal (SM) invasion, LNM, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion, and undifferentiated-type histology were significantly higher in ulcerative than non-ulcerative EGC. Comparison across different stages of ulcer revealed that SM invasion, LNM, and LVI were significantly associated with the active stage, and that these features exhibited significant stage-based differences, being most common at the active stage, and least common at the scar stage. The presence of endoscopic ulcer and active status of the ulcer were identified as independent risk factors for LNM. Conclusions Ulcerative EGC detected by endoscopy exhibited more aggressive behaviors than non-ulcerative EGC. Additionally, the endoscopic stage of ulcer may predict the clinicopathological behaviors of EGC. Therefore, the appearance of ulcers should be carefully evaluated to determine an adequate treatment strategy for EGC. PMID:27741275

  16. G. P. Kuiper's Early Studies of Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    Gerard P. Kuiper was born on December 7, 1905; this is his centennial year. While he had an early interest in Solar System bodies, writing an extensive review about Mars for the popular Dutch astronomy journal, Hemel en Dampkring in 1931, Kuiper's first important observations began in 1944, when he discovered the atmosphere of Titan. In a letter dated February 29, 1944, to Lick Observatory director Joseph H. Moore, Kuiper noted that, ``The only reason I happened to observe the planets and the 10 brightest satellites was that they were nicely lined up in a region of the sky where I had run out of program stars (stars of large proper motion and parallax)." These spectroscopic observations were obtained with the new McDonald 82-inch telescope during a break from Kuiper's war-time work at Harvard's Radio Research Laboratory. In a letter of congratulations, his friend S. Chandrasekhar wrote, ``It is only on the impact of such discoveries that one realizes afresh the permanent value of science which no war -- not even of Hitler's -- can truly undermine. And it must be of satisfaction to you that if you took a vacation from war-work, it was only to make a fundamental discovery!" Using detectors declassified at the end of World War II, Kuiper began a study of the infrared spectra of planets and stars (with the first publication in 1947) that continued to the time of his death (December 24, 1973). Early in this work, on March 2, 1948, he wrote a lengthy letter to Henry Norris Russell in which he succinctly and enthusiastically summarized his observations and discoveries. Details in this letter give a fascinating perspective on some of the earliest physical studies of Solar System bodies, such as the detection of water ice on Saturn's rings and in the polar cap of Mars, spectral and photometric measurements of Mars' surface and atmospheric haze, and the discovery of Miranda.

  17. Anxiety-like behavior as an early endophenotype in the TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Berkowitz, Laura E; Thompson, Shannon M; Drake, Emma N; Olguin, Carlos R; Clark, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (tangles). Early diagnosis through neuropsychological testing is difficult due to comorbidity of symptoms between AD and other types of dementia. As a result, there is a need to identify the range of behavioral phenotypes expressed in AD. In the present study, we utilized a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) model that bears the mutated amyloid precursor protein as well as presenilin-1 genes, resulting in progressive plaque and tangle pathogenesis throughout the cortex. We tested young adult male and female TgF344-AD rats in a spatial memory task in the Morris water maze and for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Results indicated that regardless of sex, TgF344-AD rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze, which occurred without significant deficits in the spatial memory. Together, these results indicate that enhanced anxiety-like behavior represents an early-stage behavioral marker in the TgF344-AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J H; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J; Webb, Sara J

    2012-11-01

    A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Forty-eight 18- to 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to receive the ESDM or referral to community intervention for 2 years. After the intervention (age 48 to 77 months), EEG activity (event-related potentials and spectral power) was measured during the presentation of faces versus objects. Age-matched typical children were also assessed. The ESDM group exhibited greater improvements in autism symptoms, IQ, language, and adaptive and social behaviors than the community intervention group. The ESDM group and typical children showed a shorter Nc latency and increased cortical activation (decreased α power and increased θ power) when viewing faces, whereas the community intervention group showed the opposite pattern (shorter latency event-related potential [ERP] and greater cortical activation when viewing objects). Greater cortical activation while viewing faces was associated with improved social behavior. This was the first trial to demonstrate that early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized patterns of brain activity, which is associated with improvements in social behavior, in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated With Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J.H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method Forty-eight 18- to 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to receive the ESDM or referral to community intervention for 2 years. After the intervention (age 48 to 77 months), EEG activity (event-related potentials and spectral power) was measured during the presentation of faces versus objects. Age-matched typical children were also assessed. Results The ESDM group exhibited greater improvements in autism symptoms, IQ, language, and adaptive and social behaviors than the community intervention group. The ESDM group and typical children showed a shorter Nc latency and increased cortical activation (decreased α power and increased θ power) when viewing faces, whereas the community intervention group showed the opposite pattern (shorter latency event-related potential [ERP] and greater cortical activation when viewing objects). Greater cortical activation while viewing faces was associated with improved social behavior. Conclusions This was the first trial to demonstrate that early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized patterns of brain activity, which is associated with improvements in social behavior, in young children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23101741

  20. Emotional and behavioral problems in late preterm and early term births: outcomes at child age 36 months.

    PubMed

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2016-12-01

    Recent findings has shown that late preterm births (gestational weeks 34-36) and early term births (gestational weeks 37-38) is associated with an increased risk of several psychological and developmental morbidities. In this article we investigate whether late preterm and early term births is associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems at 36 months of age and whether there are gender differences in risk of these outcomes. Forty-three thousand, two hundred ninety-seven children and their mothers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). One thousand, eight hundred fifty-three (4.3%) of the children in the sample were born late preterm and 7,835 (18.1%) were born early term. Information on gestational age and on prenatal and postnatal risk factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Information on emotional and behavioral problems was assessed by standardized questionnaires (CBCL/ITSEA) filled out by the mothers. Gender-stratified logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between late preterm / early term and emotional and behavioral problems at 36 months of age. We found a gender-specific increased risk of emotional problems in girls born late preterm (OR 1.47 95%CI 1.11-1.95) and in girls born early term (OR 1.21 95%CI 1.04-1.42). We did not find an increased risk of emotional problems in boys born late preterm (OR 1.09 95%CI 0.82-1.45) or early term (OR 0.93 95%CI 0.79-1.10). Behavioral problems were not increased in children born late preterm or early term. Girls born late preterm and early term show an increased risk of emotional problems at 36 months of age. This finding suggests that gender should be taken into account when evaluating children born at these gestational ages.

  1. Early Life Adversity during the Infant Sensitive Period for Attachment:, Programming of Behavioral Neurobiology of Threat Processing and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance. PMID:28254197

  2. Early Correlates of Preschool Aggressive Behavior According to Type of Aggression and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliano, Mariel; Stetson Werner, Rebecca; Wright Cassidy, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated both relational and physical aggression in preschool children, explored potential differences in informant reporting and child sex on these subtypes, and examined relationships between types of aggressive behaviors and other types of negative and positive social behaviors. Naturalistic observations of social behavior,…

  3. The Association of Birth Complications and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescents: Direct and Mediating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…

  4. Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

  5. Bifidobacterium CECT 7765 modulates early stress-induced immune, neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Moya-Pérez, A; Perez-Villalba, A; Benítez-Páez, A; Campillo, I; Sanz, Y

    2017-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 until postnatal period (P) 21 and followed-up until P41. Behavioral tests were performed and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed including corticosterone, cytokine/chemokine concentrations and neurotransmitters. Microbiota was also analyzed in stools by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 administration attenuated some aspects of the excessive MS-induced stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, particularly corticosterone production at baseline and in response to subsequent acute stress in adulthood. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 also down-regulated MS-induced intestinal inflammation (reducing interferon gamma [IFN-γ]) and intestinal hypercatecholaminergic activity (reducing dopamine [DA] and adrenaline [A] concentrations) at P21. These effects have a long-term impact on the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mice since MS mice fed B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 showed lower anxiety levels than placebo-fed MS mice, as well as normal neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus. The anti-inflammatory effect of B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 seemed to be related to an improvement in glucocorticoid sensitivity in mesenteric lymph node immunocompetent cells at P21. The administration of B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 to MS animals also reversed intestinal dysbiosis affecting the proportions of ten Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at P21, which

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Parnell, Scott E; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Outcomes of childhood conduct problem trajectories in early adulthood: findings from the ALSPAC study.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon

    2014-07-01

    Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.

  8. A study on male homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, R; Viswanath, Sudha; Elangovan, P; Saravanan, N

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual behavior carries a high risk of transmitting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ignorance regarding the associated high risk, indulgence inspite of no natural homosexual orientation and not using protective barrier methods can affect the sexual health of adolescents and adults. (1) To assess the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) having a natural homosexual orientation compared to those who had acquired the homosexual behavior initially under various circumstances (such as due to certain misconceptions, fear of having heterosexual contact, peer pressure, and influence of alcohol). (2) To assess the level of awareness regarding increased risk of transmission of STIs associated with homosexual behavior and regarding protective barrier methods. After obtaining consent from the subjects, questionnaire - based interview used for obtaining data for this observational (cross-sectional) study. (1) Of the 50 subjects, only about 25% had interest in homosexual behavior prior to initial episode. (2) About 50% subjects indulged in homosexual behavior due to lack/fear of having heterosexual contact. (3) About 60% subjects believed that homosexual behavior carried relatively lower risk of acquiring STIs and 68% subjects have had unprotected contact. (4) About 70% subjects had only acquired this behavior and nearly 60% subjects were interested in heterosexual marriage and not interested in further homosexual behavior. (1) Homosexuality is a natural orientation in some and an acquired behavior in the rest. (2) If homosexual behavior is acquired, due to misconceptions, then imparting sex education and awareness regarding involved risks, and the importance of protective barrier methods will prevent ignorance driven behavior. For those with natural homosexual orientation, the importance of protective barrier methods in homosexual behavior needs emphasis.

  9. Bottle-feeding practices during early infancy and eating behaviors at 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; May, Ashleigh; Rose, Chelsea; Birch, Leann

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests an association of breastfeeding with a maternal feeding style (MFS) that is less controlling than formula feeding, which, in turn, may improve a child's self-regulation of eating. This study examines associations of bottle-feeding practices during infancy with MFS and children's eating behavior (CEB) at 6 years old. We linked data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II to the Year 6 Follow-Up, which include 8 MFS and CEB measures adapted from previous validated instruments. Bottle-feeding practices during the first 6 months estimated by using the Infant Feeding Practices Study II were bottle-feeding intensity (BFI), mother's encouragement of infant to finish milk in the bottle, and infant finishing all milk in the bottle. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations of bottle-feeding practices with MFS and CEB at 6 years old were calculated by using multivariable logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other feeding practices (N = 1117). Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers during infancy increased odds of mothers encouraging their child to eat all the food on their plate (aOR: 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-3.41] and making sure their child eats enough (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.14-2.31) and of children eating all the food on their plate at 6 years old (aOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.05-3.83). High BFI during early infancy also increased the odds of mothers being especially careful to ensure their 6-year-old eats enough. Bottle-feeding practices during infancy may have long-term effects on MFS and CEB. Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers and/or high BFI during early infancy increased the likelihood of mothers pressuring their 6-year-old child to eat and children's low satiety responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  11. Perceived Maternal Behavioral Control, Infant Behavior, and Milk Supply: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Peacock-Chambers, Elizabeth; Dicks, Kaitlin; Sarathy, Leela; Brown, Allison A; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    Disparities persist in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration despite increases in breastfeeding initiation. The objective of this study was to examine factors that influence maternal decision making surrounding infant feeding practices over time in a diverse inner-city population. We conducted a prospective qualitative study with 20 mothers recruited from 2 urban primary care clinics. Participants completed open-ended interviews and demographic questionnaires in English or Spanish administered at approximately 2 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Transcripts were analyzed using a combined technique of inductive (data-driven) and deductive (theory-driven, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) thematic analysis using 3 independent coders and iterative discussion to reach consensus. All women initiated breastfeeding, and 65% reported perceived insufficient milk (PIM). An association between PIM and behavioral control emerged as the overarching theme impacting early breastfeeding cessation and evolved over time. Early postpartum, PIM evoked maternal distress-strong emotional responses to infant crying and need to control infant behaviors. Later, mothers accepted a perceived lack of control over milk supply with minimal distress or as a natural process. Decisions to stop breastfeeding occurred through an iterative process, informed by trials of various strategies and observations of subsequent changes in infant behavior, strongly influenced by competing psychosocial demands. Infant feeding decisions evolve over time and are influenced by perceptions of control over infant behavior and milk supply. Tailored anticipatory guidance is needed to provide time-sensitive strategies to cope with challenging infant behaviors and promote maternal agency over breastfeeding in low-income populations.

  12. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  13. Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Augustyn, Marilyn; Knight, Wanda Grant; Pell, Tripler; Zuckerman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. Objective To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Study Selection Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peerreviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Data Extraction Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Conclusions Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity

  14. Disrupted rich club network in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Daianu, Madelaine; Mezher, Adam; Mendez, Mario F.; Jahanshad, Neda; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    In network analysis, the so-called ‘rich club’ describes the core areas of the brain that are more densely interconnected among themselves than expected by chance, and has been identified as a fundamental aspect of the human brain connectome. This is the first in-depth diffusion imaging study to investigate the rich club along with other organizational changes in the brain's anatomical network in behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and a matched cohort with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Our study sheds light on how bvFTD and EOAD affect connectivity of white matter fiber pathways in the brain, revealing differences and commonalities in the connectome among the dementias. To analyze the breakdown in connectivity, we studied 3 groups: 20 bvFTD, 23 EOAD and 37 healthy elderly controls. All participants were scanned with diffusion-weighted MRI, and based on whole-brain probabilistic tractography and cortical parcellations, we analyzed the rich club of the brain's connectivity network. This revealed distinct patterns of disruption in both forms of dementia. In the connectome, we detected less disruption overall in EOAD than in bvFTD (False Discovery Rate (FDR) critical Pperm=5.7×10−3, 10,000 permutations), with more involvement of richly interconnected areas of the brain (chi-squared PΧ2=1.4×10−4) – predominantly posterior cognitive alterations. In bvFTD, we found a greater spread of disruption including the rich club (FDR critical Pperm=6×10−4), but especially more peripheral alterations (PΧ2=6.5×10−3), particularly in medial frontal areas of the brain, in line with the known behavioral socioemotional deficits seen in these patients. PMID:26678225

  15. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  16. Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    Volpe conducted the Naturalistic study of truck following behavior to gain a better understanding of how trucks follow other vehicles in the real world, with the ultimate goal of supporting the Federal Highway Administration in the development of aut...

  17. Pogo suppression on space shuttle - early studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Payne, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary studies for pogo prevention on the shuttle vehicle are reported. The importance of the effect of oscillatory outflow from a hydroelastic tank is displayed in terms of excitation of normal modes for a structure containing that tank assuming its outlet is closed. Evaluation of an approximate propulsion frequency response at undamped feedline resonance reveals the conditions for which the contribution of tank outflow is destabilizing and also provides a criterion for identifying those structural modes which are of potential significance for system stability. Various finite-element and normal-mode models for hydraulic feedlines are evaluated relative to accuracy of admittances of a long line. A procedure is recommended for modeling a feed system to minimize the required number of second-order equations. Specific recommendations are made for the analytical estimation of pump cavitation compliance and a first estimate for the shuttle pumps is given. Weakness in past practices of pump testing are identified and a new three-phase program is proposed. Finally results of numerical studies on the early vehicle configuration are presented. It is concluded that an accumulator between the boost and main pump offers promise of higher effectiveness than one at the engine inlet.

  18. Disregard for Rules: The Early Development and Predictors of a Specific Dimension of Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitclerc, Amelie; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Disregard for rules, an important dimension of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, is frequent during early childhood, but the development of its chronic form has not been studied during this key socialization period. This study aimed to describe the developmental trajectories of disregard for rules during early childhood and…

  19. Predicting Early Spelling: The Contribution of Children's Early Literacy, Private Speech during Spelling, Behavioral Regulation, and Parental Spelling Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…

  20. Early behavioral changes and quantitative analysis of neuropathological features in murine prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Borner, Roseane; Bento-Torres, João; Souza, Diego RV; Sadala, Danyelle B; Trevia, Nonata; Farias, José Augusto; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Diniz, José Antônio; Perry, Victor Hugh; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Cunningham, Colm

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropathological changes have been widely investigated in murine prion disease but stereological based unbiased estimates of key neuropathological features have not been carried out. After injections of ME7 infected (ME7) or normal brain homogenates (NBH) into dorsal CA1 of albino Swiss mice and C57BL6, we assessed behavioral changes on hippocampal-dependent tasks. We also estimated by optical fractionator at 15 and 18 weeks post-injections (w.p.i.) the total number of neurons, reactive astrocytes, activated microglia and perineuronal nets (PN) in the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus (PolDG), CA1 and septum in albino Swiss mice. On average, early behavioral changes in albino Swiss mice start four weeks later than in C57BL6. Cluster and discriminant analysis of behavioral data in albino Swiss mice revealed that four of nine subjects start to change their behavior at 12 w.p.i. and reach terminal stage at 22 w.p.i and the remaining subjects start at 22 w.p.i. and reach terminal stage at 26 w.p.i. Biotinylated dextran-amine BDA-tracer experiments in mossy fiber pathway confirmed axonal degeneration and stereological data showed that early astrocytosis, microgliosis and reduction in the perineuronal nets are independent of a change in the number of neuronal cell bodies. Statistical analysis revealed that the septal region had greater levels of neuroinflammation and extracellular matrix damage than CA1. This stereological and multivariate analysis at early stages of disease in an outbred model of prion disease provided new insights connecting behavioral changes and neuroinflammation and seems to be important to understand the mechanisms of prion disease progression. PMID:21862877

  1. 5HTTLPR genotype moderates the longitudinal impact of early caregiving on externalizing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smyke, Anna T.; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined caregiver report of externalizing behavior from 12 to 54 months of age in 102 children randomized to care as usual in institutions or to newly-created high quality foster care. At baseline no differences by group or genotype in externalizing were found. However, changes in externalizing from baseline to 42 months of age were moderated by 5HTTLPR genotype and intervention group, where the slope for s/s individuals differed as a function of intervention group. The slope for individuals carrying the l allele did not significantly differ between groups. At 54 months of age, s/s children in the foster care group had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior, while children with the s/s genotype in the care as usual group demonstrated the highest rates of externalizing behavior. No intervention group differences were found in externalizing behavior among children who carried the l allele. These findings, within a randomized control trial of foster care compared to continued care as usual, indicate that 5HTTLPR genotype moderates the relation between early caregiving environments to predict externalizing behavior in children exposed to early institutional care in a manner most consistent with differential susceptibility. PMID:25640827

  2. Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frank, D A; Augustyn, M; Knight, W G; Pell, T; Zuckerman, B

    2001-03-28

    Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peer-reviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity, scope, or kind from the sequelae of multiple other risk factors. Many findings once thought

  3. Histone deacetylase 5 modulates the effects of social adversity in early life on cocaine-induced behavior.

    PubMed

    Valzania, Alessandro; Catale, Clarissa; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Carola, Valeria

    2017-03-15

    Psychostimulants induce stable changes in neural plasticity and behavior in a transcription-dependent manner. Further, stable cellular changes require transcription that is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation. This mechanism is typically catalyzed by enzymes with histone acetyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Class IIa HDACs are notable for their high expression in important regions of the brain reward circuitry and their neural activity-dependent shuttling in and out of the cell nucleus. In particular, HDAC5 has an important modulatory function in cocaine-induced behaviors and social defeat stress-induced effects. Although a mutation in HDAC5 has been shown to cause hypersensitive responses to chronic cocaine use whether this response worsens during chronic early life stress has not been examined yet. In this study, we exposed mouse pups to two different early life stress paradigms (social isolation, ESI, and social threat, EST) to determine whether the heterozygous null mutation in HDAC5 (HDAC5+/-) moderated the effects of exposure to stress in early life on adult cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Notably, HDAC5+/- mice that had been exposed to ESI were more susceptible to developing cocaine-induced CPP and more resistant to extinguishing this behavior. The same effect was not observed for HDAC5+/- mice experiencing EST, suggesting that only ESI induces behavioral changes by acting precisely through HDAC5-related biological pathways. Finally, an analysis of c-Fos expression performed to discover the neurobiological substrates that mediated this phenotype, identified the dorsolateral striatum as an important structure that mediates the interaction between HDAC5 mutation and ESI. Our data demonstrate that decreased HDAC5 function is able to exacerbate the long-term behavioral effects of adverse rearing environment in mouse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Early home literacy and adolescents’ online reading behavior in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Notten, Natascha; Becker, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Online reading behavior can be regarded as a ‘new’ form of cultural capital in today’s digital world. However, it is unclear whether ‘traditional’ mechanisms of cultural and social reproduction are also found in this domain, and whether they manifest uniformly across countries at different stages of development. This article analyzes whether the early home literacy environment has an impact on informational online reading behavior among adolescents and whether this association varies between countries with different levels of digitalization and educational expansion. Data from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were used for the empirical analyses. The results of regression models with country-fixed effects indicate a positive association between literacy activities in early childhood and informational online reading at age 15. This association was quite stable across countries. These findings are discussed in light of cultural and social reproduction theory and digital divide research. PMID:29276306

  5. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  6. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Carrie J.; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks’ gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women. PMID:26507186

  8. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women.

  9. Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes After Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Wilder, Robert T.; Voigt, Robert G.; Olson, Michael D.; Sprung, Juraj; Weaver, Amy L.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Annually, millions of children are exposed to anesthetic agents that cause apoptotic neurodegeneration in immature animals. To explore the possible significance of these findings in children, we investigated the association between exposure to anesthesia and subsequent (1) learning disabilities (LDs), (2) receipt of an individualized education program for an emotional/behavior disorder (IEP-EBD), and (3) scores of group-administered achievement tests. METHODS: This was a matched cohort study in which children (N = 8548) born between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982, in Rochester, Minnesota, were the source of cases and controls. Those exposed to anesthesia (n = 350) before the age of 2 were matched to unexposed controls (n = 700) on the basis of known risk factors for LDs. Multivariable analysis adjusted for the burden of illness, and outcomes including LDs, receipt of an IEP-EBD, and the results of group-administered tests of cognition and achievement were outcomes. RESULTS: Exposure to multiple, but not single, anesthetic/surgery significantly increased the risk of developing LDs (hazard ratio: 2.12 [95% confidence interval: 1.26–3.54]), even when accounting for health status. A similar pattern was observed for decrements in group-administered tests of achievement and cognition. However, exposure did not affect the rate of children receiving an individualized education program. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated exposure to anesthesia and surgery before the age of 2 was a significant independent risk factor for the later development of LDs but not the need for educational interventions related to emotion/behavior. We cannot exclude the possibility that multiple exposures to anesthesia/surgery at an early age may adversely affect human neurodevelopment with lasting consequence. PMID:21969289

  10. Persistent behavioral effects following early life exposure to retinoic acid or valproic acid in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Karbhari, Nishika; Brooks, Roy A.J.; De La Rocha, Amberlene J.; Janardhan, Sheila; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Moderate to severe dysregulation in retinoid signaling during early development is associated with a constellation of physical malformations and/or neural tube defects, including spina bifida. It is thought that more subtle dysregulation of this system, which might be achievable via dietary (i.e. hypervitaminosis A) or pharmacological (i.e. valproic acid) exposure in humans, will manifest on behavioral domains including sociability, without overt physical abnormalities. METHODS During early life, zebrafish were exposed to low doses of two chemicals that disrupt retinoid signaling. From 0-5 dpf, larvae were reared in aqueous solutions containing retinoic acid (0, 0.02, 0.2 or 2 nM) or valproic acid (0, 0.5, 5.0 or 50 uM). One cohort of zebrafish was assessed using a locomotor activity screen at 6-dpf; another was reared to adulthood and assessed using a neurobehavioral test battery (startle habituation, novel tank exploration, shoaling, and predator escape/avoidance). RESULTS There was no significant increase in the incidence of physical malformation among exposed fish compared to controls. Both retinoic acid and valproic acid exposures during development disrupted larval activity with persisting behavioral alterations later in life, primarily manifesting as decreased social affiliation. CONCLUSIONS Social behavior and some aspects of motor function were altered in exposed fish; the importance of examining emotional or psychological consequences of early life exposure to retinoid acting chemicals is discussed. PMID:26439099

  11. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

  12. The Role of