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Sample records for early biological effects

  1. Biological Perspectives on the Effects of Early Psychosocial Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Kenney, Justin W.

    2009-01-01

    There is much current interest in how adverse experiences early in life might affect certain elements of physiological, behavioral, and psychological functioning across the lifespan. Recent conceptual frameworks for studying the effects of early experience have involved constructs such as experience-expectant, experience-dependent, and…

  2. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and distal edge effects of proton radiation on early damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Bassler, Niels; Nielsen, Steffen; Horsman, Michael R; Grzanka, Leszek; Spejlborg, Harald; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł; Overgaard, Jens

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the RBE for early damage in an in vivo mouse model, and the effect of the increased linear energy transfer (LET) towards the distal edge of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The lower part of the right hind limb of CDF1 mice was irradiated with single fractions of either 6 MV photons, 240 kV photons or scanning beam protons and graded doses were applied. For the proton irradiation, the leg was either placed in the middle of a 30-mm SOBP, or to assess the effect in different positions, irradiated in 4 mm intervals from the middle of the SOBP to behind the distal dose fall-off. Irradiations were performed with the same dose plan at all positions, corresponding to a dose of 31.25 Gy in the middle of the SOBP. Endpoint of the study was early skin damage of the foot, assessed by a mouse foot skin scoring system. The MDD 50 values with 95% confidence intervals were 36.1 (34.2-38.1) Gy for protons in the middle of the SOBP for score 3.5. For 6 MV photons, it was 35.9 (34.5-37.5) Gy and 32.6 (30.7-34.7) Gy for 240 kV photons for score 3.5. The corresponding RBE was 1.00 (0.94-1.05), relative to 6 MV photons and 0.9 (0.85-0.97) relative to 240 kV photons. In the mice group positioned at the SOBP distal dose fall-off, 25% of the mice developed early skin damage compared with 0-8% in other groups. LET d,z = 1 was 8.4 keV/μm at the distal dose fall-off and the physical dose delivered was 7% lower than in the central SOBP position, where LET d,z =1 was 3.3 keV/μm. Although there is a need to expand the current study to be able to calculate an exact enhancement ratio, an enhanced biological effect in vivo for early skin damage in the distal edge was demonstrated.

  3. Biological effects of high ultraviolet radiation on early earth--a theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S

    1998-08-21

    The surface of early Earth was exposed to both UVC radiation (< 280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared with the surface of present day Earth. The degree to which this radiation environment acted as a selection pressure on organisms and biological systems has rarely been theoretically examined with respect to the biologically effective irradiances that ancient organisms would receive. Here action spectra for DNA inactivation and isolated chloroplast inhibition are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances on archean Earth. Comparisons are made with present day Earth. The theoretical estimations on the UV radiation screening required to protect DNA on archean Earth compare well with field and laboratory observations on protection strategies found in present day microbial communities. They suggest that many physical and biological methods may have been effective and would have allowed for the radiation of life even under the high UV radiation regimes of archean Earth. Such strategies would also have provided effective reduction of photoinhibition by UV radiation. The data also suggest that the UV regime on the surface of Mars is not a life limiting factor per se, although other environmental factors such as desiccation and low temperatures may contribute towards the apparent lack of a surface biota.

  4. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for th legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU's).

  5. Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Early Effects for Occupational Exposure Limit Setting.

    PubMed

    DeBord, D Gayle; Burgoon, Lyle; Edwards, Stephen W; Haber, Lynne T; Kanitz, M Helen; Kuempel, Eileen; Thomas, Russell S; Yucesoy, Berran

    2015-01-01

    In a recent National Research Council document, new strategies for risk assessment were described to enable more accurate and quicker assessments. This report suggested that evaluating individual responses through increased use of bio-monitoring could improve dose-response estimations. Identification of specific biomarkers may be useful for diagnostics or risk prediction as they have the potential to improve exposure assessments. This paper discusses systems biology, biomarkers of effect, and computational toxicology approaches and their relevance to the occupational exposure limit setting process. The systems biology approach evaluates the integration of biological processes and how disruption of these processes by chemicals or other hazards affects disease outcomes. This type of approach could provide information used in delineating the mode of action of the response or toxicity, and may be useful to define the low adverse and no adverse effect levels. Biomarkers of effect are changes measured in biological systems and are considered to be preclinical in nature. Advances in computational methods and experimental -omics methods that allow the simultaneous measurement of families of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins in a single analysis have made these systems approaches feasible for broad application. The utility of the information for risk assessments from -omics approaches has shown promise and can provide information on mode of action and dose-response relationships. As these techniques evolve, estimation of internal dose and response biomarkers will be a critical test of these new technologies for application in risk assessment strategies. While proof of concept studies have been conducted that provide evidence of their value, challenges with standardization and harmonization still need to be overcome before these methods are used routinely.

  6. Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Early Effects for Occupational Exposure Limit Setting

    PubMed Central

    DeBord, D. Gayle; Burgoon, Lyle; Edwards, Stephen W.; Haber, Lynne T.; Kanitz, M. Helen; Kuempel, Eileen; Thomas, Russell S.; Yucesoy, Berran

    2015-01-01

    In a recent National Research Council document, new strategies for risk assessment were described to enable more accurate and quicker assessments.( 1 ) This report suggested that evaluating individual responses through increased use of bio-monitoring could improve dose-response estimations. Identi-fication of specific biomarkers may be useful for diagnostics or risk prediction as they have the potential to improve exposure assessments. This paper discusses systems biology, biomarkers of effect, and computational toxicology approaches and their relevance to the occupational exposure limit setting process. The systems biology approach evaluates the integration of biological processes and how disruption of these processes by chemicals or other hazards affects disease outcomes. This type of approach could provide information used in delineating the mode of action of the response or toxicity, and may be useful to define the low adverse and no adverse effect levels. Biomarkers of effect are changes measured in biological systems and are considered to be preclinical in nature. Advances in computational methods and experimental -omics methods that allow the simultaneous measurement of families of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins in a single analysis have made these systems approaches feasible for broad application. The utility of the information for risk assessments from -omics approaches has shown promise and can provide information on mode of action and dose-response relationships. As these techniques evolve, estimation of internal dose and response biomarkers will be a critical test of these new technologies for application in risk assessment strategies. While proof of concept studies have been conducted that provide evidence of their value, challenges with standardization and harmonization still need to be overcome before these methods are used routinely. PMID:26132979

  7. Treatment of very early rheumatoid arthritis with symptomatic therapy, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, or biologic agents: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Finckh, Axel; Bansback, Nick; Marra, Carlo A; Anis, Aslam H; Michaud, Kaleb; Lubin, Stanley; White, Marc; Sizto, Sonia; Liang, Matthew H

    2009-11-03

    Long-term control or remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be possible with very early treatment. However, no optimal first therapeutic strategy has been determined. To assess the potential cost-effectiveness of major therapeutic strategies for very early RA. Decision analytic model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Published data, the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases, and actual 2007 hospital costs. U.S. adults with very early RA (symptom duration early DMARD therapy with methotrexate; and early therapy with biologics and methotrexate. Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. By reducing the progression of joint erosions and subsequent functional disability, both early intervention strategies increase quality-adjusted life more than the pyramid strategy and save long-term costs. When the cost of very early intervention is factored in, the cost-effectiveness ratio of the early DMARD strategy is $4849 per QALY (95% CI, $0 to $16 354 per QALY) compared with the pyramid strategy, whereas the benefits gained through the early biologic strategy come at a substantial incremental cost. The early DMARD strategy maximizes the effectiveness of early DMARDs and reserves the use of biologics for patients with more treatment-resistant disease of longer duration, for which the incremental benefit of biologics is greater. The early biologic strategy becomes more cost-effective if drug prices are reduced, risk for death is permanently lowered through biologic therapy, patients experience drug-free remission, responders can be selected before therapy initiation, or effective alternative antirheumatic agents are available for

  8. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of μg on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU’s). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiments were designed to determine if S. meliloti would infect M. truncatula and initiate biomolecular changes associated with nodule formation and if the μg environment altered the host plant and/or bacteria to induce nodule formation upon return to 1g. Initial analysis results demonstrate that the legumes and bacteria cultivated in μg have potential to develop a symbiotic interaction, but suggest that μg alters their ability to form nodules upon return to 1g. (Research supported by NASA ESMD/ Advance Capabilities Division grant NNX10AR09A)

  9. Biological aspects of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Luyten, Frank P; Facchini, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Early OA primarily affects articular cartilage and involves the entire joint, including the subchondral bone, synovial membrane, menisci and periarticular structures. The aim of this review is to highlight the molecular basis and histopathological features of early OA. Selective review of literature. Risk factors for developing early OA include, but are not limited to, a genetic predisposition, mechanical factors such as axial malalignment, and aging. In early OA, the articular cartilage surface is progressively becoming discontinuous, showing fibrillation and vertical fissures that extend not deeper than into the mid-zone of the articular cartilage, reflective of OARSI grades 1.0-3.0. Early changes in the subchondral bone comprise a progressive increase in subchondral plate and subarticular spongiosa thickness. Early OA affects not only the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone but also other structures of the joint, such as the menisci, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule, ligaments, muscles and the infrapatellar fat pad. Genetic markers or marker combinations may become useful in the future to identify early OA and patients at risk. The high socioeconomic impact of OA suggests that a better insight into the mechanisms of early OA may be a key to develop more targeted reconstructive therapies at this first stage of the disease. Systematic review, Level II.

  10. High School Biology: The Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)

  11. Early Foreign Language Learning: The Biological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer-Karpf, Annemarie

    A discussion of the biological and developmental issues in early second language learning first looks at psycholinguistic research on brain growth patterns and the relationship of first and second language learning. Focus is on three phenomena observed in the self-organization of living systems: selection of input data; organization of specialized…

  12. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  13. Biological Sensitivity to Context Moderates the Effects of the Early Teacher-Child Relationship on the Development of Mental Health by Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Burk, Linnea R.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The moderating effects of biological sensitivity to context (physiological and behavioral stress reactivity) on the association between the early teacher-child relationship and the development of adolescent mental health problems were examined in a community sample of 96 children. Grade 1 measures of biological sensitivity to context included physiological (i.e., slope of mean arterial pressure across a 20-30 min stress protocol) and behavioral (i.e., temperamental inhibition/disinhibition) markers. Grade 1 measures of the teacher-child relationship included positive (i.e., closeness) and negative (i.e., conflict) qualities. Mental health symptoms were assessed at Grades 1 and 7. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated substantial association of the teacher-child relationship with the development of adolescent mental health symptoms, especially for more reactive children. In addition to teacher-child relationship main effects, all four reactivity × teacher-child relationship interaction terms were statistically significant when controlling for Grade 1 symptom severity, suggesting that both physiological and behavioral reactivity moderate the association of both adverse and supportive aspects of the teacher-child relationship with Grade 7 symptom severity over and above Grade 1 severity. There were important differences depending on which stress reactivity measure was considered. The importance of these findings for recent theoretical arguments regarding biological sensitivity to context and differential susceptibility is discussed. PMID:21262045

  14. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in “biological age”). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. Methods: We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Results: Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1–0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. Discussion: These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. PMID:26014827

  15. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-11-01

    Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  17. Quantum Effects in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  18. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical

  19. Effects of an Early Successional Biological Soil Crust from a Temperate Coastal Sand Dune (NE Germany) on Soil Elemental Stoichiometry and Phosphatase Activity.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Iris; Baum, Christel; Schumann, Rhena; Karsten, Ulf

    2018-06-20

    Early successional biological soil crusts (BSCs), a consortium of bacteria, cyanobacteria, and other microalgae, are one of the first settlement stages on temperate coastal sand dunes. In this study, we investigated the algal biomass (Chlorophyll a (Chl a)), algal (C algal ) and microbial carbon (C mic ), elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P), and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity (AcidPA and AlkPA) of two algae-dominated BSCs from a coastal white dune (northeast Germany, on the southwestern Baltic Sea) which differed in the exposure to wind forces. The dune sediment (DS) was generally low in total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), and phosphorus (TP). These elements, together with the soil organic matter (SOM) accumulated in the BSC layer and in the sediment underneath (crust sediment CS), leading to initial soil development. The more disturbed BSC (BSC1) exhibited lower algal and microbial biomass and lower C algal /C mic ratios than the undisturbed BSC (BSC2). The BSC1 accumulated more organic carbon (OC) than BSC2. However, the OC in the BSC2 was more effectively incorporated into C mic than in the BSC1, as indicated by lower OC:C mic ratios. The AcidPA (1.1-1.3 μmol g -1  DM h -1 or 147-178 μg g -1  DM h -1 ) and AlkPA (2.7-5.5 μmol g -1  DM h -1 or 372-764 μg g -1  DM h -1 ) were low in both BSCs. The PA, together with the elemental stoichiometry, indicated no P limitation of both BSCs but rather water limitation followed by N limitation for the algae community and a carbon limitation for the microbial community. Our results explain the observed distribution of early successional and more developed BSCs on the sand dune.

  20. Biologic effects of interferons.

    PubMed

    Gresser, I

    1990-12-01

    If one were to review articles on IFN published between 1957 and 1967 it would become apparent that virtually none of the tenets held then are still valid today. Whereas IFN was long considered to be a specific antiviral substance without any effect on normal cellular metabolism, we accept today that it affects normal cell division and many specialized cellular functions. In this respect it is not unique; IFN is a prototype of a family of similar substances now called cytokines that all appear to function as regulatory molecules. It was held that the production of IFN constituted a specific response to a viral infection. Today we believe that IFN is an integral part of a cytokine network and that they and other cytokines may be produced constitutively at low levels. These substances exert multiple effects on virtually all cells. They play an important role in host defense against viral and parasitic infections, and in the resistance to experimental tumors. IFN can be shown to exert effects on the immune system and on lymphocyte circulation. Lastly, because of the multiplicity of their biologic effects, they may even contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases. Thus, when large amounts of IFN are administered or induced in newborn mice they can cause liver, kidney, and pulmonary disease. The field of IFN and cytokine research continues to expand and there is an increasing number of therapeutic applications. Twenty years from now, scientists and clinicians may be surprised that we understood so little of how IFN act and how inadequately we used them to treat disease.

  1. Effect of Microgravity on Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were inoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Inoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNAlater(tM) by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C. S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and groundgrown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(tm) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Preliminary analysis' of Experiment 1 confirms that

  2. Comparative effects of biological and chemical dispersants on the bioavailability and toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Mu, Jingli; Jin, Fei; Ma, Xindong; Lin, Zhongsheng; Wang, Juying

    2014-11-01

    The authors assessed the bioavailability and chronic toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil (WAFs) and 2 dispersants plus dispersed crude oil (chemical dispersant + crude oil [CE-WAF] and biological dispersant + crude oil [BE-WAF]) on the early life stages of marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. The results showed that the addition of the 2 dispersants caused a 3- and 4-fold increase in concentrations of summed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs with 3 or more benzene rings. The chemical and biological dispersants increased the bioavailability (as measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-dethylase activity) of crude oil 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Based on nominal concentrations, chronic toxicity (as measured by deformity) in WAFs exhibited a 10-fold increase in CE-WAF and a 3-fold increase in BE-WAF, respectively. When total petroleum hydrocarbon was measured, the differences between WAF and CE-WAF treatments disappeared, and CE-WAF was approximately 10 times more toxic than BE-WAF. Compared with the chemical dispersant, the biological dispersant possibly modified the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons because of the increase in the proportion of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs in water. The chemical and biological dispersants enhanced short-term bioaccumulation and toxicity, through different mechanisms. These properties should be considered in addition to their efficacy in degrading oil when oil spill management strategies are selected. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Pathogenetic validation of the use of biological protective agents and early treatment in cases of radiation injury simulating radiation effects under space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogozkin, V. D.; Varteres, V.; Sabo, L.; Groza, N.; Nikolov, I.

    1974-01-01

    In considering a radiation safety system for space flights, the various measures to protect man against radiation include drug prophylaxis. At the present time a great deal of experimental material has been accumulated on the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries. Antiradiation effectiveness has been established for sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances, auxins, cyanides, polynucleotides, mucopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, aminosaccharides, synthetic polymers, vitamins, hormones, amino acids and other compounds which can be divided into two basic groups - biological and chemical protective agents.

  4. Telomere biology in aging and cancer: early history and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto T

    2018-01-20

    The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer.

  5. Biological Effects of Directed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, Thomas; Beason, Charles; Hitt, M. K.; Rogers, Walter; Cook, Michael

    2002-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the biological effects research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological effects research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR) health and safety, non-lethal weapon biological effects research, the newly formed Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence, and Biotechnology. The report is organized by research efforts within the major research areas, providing title, objective, a brief description, relevance to the AF or DoD, funding, and products.

  6. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  7. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  8. Early life adversity and adult biological risk profiles.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Esther M; Karlamangla, Arun S; Gruenewald, Tara L; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. We analyzed data on 1180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e., on welfare, perceived low income, and less educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including than following: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Childhood socioeconomic adversity and physical abuse were associated with increased AL (B = 0.094, standard error = 0.041, and B = 0.263, standard error = 0.091 respectively), with nonsignificant associations for parental divorce and death with AL. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative AL to the point of nonsignificance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable-adjusted analysis.

  9. Lactation Biology Symposium: maternal nutrition during early and mid-to-late pregnancy: Comparative effects on milk production of twin-born ewe progeny during their first lactation.

    PubMed

    Paten, A M; Kenyon, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Peterson, S W; Jenkinson, C M C; Pain, S J; Blair, H T

    2013-02-01

    Studies using sheep models indicate that the fetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal nutrition during gestation; however, results have been inconsistent and do not identify critical feeding periods. This study aimed to clarify previous findings by partitioning the period of maternal nutritional manipulation into 2 stages: early and mid-to-late pregnancy. Sixty-six twin-born, twin-bearing ewes, born to dams that were fed either submaintenance, maintenance, or ad libitum during early pregnancy (d 21 to 50 of pregnancy; SmP21-50, MP21-50, or AdP21-50, respectively) and then either maintenance or ad libitum during mid-to-late pregnancy (d 50 to 140 of pregnancy; MP50-140 or AdP50-140, respectively) were milked once a week, starting from d 7 ± 1 postpartum, for 7 subsequent weeks to enable estimation of daily milk yield and composition. Their lambs were weighed weekly. Ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10), fat (P = 0.07), and NE (P = 0.06) yields over 50 d compared with ewes born to dams fed SmP21-50 and AdP21-50. In contrast, ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10) and lactose (P = 0.09) yields compared with ewes born to dams fed MP50-140. Grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected by granddam nutrition during pregnancy. Ewes born to dams fed AdP21-50 weaned lighter lambs (P = 0.05) than ewes born to dams fed AmP21-50 and tended to wean lighter lambs (P = 0.07) than ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 whereas there were no differences between the weaning weights of lambs (P = 0.43) from ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 and MP50-140. Maintenance nutrition of dams during early pregnancy appears to be associated with an improved lactation performance of ewe offspring. Higher levels of nutrition during mid-to-late pregnancy also appears to improve the first-lactation performance of ewe offspring. Interestingly, although grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected, weaning weight

  10. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life.

    PubMed

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-12-28

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media.This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  12. Erasing Borders: A Brief Chronicle of Early Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Peretó, Juli

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Biology is currently presented as an emergent field involving the application of engineering principles to living matter. However, the scientific pursuit of making life in a laboratory is not new and has been the ultimate, if somewhat distant, aim of the origin-of-life research program for many years. Actually, over a century ago, the idea that the synthesis of life was indispensable to fully understand its nature already appealed to material scientists and evolutionists alike. Jacques Loeb proposed a research program from an engineering standpoint, following a synthetic method (experimental abiogenesis) and based on his mechanist vision of living beings, which he considered true chemical machines. Early synthetic biology endeavors, such as the premature experiments by Alfonso L. Herrera in Mexico, Stéphane Leduc in France, and John B. Burke in United Kingdom, were easily ridiculed on both scientific and ideological grounds. However, in retrospect, all those attempts should be considered as legitimate and sincere anti-vitalistic efforts to cross the apparent border between inert and living matter.

  13. Giant Icebergs and Biological Productivity on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A. G.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have previously presented evidence for furrows, dump structures and chains of craters that we interpret as indication for giant iceberg transport and grounding on very cold oceans on early Mars, both in the northern plains and in the Hellas basin. Structures include: 1. Furrows: The furrows are located in elevated areas or on local topographic highs, particularly on the Hellas basin. We interpret these features in terms of iceberg rafting and grounding. 2. Chains of craters: High-resolution images of Utopia and Isidis Basins reveal chains of crater-like structures several hundred meters wide and 1 to 5 km long. 3. Dump structures: Dark boulder clusters are revealed at large scales by their slightly darker tonality with respect to the surrounding terrain. These clusters have sizes ranging from several hundred meters to 1-2 km. On Earth's oceans, giant icebergs release melting water containing nanoparticulate iron and other micronutrients, which support biological metabolism and growth to the near-coastal euphotic ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. This iron limitation of primary producers has been documented in large regions of the Earth's oceans, most notably in polar areas proximal to significant glacial activity, and is counterbalanced by the substantial enrichment of terrigenous material supplied by icebergs. The biological productivity extends hundreds of kilometres from the giant icebergs, and persists for over one month after the iceberg passes. Here we propose that giant iceberg activity on early Mars could have promoted a similar enhancing of biological productivity on the planet's oceans. The identification of specific biosignatures in icebergs trails on Earth could give clues as to what kind of biosignatures could be expected on the ancient Mars ocean floors, and where to look for them. In particular, assuming that life existed on Mars coeval to glacial activity, enhanced concentrations of organic carbon could be anticipated near giant iceberg

  14. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950’s, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26829016

  15. Hazards to Early Development: The Biological Embedding of Early Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A

    2017-10-11

    The number of children under 18 years of age has increased worldwide over the past decade. This growth spurt is due, in part, to remarkable progress in child survival. Alas, surviving early hazards, like prematurity or infectious disease, does not guarantee that children's development will not be compromised by other hazards as they grow older. Throughout the world, children continue to be confronted with a large number of biological and psychosocial challenges that greatly limit their developmental potential. The focus of this article is how such adverse experiences impact the developing brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early steps in protein synthesis and their regulation: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    SciT

    Zamecnik, P.C.

    This is a continuing study of protein synthesis, involving a search for the role of Ap/sub 4/A and other unusual nucleotides in growth regulation; studies of the mechanism of action of aminoacyl-tRNA ligases and the effect thereof on protein synthesis; a search for new regulators of the translation step, in cell-free systems; and an effort to improve the sensitivity and quantitation of chemical sequencing at the 3'-end of messenger RNA.

  17. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    PubMed

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology, making it more

  18. Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary

    Thompson, B.; Adelsbach, T.; Brown, C.; Hunt, J.; Kuwabara, J.; Neale, J.; Ohlendorf, H.; Schwarzbach, S.; Spies, R.; Taberski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been associated with biological effects elsewhere, so there is a potential for them to cause biological effects in the Estuary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information about biological effects on the Estuary's plankton, benthos, fish, birds, and mammals, gathered since the early 1990s, focusing on key accomplishments. These studies have been conducted at all levels of biological organization (sub-cellular through communities), but have included only a small fraction of the organisms and contaminants of concern in the region. The studies summarized provide a body of evidence that some contaminants are causing biological impacts in some biological resources in the Estuary. However, no general patterns of effects were apparent in space and time, and no single contaminant was consistently related to effects among the biota considered. These conclusions reflect the difficulty in demonstrating biological effects due specifically to contamination because there is a wide range of sensitivity to contaminants among the Estuary's many organisms. Additionally, the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination in the Estuary is highly variable, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment-type. Federal and State regulatory agencies desire to develop biological criteria to protect the Estuary's biological resources. Future studies of biological effects in San Francisco Estuary should focus on the development of meaningful indicators of biological effects, and on key organism and contaminants of concern in long-term, multifaceted studies that include laboratory and field experiments to determine cause and effect to adequately inform management and regulatory decisions. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evident Biological Effects of Space Radiation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2004-01-01

    Though cancer risks are the primary concern for astronauts exposed to space radiation and a number of astronauts have developed cancer, identifying a direct association or cause of disease has been somewhat problematic due to a lack of statistics and a lack of an appropriate control group. However, several bio,logical effects observed in astronauts are believed to be primarily due to exposure to space radiation. Among those are, light flashes experienced by astronauts from early missions, cataract development in the crewmembers and excess chromosome aberrations detected in astronauts' lymphocytes postmission. The space radiation environment and evident biological effects will be discussed.

  20. Early Childhood Education: The Biological Bases: Malnutrition and Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Merrill S.

    1972-01-01

    Malnutrition, contrasted with hunger, is defined as a state of impaired functional ability or development resulting from an inadequate supply of essential nutrients or calories to meet long-term biologic needs. (Author/MB)

  1. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    SciT

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistagemore » carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of epidemiologic studies using

  2. [Side effects of biologic therapies in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Altenburg, A; Augustin, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Due to the continuous expansion of biological therapies for psoriasis, it is particularly important to acknowledge efficacy and safety of the compounds not only in clinical trials but also in long-term registry-based observational studies. Typical side effects and significant risks of antipsoriatic biologic therapies considering psoriatic control groups are presented. A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and long-term safety studies of the psoriasis registries PsoBest, PSOLAR and BADBIR were evaluated. To assess the long-term safety of biologics, the evaluation of the course of large patient cohorts in long-term registries is of particular medical importance. Newer biologic drugs seem to exhibit a better safety profile than older ones.

  3. Venus: A search for clues to early biological possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, Larry; Kasting, James F.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive evidence that there is no extant life on Venus is summarized. The current atmospheric environment, which is far too hostile by terrestrial standards to support life, is described. However, exobiologists are interested in the possibility of extinct life on Venus. The early history of Venus is discussed in terms of its ability to sustain life that may now be extinct.

  4. Biological Terrorism Preparedness: Evaluating the Performance of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) Syndromic Surveillance Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    PREPAREDNESS: EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE EARLY ABERRATION REPORTING SYSTEM (EARS) SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE ALGORITHMS by David A...SUBTITLE Biological Terrorism Preparedness: Evaluating the Performance of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) Syndromic Surveillance...Algorithms 6. AUTHOR(S) David Dunfee, Benjamin Hegler 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  5. Biological Effects Of Artificial Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corth, Richard

    1980-10-01

    We are increasingly being warned of the possible effects of so called "polluted" light, that is light that differs in spectral content from that of sunlight. We should be concerned, we are told, because all animals and plants have evolved under this natural daylight and therefore any difference between that illuminant and the artificial illuminants that are on the market today, is suspect. The usual presentation of the differences between the sunlight and the artificial illuminants are as shown in Figure 1. Here we are shown the spectral power distribution of sunlight and Cool White fluorescent light. The spectral power distributions of each have been normalized to some convenient wavelength so that each can be seen and easily compared on the same figure. But this presentation is misleading for one does not experience artificial illuminants at the same intensity as one experiences sunlight. Sunlight intensities are ordinarily found to be in the 8000 to 10,000 footcandle range whereas artificial illuminants are rarely experienced at intensity levels greater than 100 footcandles. Therefore a representative difference between the two types of illumination conditions is more accurately represented as in Figure 2. Thus if evolutionary adaptations require that humans and other animals be exposed to sunlight to ensure wellbeing, it is clear that one must be exposed to sunlight intensities. It is not feasible to expect that artificially illuminated environments will be lit to the same intensity as sunlight

  6. Exploiting Allee effects for managing biological invasions

    Patrick C. Tobin; Ludek Berec; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global and increasing threat to the function and diversity of ecosystems. Allee effects (positive density dependence) have been shown to play an important role in the establishment and spread of non-native species. Although Allee effects can be considered a bane in conservation efforts, they can be a benefit in attempts to manage non-native...

  7. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  8. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    PubMed

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Mass spectrometric determination of early and advanced glycation in biology.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Naila; Ashour, Amal; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Protein glycation in biological systems occurs predominantly on lysine, arginine and N-terminal residues of proteins. Major quantitative glycation adducts are found at mean extents of modification of 1-5 mol percent of proteins. These are glucose-derived fructosamine on lysine and N-terminal residues of proteins, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone on arginine residues and N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine residues mainly formed by the oxidative degradation of fructosamine. Total glycation adducts of different types are quantified by stable isotopic dilution analysis liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Metabolism of glycated proteins is followed by LC-MS/MS of glycation free adducts as minor components of the amino acid metabolome. Glycated proteins and sites of modification within them - amino acid residues modified by the glycating agent moiety - are identified and quantified by label-free and stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) high resolution mass spectrometry. Sites of glycation by glucose and methylglyoxal in selected proteins are listed. Key issues in applying proteomics techniques to analysis of glycated proteins are: (i) avoiding compromise of analysis by formation, loss and relocation of glycation adducts in pre-analytic processing; (ii) specificity of immunoaffinity enrichment procedures, (iii) maximizing protein sequence coverage in mass spectrometric analysis for detection of glycation sites, and (iv) development of bioinformatics tools for prediction of protein glycation sites. Protein glycation studies have important applications in biology, ageing and translational medicine - particularly on studies of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, neurological disorders and cancer. Mass spectrometric analysis of glycated proteins has yet to find widespread use clinically. Future use in health screening, disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, and

  10. Early animal evolution: emerging views from comparative biology and geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Carroll, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian appearance of fossils representing diverse phyla has long inspired hypotheses about possible genetic or environmental catalysts of early animal evolution. Only recently, however, have data begun to emerge that can resolve the sequence of genetic and morphological innovations, environmental events, and ecological interactions that collectively shaped Cambrian evolution. Assembly of the modern genetic tool kit for development and the initial divergence of major animal clades occurred during the Proterozoic Eon. Crown group morphologies diversified in the Cambrian through changes in the genetic regulatory networks that organize animal ontogeny. Cambrian radiation may have been triggered by environmental perturbation near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary and subsequently amplified by ecological interactions within reorganized ecosystems.

  11. Ultrasound: biological effects and industrial hygiene concerns.

    PubMed

    Wiernicki, C; Karoly, W J

    1985-09-01

    Due to the increased use of high intensity ultrasonic devices, there is now a greater risk of worker exposure to ultrasonic radiation than there was in the past. Exposure to high power ultrasound may produce adverse biological effects. High power ultrasound, characterized by high intensity outputs at frequencies of 20-100 kHz, has a wide range of applications throughout industry. Future applications may involve equipment with higher energy outputs. Contact ultrasound, i.e., no airspace between the energy source and the biological tissue, is significantly more hazardous than exposure to airborne ultrasound because air transmits less than one percent of the energy. This paper discusses biological effects associated with overexposure to ultrasound, exposure standards proposed for airborne and contact ultrasound, industrial hygiene controls that can be employed to minimize exposure, and the instrumentation that is required for evaluating exposures.

  12. Estimation of Biological Effects of Tritium.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear fusion technology is expected to create new energy in the future. However, nuclear fusion requires a large amount of tritium as a fuel, leading to concern about the exposure of radiation workers to tritium beta radiation. Furthermore, countermeasures for tritium-polluted water produced in decommissioning of the reactor at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station may potentially cause health problems in radiation workers. Although, internal exposure to tritium at a low dose/low dose rate can be assumed, biological effect of tritium exposure is not negligible, because tritiated water (HTO) intake to the body via the mouth/inhalation/skin would lead to homogeneous distribution throughout the whole body. Furthermore, organically-bound tritium (OBT) stays in the body as parts of the molecules that comprise living organisms resulting in long-term exposure, and the chemical form of tritium should be considered. To evaluate the biological effect of tritium, the effect should be compared with that of other radiation types. Many studies have examined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium. Hence, we report the RBE, which was obtained with radiation carcinogenesis classified as a stochastic effect, and serves as a reference for cancer risk. We also introduce the outline of the tritium experiment and the principle of a recently developed animal experimental system using transgenic mouse to detect the biological influence of radiation exposure at a low dose/low dose rate.

  13. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casarett, G. W.; Braby, L. A.; Broerse, J. J.; Elkind, M. M.; Goodhead, D. T.; Oleinick, N. L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  14. Biological modulation of planetary atmospheres: The early Earth scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The establishment and subsequent evolution of life on Earth had a profound impact on the chemical regime at the planet's surface and its atmosphere. A thermodynamic gradient was imposed on near-surface environments that served as the driving force for a number on important geochemical transformations. An example is the redox imbalance between the modern atmosphere and the material of the Earth's crust. Current photochemical models predict extremely low partial pressures of oxygen in the Earth's prebiological atmosphere. There is widespread consensus that any large-scale oxygenation of the primitive atmosphere was contingent on the advent of biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation. It is suggested that photoautotrophy existed both as a biochemical process and as a geochemical agent since at least 3.8 Ga ago. Combining the stoichiometry of the photosynthesis reaction with a carbon isotope mass balance and current concepts for the evolution of the stationary sedimentary mass as a funion of time, it is possible to quantify, the accumulation of oxygen and its photosynthetic oxidation equivalents through Earth history.

  15. Bryophyte-dominated biological soil crusts mitigate soil erosion in an early successional Chinese subtropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Steffen; Nebel, Martin; Goebes, Philipp; Käppeler, Kathrin; Schmidt, Karsten; Shi, Xuezheng; Song, Zhengshan; Webber, Carla L.; Weber, Bettina; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in an early successional subtropical forest plantation and their impact on soil erosion. Within a biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in southeast China (biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) China), the effect of these biocrusts on sediment delivery and runoff was assessed within micro-scale runoff plots under natural rainfall, and biocrust cover was surveyed over a 5-year period. Results showed that biocrusts occurred widely in the experimental forest ecosystem and developed from initial light cyanobacteria- and algae-dominated crusts to later-stage bryophyte-dominated crusts within only 3 years. Biocrust cover was still increasing after 6 years of tree growth. Within later-stage crusts, 25 bryophyte species were determined. Surrounding vegetation cover and terrain attributes significantly influenced the development of biocrusts. Besides high crown cover and leaf area index, the development of biocrusts was favoured by low slope gradients, slope orientations towards the incident sunlight and the altitude of the research plots. Measurements showed that bryophyte-dominated biocrusts strongly decreased soil erosion, being more effective than abiotic soil surface cover. Hence, their significant role in mitigating sediment delivery and runoff generation in mesic forest environments and their ability to quickly colonise soil surfaces after disturbance are of particular interest for soil erosion control in early-stage forest plantations.

  16. Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Bevington, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how far the Moon causes biological effects has continued for two millennia. Pliny the Elder argued for lunar power "penetrating all things", including plants, fish, animals and humans. He also linked the Moon with tides, confirmed mathematically by Newton. A review of modern studies of biological effects, especially from plants and animals, confirms the pervasive nature of this lunar force. However calculations from physics and other arguments refute the supposed mechanisms of gravity and light. Recent space exploration allows a new approach with evidence of electromagnetic fields associated with the Earth's magnetotail at full moon during the night, and similar, but more limited, effects from the Moon's wake on the magnetosphere at new moon during the day. The disturbance of the magnetotail is perhaps shown by measurements of electric fields of up to 16V/m compared with the usual <1V/m, suggesting the possibility of weak biological effects on some sensitive organisms. Similar intensities found in sferics, geomagnetic storms, aurora disturbance, sensations of a 'presence' and pre-seismic electromagnetic radiation are known to affect animals and 10-20% of the human population. There is now evidence for mechanisms such as calcium flux, melatonin disruption, magnetite and cryptochromes. Both environmental and receptor variations explain confounding factors and inconsistencies in the evidence. Electromagnetic effects might also account for some evolutionary changes. Further research on lunar biological effects, such as acute myocardial infarction, could help the development of strategies to reduce adverse effects for people sensitive to geomagnetic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Biologic Factors in Shoulder Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Aryaei, Ashkan; Vasilakakos, Theofanis; Paschos, Nikolaos K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pathology can cause significant pain, discomfort, and loss of function that all interfere with activities of daily living and may lead to poor quality of life. Primary osteoarthritis and rotator cuff diseases with its sequalae are the main culprits. Management of shoulder disorders using biological factors gained an increasing interest over the last years. This interest reveals the need of effective treatments for shoulder degenerative disorders, and highlights the importance of a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the rapidly increasing knowledge in the field. Methods: This study will describe most of the available biology-based strategies that have been recently developed, focusing on their effectiveness in animal and clinical studies. Results: Data from in vitro work will also be briefly presented; in order to further elucidate newly acquired knowledge regarding mechanisms of tissue degeneration and repair that would probably drive translational work in the next decade. The role of platelet rich-plasma, growth factors, stem cells and other alternative treatments will be described in an evidence-based approach, in an attempt to provide guidelines for their clinical application. Finally, certain challenges that biologic treatments face today will be described as an initiative for future strategies. Conclusion: The application of different growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells appears as promising approaches for enhancing biologic repair. However, data from clinical studies are still limited, and future studies need to improve understanding of the repair process in cellular and molecular level and evaluate the effectiveness of biologic factors in the management of shoulder disorders. PMID:28400884

  18. On the origin and early evolution of biological catalysis and other studies on chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Lazcano, A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the lines of research in molecular evolution which we have developed for the past three years is related to the experimental and theoretical study of the origin and early evolution of biological catalysis. In an attempt to understand the nature of the first peptidic catalysts and coenzymes, we have achieved the non-enzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes ADPG, GDPG, and CDP-ethanolamine, under conditions considered to have been prevalent on the primitive Earth. We have also accomplished the prebiotic synthesis of histidine, as well as histidyl-histidine, and we have measured the enhancing effects of this catalytic dipeptide on the dephosphorylation of deoxyribonucleotide monophosphates, the hydrolysis of oligo A, and the oligomerization 2', 3' cAMP. We reviewed and further developed the hypothesis that RNA preceded double stranded DNA molecules as a reservoir of cellular genetic information. This led us to undertake the study of extant RNA polymerases in an attempt to discover vestigial sequences preserved from early Archean times. In addition, we continued our studies of on the chemical evolution of organic compounds in the solar system and beyond.

  19. Progranulin and its biological effects in cancer.

    PubMed

    Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Perez-Juarez, Carlos Eduardo; Gerton, George L; Diaz-Cueto, Laura

    2017-11-07

    Cancer cells have defects in regulatory mechanisms that usually control cell proliferation and homeostasis. Different cancer cells share crucial alterations in cell physiology, which lead to malignant growth. Tumorigenesis or tumor growth requires a series of events that include constant cell proliferation, promotion of metastasis and invasion, stimulation of angiogenesis, evasion of tumor suppressor factors, and avoidance of cell death pathways. All these events in tumor progression may be regulated by growth factors produced by normal or malignant cells. The growth factor progranulin has significant biological effects in different types of cancer. This protein is a regulator of tumorigenesis because it stimulates cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, malignant transformation, resistance to anticancer drugs, and immune evasion. This review focuses on the biological effects of progranulin in several cancer models and provides evidence that this growth factor should be considered as a potential biomarker and target in cancer treatment.

  20. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  1. Intuitive biological thought: Developmental changes and effects of biology education in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coley, John D; Arenson, Melanie; Xu, Yian; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors). Results reveal clear evidence of persistent intuitive reasoning among all populations studied, consistent but surprisingly small differences between 8th graders and college students on measures of intuitive biological thought, and consistent but again surprisingly small influence of increasing biology education on intuitive biological reasoning. Results speak to the persistence of intuitive reasoning, the importance of taking intuitive knowledge into account in science classrooms, and the necessity of interdisciplinary research to advance biology education. Further studies are necessary to investigate how cultural context and continued acquisition of expertise impact intuitive biology thinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.

    2000-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  3. Biological effects of novel bovine milk fractions.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Novel dairy fractions have been isolated and are now commercially available. Several of them have been shown to have biological activities in various test systems. α-Lactalbumin was first isolated to provide a good source of tryptophan, often the first limiting amino acid in infant formulas, but has then been shown to be digested into smaller peptides with antimicrobial and prebiotic activities, immunostimulatory effect and acting as enhancers of mineral absorption. Lactoferrin bioactivities include antibacterial and antiviral effects, regulation of immune function, stimulation of intestinal proliferation and differentiation and facilitating iron absorption, but these activities may have been limited due to earlier contamination with LPS. Lactoferrin free of lipopolysaccharide may prove to be more effective with regard to exerting these activities. Osteopontin is a heavily phosphorylated and glycosylated protein that modulates immune function and stimulates Th1/Th2 switching, and, possibly, also affects bone mineralization and growth. Biological activities of lactoferrin may be facilitated by osteopontin. Milk fat globule membranes are a fraction that has previously been excluded from infant formulas, but components of this fraction have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities and to prevent infection. Further clinical studies are needed on infants fed formulas with these components incorporated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Effects of early-life malnutrition on neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders and the potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xintian; Zhao, Xinzhi; Li, Juxue; He, Lin; Xu, Mingqing

    2018-04-20

    Lines of evidence have demonstrated that early-life malnutrition is highly correlated with neurodevelopment and adulthood neuropsychiatric disorders, while some findings are conflicting with each other. In addition, the biological mechanisms are less investigated. We systematically reviewed the evidence linking early-life nutrition status with neurodevelopment and clinical observations in human and animal models. We summarized the effects of special nutritious on neuropsychiatric disorders and explored the underlying potential mechanisms. The further understanding of the biological regulation of early-life nutritional status on neurodevelopment might shed light on precision nutrition at an integrative systems biology framework. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DIRECT AND INDIRECT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION

    SciT

    Hobitz, H.

    1961-01-01

    The primary physical processes, ionization and excitation, induced by radiation in biological materials are discussed. Their effects in causing reduction, decarboxylation, and depolymerization in proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid of the cell nucleus are examined. The action of radiation doses of 100,000- 600,000 r on pollen of Digitalis purpurea maintained at room temperature and at approximates 190 deg C showed that biological activity was destroyed by doses >200,000 r at room temperature, but at approximates 190 deg the pollen retained some activity even after the highest dose. A similar effect was seen with Bacterium cadaveris cells, about 0.5% of which survivedmore » 50000 r given at l8O deg whereas no cells survived 20000 r given at 4 deg . The presence of 1% cysteamine at the higher temperature increased survival 20-fold. Cytochrome c showed markedly different responses to radiation in dry form as compared with aqueous solution. The anhydrous enzyme showed a linear decline in log activity with radiation dose but in aqueous solution the activity declined more slowly at higher doses. The radiation dose to-produce 50% inactivation was 4 x 10/sup 7/ r in dry form and 6 x 10/sup 5/ r in solution, a 67-fold difference. The results suggest that diffusion of the free radicals (H: or OH:) produced in the primary process is considerably hindered at low temperature and by the absence of water. (H.H.D.)« less

  6. Effective Teachers of Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Donald R.

    Over the past 15 years a number of studies and official statements have considered characteristics and competencies of effective middle/junior high school teachers. Thirty-eight items found to be present in several studies were used to form a questionnaire, sent to 500 members of the National Middle School Association, about the importance of…

  7. Indirect nontarget effects of host-specific biological control agents: Implications for biological control

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2005-01-01

    Classical biological control of weeds currently operates under the assumption that biological control agents are safe (i.e., low risk) if they do not directly attack nontarget species. However, recent studies indicate that even highly host-specific biological control agents can impact nontarget species through indirect effects. This finding has profound...

  8. Consumer of concern early entry program (C-CEEP): protecting against the biological suicidal warfare host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Janet D.

    2014-05-01

    Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, not only against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies. According to (Frischknecht, 2003)11 article on the History of Biological Warfare, during the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics (Dire, 2013)8. This action plan is aimed at the recognition of the lack of current processes in place under an unidentified lead agency to detect, identify, track, and contain biological agents that can enter into the United States through a human host. This action plan program has been identified as the Consumer of Concern Early Entry Program or a simpler title is C-CEEP.

  9. Biological effect of orbital atherectomy and adjunctive paclitaxel-coated balloon therapy on vascular healing and drug retention: early experimental insights into the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine model of femoral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Armando; Dattilo, Raymond; Mustapha, Jihad A; Gongora, Carlos A; Hyon, Chelsea M; Palmieri, Taylor; Rousselle, Serge; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) for the treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease has been demonstrated in the clinical setting. Due to the high frequency of arterial calcification found in this vascular territory, the adjunctive use of atherectomy plus PCB has been proposed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the biological effect on vascular healing and drug retention of this combination approach in the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine (FHS) model of femoral artery stenosis. Eleven femoral arteries (six superficial and five profunda arteries) were included. Vessels were injured (x2) over a 28-day period and all animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet for 60 days following initial injury. Vessels were randomised to PCB (n=5) or orbital atherectomy system (OAS) plus PCB (n=6). At 28 days following therapy, vessels were followed with angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vessels were harvested for histological and pharmacokinetic analysis. Angiographic findings were comparable at termination between both groups. The OCT findings were comparable at termination. There were no differences in the vascular healing profile between both groups. The paclitaxel levels at termination were comparable between both groups (PCB=5.16 vs. OAS+PCB=3.03 ng/mg). In the experimental setting, the combination of OAS+PCB appears to be safe by demonstrating a vascular healing profile and drug tissue levels comparable to PCB only. The vascular effect of PCB may be enhanced by the use of OAS by decreasing plaque burden and cholesterol crystals.

  10. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  11. Effects of individualized assignments on biology achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    A pretest-posttest, randomized, two groups, experimental, factorial design compared effects of detailed and nondetailed assignments on biology achievement over seven and a half months. Detailed assignments (favoring field independence and induction) employed block diagrams and stepwise directions. Nondetailed assignments (favoring field dependence and deduction) virtually lacked these. The accessible population was 101 tenth grade preparatory school male students. The 95 students enrolled in first year biology constituted the sample. Two by three ANOVA was done on residualized posttest score means of the students. Totally, the detailed students achieved significantly higher than the nondetailed students. This significantly higher achievement was only true of detailed students in the middle thirds of the deviation intelligence quotient (DIQ) range and of the grade point average (G.P.A.) range after the breakdown into upper, middle, and lower thirds of intellectual capability (ability and achievement). The upper third detailed DIQ grouping indirectly achieved higher than its peers, whereas the lower detailed DIQ third achieved lower than its peers. Thus, high capability students apparently benefit from flow and block diagrams, inductions, field independence, and high structure, whereas low capability students may be hindered by these.

  12. Biological determinants of spontaneous late preterm and early term birth: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brown, H K; Speechley, K N; Macnab, J; Natale, R; Campbell, M K

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between biological determinants of preterm birth (infection and inflammation, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia, diabetes mellitus, other) and spontaneous late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. Retrospective cohort study. City of London and Middlesex County, Canada. Singleton live births, delivered at 34-41 weeks to London-Middlesex mothers following spontaneous labour. Data were obtained from a city-wide perinatal database on births between 2002 and 2011 (n = 17,678). Multivariable analyses used multinomial logistic regression. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth, compared with full term birth (39-41 weeks). After controlling for covariates, there were associations between infection and inflammation and late preterm birth (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.65, 2.60); between placental ischaemia and other hypoxia and late preterm (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.88, 2.61) and early term (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.13, 1.39) birth; between diabetes mellitus and late preterm (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI 2.90, 5.21) and early term (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI 2.19, 3.23) birth; and between other biological determinants (polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios) and late preterm (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.70, 4.64) and early term (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.32, 2.70) birth. Our findings show that delivery following spontaneous labour even close to full term may be a result of pathological processes. Because these biological determinants of preterm birth contribute to an adverse intrauterine environment, they have important implications for fetal and neonatal health. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. The evolution of early cellular systems viewed through the lens of biological interactions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Anthony M; Lundin, Daniel; Rytkönen, Kalle T

    2015-01-01

    The minimal cell concept represents a pragmatic approach to the question of how few genes are required to run a cell. This is a helpful way to build a parts-list, and has been more successful than attempts to deduce a minimal gene set for life by inferring the gene repertoire of the last universal common ancestor, as few genes trace back to this hypothetical ancestral state. However, the study of minimal cellular systems is the study of biological outliers where, by practical necessity, coevolutionary interactions are minimized or ignored. In this paper, we consider the biological context from which minimal genomes have been removed. For instance, some of the most reduced genomes are from endosymbionts and are the result of coevolutionary interactions with a host; few such organisms are "free-living." As few, if any, biological systems exist in complete isolation, we expect that, as with modern life, early biological systems were part of an ecosystem, replete with organismal interactions. We favor refocusing discussions of the evolution of cellular systems on processes rather than gene counts. We therefore draw a distinction between a pragmatic minimal cell (an interesting engineering problem), a distributed genome (a system resulting from an evolutionary transition involving more than one cell) and the looser coevolutionary interactions that are ubiquitous in ecosystems. Finally, we consider the distributed genome and coevolutionary interactions between genomic entities in the context of early evolution.

  14. The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. Results To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the excavates Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania major shows that Giardia's 80 core kinases constitute the smallest known core kinome of any eukaryote that can be grown in pure culture, reflecting both its early origin and secondary gene loss. Kinase losses in DNA repair, mitochondrial function, transcription, splicing, and stress response reflect this reduced genome, while the presence of other kinases helps define the kinome of the last common eukaryotic ancestor. Immunofluorescence analysis shows abundant phospho-staining in trophozoites, with phosphotyrosine abundant in the nuclei and phosphothreonine and phosphoserine in distinct cytoskeletal organelles. The Nek kinase family has been massively expanded, accounting for 198 of the 278 protein kinases in Giardia. Most Neks are catalytically inactive, have very divergent sequences and undergo extensive duplication and loss between strains. Many Neks are highly induced during development. We localized four catalytically active Neks to distinct parts of the cytoskeleton and one inactive Nek to the cytoplasm. Conclusions The reduced kinome of Giardia sheds new light on early kinase evolution, and its highly divergent sequences add to the definition of individual kinase families as well as offering specific drug targets. Giardia's massive Nek expansion may reflect its distinctive lifestyle, biphasic life cycle and complex cytoskeleton. PMID:21787419

  15. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  16. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  17. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  18. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  19. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  20. Biological applications and effects of optical masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, William T., Jr.; Mueller, Harold A.; Williams, Ray C.; Geeraets, Walter J.; Ruffolo, John J., Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Research experiments and projects pertaining to the ocular hazards of lasers and other optical sources are reviewed and discussed in some detail. Early studies to determine threshold retinal damage in the rabbit from ruby and neodymium lasers are described and followed by more elaborate experiments with monkeys using the He;Ne laser. A comparison between threshold retinal lesions in human volunteers, monkeys and rabbits is given. Retinal damage in the rhesus monkey is evaluated in terms of visual acuity. Quantitative data on solar retinitis as determined in the rhesus monkey are provided and the effects of wavelength on light toxicity are evaluated for eight monochromatic laser lines. Experiments performed at Los Alamos to evaluate the ocular effects and hazards of picosecond and nanosecond pulses of radiation from CO2 and HF lasers are described. A list of published papers describing the above research is included. The HF laser effects on the rabbit cornea were very similar to those caused by exposure to the CO2 laser. The energy from the CO2 and HF lasers is completely absorbed in the superficial layers of the cornea, creating a sharp sonic or shock wave which can disrupt the epithelial cells but does not penetrate to the stroma.

  1. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  2. Biological Ablation of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Submucosally Invaded Early Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Kuroda, Shinji; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Urata, Yasuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, early gastrointestinal cancers are treated endoscopically, as long as there are no lymph node metastases. However, once a gastrointestinal cancer invades the submucosal layer, the lymph node metastatic rate rises to higher than 10%. Therefore, surgery is still the gold standard to remove regional lymph nodes containing possible metastases. Here, to avoid prophylactic surgery, we propose a less-invasive biological ablation of lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have established an orthotopic early rectal cancer xenograft model with spontaneous lymph node metastasis by implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human colon cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the murine rectum. A solution containing telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus was injected into the peritumoral submucosal space, followed by excision of the primary rectal tumors mimicking the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique. Seven days after treatment, GFP signals had completely disappeared indicating that sentinel lymph node metastasis was selectively eradicated. Moreover, biologically treated mice were confirmed to be relapse-free even 4 weeks after treatment. These results indicate that virus-mediated biological ablation selectively targets lymph node metastasis and provides a potential alternative to surgery for submucosal invasive gastrointestinal cancer patients. PMID:25523761

  3. The Effects of Early Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Ogston, Karen; Roberts, Gloria; Swenson, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Over two decades, six studies evaluated the effects of a home-based early language program on the development of 101 infants. Parents engaged in enrichment activities with their infants over a one-year period that began when the infants were between three and 13 months of age. Participants from families with varied levels of education were…

  4. Implementation of mechanism of action biology-driven early drug development for children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew D J; Herold, Ralf; Rousseau, Raphaël; Copland, Chris; Bradley-Garelik, Brigid; Binner, Debbie; Capdeville, Renaud; Caron, Hubert; Carleer, Jacqueline; Chesler, Louis; Geoerger, Birgit; Kearns, Pamela; Marshall, Lynley V; Pfister, Stefan M; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Spadoni, Cesare; Sterba, Jaroslav; van den Berg, Hendrick; Uttenreuther-Fischer, Martina; Witt, Olaf; Norga, Koen; Vassal, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    An urgent need remains for new paediatric oncology drugs to cure children who die from cancer and to reduce drug-related sequelae in survivors. In 2007, the European Paediatric Regulation came into law requiring industry to create paediatric drug (all types of medicinal products) development programmes alongside those for adults. Unfortunately, paediatric drug development is still largely centred on adult conditions and not a mechanism of action (MoA)-based model, even though this would be more logical for childhood tumours as these have much fewer non-synonymous coding mutations than adult malignancies. Recent large-scale sequencing by International Genome Consortium and Paediatric Cancer Genome Project has further shown that the genetic and epigenetic repertoire of driver mutations in specific childhood malignancies differs from more common adult-type malignancies. To bring about much needed change, a Paediatric Platform, ACCELERATE, was proposed in 2013 by the Cancer Drug Development Forum, Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer, the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology. The Platform, comprising multiple stakeholders in paediatric oncology, has three working groups, one with responsibility for promoting and developing high-quality MoA-informed paediatric drug development programmes, including specific measures for adolescents. Key is the establishment of a freely accessible aggregated database of paediatric biological tumour drug targets to be aligned with an aggregated pipeline of drugs. This will enable prioritisation and conduct of early phase clinical paediatric trials to evaluate these drugs against promising therapeutic targets and to generate clinical paediatric efficacy and safety data in an accelerated time frame. Through this work, the Platform seeks to ensure that potentially effective drugs, where the MoA is known and thought to be relevant to paediatric

  5. What Makes Biology Learning Difficult and Effective: Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimer, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the biological topics that students have difficulties learning, the reasons why secondary school students have difficulties in learning biology, and ways to improve the effectiveness of students' biology learning. For these purposes, a self-administered questionnaire including three open-ended questions was…

  6. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  7. Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Kabayama, Shigeru; Nakano, Hirofumi; Zhu, Wan-Jun; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Keisuke; Katoh, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Toshinobu; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2009-01-01

    The application of electrolyzed water (EW) at the cathode side to manufacture reverse osmosis (RO) water and hemodialysis (HD) solution can actually lead to less oxidative capacity in chemical terms. The present study examined the biological actions of this water on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and the clinical feasibility of applying this technology to HD treatment. RO water using EW (e-RO) exhibited less chemiluminescence in luminol-hydrogen peroxide and higher dissolved hydrogen levels (-99.0 ppb) compared with control RO water. The effects of e-RO on PMN viability were tested. HD using e-RO was performed for 12 consecutive sessions in 8 patients for the feasibility test. Basal cellular viability and function to generate superoxide radicals of PMNs were better preserved by e-RO application. In the clinical trial, reductions of blood pressure were noted, but no adverse events were observed. There were no changes in the blood dialysis parameters, although methylguanidine levels were significantly decreased at the end of study. The present study demonstrated the capacity of e-RO to preserve the viability of PMNs, and the clinical feasibility of applying this water for HD treatment. The clinical application of this technology may improve the bio-compatibility of HD treatment. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Early indicators of exposure to biological threat agents using host gene profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rina; Hammamieh, Rasha; Neill, Roger; Ludwig, George V; Eker, Steven; Lincoln, Patrick; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Dhokalia, Apsara; Mani, Sachin; Mendis, Chanaka; Cummings, Christiano; Kearney, Brian; Royaee, Atabak; Huang, Xiao-Zhe; Paranavitana, Chrysanthi; Smith, Leonard; Peel, Sheila; Kanesa-Thasan, Niranjan; Hoover, David; Lindler, Luther E; Yang, David; Henchal, Erik; Jett, Marti

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective prophylaxis and treatment for infections caused by biological threat agents (BTA) rely upon early diagnosis and rapid initiation of therapy. Most methods for identifying pathogens in body fluids and tissues require that the pathogen proliferate to detectable and dangerous levels, thereby delaying diagnosis and treatment, especially during the prelatent stages when symptoms for most BTA are indistinguishable flu-like signs. Methods To detect exposures to the various pathogens more rapidly, especially during these early stages, we evaluated a suite of host responses to biological threat agents using global gene expression profiling on complementary DNA arrays. Results We found that certain gene expression patterns were unique to each pathogen and that other gene changes occurred in response to multiple agents, perhaps relating to the eventual course of illness. Nonhuman primates were exposed to some pathogens and the in vitro and in vivo findings were compared. We found major gene expression changes at the earliest times tested post exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis spores and 30 min post exposure to a bacterial toxin. Conclusion Host gene expression patterns have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers or predict the course of impending illness and may lead to new stage-appropriate therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the devastating effects of exposure to biothreat agents. PMID:18667072

  9. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 μT) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak

  10. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciT

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels ofmore » {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.« less

  11. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  12. Zebrafish for the Study of the Biological Effects of Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Eric W.; Schneider, Henning; Hurt, Richard D.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Zebrafish are emerging as a powerful animal model for studying the molecular and physiological effects of nicotine exposure. The zebrafish have many advantageous physical characteristics, including small size, high fecundity rates, and externally developing transparent embryos. When combined with a battery of molecular–genetic tools and behavioral assays, these attributes enable studies to be conducted that are not practical using traditional animal models. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the application of the zebrafish model as a preclinical model to study the biological effects of nicotine exposure. Results: The identified studies used zebrafish to examine the effects of nicotine exposure on early development, addiction, anxiety, and learning. The methods used included green fluorescent protein–labeled proteins to track in vivo nicotine-altered neuron development, nicotine-conditioned place preference, and locomotive sensitization linked with high-throughput molecular and genetic screens and behavioral models of learning and stress response to nicotine. Data are presented on the complete homology of all known human neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish and on the biological similarity of human and zebrafish dopaminergic signaling. Conclusions: Tobacco dependence remains a major health problem worldwide. Further understanding of the molecular effects of nicotine exposure and genetic contributions to dependence may lead to improvement in patient treatment strategies. While there are limitations to the use of zebrafish as a preclinical model, it should provide a valuable tool to complement existing model systems. The reviewed studies demonstrate the enormous opportunity zebrafish have to advance the science of nicotine and tobacco research. PMID:21385906

  13. Biological Applications and Effects of Optical Masers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-19

    LANDOLT RING SYSTEM 8-10 8. EARLY STUDIES ON SOLAR RADIATION AS A RETINAL HAZARD 10-15 9. RETINAL LIGHT TOXICITY AS A FUNCTION OF WAVE’.ENGTH 15-16 10...providing a simulated solor spectrum and 10 nm bandwidths throughout the near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared spectrum. This early ocular...do not present an ocular hazard at the levels used by the MILES prototype system or in fiber optic communication systems . By 1966 enough burn

  14. Individual Differences in Biological Stress Responses Moderate the Contribution of Early Peer Victimization to Subsequent Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Some children who are exposed to early peer victimization become depressed, whereas others are resilient. Understanding individual differences in responses to early adversity, such as victimization, is critical for developing both comprehensive theoretical models and effective interventions. Objectives This study examined whether individual differences in biological stress responses (i.e., activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system) moderated the contribution of peer victimization to depressive symptoms across a one-year period. Methods Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = .33) completed measures of peer victimization and depressive symptoms, and rated their ruminative responses (i.e., persistent thoughts about negative task-related emotion and experiences) to a laboratory-based social challenge task involving two conflict-of-interests situations with an unfamiliar peer. Children’s saliva was collected prior to, and following, participation in the task, and was later assayed for cortisol and alpha amylase [sAA]. Results Victimization interacted with levels of cortisol measured in anticipation of the task to predict task-related rumination and depressive symptoms one year later, adjusting for initial symptoms. Specifically, victimization served as a risk factor for rumination and depressive symptoms in children with heightened but not dampened anticipatory cortisol; yet, heightened anticipatory cortisol was protective against rumination and depressive symptoms in low-victimized children. Victimization also predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in girls with high sAA reactivity across the task. Conclusions This study advances contemporary theory and research by implicating individual variation in biological stress responses as one determinant of sensitivity to the mental health effects of early adversity. PMID:20505926

  15. Influences of Biological and Adoptive Mothers’ Depression and Antisocial Behavior on Adoptees’ Early Behavior Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers’ reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior to children’s behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers’ related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood. PMID:23408036

  16. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  17. Biological legacies: Direct early ecosystem recovery and food web reorganization after a volcanic eruption in Alaska

    Walker, Lawrence R.; Sikes, Derek S.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Michaelson, Gary; Talbot, Sandra L.; Talbot, Stephen S.; Wang, Bronwen; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand how communities assemble following a disturbance are challenged by the difficulty of determining the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes. Biological legacies, which result from organisms that survive a disturbance, can favour deterministic processes in community assembly and improve predictions of successional trajectories. Recently disturbed ecosystems are often so rapidly colonized by propagules that the role of biological legacies is obscured. We studied biological legacies on a remote volcanic island in Alaska following a devastating eruption where the role of colonization from adjacent communities was minimized. The role of biological legacies in the near shore environment was not clear, because although some kelp survived, they were presumably overwhelmed by the many vagile propagules in a marine environment. The legacy concept was most applicable to terrestrial invertebrates and plants that survived in remnants of buried soil that were exposed by post-eruption erosion. If the legacy concept is extended to include ex situ survival by transient organisms, then it was also applicable to the island's thousands of seabirds, because the seabirds survived the eruption by leaving the island and have begun to return and rebuild their nests as local conditions improve. Our multi-trophic examination of biological legacies in a successional context suggests that the relative importance of biological legacies varies with the degree of destruction, the availability of colonizing propagules, the spatial and temporal scales under consideration, and species interactions. Understanding the role of biological legacies in community assembly following disturbances can help elucidate the relative importance of colonists versus survivors, the role of priority effects among the colonists, convergence versus divergence of successional trajectories, the influence of spatial heterogeneity, and the role of island biogeographical concepts.

  18. Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: the early evolution of biological energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F

    2012-03-09

    Life is a persistent, self-specified set of far from equilibrium chemical reactions. In modern microbes, core carbon and energy metabolism are what keep cells alive. In very early chemical evolution, the forerunners of carbon and energy metabolism were the processes of generating reduced carbon compounds from CO(2) and the mechanisms of harnessing energy as compounds capable of doing some chemical work. The process of serpentinization at alkaline hydrothermal vents holds promise as a model for the origin of early reducing power, because Fe(2+) in the Earth's crust reduces water to H(2) and inorganic carbon to methane. The overall geochemical process of serpentinization is similar to the biochemical process of methanogenesis, and methanogenesis is similar to acetogenesis in that both physiologies allow energy conservation from the reduction of CO(2) with electrons from H(2). Electron bifurcation is a newly recognized cytosolic process that anaerobes use generate low potential electrons, it plays an important role in some forms of methanogenesis and, via speculation, possibly in acetogenesis. Electron bifurcation likely figures into the early evolution of biological energy conservation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  20. Early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim; Akgul, Ebru; Aytemir, Kudret; Aksoy, Sercan; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2007-03-01

    To determine the incidence of early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimens. A prospective study including 29 patients who were treated with doxorubicin-containing regimens. Cardiac evaluation was based on 24-hour electrocardiographic monitorization (Holter), which was performed during the first cycle of doxorubicin-containing regimens, as well as after the last cycle of chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 45.8 +/- 15.1 (range 18-69). Holter records obtained during the first cycle of treatment revealed varying arrhythmias in 19 patients (65.5%) and in 18 (62.1%) patients after completion of therapy. One patient presented with syncope and both Mobitz Type 2 atrioventricular block and complete atrioventricular block were demonstrated. The patient subsequently underwent permanent pacemaker implantation. Doxorubicin may result in arrhythmias both in early and late periods of treatment. These arrhythmias are rarely life threatening.

  1. biologically relevant effects of dipentyl phthalate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    metadata sheet, data sheet for each table and figure in the published manuscriptThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Gray , E., J. Furr , K. Tatum-Gibbs, C. Lambright , H. Sampson, B. Hannas, V. Wilson , A. Hotchkiss , and P. Foster. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Society of Toxicology, 149(1): 178-91, (2016).

  2. Suppression of Botrytis cinerea on necrotic grapevine tissues by early-season applications of natural products and biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Garrido, Carlos; Viñas, Inmaculada; Elmer, Philip A G; Usall, Josep; Teixidó, Neus

    2014-04-01

    Necrotic tissues within grape (Vitis vinifera) bunches represent an important source of Botrytis cinerea inoculum for Botrytis bunch rot (BBR) at harvest in vineyards. This research quantified the incidence of B. cinerea on necrotic floral and fruit tissues and the efficacy of biologically based treatments for suppression of B. cinerea secondary inoculum within developing bunches. At veraison (2009 and 2010), samples of aborted flowers, aborted fruits and calyptras were collected, and the incidence and sporulation of B. cinerea were determined. Aborted fruits presented significantly higher incidence in untreated samples. Early-season applications of Candida sake plus Fungicover®, Fungicover alone or Ulocladium oudemansii significantly reduced B. cinerea incidence on aborted flowers and calyptras by 46-85%. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced B. cinerea incidence on calyptras. None of the treatments reduced B. cinerea incidence on aborted fruits. Treatments significantly reduced sporulation severity by 48% or more. Treatments were effective at reducing B. cinerea secondary inoculum on necrotic tissues, in spite of the variable control on aborted fruits. This is the first report to quantify B. cinerea on several tissues of bunch trash and to describe the effective suppression of saprophytic B. cinerea inoculum by biologically based treatments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Oldest known dinosaurian nesting site and reproductive biology of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph Massospondylus

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Robert R.; Evans, David C.; Roberts, Eric M.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Yates, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive Early Jurassic continental strata of southern Africa have yielded an exceptional record of dinosaurs that includes scores of partial to complete skeletons of the sauropodomorph Massospondylus, ranging from embryos to large adults. In 1976 an incomplete egg clutch including in ovo embryos of this dinosaur, the oldest known example in the fossil record, was collected from a road-cut talus, but its exact provenance was uncertain. An excavation program at the site started in 2006 has yielded multiple in situ egg clutches, documenting the oldest known dinosaurian nesting site, predating other similar sites by more than 100 million years. The presence of numerous clutches of eggs, some of which contain embryonic remains, in at least four distinct horizons within a small area, provides the earliest known evidence of complex reproductive behavior including site fidelity and colonial nesting in a terrestrial vertebrate. Thus, fossil and sedimentological evidence from this nesting site provides empirical data on reproductive strategies in early dinosaurs. A temporally calibrated optimization of dinosaurian reproductive biology not only demonstrates the primary significance of the Massospondylus nesting site, but also provides additional insights into the initial stages of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, including evidence that deposition of eggs in a tightly organized single layer in a nest evolved independently from brooding. PMID:22308330

  4. The Effects of Explicit Visual Cues in Reading Biological Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Yun-Ping; Unsworth, Len; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on cognitive theories, this study intends to investigate the effects of explicit visual cues which have been proposed as a critical factor in facilitating understanding of biological images. Three diagrams from Taiwanese textbooks with implicit visual cues, involving the concepts of biological classification systems, fish taxonomy, and…

  5. Analysis of preplate splitting and early cortical development illuminates the biology of neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Olson, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    The development of the layered cerebral cortex starts with a process called preplate splitting. Preplate splitting involves the establishment of prospective cortical layer 6 (L6) neurons within a plexus of pioneer neurons called the preplate. The forming layer 6 splits the preplate into a superficial layer of pioneer neurons called the marginal zone and a deeper layer of pioneer neurons called the subplate. Disruptions of this early developmental event by toxin exposure or mutation are associated with neurological disease including severe intellectual disability. This review explores recent findings that reveal the dynamism of gene expression and morphological differentiation during this early developmental period. Over 1000 genes show expression increases of ≥2-fold during this period in differentiating mouse L6 neurons. Surprisingly, 88% of previously identified non-syndromic intellectual-disability (NS-ID) genes are expressed at this time and show an average expression increase of 1.6-fold in these differentiating L6 neurons. This changing genetic program must, in part, support the dramatic cellular reorganizations that occur during preplate splitting. While different models have been proposed for the formation of a layer of L6 cortical neurons within the preplate, original histological studies and more recent work exploiting transgenic mice suggest that the process is largely driven by the coordinated polarization and coalescence of L6 neurons rather than by cellular translocation or migration. The observation that genes associated with forms of NS-ID are expressed during very early cortical development raises the possibility of studying the relevant biological events at a time point when the cortex is small, contains relatively few cell types, and few functional circuits. This review then outlines how explant models may prove particularly useful in studying the consequence of toxin and mutation on the etiology of some forms of NS-ID.

  6. Horizontal and sun-normal spectral biologically effective ultraviolet irradiances.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Kimlin, M G

    1999-01-01

    The dependence of the spectral biologically effective solar UV irradiance on the orientation of the receiver with respect to the sun has been determined for relatively cloud-free days at a sub-tropical Southern Hemisphere latitude for the solar zenith angle range 35-64 degrees. For the UV and biologically effective irradiances, the sun-normal to horizontal ratio for the total UV ranges from 1.18 +/- 0.05 to 1.27 +/- 0.06. The sun-normal to horizontal ratio for biologically effective irradiance is dependent on the relative effectiveness of the relevant action spectrum in the UV-A waveband. In contrast to the total UV, the diffuse UV and diffuse biologically effective irradiances are reduced in a sun-normal compared with a horizontal orientation by a factor ranging from 0.70 +/- 0.05 to 0.76 +/- 0.03.

  7. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2003 AGU Emiliani Lecture, I proposed the 'early anthropogenic hypothesis' --the idea that major anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gases and climate occurred thousands of years before the industrial era. In the decade since then, several dozen published papers have argued its pros and cons. In the 2013 Tyndall History of Global Change Lecture I will update where matters now stand. I will show figures from the 2003 Climate Change paper that laid out the initial hypothesis, and then update subsequent evidence from ice-core drilling, archeology, and land-use histories. The primary claims in the 2003 hypothesis were these: (1) the CH4 rise since 5000 years ago is anthropogenic; (2) the CO2 rise since 7000 years ago is also anthropogenic; (3) the amount of carbon emitted from preindustrial deforestation was roughly twice the amount released during the industrial era; (4) global temperature would have been cooler by about 0.8oC by the start of the industrial era if agricultural CO2 and CH4 emissions had not occurred; (5) early anthropogenic warming prevented the inception of new ice sheets at high northern latitudes; and (6) pandemics and other population catastrophes during the last 2000 years caused CO2 decreases lasting decades to centuries. The new evidence shows that these claims have held up well. The late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 rises are anomalous compared to average gas trends during previous interglaciations of the last 800,000 years. Land-use models based on historical data simulate pre-industrial CO2 carbon releases more than twice the industrial amounts. Archeological estimates of CH4 emissions from expanding rice irrigation account for much of the late Holocene CH4 rise, even without including livestock emissions or biomass burning. Model simulations show that the large pre-industrial greenhouse-gas emissions indicated by these historical and archeological estimates would have warmed global climate by more than 1oC and prevented northern glacial

  8. Prospective Technology Assessment of Synthetic Biology: Fundamental and Propaedeutic Reflections in Order to Enable an Early Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan Cornelius

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic biology is regarded as one of the key technosciences of the future. The goal of this paper is to present some fundamental considerations to enable procedures of a technology assessment (TA) of synthetic biology. To accomplish such an early "upstream" assessment of a not yet fully developed technology, a special type of TA will be considered: Prospective TA (ProTA). At the center of ProTA are the analysis and the framing of "synthetic biology," including a characterization and assessment of the technological core. The thesis is that if there is any differentia specifica giving substance to the umbrella term "synthetic biology," it is the idea of harnessing self-organization for engineering purposes. To underline that we are likely experiencing an epochal break in the ontology of technoscientific systems, this new type of technology is called "late-modern technology." -I start this paper by analyzing the three most common visions of synthetic biology. Then I argue that one particular vision deserves more attention because it underlies the others: the vision of self-organization. I discuss the inherent limits of this new type of late-modern technology in the attempt to control and monitor possible risk issues. I refer to Hans Jonas' ethics and his early anticipation of the risks of a novel type of technology. I end by drawing conclusions for the approach of ProTA towards an early societal shaping of synthetic biology.

  9. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  10. Distinguishing between "function" and "effect" in genome biology.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, W Ford; Brunet, Tyler D P; Linquist, Stefan; Gregory, T Ryan

    2014-05-09

    Much confusion in genome biology results from conflation of possible meanings of the word "function." We suggest that, in this connection, attention should be paid to evolutionary biologists and philosophers who have previously dealt with this problem. We need only decide that although all genomic structures have effects, only some of them should be said to have functions. Although it will very often be difficult or impossible to establish function (strictly defined), it should not automatically be assumed. We enjoin genomicists in particular to pay greater attention to parsing biological effects. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  12. Analysis of the effects of early nutritional environment on inbreeding depression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, T M; Roff, D A; Rantala, M J

    2011-01-01

    The impact of nutritional deficiencies early in life in determining life-history variation in organisms is well recognized. The negative effects of inbreeding on fitness are also well known. Contrary to studies on vertebrates, studies on invertebrates are not consistent with the observation that inbreeding compromises resistance to parasites and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effect of early nutrition on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that early nutritional environment had no effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time or adult body size but may have played a small role in adult resistance to the bacterial infection. Estimates of heritabilities for development time under the poor nutritional environment were larger than those measured under the standard nutritional conditions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  14. [Biological effects of artificial mineral fibers].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H

    1989-01-01

    The present review paper was prepared on the basis of 52 source-books devoted to experimental investigations. Principal conclusions emerging from the experiments described in the references quoted are as follows. MMMF retention in alveoli is conditioned mainly by the fibres size--for fibres of constant dimater retention increases proportionally to their length, while long and thin fibres undergo degradation in fluids much more easily than the short and thick ones. Fibrous effect of glass fibres and glass wool is less remarkable than that of chrysotile and crocidolite; after exposure to glass fibre and wool has stopped, no progress of fibrous changes in animals was observed. In animals exposed to grass fibre or mineral wool through inhalation, the increase in cancer rate was not statistically significant; glass fibres introduced into the pleura showed a weaker tendency to induce neoplasms than the same amount of asbestos fibres, while basalt and ceramic wool induced reaction similar to that provoked by asbestos. In the case of combined exposure glass fibres intensified the toxic effect of styrene in mice and enhanced the incidence of lung cancer in rats exposed to radon. In in vitro study the destructive effect represented the distribution function of fibres size--long fibres (less than 10 microns) and thin fibres (less than 1 micron diameter) demonstrated stronger toxic effect. Glass fibres provoked neither mutations in bacterial test, nor sister chromatid exchange in animal cells in vitro. However, they caused mitosis delay and structural changes in chromosomes.

  15. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Rosanna; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2011-05-14

    Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth) were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health.

  16. Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that children born prematurely or with a low birth weight are more vulnerable to the mental health effects of ambient neighbourhood noise; predominantly road and rail noise, at home. This study used data from the Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) study to see if this finding extends to aircraft and road traffic noise at school. Methods Children and their parents from schools around three European airports were selected to represent a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels. Birth weight and gestation period were merged to create a dichotomous variable assessing 'early biological risk'. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Complete data were available for 1900 primary school children. Results Children who were 'at risk' (i.e. low birth weight or premature birth) were rated as having more conduct problems and emotional symptoms and poorer overall mental health than children not at risk. However, there was no interaction between aircraft or road traffic noise exposure at school and early biological risk. Conclusions Data from the RANCH study suggests that children with early biological risk are not more vulnerable to the effects of aircraft or road traffic noise at school on mental health than children without this risk; however they are more likely to have mental ill-health. PMID:21569605

  17. Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to warming

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future environmental warming (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. Warming reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. Warming did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the warm conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. Warming did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of warming on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764

  18. Biological Effects Of Full-Spectrum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Elwood D.

    1980-10-01

    Humans and other living organisms have evolved various known and unknown photoreceptors and responses under full-spectrum optical radiation of sun and sky at the earth's surface. The trend to indoor living over the past 100 years has produced a self-exile from this radiation environment resulting in the disease conditions of rickets and erythema. Concerns for these diseases have pointed attention to the delicate balance between the beneficial and detrimental effects of full-spectrum optical radiation and has confounded the concepts of illumination and radiation safety criteria. Further knowledge has to be obtained to better evaluate the known and unknown effects of full-spectrum optical radiation in a modern society.

  19. Biological applications and effects of optical masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, William T., Jr.; Mueller, Harold A.; Guerry, R. Kennon; Guerry, Dupont, III; Cleary, Stephen F.

    1989-10-01

    Research was continued on basic mechanisms involving photochemical events in mammalian retina by injecting superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) into vitreous of monkey eye before and after exposure to blue light. Intravitreal injection plus exposure to blue light proved toxic to the eye and no information on oxygen radicals was obtained. The argon krypton laser line at 488 nm was acoustically modulated at 1, 10, and 20 MHz for 1000s exposures of the monkey retina. Threshold radiant exposures at 20 MHz were 3 times lower than those at 1 MHz. The oxygen effect (high PO2 arterial blood-oxygen) on retinal damage was investigated at 3 wavelengths (540, 640, 840 nm). Lack of an appreciable O2 effect at 640 nm and none at 840 nm provides evidence that photochemical toxicity is confined primarily to wavelengths below 640 nm.

  20. Biological Applications and Effects of Optical Masers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    term ocular effects of optical radiation on aging and macular degeneration is discussed and a final draft of the report of the Working Group assessing...exposure to short wavelength light on aging and degeneration of the retina and lens leading to degenerative maculopathies and senile cataract. Dr. Ham...chaired the Working Group assigned the task of assessing light damage to the RPE and its possible relationship to aging and macular degeneration of the

  1. Acidic deposition: A review of biological effects

    Sparling, Donald W.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    The problem of acidic deposition and its possible effects on habitats, organisms, materials, and human health has been recognized for centuries. Earliest accounts date to Cicero (about 100 B.C.), who linked structural damage to buildings and statues in Rome to the smokey rains of wood and charcoal burning.3 Based on estimated of human demographics and centers of population, problems caused by acidic deposition may extend back to 400 to 500 B.C., but were not fully manifested until the mid-1800s with the rise of the Industrial revolution. the term "acid rain" was apparently first coined by R.A. Smith in 1972.4

  2. Biological effects of stellar collapse neutrinos

    PubMed

    Collar, J I

    1996-02-05

    Massive stars in their final stages of collapse radiate most of their binding energy in the form of MeV neutrinos. The recoil atoms that they produce in elastic scattering off nuclei in organic tissue create radiation damage which is highly effective in the production of irreparable DNA harm, leading to cellular mutation, neoplasia, and oncogenesis. Using a conventional model of the galaxy and of the collapse mechanism, the periodicity of nearby stellar collapses and the radiation dose are calculated. The possible contribution of this process to the paleontological record of mass extinctions is examined.

  3. Biological aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. Gannet; Huffman, J. Alex; Fridlind, Ann

    2012-12-01

    Bioaerosol Effects on Clouds Workshop;Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 5-6August 2012 Bioaerosols such as bacteria have been proposed as significant contributors to cloud ice nucleation, but too little is known about the properties and impacts of bioaerosol and other ice nuclei to make reliable conclusions about their wide-scale impact on clouds and precipitation. During late summer an international group of 40 participants met at a Steamboat Springs ski resort to share perspectives on bioaerosol sources, activity, and influence on clouds. Participants who were invited collectively spanned a broad range of expertise, including atmospheric chemistry, microbiology, micrometeorology, and cloud physics, as well as a broad range of research approaches, including laboratory measurement, field measurement, and modeling. Tours of Storm Peak Laboratory (http://www.stormpeak.dri.edu) were offered before and after the workshop.

  4. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  5. Biological applications and effects of optical masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, William T., Jr.; Mueller, Harold A.; Guerry, R. K.; Guerry, Dupont, III; Cleary, Stephan F.

    1988-09-01

    Threshold radiant exposures for retinal damage in 3 macaque monkeys are given for exposures of 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 seconds duration to laser wavelengths 514.5 and 488 nm. Intravitreal injections of 5 x .00005 gm of Cu-Zn SOD were toxic to cornea, lens and retina of the rhesus monkey after a radiant exposure of 33 j/sq cm of 440 nm light. No further experiments with SOD are contemplated. Similar experiments with catalase will be tried during the first quarter of the second contract year. The effect of oxygen on retinal toxicity during exposure to wave-lengths 540, 640 and 840 nm were delayed by the untimely death of Dr. Millen, our consultant on anesthesiology and oxygen administration. Arrangements have been made to activate this program during the second contract year. Threshold data on 40 microsecond pulse trains cannot be obtained until the acoustic modulator can be incorporated into the Ar-Kr laser which was used during the contract year to produce exposures less than 1 second to 514.5 and 488 nm laser lines. Data on PRF's of 10 and 100 KHz and 1, 10 and 20 MHz will be obtained during the second contract year. The long-term experiment on cataractogenesis on 2 rhesus monkeys exposed to a near UV spectrum (330 to 420 nm) has been completed.

  6. Effects of saltcedar invasion and biological control on small mammals

    Effects of invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) on bird populations and communities have received considerable interest, but impacts on other vertebrate taxa have received less attention. Moreover, only one published study examined effects on vertebrates of biological control efforts directed at saltc...

  7. Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the changes in biologically effective radiation (UV-BE) at the earth's surface produced by the El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. It is found that in both cases surface intensity can increase because the effect of ozone depletion outweighs the increased scattering.

  8. Effect of biological pretreatments in enhancing corn straw biogas production.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weizhang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Sun, Shanshan; Qiao, Wei; Xiao, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A biological pretreatment with new complex microbial agents was used to pretreat corn straw at ambient temperature (about 20°C) to improve its biodegradability and anaerobic biogas production. A complex microbial agent dose of 0.01% (w/w) and pretreatment time of 15 days were appropriate for biological pretreatment. These treatment conditions resulted in 33.07% more total biogas yield, 75.57% more methane yield, and 34.6% shorter technical digestion time compared with the untreated sample. Analyses of chemical compositions showed 5.81-25.10% reductions in total lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents, and 27.19-80.71% increases in hot-water extractives; these changes contributed to the enhancement of biogas production. Biological pretreatment could be an effective method for improving biodegradability and enhancing the highly efficient biological conversion of corn straw into bioenergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Making lineage decisions with biological noise: Lessons from the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Simon, Claire S; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Schröter, Christian

    2018-04-30

    Understanding how individual cells make fate decisions that lead to the faithful formation and homeostatic maintenance of tissues is a fundamental goal of contemporary developmental and stem cell biology. Seemingly uniform populations of stem cells and multipotent progenitors display a surprising degree of heterogeneity, primarily originating from the inherent stochastic nature of molecular processes underlying gene expression. Despite this heterogeneity, lineage decisions result in tissues of a defined size and with consistent proportions of differentiated cell types. Using the early mouse embryo as a model we review recent developments that have allowed the quantification of molecular intercellular heterogeneity during cell differentiation. We first discuss the relationship between these heterogeneities and developmental cellular potential. We then review recent theoretical approaches that formalize the mechanisms underlying fate decisions in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo. These models build on our extensive knowledge of the genetic control of fate decisions in this system and will become essential tools for a rigorous understanding of the connection between noisy molecular processes and reproducible outcomes at the multicellular level. We conclude by suggesting that cell-to-cell communication provides a mechanism to exploit and buffer intercellular variability in a self-organized process that culminates in the reproducible formation of the mature mammalian blastocyst stage embryo that is ready for implantation into the maternal uterus. This article is categorized under: Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Cellular Differentiation Establishment of Spatial and Temporal Patterns > Regulation of Size, Proportion, and Timing Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Gene Networks and Genomics Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Quantitative Methods and Models. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of ToxCast to evaluate potential biological effects ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the development of “high throughput” in-vitro biological assays, screening-level information on potential adverse biological effects is available for a rapidly increasing number of chemicals. The U.S. EPA ToxCast program has now evaluated several thousand chemicals with more than 800 assays. The original intent of this data was to evaluate potential for human health effects, but it is now being extended to environmental health evaluations. The R package ToxEval was developed as a screening tool to use ToxCast results for evaluation of potential adverse biological effects from trace organic chemicals in water samples. Using ToxEval, trace organic chemical data from water samples and passive samplers collected at 57 Great Lakes tributaries from 2010-2013 were examined to determine the tributaries with the greatest potential for adverse biological effects with prioritization of the most influential contaminants. Results are being used as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative to focus current and future investigations that will help understand likely adverse outcome pathways in biological organisms, and to formulate possible remediation strategies. not applicable

  11. Bone effects of biologic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Addolorata; Neve, Anna; Maruotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Biologic agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are able to reduce both disease activity and radiographic progression of joint disease. These drugs are directed against several proinflammatory cytokines (TNF α , IL-6, and IL-1) which are involved both in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and progression of joint structural damage and in systemic and local bone loss typically observed in RA. However, the role of biologic drugs in preventing bone loss in clinical practice has not yet clearly assessed. Many clinical studies showed a trend to a positive effect of biologic agents in preventing systemic bone loss observed in RA. Although the suppression of inflammation is the main goal in the treatment of RA and the anti-inflammatory effects of biologic drugs exert a positive effect on bone metabolism, the exact relationship between the prevention of bone loss and control of inflammation has not been clearly established, and if the available biologic drugs against TNF α , IL-1, and IL-6 can exert their effect on systemic and local bone loss also through a direct mechanism on bone cell metabolism is still to be clearly defined.

  12. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    lines that produce EMR. perimental evidence on human health effects due to electromagnetic field exposures from high-voltage transmission lines is...1311, Mrch YOW that a permissible occupational exposure level to The biologic effects of electromagnetic fields on MW and RF radiation of 500 PW/cm 2...along with the principal physical param- eters of exposure . 6402 REGULATING POSSIBLE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM AC TRANSMISSION LINE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

  13. Early sport specialization: roots, effectiveness, risks.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Year-round training in a single sport beginning at a relatively young age is increasingly common among youth. Contributing factors include perceptions of Eastern European sport programs, a parent's desire to give his or her child an edge, labeling youth as talented at an early age, pursuit of scholarships and professional contracts, the sporting goods and services industry, and expertise research. The factors interact with the demands of sport systems. Limiting experiences to a single sport is not the best path to elite status. Risks of early specialization include social isolation, overdependence, burnout, and perhaps risk of overuse injury. Commitment to a single sport at an early age immerses a youngster in a complex world regulated by adults, which is a setting that facilitates manipulation - social, dietary, chemical, and commercial. Youth sport must be kept in perspective. Participants, including talented young athletes, are children and adolescents with the needs of children and adolescents.

  14. The prognostic role of tumor size in early breast cancer in the era of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Kasangian, Anaid Anna; Gherardi, Giorgio; Biagioli, Elena; Torri, Valter; Moretti, Anna; Bernardin, Elena; Cordovana, Andrea; Farina, Gabriella; Bramati, Annalisa; Piva, Sheila; Dazzani, Maria Chiara; Paternò, Emanuela; La Verde, Nicla Maria

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of early breast cancer (EBC) depends on patient and tumor characteristics. The association between tumor size, the largest diameter in TNM staging, and prognosis is well recognized. According to TNM, tumors classified as T2, could have very different volumes; e.g. a tumor of 2.1 cm has a volume of 4500 mm3, while a tumor of 4.9 cm has a volume of 60.000 mm3 even belonging to the same class. The aim of the study is to establish if the prognostic role of tumor size, expressed as diameter and volume, has been overshadowed by other factors. The primary objective is to evaluate the association between tumor dimensions and overall survival (OS) / disease free survival (DFS), in our institution from January 1st 2005 to September 30th 2013 in a surgical T1-T2 population. Volume was evaluated with the measurement of three half-diameters of the tumor (a, b and c), and calculated using the following formula: 4/3π x a x b x c. 341 patients with T1-T2 EBC were included. 86.5% were treated with conservative surgery. 85.1% had a Luminal subtype, 9.1% were Triple negative and 7.4% were HER2 positive. Median volume was 942 mm3 (range 0.52-31.651.2). 44 patients (12.9%) relapsed and 23 patients died. With a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the univariate analysis for DFS showed an association between age, tumor size, volume, histological grading and molecular subtype. The multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant association only for molecular subtype (p 0.005), with a worse prognosis for Triple negative and HER2 positive subtypes compared with Luminal (HR: 2.65; 95%CI: 1.34-5.22). Likewise for OS, an association was shown by the multivariate analysis solely for molecular subtype (HER2 and Triple negative vs. Luminal. HR: 2.83; 95% CI:1.46-5.49; p 0.002). In our study, the only parameter that strongly influences survival is molecular subtype. These findings encourage clinicians to choose adjuvant treatment not based on dimensional criteria but on

  15. Thinking about Digestive System in Early Childhood: A Comparative Study about Biological Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AHI, Berat

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to explore how children explain the concepts of biology and how biological knowledge develops across ages by focusing on the structure and functions of the digestive system. The study was conducted with 60 children. The data were collected through the interviews conducted within a think-aloud protocol. The interview data…

  16. Sexism and Early Parenting: Cause and Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Theresa

    1987-01-01

    Sexism and sex role stereotyping exacerbate teen pregnancy rates in several ways. This article attempts to synthesize relevant research and uses existing research to detail the specific ways sexism abets early parenting. Several recommendations for addressing teen pregnancy issues are made. (IAH)

  17. Biological effects and mechanisms of shortwave radiation: a review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing knowledge of shortwave radiation, it is widely used in wireless communications, radar observations, industrial manufacturing, and medical treatments. Despite of the benefits from shortwave, these wide applications expose humans to the risk of shortwave electromagnetic radiation, which is alleged to cause potential damage to biological systems. This review focused on the exposure to shortwave electromagnetic radiation, considering in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological results that have provided insight into the biological effects and mechanisms of shortwave. Additionally, some protective measures and suggestions are discussed here in the hope of obtaining more benefits from shortwave with fewer health risks.

  18. Effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties related to carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renduo; Zhu, Shuzhi; Ouyang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates.

  19. Examining the nature of retrocausal effects in biology and psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossbridge, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Multiple laboratories have reported physiological and psychological changes associated with future events that are designed to be unpredictable by normal sensory means. Such phenomena seem to be examples of retrocausality at the macroscopic level. Here I will discuss the characteristics of seemingly retrocausal effects in biology and psychology, specifically examining a biological and a psychological form of precognition, predictive anticipatory activity (PAA) and implicit precognition. The aim of this examination is to offer an analysis of the constraints posed by the characteristics of macroscopic retrocausal effects. Such constraints are critical to assessing any physical theory that purports to explain these effects. Following a brief introduction to recent research on PAA and implicit precognition, I will describe what I believe we have learned so far about the nature of these effects, and conclude with a testable, yet embryonic, model of macroscopic retrocausal phenomena.

  20. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 ± 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. RESULTS: A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 ± 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients. PMID:19630105

  1. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-07-28

    To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 +/- 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 +/- 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients.

  2. Distribution and Biological Effects of Nanoparticles in the Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have shown great potential in biomedical applications such as imaging probes and drug delivery. However, the increasing use of nanoparticles has raised concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Reproductive tissues and gametes represent highly delicate biological systems with the essential function of transmitting genetic information to the offspring, which is highly sensitive to environmental toxicants. This review aims to summarzie the penetration of physiological barriers (blood-testis barrier and placental barrier), distribution and biological effects of nanoparticles in the reproductive system, which is essential to control the beneficial effects of nanoparticles applications and to avoid their adverse effects on the reproductive system. We referred to a large number of relevant peer-reviewed research articles about the reproductive toxicity of nanoparticles. The comprehensive information was summarized into two parts: physiological barrier penetration and biological effects of nanoparticles in male or female reproductive system; distribution and metabolism of nanoparticles in the reproductive system. The representative examples were also presented in four tables. The in vitro and in vivo studies imply that some nanoparticles are able to cross the blood-testis barrier or placental barrier, and their penetration depends on the physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles (e.g., composition, shape, particle size and surface coating). The toxicity assays indicate that nanoparticles might induce adverse physiological effects and impede fertility or embryogenesis. The barrier penetration, adverse physiological effects, distribution and metabolism are closely related to physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles. Further systematic and mechanistic studies using well-characterized nanoparticles, relevant administration routes, and doses relevant to the expected exposure level are required to improve our

  3. Predictive modeling of nanomaterial exposure effects in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiong; Tang, Kaizhi; Harper, Stacey; Harper, Bryan; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background Predictive modeling of the biological effects of nanomaterials is critical for industry and policymakers to assess the potential hazards resulting from the application of engineered nanomaterials. Methods We generated an experimental dataset on the toxic effects experienced by embryonic zebrafish due to exposure to nanomaterials. Several nanomaterials were studied, such as metal nanoparticles, dendrimer, metal oxide, and polymeric materials. The embryonic zebrafish metric (EZ Metric) was used as a screening-level measurement representative of adverse effects. Using the dataset, we developed a data mining approach to model the toxic endpoints and the overall biological impact of nanomaterials. Data mining techniques, such as numerical prediction, can assist analysts in developing risk assessment models for nanomaterials. Results We found several important attributes that contribute to the 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) mortality, such as dosage concentration, shell composition, and surface charge. These findings concur with previous studies on nanomaterial toxicity using embryonic zebrafish. We conducted case studies on modeling the overall effect/impact of nanomaterials and the specific toxic endpoints such as mortality, delayed development, and morphological malformations. The results show that we can achieve high prediction accuracy for certain biological effects, such as 24 hpf mortality, 120 hpf mortality, and 120 hpf heart malformation. The results also show that the weighting scheme for individual biological effects has a significant influence on modeling the overall impact of nanomaterials. Sample prediction models can be found at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/nei_models. Conclusion The EZ Metric-based data mining approach has been shown to have predictive power. The results provide valuable insights into the modeling and understanding of nanomaterial exposure effects. PMID:24098077

  4. Comparative Effects of Various High School Biology Course-Content Backgrounds on Achievement in College Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gordon Ronald

    The purposes of this study are (1) to determine whether college students who have taken Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) High School Biology attain significantly different grades in college biology courses at the University of Missouri than do college students who have taken a non-BSCS high school biology course, and (2) to determine if…

  5. Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Forte, Jason; Sewell, David; Carter, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing. No effects of cognitive load were seen in Experiments 2 or 3. Together, the findings provide evidence that under some circumstances cognitive load effects can penetrate the early stages of visual processing and that higher cognitive function and early perceptual processing may not be as independent as was once thought.

  6. Preferences for Explanation Generality Develop Early in Biology But Not Physics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Angie M; Sheskin, Mark; Johnson, Samuel G B; Keil, Frank C

    2017-04-11

    One of the core functions of explanation is to support prediction and generalization. However, some explanations license a broader range of predictions than others. For instance, an explanation about biology could be presented as applying to a specific case (e.g., "this bear") or more generally across "all animals." The current study investigated how 5- to 7-year-olds (N = 36), 11- to 13-year-olds (N = 34), and adults (N = 79) evaluate explanations at varying levels of generality in biology and physics. Findings revealed that even the youngest children preferred general explanations in biology. However, only older children and adults preferred explanation generality in physics. Findings are discussed in light of differences in our intuitions about biological and physical principles. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. System development and early biological tests in NASA's biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Dreschel, T. W.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Strayer, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center was constructed to conduct large scale plant growth studies for NASA's CELSS program. Over the past four years, physical systems and computer control software have been continually upgraded and the degree of atmospheric leakage from the chamber has decreased from about 40 to 5 percent of the total volume per day. Early tests conducted with a limited degree of closure showed that total crop (wheat) growth from the best trays was within 80 percent of reported optimal yields for similar light levels. Yields from subsequent tests under more tightly closed conditions have not been as good--up to only 65 percent of optimal yields. Yields appear to have decreased with increasing closure, yet potential problems exist in cultural techniques and further studies are warranted. With the ability to tightly seal the chamber, quantitative data were gathered on CO2 and water exchange rates. Results showed that stand photosynthesis and transpiration reached a peak near 25 days after planting, soon after full vegetative ground cover was established. In the final phase of testing when atmospheric closure was the highest, ethylene gas levels in the chamber rose from about 10 to nearly 120 ppb. Evidence suggests that the ethylene originated from the wheat plants themselves and may have caused an epinastic rolling of the leaves, but no apparent detrimental effects on whole plant function.

  8. Discordant inflammation and pain in early and established rheumatoid arthritis: Latent Class Analysis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network and British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register data.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Daniel F; Ferguson, Eamonn; Young, Adam; Kiely, Patrick D W; Walsh, David A

    2016-12-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity is often measured using the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). We aimed to identify and independently verify subgroups of people with RA that may be discordant with respect to self-reported and objective disease state, with potentially different clinical needs. Data were derived from three cohorts: (1) the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN) and the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR), (2) those commencing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors and (3) those using non-biologic drugs. In latent class analysis, we used variables related to pain, central pain mechanisms or inflammation (pain, vitality, mental health, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen joint count, tender joint count, visual analogue scale of general health). Clinically relevant outcomes were examined. Five, four and four latent classes were found in the ERAN, BSRBR TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The proportions of people assigned with >80% probability into latent classes were 76%, 58% and 72% in the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The latent classes displayed either concordance between measures indicative of mild, moderate or severe disease activity; discordantly worse patient-reported measures despite less markedly elevated inflammation; or discordantly less severe patient-reported measures despite elevated inflammation. Latent classes with discordantly worse patient-reported measures represented 12%, 40% and 21% of the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively; contained more females; and showed worse function. In those latent classes with worse scores at baseline, DAS28 and function improved over 1 year (p < 0.001 for all comparisons), and scores differed less at follow-up than at baseline. Discordant latent classes can be identified in people with RA, and these findings are robust across three cohorts with varying disease duration and

  9. [Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation].

    PubMed

    Fedorowski, A; Steciwko, A

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's, when Adey discovered that extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) may affect the calcium ions efflux from various cells, bioeffects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) have become the subject of growing interest and numerous research projects. At present, the fact that NIR exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on different physiological cellular parameters is rather unquestionable. At the same time, some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to EMF is potentially harmful even if its intensity is very low. It has been proved that thermal factors are not responsible for these effects, therefore nowadays, they are called 'non-thermal effects'. Our paper deals with three different aspects of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation, bioelectromagnetism, electromagnetobiology and electromagnetic bioinformation. Firstly, we describe how EMF and photons can be produced within a living cell, how biological cycles are controlled, and what are the features of endogenous electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, we discuss various facets of external EMF interactions with living matter, focusing on extremely-low-frequencies, radio- and microwaves. Possible mechanisms of these interactions are also mentioned. Finally, we present a short overview of current theories which explain how electromagnetic couplings may control an open and dissipative structure, namely the living organism. The theory of electromagnetic bioinformation seems to explain how different physiological processes are triggered and controlled, as well as how long-range interactions may possibly occur within the complex biological system. The review points out that the presented research data must be assessed very carefully since its evaluation is crucial to set the proper limits of EMF exposure, both occupational and environmental. The study of biological effects of non-ioinizing radiation may also contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic

  10. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Formica, Domenico; Silvestri, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited. PMID:15104797

  11. Early vitrectomy effective for Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark K; Drenser, Kimberly A; Capone, Antonio; Trese, Michael T

    2010-04-01

    To review our experience with Norrie disease to determine if early vitrectomy abrogates the natural history of this rare disease; namely, bilateral no light perception visual acuity and phthisis bulbi. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients seen in our tertiary care pediatric retinal clinical practice from 1988 through 2008 with a potential diagnosis of Norrie disease. Inclusion required not only clinical findings consistent with Norrie disease but also genetics and/or a family history consistent with Norrie disease. Medical record review revealed 14 boys with clinically diagnosed Norrie disease and either Norrie disease gene (NDP) mutations noted on genetic testing (13 patients) and/or a clear family history consistent with Norrie disease (4 patients). All 14 boys with definite Norrie disease had vitrectomy with or without lensectomy in at least 1 eye prior to 12 months of age. Of the 14 boys with definite Norrie disease, 7 maintained at least light perception visual acuity in 1 eye and 3 had no light perception visual acuity bilaterally; visual acuity data were not available for 4 patients. Only 2 of 24 (8%) eyes became phthisical. Historically, no treatment has been offered to mitigate the dismal natural history of Norrie disease. We recommend consideration of early vitrectomy in Norrie disease.

  12. Predicting Lactational and Early Post-Weaning Exposures in Rats Using Biologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk and safety assessments for early life exposures to environmental chemicals or pharmaceuticals based on cross-species extrapolation would greatly benefit from information on chemical dosimetry in the young.

  13. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature beneath well-developed, late-successional stage crusts than immature, early-successional stage crusts. We identified and enumerated nematodes by genus from beneath early- and late-stage crusts from both the Colorado Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0-10 and 10-30 cm depths. As hypothesized, nematode abundance, richness, diversity, and successional maturity were greater beneath well-developed crusts than immature crusts. The mechanism of this aboveground-belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food, habitat, nutrient inputs, moisture retention, and/or environmental stability provided by late-successional crusts. Canonical correspondence analysis of nematode genera demonstrated that nematode community composition differed greatly between geographic locations that contrast in temperature, precipitation, and soil texture. We found unique assemblages of genera among combinations of location and crust type that reveal a gap in scientific knowledge regarding empirically derived characterization of dominant nematode genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  15. The Importance of Effective Behaviour Screening in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Church, John

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention for children with behavioural difficulties can be effective in terms of outcomes for both the children and their families. Early intervention can save a child from long-term outcomes such as school failure, peer rejection and later offending. However, in terms of accurate assessment of young children's behavioural difficulties,…

  16. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  17. Assessing biological effects from highway-runoff constituents

    Buckler, Denny R.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1999-01-01

    Increased emphasis on evaluation of nonpoint-source pollution has intensified the need for techniques that can be used to discern the toxicological effects of complex chemical mixtures. In response, the use of biological assessment techniques is receiving increased regulatory emphasis. When applied with documented habitat assessment and chemical analysis, these techniques can increase our understanding of the influence of environmental contaminants on the biological integrity and ecological function of aquatic communities.The contaminants of greatest potential concern in highway runoff are those that arise from highway construction, maintenance, and use. The major contaminants of interest are deicers; nutrients; metals; petroleum-related organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE); sediment washed off the road surface; and agricultural chemicals used in highway maintenance. Hundreds, if not thousands, of biological endpoints (measurable responses of living organisms) may be either directly or associatively affected by contaminant exposure. Measurable effects can occur throughout ecosystem processes across the wide range of biological complexity, ranging from responses at the biochemical level to the community level. The challenge to the environmental scientist is to develop an understanding of the relationship of effects at various levels of biological organization in order to determine whether a causal relationship exists between chemical exposure and substantial ecological impairment. This report provides a brief history of the evolution of biological assessment techniques, a description of the major classes of contaminants that are of particular interest in highway runoff, an overview of representative biological assessment techniques, and a discussion of data-quality considerations. Published reports with a focus on the effects of highway runoff on the

  18. Quantification of Nanoscale Density Fluctuations in Biological Cells/Tissues: Inverse Participation Ratio (IPR) Analysis of Transmission Electron Microscopy Images and Implications for Early-Stage Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Taflove, Allen; Roy, Hemant; Dravid, Vinayak; Backman, Vadim

    2010-03-01

    We report a study of the nanoscale mass density fluctuations of biological cells and tissues by quantifying their nanoscale light-localization properties. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of human cells and tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. Light-localization properties are studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscales. Our results indicate elevation of the nanoscale disorder strength (e.g., refractive index fluctuations) in early carcinogenesis. Importantly, our results demonstrate that the increase in the nanoscale disorder represents the earliest structural alteration in cells undergoing carcinogenesis known to-date. Potential applications of the technique for early stage cancer detection will be discussed.

  19. Incorporating Allee effects into the potential biological removal level

    Hadier, Humza; Oldfield, Sarah; Tu, Tiffany; Moreno, Rosa; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Eager, Eric A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Potential biological removal (PBR) is an approach used to calculate sustainable harvest and “take” limits for populations. PBR was originally derived assuming logistic growth while ignoring the effects of small population size (i.e., an Allee effect). We derived a version of PBR that includes an Allee effect (i.e., small population size or densities limiting population growth rates). We found that PBR becomes less conservative when it fails to consider an Allee effect. Specifically, sustainable harvest and take levels based upon PBR with an Allee effect were between approximately 51% and 66% of levels based upon PBR without an Allee effect. Managers and biologists using PBR may need to consider the limitations if an Allee effect may be present in the species being modeled.

  20. [Effect of high intensity magnetic field on the processes of early growth in plant seeds and development of honeybees].

    PubMed

    Es'kov, E K; Darkov, A V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the early growth processes in plant seeds and the postembryonic development of honeybees was studied. Some general trends in the effects of magnetic field and differences in the tolerance of plant seeds and developing honeybees to its action were revealed. Some factors that may be responsible for a low reproducibility of magneto-biological effects are discussed.

  1. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    for 23-550 MHz, biological phantom materials to simulate tissue properties, monopole -above-ground radiation chamber, design of a waveguide slot array...Resonant Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Rats" L T OF FTCTIF S A,’L i .LIS SFigure Pa 1 A photograiph of the monopole -above-gruund radiation...and mice without ground effects (L/2b = 3.25 where 21Tb is the "average" circumference of the animals) ........ .................... ... 20 8

  2. On quantum effects in a theory of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin-Delgado, M A

    2012-01-01

    We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable.

  3. On Quantum Effects in a Theory of Biological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable. PMID:22413059

  4. Comparison of ballistic impact effects between biological tissue and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongxi; Mai, Ruimin; Wu, Cheng; Han, Ruiguo; Li, Bingcang

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is commonly used in ballistic testing as substitute for biological tissue. Comparison of ballistic impact effects produced in the gelatin and living tissue is lacking. The work in this paper was aimed to compare the typical ballistic impact effects (penetration trajectory, energy transfer, temporary cavity) caused by 4.8mm steel ball penetrating the 60kg porcine hind limbs and 10wt% gelatin. The impact event in the biological tissue was recorded by high speed flash X-ray machine at different delay time, while the event in the gelatin continuously recorded by high speed video was compared to that in the biological tissue. The collected results clearly displayed that the ballistic impact effects in the muscle and gelatin were similar for the steel ball test; as for instance, the projectile trajectory in the two targets was basically similar, the process of energy transfer was highly coincident, and the expansion of temporary cavity followed the same pattern. This study fully demonstrated that choosing gelatin as muscle simulant was reasonable. However, the maximum temporary cavity diameter in the gelatin was a little larger than that in the muscle, and the expansion period of temporary cavity was longer in the gelatin. Additionally, the temporary cavity collapse process in the two targets followed different patterns, and the collapse period in the gelatin was two times as long as that in the muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary Tradeoffs between Economy and Effectiveness in Biological Homeostasis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals. PMID:23950698

  6. Evolutionary tradeoffs between economy and effectiveness in biological homeostasis systems.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals.

  7. The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By

  8. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock’s term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can have lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farm worker children’s ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality. PMID:20550093

  9. Biomarkers from distinct biological pathways improve early risk stratification in medical emergency patients: the multinational, prospective, observational TRIAGE study.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Philipp; Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Conca, Antoinette; Reutlinger, Barbara; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat

    2015-10-29

    Early risk stratification in the emergency department (ED) is vital to reduce time to effective treatment in high-risk patients and to improve patient flow. Yet, there is a lack of investigations evaluating the incremental usefulness of multiple biomarkers measured upon admission from distinct biological pathways for predicting fatal outcome and high initial treatment urgency in unselected ED patients in a multicenter and multinational setting. We included consecutive, adult, medical patients seeking ED care into this observational, cohort study in Switzerland, France and the USA. We recorded initial clinical parameters and batch-measured prognostic biomarkers of inflammation (pro-adrenomedullin [ProADM]), stress (copeptin) and infection (procalcitonin). During a 30-day follow-up, 331 of 7132 (4.6 %) participants reached the primary endpoint of death within 30 days. In logistic regression models adjusted for conventional risk factors available at ED admission, all three biomarkers strongly predicted the risk of death (AUC 0.83, 0.78 and 0.75), ICU admission (AUC 0.67, 0.69 and 0.62) and high initial triage priority (0.67, 0.66 and 0.58). For the prediction of death, ProADM significantly improved regression models including (a) clinical information available at ED admission (AUC increase from 0.79 to 0.84), (b) full clinical information at ED discharge (AUC increase from 0.85 to 0.88), and (c) triage information (AUC increase from 0.67 to 0.83) (p <0.01 for each comparison). Similarly, ProADM also improved clinical models for prediction of ICU admission and high initial treatment urgency. Results were robust in regard to predefined patient subgroups by center, main diagnosis, presenting symptoms, age and gender. Combination of clinical information with results of blood biomarkers measured upon ED admission allows early and more adequate risk stratification in individual unselected medical ED patients. A randomized trial is needed to answer the question whether

  10. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    PubMed

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential.

  11. Sparing of Sensitivity to Biological Motion but Not of Global Motion after Early Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Patients deprived of visual experience during infancy by dense bilateral congenital cataracts later show marked deficits in the perception of global motion (dorsal visual stream) and global form (ventral visual stream). We expected that they would also show marked deficits in sensitivity to biological motion, which is normally processed in the…

  12. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  13. The biological effects and possible modes of action of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Völker, Carolin; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Novel physicochemical and biological properties have led to a versatile spectrum of applications for nanosized silver particles. Silver nanoparticles are applied primarily for their antimicrobial effects, and may variety of commercially available products have emerged. To better predict and prevent possible environmental impacts from silver nanoparticles that are derived from increasing production volumes and environmental release, more data on the biological effects are needed on appropriate model organisms. We examined the literature that addressed the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on different levels of biological integration, including in vitro and in vivo test systems. Results of in vitro studies indicate a dose-dependent programmed cell death included by oxidative stress as main possible pathway of toxicity. Furthermore, silver nanoparticles may affect cellular enzymes by interference with free thiol groups and mimicry of endogenous ions. Similar mechanisms may apply for antibacterial effects produced by nonasilver. These effects are primary from the interference nanosilver has with bacterial cell membranes. Few in vivo studies have been performed to evaluated the toxic mode of action of nanosilver or to provide evidence for oxidative stress as an important mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. Organisms that are most acutely sensitive to nanosilver toxicity are the freshwater filter-freeding organisms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated tha silver ions released from nanoparticle surface contribute to the toxicity, and, indeed, some findings indicated a unique nanoparticles effect. For an adequate evaluation of the environmental impact of nanosilver, greater emphasis should be placed on combining mechanistic investigations that are performed in vitro, with results obtained in in vivo test systems. Future in vivo test system studies should emphasize long-term exposure scenarios. Moreover, the dietary uptake of silver nanoparticles and

  14. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biological effects. Extrapolating the biological effects of dietary compounds from in vitro and in vivo animal experiments to humans may lead to over- or under-estimation of the effect and role of these compounds. The present paper will discuss a few of these challenges and suggest directions for future research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds. PMID:27294953

  15. Subcellular Biological Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen F.; Stacey, Michael

    Membranes of biological cells can be charged by exposure to pulsed electric fields. After the potential difference across the barrier reaches critical values on the order of 1 V, pores will form. For moderate pulse parameters of duration and amplitude, the effect is limited to the outer cell membrane. With the exposure to nanosecond pulses of several tens of kilovolts per centimeter, a similar effect is also expected for subcellular membranes and structures. Cells will respond to the disruption by different biochemical processes. This offers possibilities for the development of novel medical therapies, the manipulation of cells and microbiological decontamination.

  16. Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

    2009-02-01

    Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

  17. Molecular Phenotyping Combines Molecular Information, Biological Relevance, and Patient Data to Improve Productivity of Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Drawnel, Faye Marie; Zhang, Jitao David; Küng, Erich; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Benmansour, Fethallah; Araujo Del Rosario, Andrea; Jensen Zoffmann, Sannah; Delobel, Frédéric; Prummer, Michael; Weibel, Franziska; Carlson, Coby; Anson, Blake; Iacone, Roberto; Certa, Ulrich; Singer, Thomas; Ebeling, Martin; Prunotto, Marco

    2017-05-18

    Today, novel therapeutics are identified in an environment which is intrinsically different from the clinical context in which they are ultimately evaluated. Using molecular phenotyping and an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we show that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping can cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously. Molecular phenotyping was applicable to compounds with a range of binding specificities and triaged false positives derived from high-content screening assays. The technique identified a class of calcium-signaling modulators that can reverse disease-regulated pathways and phenotypes, which was validated by structurally distinct compounds of relevant classes. Our results advocate for application of molecular phenotyping in early drug discovery, promoting biological relevance as a key selection criterion early in the drug development cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of biological factors on extinction risk in fossil bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Harnik, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Biological factors, such as abundance and body size, may contribute directly to extinction risk and indirectly through their influence on other biological characteristics, such as geographic range size. Paleontological data can be used to explicitly test many of these hypothesized relationships, and general patterns revealed through analysis of the fossil record can help refine predictive models of extinction risk developed for extant species. Here, I use structural equation modeling to tease apart the contributions of three canonical predictors of extinction—abundance, body size, and geographic range size—to the duration of bivalve species in the early Cenozoic marine fossil record of the eastern United States. I find that geographic range size has a strong direct effect on extinction risk and that an apparent direct effect of abundance can be explained entirely by its covariation with geographic range. The influence of geographic range on extinction risk is manifest across three ecologically disparate bivalve clades. Body size also has strong direct effects on extinction risk but operates in opposing directions in different clades, and thus, it seems to be decoupled from extinction risk in bivalves as a whole. Although abundance does not directly predict extinction risk, I reveal weak indirect effects of both abundance and body size through their positive influence on geographic range size. Multivariate models that account for the pervasive covariation between biological factors and extinction are necessary for assessing causality in evolutionary processes and making informed predictions in applied conservation efforts. PMID:21808004

  19. Direct and indirect effects of biological factors on extinction risk in fossil bivalves.

    PubMed

    Harnik, Paul G

    2011-08-16

    Biological factors, such as abundance and body size, may contribute directly to extinction risk and indirectly through their influence on other biological characteristics, such as geographic range size. Paleontological data can be used to explicitly test many of these hypothesized relationships, and general patterns revealed through analysis of the fossil record can help refine predictive models of extinction risk developed for extant species. Here, I use structural equation modeling to tease apart the contributions of three canonical predictors of extinction--abundance, body size, and geographic range size--to the duration of bivalve species in the early Cenozoic marine fossil record of the eastern United States. I find that geographic range size has a strong direct effect on extinction risk and that an apparent direct effect of abundance can be explained entirely by its covariation with geographic range. The influence of geographic range on extinction risk is manifest across three ecologically disparate bivalve clades. Body size also has strong direct effects on extinction risk but operates in opposing directions in different clades, and thus, it seems to be decoupled from extinction risk in bivalves as a whole. Although abundance does not directly predict extinction risk, I reveal weak indirect effects of both abundance and body size through their positive influence on geographic range size. Multivariate models that account for the pervasive covariation between biological factors and extinction are necessary for assessing causality in evolutionary processes and making informed predictions in applied conservation efforts.

  20. The Effects Of Physical And Biological Cohesion On Bedforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Schindler, R.; Baas, J.; Hope, J. A.; Malarkey, J.; Paterson, D. M.; Peakall, J.; Manning, A. J.; Ye, L.; Aspden, R.; Alan, D.; Bass, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Most coastal sediments consist of complex mixtures of cohesionless sands, physically-cohesive clays and extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS) that impart biological cohesion. Yet, our ability to predict bedform dimensions in these substrates is reliant on predictions based exclusively on cohesionless sand. We present findings from the COHBED project - which explicitly examines how bedform dynamics are modified by natural cohesion. Our experimental results show that for ripples, height and length are inversely proportional to initial clay content and bedforms take longer to appear, with no ripples when clay content exceeds 18%. When clay is replaced by EPS the development time and time of first appearance of ripples both increase by two orders of magnitude, with no bedforms above 0.125% EPS. For dunes, height and length are also inversely proportional to initial substrate clay content, resulting in a transition from dunes to ripples normally associated with velocity decreases. Addition of low EPS concentrations into the substrate results in yet smaller bedforms at the same clay contents and at high EPS concentrations, biological cohesion supersedes all electrostatic bonding, and bedform size is no longer related to mud content. The contrast in physical and biological cohesion effects on bedform development result from the disparity between inter-particle electrostatic bonding of clay particles and EPS grain coating and strands that physically link sediments together, which effects winnowing rates as bedforms evolve. These findings have wide ranging implications for bedform predictions in both modern and ancient environments. Coupling of biological and morphological processes not only requires an understanding of how bedform dimensions influence biota and habitat, but also how benthic species can modify bedform dimensions. Consideration of both aspects provides a means in which fluid dynamics, sediment transport and ecosystem energetics can be linked to yield

  1. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  2. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  3. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  4. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hubbe, Alex; Neves, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates) and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix) of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá) were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene. PMID:26465141

  5. The processing of social stimuli in early infancy: from faces to biological motion perception.

    PubMed

    Simion, Francesca; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Leo, Irene; Bardi, Lara

    2011-01-01

    There are several lines of evidence which suggests that, since birth, the human system detects social agents on the basis of at least two properties: the presence of a face and the way they move. This chapter reviews the infant research on the origin of brain specialization for social stimuli and on the role of innate mechanisms and perceptual experience in shaping the development of the social brain. Two lines of convergent evidence on face detection and biological motion detection will be presented to demonstrate the innate predispositions of the human system to detect social stimuli at birth. As for face detection, experiments will be presented to demonstrate that, by virtue of nonspecific attentional biases, a very coarse template of faces become active at birth. As for biological motion detection, studies will be presented to demonstrate that, since birth, the human system is able to detect social stimuli on the basis of their properties such as the presence of a semi-rigid motion named biological motion. Overall, the empirical evidence converges in supporting the notion that the human system begins life broadly tuned to detect social stimuli and that the progressive specialization will narrow the system for social stimuli as a function of experience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  7. [Biological effects of resveratrol and other constituents of wine].

    PubMed

    Kollár, P; Hotolová, H

    2003-11-01

    In recent years many scientific papers have been published concerning the positive effects of wine and its active principles, the polyphenol resveratrol being the most widely discussed compound. The results of epidemiological and experimental studies in man, animals, and in vitro have shown that polyphenols contained in wine, tea, fruit, and vegetables exert a positive effect on both the progression and regression of atherosclerosis, possess an anticancerogenic action, and due to their antioxidative effects they act against other processes connected with the reactive forms of oxygen production and lipid peroxydation in the blood plasma and membranes. Experimental findings have shown that resveratrol protects the cardiovascular system, affects lipid metabolism, and inhibits low-density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation and blood platelet aggregation. In addition, this natural product is able to inhibit the growth of some tumours and possesses antiinflammatory properties and a number of other biological effects. This report aims to describe and characterize in a summary the biological properties of the principal active principles of wine--flavonoids and polyphenols, with a detailed focus on resveratrol, which has been described as the most interesting agent.

  8. Countermeasures for space radiation induced adverse biologic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. R.; Wan, X. S.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation exposure in space is expected to increase the risk of cancer and other adverse biological effects in astronauts. The types of space radiation of particular concern for astronaut health are protons and heavy ions known as high atomic number and high energy (HZE) particles. Recent studies have indicated that carcinogenesis induced by protons and HZE particles may be modifiable. We have been evaluating the effects of proton and HZE particle radiation in cultured human cells and animals for nearly a decade. Our results indicate that exposure to proton and HZE particle radiation increases oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, cataract development and malignant transformation in in vivo and/or in vitro experimental systems. We have also shown that these adverse biological effects can be prevented, at least partially, by treatment with antioxidants and some dietary supplements that are readily available and have favorable safety profiles. Some of the antioxidants and dietary supplements are effective in preventing radiation induced malignant transformation in vitro even when applied several days after the radiation exposure. Our recent progress is reviewed and discussed in the context of the relevant literature.

  9. IMPROVING MEASURES OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT: MEASURING EFFECTS IN HUMAN MALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to several drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks o...

  10. IMPROVING MEASURES OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT: MEASURING EFFECTS IN HUMAN MALES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal toxicology studies have demonstrated spermatogenesis and sperm quality effects after exposure to DCA, BDCM, chloral hydrate and DBA. Population-based field studies to identify human male reproductive risks of DBPs require preliminary work to develop specific epidemiologi...

  11. Chemical combination effects predict connectivity in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Lehár, Joseph; Zimmermann, Grant R; Krueger, Andrew S; Molnar, Raymond A; Ledell, Jebediah T; Heilbut, Adrian M; Short, Glenn F; Giusti, Leanne C; Nolan, Garry P; Magid, Omar A; Lee, Margaret S; Borisy, Alexis A; Stockwell, Brent R; Keith, Curtis T

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to construct therapeutically useful models of biological systems require large and diverse sets of data on functional connections between their components. Here we show that cellular responses to combinations of chemicals reveal how their biological targets are connected. Simulations of pathways with pairs of inhibitors at varying doses predict distinct response surface shapes that are reproduced in a yeast experiment, with further support from a larger screen using human tumour cells. The response morphology yields detailed connectivity constraints between nearby targets, and synergy profiles across many combinations show relatedness between targets in the whole network. Constraints from chemical combinations complement genetic studies, because they probe different cellular components and can be applied to disease models that are not amenable to mutagenesis. Chemical probes also offer increased flexibility, as they can be continuously dosed, temporally controlled, and readily combined. After extending this initial study to cover a wider range of combination effects and pathway topologies, chemical combinations may be used to refine network models or to identify novel targets. This response surface methodology may even apply to non-biological systems where responses to targeted perturbations can be measured. PMID:17332758

  12. Effects of biological and behavioral factors on urinary arsenic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract In older men and women who were long-term residents of Churchill County, Nevada, we examined the relation between arsenic exposure from home tap water and urinary levels of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Over a wide exposure range (up to 1850 ug of arsenic per liter), urinary concentrations of inorganic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals strongly correlated with home tap water arsenic concentrations. However, percentages of summed urinary concentrations of inorganic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals accounted for by each arsenical species were unaffected by arsenic concentration in home tap water, suggesting thc1t capacity for formation and excretion of methylated metabolites was not exceeded. Biological factors (gender, age, body mass index, and genotype) and a behavioral factor (smoking) influenced absolute and relative levels of arsenicals in urine. A multivariate regression model showed that both biological and behavioral factors were significant predictors of absolute and relative concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in urine. These findings suggest that analyses of dose-response relations in arsenic-exposed populations should account for these biological and behavioral factors. Furthermore, evidence of significant effects of these factors on arsenic metabolism may support mode of action studies in appropriate experimental models. Running title- Methylated arsenicals as urinary b

  13. The Effect of Price: Early Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Karen

    Scientific journal publishers have very little commercial experience with electronic full text distribution and it is difficult to segregate the effect of pricing on user acceptance and behavior. This paper examines some of the known experiences and ongoing and proposed experiments to get a sense of the interaction of pricing and user acceptance…

  14. Lung function, biological monitoring, and biological effect monitoring of gemstone cutters exposed to beryls

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, R.; Heinrich-Ramm, R.; Nowak, D.; Olma, K.; Poschadel, B.; Szadkowski, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Gemstone cutters are potentially exposed to various carcinogenic and fibrogenic metals such as chromium, nickel, aluminium, and beryllium, as well as to lead. Increased beryllium concentrations had been reported in the air of workplaces of beryl cutters in Idar-Oberstein, Germany. The aim of the survey was to study the excretion of beryllium in cutters and grinders with occupational exposure to beryls—for example, aquamarines and emeralds—to examine the prevalence of beryllium sensitisation with the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT), to examine the prevalence of lung disease induced by beryllium, to describe the internal load of the respective metals relative to work process, and to screen for genotoxic effects in this particular profession.
METHODS—In a cross sectional investigation, 57 out of 100 gemstone cutters working in 12 factories in Idar-Oberstein with occupational exposure to beryls underwent medical examinations, a chest radiograph, lung function testing (spirometry, airway resistance with the interrupter technique), and biological monitoring, including measurements of aluminium, chromium, and nickel in urine as well as lead in blood. Beryllium in urine was measured with a newly developed direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy technique with a measurement limit of 0.06 µg/l. Also, cytogenetic tests (rates of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange), and a BeLT were performed. Airborne concentrations of beryllium were measured in three factories. As no adequate local control group was available, the cutters were categorised into those with an exposure to beryls of >4 hours/week (group A) and ⩽4 hours/week (group B).
RESULTS—Clinical, radiological, or spirometric abnormalities indicating pneumoconiosis were detected in none of the gemstone cutters. Metal concentrations in biological material were far below the respective biological limit values, and beryllium in urine was only measurable in

  15. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Early, structured disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy reduces cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis--a single centre study using non-biologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumit; Sarkate, Pankaj; Ghosh, Sudip; Biswas, Monodeep; Ghosh, Alakendu

    2013-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, being a chronic disease requires long-term management of patients with drugs. The increasing cost of biologics in this era of disease management led us to devise a treatment regime, optimal for use in a developing country like India, which was economical as well as effective in controlling disease activity. To investigate if combination therapy with DMARDs can reduce cardiovascular risk in early Rheumatoid Arthritis, besides controlling disease activity. A small cohort of early Rheumatoid subjects with disease duration less than 1 year were treated with a structured DMARD regime and were followed up over a year. Disease activity score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardiac risk markers like lipid panel and carotid intima-medial thickness were monitored at 6 months and 1 year. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) of disease activity as well as cardiac risk parameters were observed. Our study showed that treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis with a combination regime of traditional DMARDs is highly effective in controlling disease activity as well as cardiovascular risk.

  17. Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor for Biological Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyu; Kim, Moonil

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been great progress in applying FET-type biosensors for highly sensitive biological detection. Among them, the ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor) is one of the most intriguing approaches in electrical biosensing technology. Here, we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore its application prospects, and discuss the main issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing ISFET-based biosensors and extending their applications for reliable and sensitive analysis of various biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, enzymes, and cells. PMID:22423205

  18. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760 nm and 100,000 nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600–100 nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. PMID:28441605

  19. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Long term effects of early adversity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Richards, M; Wadsworth, M E J

    2004-10-01

    To investigate long term effects of early adverse circumstances on cognitive function. Associations between early material home circumstances, parental divorce, maternal management and understanding, and cognitive function in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for sex, parental SES, and birth order in 1339 males and females from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Early adverse circumstances were strongly associated with lower cognitive ability in childhood and adolescence, and were detectable on measures of verbal ability, memory, and speed and concentration in midlife. However, these long term effects were mostly explained by the effects of adversity on childhood or adolescent cognitive ability or by differences in educational attainment and adult social class. An exception was the effect of poor material home conditions on visual search speed at 53 years, which was maintained after controlling for adolescent ability, as well as further control for educational attainment, adult social class, physical growth, cigarette smoking, and affective state. There was no evidence of more rapid decline in memory and psychomotor function across middle age in those exposed to early adversity. The effect of early adversity on cognitive function tracks across the life course at least as far as middle age, although there was little evidence from this study of effect amplification over this interval. Nevertheless, in view of the persistence of child poverty in the industrialised world, these findings give cause for concern.

  2. Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; McCartney, Kathleen; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2007-01-01

    Effects of early child care on children's functioning from 4 1/2 years through the end of 6th grade (M age=12.0 years) were examined in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=1,364). The results indicated that although parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of…

  3. Murabutide revisited: a review of its pleiotropic biological effects.

    PubMed

    Jakopin, Žiga

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great efforts put into their development, the list of clinically approved immunological adjuvants is still very short. Evolution of the knowledge of the immune system has enabled for rational design of novel adjuvants and has led to the conclusion that more than one type of adjuvant will be required. Derivatives of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal immunomodulatory structure of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, have gained considerable attention in the past decades, because of their potent adjuvant effects. Murabutide is a safe derivative of MDP, which interacts with cells of the immune system, both innate and adaptive, and exerts its effect through activation of Nod2. The transcriptional response of murabutide-stimulated macrophages revealed enhanced expression of genes coding for various proteins such as immune mediators and their receptors, transcription factors and kinases, ion channels/transporters and proteins involved in cell metabolic activity, thus reflecting a broad spectrum of biological effects. In addition to its well recognized adjuvant effect, murabutide has also been shown to enhance the host's resistance against microbial infections, nonspecific resistance against tumors and the induction of cytokines and chemokines implicated in enhancing the immune response and hematopoesis. This article provides an insight into the mechanism of action of murabutide and its interactions with the cells of the immune system in vitro and in vivo. On account of its numerous biological effects, murabutide has been the subject of several clinical studies. Many of these have confirmed its potential to synergize with cytokines of therapeutic interest in potentiating the tumoricidal activity of macrophages or targeting chronic viral diseases, as well as reducing the cytokine dosage needed to achieve a therapeutic effect. This review covers the findings of all relevant studies and focuses on the role of murabutide and its potential in the treatment of

  4. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-10-01

    The timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is controversial. An important consideration that is currently missing in the literature is an evaluation of the economic impact of an early tracheostomy strategy vs a late tracheostomy strategy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the early tracheostomy strategy vs the late tracheostomy strategy. This economic analysis was performed using a decision tree model with a 90-day time horizon. The economic perspective was that of the US health care third-party payer. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per tracheostomy avoided. Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Costs were obtained from the published literature and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. A multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to account for uncertainty surrounding mean values used in the reference case. The reference case demonstrated that the cost of the late tracheostomy strategy was $45 943.81 for 0.36 of effectiveness. The cost of the early tracheostomy strategy was $31 979.12 for 0.19 of effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the late tracheostomy strategy compared with the early tracheostomy strategy was $82 145.24 per tracheostomy avoided. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000, the early tracheostomy strategy is cost-effective with 56% certainty. The adaptation of an early vs a late tracheostomy strategy depends on the priorities of the decision-maker. Up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80 000 per tracheostomy avoided, the early tracheostomy strategy has a higher probability of being the more cost-effective intervention.

  5. ALTERED IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND THE MECHANISM OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT BY PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several features of the clinical presentation and changes in physiology and pathology following exposure to many diverse ambient air pollution particles are comparable, suggesting a common mechanism for their biological effect. We propose that a mechanism of biological effect com...

  6. The Effect of Early Marriages and Early Childbearing on Women's Nutritional Status in India.

    PubMed

    Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti

    2015-08-01

    The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.

  7. The effects of explicit visual cues in reading biological diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yun-Ping; Unsworth, Len; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Drawing on cognitive theories, this study intends to investigate the effects of explicit visual cues which have been proposed as a critical factor in facilitating understanding of biological images. Three diagrams from Taiwanese textbooks with implicit visual cues, involving the concepts of biological classification systems, fish taxonomy, and energy pyramid, were selected as the reading materials for the control group and reformatted in tree structure or with additional arrows as the diagrams for the treatment group. A quasi-experiment with an online reading test was conducted to examine the effect of the different image conditions on reading comprehension of the two groups. In total, 192 Taiwanese participants from year 7 were assigned randomly into either control group or treatment group according to the pre-test of relevant prior knowledge. The results indicated that not all explicit visual cues were significantly efficient. Only the explicit tree-structured diagrams cued significantly the key concepts of qualitative class-inclusion, parallel relations, and fish taxonomy. Meanwhile the effect of indexical arrows was not significant. The inconsistent effect of tree structure and arrows might be related to the extent of image reformation in which the tree-structured diagrams had undergone radical change of knowledge representation; meanwhile, the arrows had not changed the diagram structure of energy pyramid. The factor of prior knowledge was essential in considering the influence of image design as the effect of diagrams was very different for low and high prior knowledge students. Implications are drawn for the importance of visual design in textbooks.

  8. The origin of neutron biological effectiveness as a function of energy.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, G; Barbieri, S; Babini, G; Morini, J; Alloni, D; Friedland, W; Kundrát, P; Schmitt, E; Puchalska, M; Sihver, L; Ottolenghi, A

    2016-09-22

    The understanding of the impact of radiation quality in early and late responses of biological targets to ionizing radiation exposure necessarily grounds on the results of mechanistic studies starting from physical interactions. This is particularly true when, already at the physical stage, the radiation field is mixed, as it is the case for neutron exposure. Neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) is energy dependent, maximal for energies ~1 MeV, varying significantly among different experiments. The aim of this work is to shed light on neutron biological effectiveness as a function of field characteristics, with a comprehensive modeling approach: this brings together transport calculations of neutrons through matter (with the code PHITS) and the predictive power of the biophysical track structure code PARTRAC in terms of DNA damage evaluation. Two different energy dependent neutron RBE models are proposed: the first is phenomenological and based only on the characterization of linear energy transfer on a microscopic scale; the second is purely ab-initio and based on the induction of complex DNA damage. Results for the two models are compared and found in good qualitative agreement with current standards for radiation protection factors, which are agreed upon on the basis of RBE data.

  9. The origin of neutron biological effectiveness as a function of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiocco, G.; Barbieri, S.; Babini, G.; Morini, J.; Alloni, D.; Friedland, W.; Kundrát, P.; Schmitt, E.; Puchalska, M.; Sihver, L.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of the impact of radiation quality in early and late responses of biological targets to ionizing radiation exposure necessarily grounds on the results of mechanistic studies starting from physical interactions. This is particularly true when, already at the physical stage, the radiation field is mixed, as it is the case for neutron exposure. Neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) is energy dependent, maximal for energies ~1 MeV, varying significantly among different experiments. The aim of this work is to shed light on neutron biological effectiveness as a function of field characteristics, with a comprehensive modeling approach: this brings together transport calculations of neutrons through matter (with the code PHITS) and the predictive power of the biophysical track structure code PARTRAC in terms of DNA damage evaluation. Two different energy dependent neutron RBE models are proposed: the first is phenomenological and based only on the characterization of linear energy transfer on a microscopic scale; the second is purely ab-initio and based on the induction of complex DNA damage. Results for the two models are compared and found in good qualitative agreement with current standards for radiation protection factors, which are agreed upon on the basis of RBE data.

  10. The origin of neutron biological effectiveness as a function of energy

    PubMed Central

    Baiocco, G.; Barbieri, S.; Babini, G.; Morini, J.; Alloni, D.; Friedland, W.; Kundrát, P.; Schmitt, E.; Puchalska, M.; Sihver, L.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the impact of radiation quality in early and late responses of biological targets to ionizing radiation exposure necessarily grounds on the results of mechanistic studies starting from physical interactions. This is particularly true when, already at the physical stage, the radiation field is mixed, as it is the case for neutron exposure. Neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) is energy dependent, maximal for energies ~1 MeV, varying significantly among different experiments. The aim of this work is to shed light on neutron biological effectiveness as a function of field characteristics, with a comprehensive modeling approach: this brings together transport calculations of neutrons through matter (with the code PHITS) and the predictive power of the biophysical track structure code PARTRAC in terms of DNA damage evaluation. Two different energy dependent neutron RBE models are proposed: the first is phenomenological and based only on the characterization of linear energy transfer on a microscopic scale; the second is purely ab-initio and based on the induction of complex DNA damage. Results for the two models are compared and found in good qualitative agreement with current standards for radiation protection factors, which are agreed upon on the basis of RBE data. PMID:27654349

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  12. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  13. The Self-Reference Effect on Memory in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Sheila J.; Brebner, Joanne L.; Quinn, Francis; Turk, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The self-reference effect in memory is the advantage for information encoded about self, relative to other people. The early development of this effect was explored here using a concrete encoding paradigm. Trials comprised presentation of a self- or other-image paired with a concrete object. In Study 1, 4- to 6-year-old children (N = 53) were…

  14. Biological effects of radiation, metabolic and replication kinetics alterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, J.

    1972-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation upon normal and cancerous tissues were studied. A macromolecular precursor of DNA, 3ETdR, was incorporated into the cell nucleus during synthesis and provided intranuclear beta radiation. Tritium labeled cells were studied with autoradiographic methods; cell cycle kinetics were determined and cell functions modified by radiation dosage or by drugs were also evaluated. The long term program has included; (1) effects of radiation on cell replication and the correlation with incorporated dose levels, (2) radiation induced changes in cell function, viz., the response of beta irradiated spleen lymphocytes to antigenic stimulation by sheep red blood cells (SRBC), (3) kinetics of tumor and normal cell replication; and (4) megakaryocyte formation and modification by radiomimetic drugs.

  15. The reproductive biology and early life ecology of a common Caribbean brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis (Scleractinia: Faviinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, Valérie F.; Snowden, Skylar; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Petersen, Dirk; Vermeij, Mark J. A.

    2017-03-01

    Despite the fact that most of the severe demographic bottlenecks in coral populations occur during their earliest life stages, information on the reproductive biology and early life history traits of many coral species is limited and often inferred from adult traits only. This study reports on several atypical aspects of the reproductive biology and early life ecology of the grooved brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis (Linnaeus, 1758), a conspicuous reef-building species on Caribbean reefs. The timing of gamete release of D. labyrinthiformis was monitored in Curaçao over eight consecutive months, and embryogenesis, planulae behavior, and settlement rates were observed and quantified. We further studied growth and symbiont acquisition in juvenile D. labyrinthiformis for 3.5 yr and compared settler survival under ambient and nutrient-enriched conditions in situ. Notably, D. labyrinthiformis reproduced during daylight hours in six consecutive monthly spawning events between May and September 2013, with a peak in June. This is the largest number of reproductive events per year ever observed in a broadcast-spawning Caribbean coral species. In settlement experiments, D. labyrinthiformis planulae swam to the bottom of culture containers 13 h after spawning and rapidly settled when provided with settlement cues (42% within 14 h). After 5 months, the survival and growth rates of settled juveniles were 3.7 and 1.9 times higher, respectively, for settlers that acquired zooxanthellae within 1 month after settlement, compared to those that acquired symbionts later on. Nutrient enrichment increased settler survival fourfold, but only for settlers that had acquired symbionts within 1 month after settlement. With at least six reproductive events per year, a short planktonic larval phase, high settlement rates, and a positive response to nutrient enrichment, the broadcast-spawning species D. labyrinthiformis displays a range of reproductive and early life-history traits that

  16. The Effect of Hypoxia on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Dehdilani, Nima; Abbasi, Parvaneh; Molaeipour, Zahra; Saleh, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    Although physiological and pathological role of hypoxia have been appreciated in mammalians for decades however the cellular biology of hypoxia more clarified in the past 20 years. Discovery of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, in the 1990s opened a new window to investigate the mechanisms behind hypoxia. In different cellular contexts HIF-1 activation show variable results by impacting various aspects of cell biology such as cell cycle, apoptosis, differentiation and etc. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are unique cells which take important role in tissue regeneration. They are characterized by self-renewal capacity, multilineage potential, and immunosuppressive property. Like so many kind of cells, hypoxia induces different responses in MSCs by HIF- 1 activation. The activation of this molecule changes the growth, multiplication, differentiation and gene expression profile of MSCs in their niche by a complex of signals. This article briefly discusses the most important effects of hypoxia in growth kinetics, signalling pathways, cytokine secretion profile and expression of chemokine receptors in different conditions. PMID:26236651

  17. The biological effect of asbestos exposure is dependent on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that 1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and 2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 50 μg/mL chrysotile resulted in diminished concentrations of mitochondrial iron. Pre-incubation of these cells with 200 μM ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) prevented significant mitochondrial iron loss following the same exposure. The host response to chrysotile included increased expression of the importer divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) supporting a functional iron deficiency. Incubation of BEAS-2B cells with both 200 μM FAC and 50 μg/mL chrysotile was associated with a greater cell accumulation of iron relative to either iron or chrysotile alone reflecting increased import to correct metal deficiency immediately following fiber exposure. Cellular oxidant generation was elevated after chrysotile exposure and this signal was diminished by co-incubation with 200 μM FAC. Similarly, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 50 µg/mL chrysotile was associated with release of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and these changes were diminished by co-incubation with 200 μM FAC. We conclude that 1) the biological response following exposure to chrysotile is associated with complexation an

  18. Biological effects of adipocytes in sulfur mustard induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Gao, Zhongcai; Wang, Peng; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yajiao; Long, Long; Zong, Cheng; Guo, Lei; Jiang, Weijian; Ye, Qinong; Wang, Lili; Xie, Jianwei

    2018-01-15

    Sulphur mustard (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide; SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent whose mechanism of acute or chronic action is not known with any certainty and to date there is no effective antidote. SM accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) has been originally verified in our previous study. To evaluate the biological effect caused by the presence of abundant SM in adipocyte and assess the biological role of AT in SM poisoning, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. High content analysis revealed multi-cytotoxicity in SM exposed cells in a time and dose dependent manner, and adipocytes showed a relative moderate damage compared with non-adipocytes. Cell co-culture model was established and revealed the adverse effect of SM-exposed adipocyte supernatant on the growth of co-cultured cells. The pathological changes in AT from 10mg/kg SM percutaneously exposed rats were checked and inflammation phenomena were observed. The mRNA and protein levels of inflammation-related adipokines secreted from AT in rats exposed to 1, 3 and 10mg/kg doses of SM were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expressions of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines together promoted the inflammation development in the body. The positive correlations between AT and serum adipokine levels were explored, which demonstrated a substantial role of AT in systemic inflammation responding to SM exposure. Thus, AT is not only a target of SM but also a modulator in the SM toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  20. Biological effects of particles from the paris subway system.

    PubMed

    Bachoual, Rafik; Boczkowski, Jorge; Goven, Delphine; Amara, Nadia; Tabet, Lyes; On, Dinhill; Leçon-Malas, Véronique; Aubier, Michel; Lanone, Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from atmospheric pollution can easily deposit in the lungs and induce recruitment of inflammatory cells, a source of inflammatory cytokines, oxidants, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which are important players in lung structural homeostasis. In many large cities, the subway system is a potent source of PM emission, but little is known about the biological effects of PM from this source. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the biological effects of PM sampled at two sites (RER and Metro) in the Paris subway system. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, were exposed to 0.01-10 microg/cm2 and 5-100 microg/mouse subway PM or reference materials [carbon black (CB), titanium dioxide (TiO2), or diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)]. We analyzed cell viability, production of cellular and lung proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), KC (the murin analog of interleukin-8), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], and mRNA or protein expression of MMP-2, -9, and -12 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Deferoxamine and polymixin B were used to evaluate the roles of iron and endotoxin, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of subway PM (but not CB, TiO2, or DEPs) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in TNFalpha and MIP-2 production by RAW 264.7 cells, in a manner involving, at least in part, PM iron content (34% inhibition of TNF production 8 h after stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with 10 microg/cm2 RER particles pretreated with deferoxamine). Similar increased cytokine production was transiently observed in vivo in mice and was accompanied by an increased neutrophil cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (84.83+/-0.98% of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for RER-treated mice after 24 h vs 7.33+/-0.99% for vehicle-treated animals). Subway PM induced an increased expression of MMP-12 and HO-1 both in vitro and in vivo. PM from the

  1. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  2. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Christine D.; Silvestro, Daniele; Jaramillo, Carlos; Smith, Brian Tilston; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The linking of North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama had major impacts on global climate, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and biodiversity, yet the timing of this critical event remains contentious. The Isthmus is traditionally understood to have fully closed by ca. 3.5 million years ago (Ma), and this date has been used as a benchmark for oceanographic, climatic, and evolutionary research, but recent evidence suggests a more complex geological formation. Here, we analyze both molecular and fossil data to evaluate the tempo of biotic exchange across the Americas in light of geological evidence. We demonstrate significant waves of dispersal of terrestrial organisms at approximately ca. 20 and 6 Ma and corresponding events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at ca. 23 and 7 Ma. The direction of dispersal and their rates were symmetrical until the last ca. 6 Ma, when northern migration of South American lineages increased significantly. Variability among taxa in their timing of dispersal or vicariance across the Isthmus is not explained by the ecological factors tested in these analyses, including biome type, dispersal ability, and elevation preference. Migration was therefore not generally regulated by intrinsic traits but more likely reflects the presence of emergent terrain several millions of years earlier than commonly assumed. These results indicate that the dramatic biotic turnover associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange was a long and complex process that began as early as the Oligocene–Miocene transition. PMID:25918375

  3. The effects of inverter magnetic fields on early seed germination of mung beans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Wang, Show-Ran

    2008-12-01

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) on living organisms have been explored in many studies. Most of them demonstrate the biological effects caused by 50/60 Hz magnetic fields or pulsed magnetic fields. However, as the development of power electronics flourishes, the magnetic fields induced are usually in other different waveforms. This study aims to assess the effects of magnetic fields generated by inverter systems on the early growth of plants using mung beans as an example. In the experiment, an inverter which can produce sinusoidal pulsed width modulation (SPWM) voltages was used to drive 3 specially made circular coils and an AC motor. Six SPWM voltages with different fundamental frequencies (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 Hz) set on the inverter drive the circuit to produce the specific kinds of MFs. The results indicate that the magnetic field induced by a 20 or 60 Hz SPWM voltage has an enhancing effect on the early growth of mung beans, but the magnetic fields induced by SPWM voltages of other frequencies (30, 40, and 50 Hz) have an inhibitory effect, especially at 50 Hz.

  4. Effect of choline carboxylate ionic liquids on biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rengstl, Doris; Kraus, Birgit; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Kunz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Choline carboxylates, ChCm, with m = 2–10 and choline oleate are known as biocompatible substances, yet their influence on biological membranes is not well-known, and the effect on human skin has not previously been investigated. The short chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m = 2, 4, 6 act as hydrotropes, solubilizing hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solution, while the longer chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m = 8,10 and oleate are able to form micelles. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of choline carboxylates was tested using HeLa and SK-MEL-28 cells. The influence of these substances on liposomes prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also evaluated to provide insights on membrane interactions. It was observed that the choline carboxylates with a chain length of m > 8 distinctly influence the bilayer, while the shorter ones had minimal interaction with the liposomes. PMID:25444662

  5. Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: A software solution

    PubMed Central

    Voyant, Cyril; Julian, Daniel; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Lantieri, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Background The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. Aim We, therefore, propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). Materials and methods The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. Results and conclusions The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to an equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers. PMID:24936319

  6. Effects of biological sex on the pathophysiology of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Loubina; Azibani, Feriel; Vodovar, Nicolas; Cohen Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in men and women in industrialized countries. While the effects of biological sex on cardiovascular pathophysiology have long been known, the sex-specific mechanisms mediating these processes have been further elucidated over recent years. This review aims at analysing the sex-based differences in cardiac structure and function in adult mammals, and the sex-based differences in the main molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the heart to pathological situations. It emerged from this review that the sex-based difference is a variable that should be dealt with, not only in basic science or clinical research, but also with regards to therapeutic approaches. PMID:23763376

  7. Effects of biological sex on the pathophysiology of the heart.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Loubina; Azibani, Feriel; Vodovar, Nicolas; Cohen Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in men and women in industrialized countries. While the effects of biological sex on cardiovascular pathophysiology have long been known, the sex-specific mechanisms mediating these processes have been further elucidated over recent years. This review aims at analysing the sex-based differences in cardiac structure and function in adult mammals, and the sex-based differences in the main molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the heart to pathological situations. It emerged from this review that the sex-based difference is a variable that should be dealt with, not only in basic science or clinical research, but also with regards to therapeutic approaches. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Biological effects of 2,4-pentadiene-1-ol.

    PubMed

    Benesová, O; Sprincl, L; Ulbrich, K; Obereigner, B; Drobník, J; Kálal, J; Kopecek

    1977-07-01

    The biological effects of 2,4-pentadiene-1-ol (CH2 = CH--CH = CH--CH2--OH) the starting monomer in the preparation of a biocompatible polymer were studied. The experiments in rats revealed both a high local (oedema, necrosis) and systemic toxicity. Within 5-10 min after dermal application of 0.2 ml the compound evoked intensive hyperaemia of acral parts (ears, snout, paws) and induced severe breathing difficulties which led to death in half of the animals after a single administration. The most evident macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes were found in the place of application and in the lungs (haemorrhage in alveolae). Both clinical and histological findings indicated that the toxicity is due to an increased permeability of capillaries.

  9. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma”

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  10. Lung lavage therapy to lessen the biological effects of inhaled sup 144 Ce in dogs

    SciT

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.

    1990-11-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of removal of an internally deposited radionuclide on long-term biological effects, lung lavage was used to treat dogs that had inhaled 144Ce in a relatively insoluble form, in fused aluminosilicate particles. Either 10 lung lavages were performed between Days 2 and 56 after exposure or 20 lung lavages were performed between Days 2 and 84 after exposure. Approximately one-half of the 144Ce was removed by the lavages, resulting in a corresponding reduction in the total absorbed beta dose to lung. The mean survival time of the treated dogs was 1270 days compared to 370 daysmore » for untreated dogs whose initial pulmonary burdens of 144Ce were similar. Treated dogs died late from cancers of the lung or liver, whereas the untreated dogs died at much earlier times from radiation pneumonitis. Dogs treated with lung lavage but not exposed to 144Ce had a mean survival of 4770 days. We concluded that removal of 144Ce from the lung by lavage resulted in increased survival time and in a change in the biological effects from inhaled 144Ce from early-occurring inflammatory disease to late-occurring effects, principally cancer. In addition, the biological effects occurring in the treated dogs could be better predicted from the total absorbed beta dose in the lung and the dose rate after treatment rather than from the original dose rate to the lung. Therefore, we concluded that prompt treatment to remove radioactive materials could be of significant benefit to persons accidentally exposed to high levels of airborne, relatively insoluble, radioactive particles.« less

  11. Formation and Biological Targets of Quinones: Cytotoxic versus Cytoprotective Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates, which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo including, acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. In contrast, quinones can induce cytoprotection through the induction of detoxification enzymes, anti-inflammatory activities, and modification of redox status. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. The various biological targets of quinones depend on their rate and site of formation and their reactivity. Quinones are formed through a variety of mechanisms from simple oxidation of catechols/hydroquinones catalyzed by a variety of oxidative enzymes and metal ions to more complex mechanisms involving initial P450-catalyzed hydroxylation reactions followed by two-electron oxidation. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and modification of cellular processes could occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radical anions leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can alter redox balance within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and DNA. This perspective explores the varied biological targets of quinones including GSH, NADPH, protein sulfhydryls [heat shock proteins, P450s, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, (NQO1), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), IκB kinase (IKK), and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)], and DNA. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone modulations (i.e., alkylation versus oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology/cytoprotection of the parent compound(s) that is best described by an inverse U-shaped dose–response curve. PMID:27617882

  12. Non-target effects of an introduced biological control agent on deer mouse ecology

    Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    Release of exotic insects as biological control agents is a common approach to controlling exotic plants. Though controversy has ensued regarding the deleterious direct effects of biological control agents to non-target species, few have examined the indirect effects of a "well-behaved" biological control agent on native fauna. We studied a grassland in west-...

  13. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...] Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting and Request for... this notice to inform producers and users of veterinary biological products, as well as other...) concerning effectiveness indications statements in veterinary biologics labeling. We are also making the...

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Literacy Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…

  15. Effects of Progress Monitoring Feedback on Early Literacy Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopuch, Jeremy Jon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagnostic formative assessment feedback on early literacy skills. The participants were 12 first-grade general education teachers and 51 of their students who were assigned to the following treatments, diagnostic feedback and skills feedback (control) which lasted for 10 weeks. During the…

  16. Effect of a Targeted Early Literacy Intervention for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…

  17. Boosting Early Development: The Mixed Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiahui; Xin, Tao

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of kindergarten enrollment age on four-year-old Chinese children's early cognition and problem behavior using multilevel models. The sample comprised of 1,391 pre-school children (the mean age is 4.58 years old) from 74 kindergartens in six different provinces. The results demonstrated curvilinear…

  18. Longitudinal Effects on Early Adolescent Language: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlarr, Nicole; De Thorne, Laura Segebart; Smith, Jamie Mahurin; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in language skills during early adolescence, measured by both language sampling and standardized tests, and examined the extent to which these genetic and environmental effects are stable across time. Purpose: We evaluated genetic and environmental…

  19. Spatial Working Memory Effects in Early Visual Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munneke, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how spatial working memory recruits early visual cortex. Participants were required to maintain a location in working memory while changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured during the retention interval in which no visual stimulation was present. We show working memory effects during the…

  20. The Effectiveness of Early Foreign Language Learning in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a number of projects on early English teaching in the Netherlands. The focus of these projects has been on the impact of English on the development of the mother tongue and the development of skills in the foreign language. Overall the results show that there is no negative effect on the mother tongue and that the gains in…

  1. ATRAZINE EFFECTS ON EARLY PREGNANCY AND IMPLANATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine Effects on Early Pregnancy and Implantation in the Rat.
    A.M. Cummings, B.E. Rhodes*, and R.L. Cooper*.
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Atrazine (ATR), an herbicide, can induce mammary tumors in rats. ATR can also sup...

  2. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  3. On the Origin of the Canonical Nucleobases: An Assessment of Selection Pressures across Chemical and Early Biological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Andro C.

    2014-01-01

    The native bases of RNA and DNA are prominent examples of the narrow selection of organic molecules upon which life is based. How did nature “decide” upon these specific heterocycles? Evidence suggests that many types of heterocycles could have been present on the early Earth. It is therefore likely that the contemporary composition of nucleobases is a result of multiple selection pressures that operated during early chemical and biological evolution. The persistence of the fittest heterocycles in the prebiotic environment towards, for example, hydrolytic and photochemical assaults, may have given some nucleobases a selective advantage for incorporation into the first informational polymers. The prebiotic formation of polymeric nucleic acids employing the native bases remains, however, a challenging problem to reconcile. Hypotheses have proposed that the emerging RNA world may have included many types of nucleobases. This is supported by the extensive utilization of non-canonical nucleobases in extant RNA and the resemblance of many of the modified bases to heterocycles generated in simulated prebiotic chemistry experiments. Selection pressures in the RNA world could have therefore narrowed the composition of the nucleic acid bases. Two such selection pressures may have been related to genetic fidelity and duplex stability. Considering these possible selection criteria, the native bases along with other related heterocycles seem to exhibit a certain level of fitness. We end by discussing the strength of the N-glycosidic bond as a potential fitness parameter in the early DNA world, which may have played a part in the refinement of the alphabetic bases. PMID:25284884

  4. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2012-06-19

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable.

  5. Hydrodynamic effects in laser cutting of biological tissue phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigarkov, V. S.; Yusupov, V. I.; Tsypina, S. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    We study the thermal and transport processes that occur in the course of incision formation at the surface of a biological tissue phantom under the action of near-IR, moderate-power, continuous-wave laser radiation (λ = 1.94 μm) delivered by means of an optical fibre with an absorbing coating on its exit face. It is shown that in addition to the thermal effect, the laser-induced hydrodynamic effects caused by the explosive boiling of the interstitial water make a large contribution to the phantom destruction mechanism. These effects lead to the tissue rupture accompanied by the ejection of part of the fragmented substance from the site of laser impact and the formation of highly porous structure near the incision surface. We have found that the depth, the width and the relief of the laser incision wall in the case of using the optical fibre moving with a constant velocity, depend on the fibre tilt angle with respect to the phantom surface, as well as the direction of the fibre motion.

  6. Formamidopyrimidines in DNA: mechanisms of formation, repair, and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Dizdaroglu, Miral; Kirkali, Güldal; Jaruga, Pawel

    2008-12-15

    Oxidatively induced damage to DNA results in a plethora of lesions comprising modified bases and sugars, DNA-protein cross-links, tandem lesions, strand breaks, and clustered lesions. Formamidopyrimidines, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyAde) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua), are among the major lesions generated in DNA by hydroxyl radical attack, UV radiation, or photosensitization under numerous in vitro and in vivo conditions. They are formed by one-electron reduction of C8-OH-adduct radicals of purines and thus have a common precursor with 8-hydroxypurines generated upon one-electron oxidation. Methodologies using mass spectrometry exist to accurately measure FapyAde and FapyGua in vitro and in vivo. Formamidopyrimidines are repaired by base excision repair. Numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA glycosylases are highly specific for removal of these lesions from DNA in the first step of this repair pathway, indicating their biological importance. FapyAde and FapyGua are bypassed by DNA polymerases with the insertion of the wrong intact base opposite them, leading to mutagenesis. In mammalian cells, the mutagenicity of FapyGua exceeds that of 8-hydroxyguanine, which is thought to be the most mutagenic of the oxidatively induced lesions in DNA. The background and formation levels of the former in vitro and in vivo equal or exceed those of the latter under various conditions. FapyAde and FapyGua exist in living cells at significant background levels and are abundantly generated upon exposure to oxidative stress. Mice lacking the genes that encode specific DNA glycosylases accumulate these lesions in different organs and, in some cases, exhibit a series of pathological conditions including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Animals exposed to environmental toxins accumulate formamidopyrimidines in their organs. Here, we extensively review the mechanisms of formation, measurement, repair, and biological effects of formamidopyrimidines

  7. Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G; Greco, L F; Cerri, R L A; Vieira-Neto, A; Monteiro, P L J; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this series of studies was to investigate the effects of inflammatory diseases occurring before breeding on the developmental biology and reproductive responses in dairy cows. Data from 5 studies were used to investigate different questions associating health status before breeding and reproductive responses. Health information for all studies was composed of the incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and respiratory and digestive problems from parturition until the day of breeding. Retained placenta and metritis were grouped as uterine disease (UTD). Mastitis, lameness, digestive and respiratory problems were grouped as nonuterine diseases (NUTD). Study 1 evaluated the effect of disease before artificial insemination (AI), anovulation before synchronization of the estrous cycle, and low body condition score at AI on pregnancy per AI, as well as their potential interactions or additive effects. Study 2 investigated the effect of site of inflammation (UTD vs. NUTD) and time of occurrence relative to preantral or antral stages of ovulatory follicle development, and the effect of UTD and NUTD on fertility responses of cows bred by AI or by embryo transfer. Study 3 evaluated the effect of disease on fertilization and embryonic development to the morula stage. Study 4 evaluated the effect of disease on preimplantation conceptus development as well as secretion of IFN-τ and transcriptome. Study 5 investigated the effect of diseases before AI on the transcript expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes during peri-implantation stages of conceptus development after first AI postpartum. Altogether, these studies demonstrated that inflammatory disease before breeding reduced fertilization of oocytes and development to morula, and impaired early conceptus development to elongation stages and secretion of IFN-τ in the uterine lumen. Diseases caused inflammation-like changes in transcriptome of

  8. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde; Smith, Jim T; Ford, Alex T

    2015-10-01

    Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive. Current phyla-specific dose levels and limits proposed by major regulatory bodies were found to be inadequate to protect species across a range of endpoints including morbidity, mutation and reproduction and examples are discussed within. These findings serve to prioritise areas for future research that will significantly

  9. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  10. Effectiveness of a clinical practice intervention in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto

    2012-03-01

    To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge

    Fellows, D.P.; Newton, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The flea beetle, Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras, is a potentially useful agent for biological control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) in grasslands devoted to wildlife conservation. However, effects of other grassland management practices on the persistence and dynamics of flea beetle populations are not well understood. We conducted small plot tests to evaluate 1) the effect of prerelease burning on establishment of A. nigriscutis colonies, and 2) the ability of established A. nigriscutis colonies to survive prescribed fire. More colonies established on plots that were burned prior to beetle release (83% establishment) than on unburned plots (37% establishment), possibly due to litter reduction and baring of the soil surface. However, most colonies established with the aid of fire did not survive past the first generation unless the habitat was otherwise suitable for the species, and we conclude that the primary benefit of prerelease burning is increased recruitment of A. nigriscutis during the first few generations. Established colonies were not harmed by burns in October and May. Both spring and fall burns resulted in an increase in leafy spurge stem density during the first growing season, but stem density declined to the preburn level by the second growing season.

  12. Biological effects of a nano red elemental selenium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Gao, X Y; Zhang, L D; Bao, Y P

    2001-01-01

    A novel selenium form, nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se) was prepared by adding bovine serum albumin to the redox system of selenite and glutathione. Nano-Se has a 7-fold lower acute toxicity than sodium selenite in mice (LD(50) 113 and 15 mg Se/kg body weight respectively). In Se-deficient rat, both Nano-Se and selenite can increase tissue selenium and GPx activity. The biological activities of Nano-Se and selenite were compared in terms of cell proliferation, enzyme induction and protection against free racial-mediated damage in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nano-Se and selenite are similarly cell growth inhibited and stimulated synthesis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR). When HepG2 cells were co-treated with selenium and glutathione, Nano-Se showed less pro-oxidative effects than selenite, as measured by cell growth. These results demonstrate that Nano-Se has a similar bioavailability in the rat and antioxidant effects on cells.

  13. Chemical and biological sensing needs for health effects studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick N.

    2012-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral component of occupational and environmental epidemiology, risk assessment and management, as well as regulatory compliance. For the most part, air sampling and analysis tools used in occupational and environmental exposure assessments are based on technologies that have changed little since the 1970s. In many cases the lack of simple, inexpensive, exposure assessment technologies has limited epidemiologists' and risk assessors' ability to evaluate the environmental and occupational causes of disease. While there have been tremendous investments and advances in medical diagnostic and biomonitoring technologies (e.g., glucose testing, human genetics), there has been less effort invested in advancing the science of exposure assessment. Recent developments in sensor technology have focused on medical and homeland security applications. Developing and applying new sensors to health effects studies can revolutionize the way epidemiologic studies are conducted. Time-series studies that investigate short-term (hours to days) changes in exposure that are linked to changes in health care encounters, symptoms, and biological markers of preclinical disease and/or susceptibility are needed to more fully evaluate the impact of chemicals and other agents on health. Current sampling technology limits our ability to assess time-varying concentrations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current state of air sampling and health assessment and the potential application of novel sensor technology for use in health effects studies.

  14. Triclosan: A Widespread Environmental Toxicant with Many Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Tukey, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been added to personal care products, including hand soaps and cosmetics, and impregnated in numerous different materials ranging from athletic clothing to food packaging. The constant disposal of TCS into the sewage system is creating a major environmental and public health hazard. Owing to its chemical properties of bioaccumulation and resistance to degradation, TCS is widely detected in various environmental compartments in concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per liter. Epidemiology studies indicate that significant levels of TCS are detected in body fluids in all human age groups. We document here the emerging evidence—from in vitro and in vivo animal studies and environmental toxicology studies—demonstrating that TCS exerts adverse effects on different biological systems through various modes of action. Considering the fact that humans are simultaneously exposed to TCS and many TCS-like chemicals, we speculate that TCS-induced adverse effects may be relevant to human health. PMID:26738475

  15. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether the experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Observational data were used in the present study. Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63 years). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Participants were 5309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB). SEC included socioeconomic and family factors. The AL index was based on nine cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress.

  16. Indirect effects of host-specific biological control agents

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2003-01-01

    Biological control is a crucial tool in the battle against biological invasions, but biocontrol agents can have a deleterious impact on native species. Recognition of risks associated with host shifting has increased the emphasis on host specificity of biocontrol agents for invasive weeds. However, recent studies indicate host-specific biocontrol agents can...

  17. Understanding the side effects of classical biological control

    Dean Pearson

    2008-01-01

    Classical biological control involves the use of imported natural enemies to suppress or control populations of the target pest species below an economically or ecologically relevant threshold. Biological control is a useful tool for mitigating the impacts of exotic invasive plants; however, its application is not without risk (see Carruthers and D’Antonio...

  18. The biological complexity of colorectal cancer: insights into biomarkers for early detection and personalized care

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Marina; Rega, Daniela; Costabile, Valeria; Duraturo, Francesca; Niglio, Antonello; Izzo, Paola; Pace, Ugo; Delrio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been ranked the third and second most prevalent of all cancers in men and women, respectively, and it represents the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. In 2012, there were 1.4 million estimated cases of colorectal cancer worldwide, and 700,000 estimated deaths, which implies significant impact on public health, especially in economically-developed countries. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of tumors, although this has been accompanied by decreased mortality, due to more appropriate and available information, earlier diagnosis, and improvements in treatment. Colorectal cancers are characterized by great genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity, including tumor microenvironment and interactions between healthy and cancer cells. All of these traits confer a unique peculiarity to each tumor, which can thus be considered as an individual disease. Well conducted molecular and clinical characterization of each colorectal cancer is essential with a view to the implementation of precision oncology, and thus personalized care. This last aims at standardization of therapeutic plans chosen according to the genetic background of each specific neoplasm, to increase overall survival and reduce treatment side effects. Thus, prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers assume a critical role in the characterization of colorectal cancer and in the determination of the most appropriate therapy. PMID:27803741

  19. Oestrogen receptor negative early operable primary breast cancer in older women-Biological characteristics and long-term clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Syed, Binafsha Manzoor; Morgan, Dal; Setty, Tulassi; Green, Andrew R; Paish, Emma C; Ellis, Ian O; Cheung, K L

    2017-01-01

    Older women are at the greatest risk of breast cancer development and a considerable number present with comorbidities. Although the majority of breast cancers in this age group express oestrogen receptor (ER), which makes endocrine therapy (primary or adjuvant) feasible, given the huge size of the elderly population, there remains a significant number of patients, in absolute term, whose tumours do not express ER and their management is challenging. Of a consecutive series of 1,758 older (≥70 years) women with early operable primary breast cancer managed in a dedicated service from 1973-2010, 252(14.3%) had ER-negative (histochemical (H) score ≤50) tumours. Their clinical outcome was retrospectively reviewed and tumour samples collected from diagnostic core biopsies were analysed for progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 and Ki67 using immunohistochemistry. The commonest primary treatment was surgery (N = 194, 77%) followed by primary endocrine therapy (14.3%), primary radiotherapy (5.6%) and supportive treatment only (3.1%). Among the patients undergoing surgery, most of them had grade 3 (78.1%) and node-negative disease (62.2%). Some of them (21.1%) received postoperative radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 37.5 months, 117 patients had died, out of which 48.6% were due to breast cancer. For those who underwent surgery, the regional and local recurrence rates were 2% and 1.1% per annum respectively. For those who received primary endocrine therapy, 38% progressed at 6 months, however all patients who had primary radiotherapy achieved clinical benefit at 6 months. Regardless of treatment given, the 5-year breast cancer specific and overall survival rates were 70% and 50% respectively. Biological analysis based on good quality needle core biopsy specimensfrom181 patients showed that 26.8% (N = 49), 16.9% (N = 31) and 70.7% (N = 70)expressed positivity for PgR, HER2 and Ki67 respectively. No correlation between these biomarkers and breast cancer specific

  20. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  1. Examining the Effect of Multiple Writing Tasks on Year 10 Biology Students' Understandings of Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Brian; Hohenshell, Liesl; Prain, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the cumulative effects on students' learning of science, and perceptions of the role of writing in learning, when the students engaged in multiple writing tasks with planning strategy support. The study was conducted with Year 10 biology students who completed two consecutive units on Cells and Molecular…

  2. Biostack: A study of the biological effects on HZE galactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Biostack experiment designed to study the effect of individual heavy nucleii of the cosmic radiation environment upon biological systems during actual space flight is described. In each Biostack, several thousand biological objects were hit by an HZE particle. The response of the biological objects was studied. Results are discussed in terms of sensitivity to the hit.

  3. A Study of the Relative Effectiveness of Content and Process Centered Biology Laboratories for College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glenn Wayne

    The relative effectiveness of "content-centered" and "process-centered" biology laboratory courses in a freshman general biology course was investigated by administering the Nelson Biology Test, Science Attitude Scale, EPS II (a problem solving test), and an Interest Inventory at the beginning and end of the one quarter course. Course examination…

  4. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE PAGES

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; ...

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  5. Protective effect of biological response modifiers on murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, K; Minamishima, Y

    1984-01-01

    Pretreatment with two biological response modifiers (BRM), OK-432 and PS-K, protected mice from lethal infection by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). This was evidenced by an increase in 50% lethal doses and a decrease in titers of infectious viruses replicated in the liver and spleen. Spleen cells from the BRM-treated mice augmented the natural killer (NK) cell activity and suppressed the replication of MCMV in vitro. During MCMV infection, the NK cell activity of the spleen cells was maintained at a high level in the BRM-treated mice, whereas it was severely impaired in untreated mice. The BRM-induced protection was nullified by concomitant administration of antiasialo GM1 antibody. Interferon was neither induced by BRM treatment nor enhanced in BRM-pretreated and MCMV-infected mice. Thus, the protective effect of OK-432 and PS-K seems to be based on activation of NK cells and prevention of MCMV-induced inhibition of the NK cell activity. PMID:6202880

  6. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  7. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    SciT

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  8. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2017-06-13

    Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.

  9. Calreticulin Enhances Porcine Wound Repair by Diverse Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nanney, Lillian B.; Woodrell, Christopher D.; Greives, Mathew R.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Bancroft, Tara A.; Chesser, Adrianne; Michalak, Marek; Rahman, Mohammad; Siebert, John W.; Gold, Leslie I.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein calreticulin (CRT) are emerging. Here we show novel roles for exogenous CRT in both cutaneous wound healing and diverse processes associated with repair. Compared with platelet-derived growth factor-BB-treated controls, topical application of CRT to porcine excisional wounds enhanced the rate of wound re-epithelialization. In both normal and steroid-impaired pigs, CRT increased granulation tissue formation. Immunohistochemical analyses of the wounds 5 and 10 days after injury revealed marked up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β3 (a key regulator of wound healing), a threefold increase in macrophage influx, and an increase in the cellular proliferation of basal keratinocytes of the new epidermis and of cells of the neodermis. In vitro studies confirmed that CRT induced a greater than twofold increase in the cellular proliferation of primary human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and microvascular endothelial cells (with 100 pg/ml, 100 ng/ml, and 1.0 pg/ml, respectively). Moreover, using a scratch plate assay, CRT maximally induced the cellular migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts (with 10 pg/ml and 1 ng/ml, respectively). In addition, CRT induced concentration-dependent migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts macrophages, and monocytes in chamber assays. These in vitro bioactivities provide mechanistic support for the positive biological effects of CRT observed on both the epidermis and dermis of wounds in vivo, underscoring a significant role for CRT in the repair of cutaneous wounds. PMID:18753412

  10. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  11. Biological effects of simple changes in functionality on rhodium metalloinsertors

    PubMed Central

    Weidmann, Alyson G.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is crucial to ensuring the fidelity of the genome. The inability to correct single base mismatches leads to elevated mutation rates and carcinogenesis. Using metalloinsertors–bulky metal complexes that bind with high specificity to mismatched sites in the DNA duplex–our laboratory has adopted a new chemotherapeutic strategy through the selective targeting of MMR-deficient cells, that is, those that have a propensity for cancerous transformation. Rhodium metalloinsertors display inhibitory effects selectively in cells that are deficient in the MMR machinery, consistent with this strategy. However, a highly sensitive structure–function relationship is emerging with the development of new complexes that highlights the importance of subcellular localization. We have found that small structural modifications, for example a hydroxyl versus a methyl functional group, can yield profound differences in biological function. Despite similar binding affinities and selectivities for DNA mismatches, only one metalloinsertor shows selective inhibition of cellular proliferation in MMR-deficient versus -proficient cells. Studies of whole-cell, nuclear and mitochondrial uptake reveal that this selectivity depends upon targeting DNA mismatches in the cell nucleus. PMID:23776288

  12. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    SciT

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals,more » there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.« less

  13. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    PubMed

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption.

  14. A modified microdosimetric kinetic model for relative biological effectiveness calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizheng; Li, Junli; Li, Chunyan; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    In the heavy ion therapy, not only the distribution of physical absorbed dose, but also the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) weighted dose needs to be taken into account. The microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) can predict the RBE value of heavy ions with saturation-corrected dose-mean specific energy, which has been used in clinical treatment planning at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. In the theoretical assumption of the MKM, the yield of the primary lesion is independent of the radiation quality, while the experimental data shows that DNA double strand break (DSB) yield, considered as the main primary lesion, depends on the LET of the particle. Besides, the β parameter of the MKM is constant with LET resulting from this assumption, which also differs from the experimental conclusion. In this study, a modified MKM was developed, named MMKM. Based on the experimental DSB yield of mammalian cells under the irradiation of ions with different LETs, a RBEDSB (RBE for the induction of DSB)-LET curve was fitted as the correction factor to modify the primary lesion yield in the MKM, and the variation of the primary lesion yield with LET is considered in the MMKM. Compared with the present the MKM, not only the α parameter of the MMKM for mono-energetic ions agree with the experimental data, but also the β parameter varies with LET and the variation trend of the experimental result can be reproduced on the whole. Then a spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) distribution of physical dose was simulated with Geant4 Monte Carlo code, and the biological and clinical dose distributions were calculated, under the irradiation of carbon ions. The results show that the distribution of clinical dose calculated with the MMKM is closed to the distribution with the MKM in the SOBP, while the discrepancy before and after the SOBP are both within 10%. Moreover, the MKM might overestimate the clinical dose at the distal end of the SOBP more than 5% because of its

  15. Effects of mild running on substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Michael F; Silva, Carolliny M; Chaves, Rodrigo S; Lima, Nathan C R; Almeida, Renato S; Melo, Karla P; Demasi, Marilene; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Netto, Luis E S; Cardoso, Sandra M; Ferrari, Merari F R

    2018-06-01

    Moderate physical exercise acts at molecular and behavioural levels, such as interfering in neuroplasticity, cell death, neurogenesis, cognition and motor functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the cellular effects of moderate treadmill running upon substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration. Aged male Lewis rats (9-month-old) were exposed to rotenone 1mg/kg/day (8 weeks) and 6 weeks of moderate treadmill running, beginning 4 weeks after rotenone exposure. Substantia nigra was extracted and submitted to proteasome and antioxidant enzymes activities, hydrogen peroxide levels and Western blot to evaluate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), alpha-synuclein, Tom-20, PINK1, TrkB, SLP1, CRMP-2, Rab-27b, LC3II and Beclin-1 level. It was demonstrated that moderate treadmill running, practiced during early neurodegeneration, prevented the increase of alpha-synuclein and maintained the levels of TH unaltered in substantia nigra of aged rats. Physical exercise also stimulated autophagy and prevented impairment of mitophagy, but decreased proteasome activity in rotenone-exposed aged rats. Physical activity also prevented H 2 O 2 increase during early neurodegeneration, although the involved mechanism remains to be elucidated. TrkB levels and its anterograde trafficking seem not to be influenced by moderate treadmill running. In conclusion, moderate physical training could prevent early neurodegeneration in substantia nigra through the improvement of autophagy and mitophagy.

  16. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  17. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM): novel biological insights and development of early treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasias, with a propensity to progress to symptomatic MM. In recent years there have been improvements in risk stratification models (involving molecular markers) of both disorders, which have led to better understanding of the biology and probability of progression of MGUS and SMM. In the context of numerous molecular events and heterogeneous risk of progression, developing individualized risk profiles for patients with MGUS and SMM represents an ongoing challenge that has to be addressed by prospective clinical monitoring and extensive correlative science. In this review we discuss the current standard of care of patients with MGUS and SMM, the use of risk models, including flow cytometry and free-light chain analyses, for predicting risk of progression. Emerging evidence from molecular studies on MGUS and SMM, involving cytogenetics, gene-expression profiling, and microRNA as well as molecular imaging is described. Finally, future directions for improving individualized management of MGUS and SMM patients, as well as the potential for developing early treatment strategies designed to delay and prevent development of MM are discussed. PMID:21441462

  19. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM): novel biological insights and development of early treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Korde, Neha; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Landgren, Ola

    2011-05-26

    Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasias, with a propensity to progress to symptomatic MM. In recent years there have been improvements in risk stratification models (involving molecular markers) of both disorders, which have led to better understanding of the biology and probability of progression of MGUS and SMM. In the context of numerous molecular events and heterogeneous risk of progression, developing individualized risk profiles for patients with MGUS and SMM represents an ongoing challenge that has to be addressed by prospective clinical monitoring and extensive correlative science. In this review we discuss the current standard of care of patients with MGUS and SMM, the use of risk models, including flow cytometry and free-light chain analyses, for predicting risk of progression. Emerging evidence from molecular studies on MGUS and SMM, involving cytogenetics, gene-expression profiling, and microRNA as well as molecular imaging is described. Finally, future directions for improving individualized management of MGUS and SMM patients, as well as the potential for developing early treatment strategies designed to delay and prevent development of MM are discussed.

  20. Mineralogy, chemistry and biological contingents of an early-middle Miocene Antarctic paleosol and its relevance as a Martian analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Dohm, James M.; Schwartz, Stephane; Findling, Nathaniel; Hart, Kris M.; Conway, Susan J.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2014-12-01

    Fossil mesofauna and bacteria recovered from a paleosol in a moraine situated adjacent to the inland ice, Antarctica, and dating to the earliest glacial event in the Antarctic Dry Valleys opens several questions. The most important relates to understanding of the mineralogy and chemistry of the weathered substrate habitat in which Coleoptera apparently thrived at some point in the Early/Middle Miocene and perhaps earlier. Here, Coleoptera remains are only located in one of six horizons in a paleosol formed in moraine deposited during the alpine glacial event (>15 Ma). A tendency for quartz to decrease upward in the section may be a detrital effect or a product of dissolution in the early stage of profile morphogenesis when climate was presumably milder and the depositing glacier of temperate type. Discontinuous distributions of smectite, laumontite, and hexahydrite may have provided nutrients and water to mesofauna and bacteria during the early stage of biotic colonization of the profile. Because the mesofauna were members of burrowing Coleoptera species, future work should assess the degree to which the organisms occupied other sites in the Dry Valleys in the past. Whereas there is no reasonable expectations of finding Coleoptera/insect remains on Mars, the chemistry and mineralogy of the paleosol is within a life expectancy window for the presence of microorganisms, principally bacteria and fungi. Thus, parameters discussed here within this Antarctic paleosol could provide an analogue to identifying similar fossil or life-bearing weathered regolith on Mars.

  1. The Effects of Ultrasound on Biological Systems: Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Karmi, Anan M.

    vs. 18 minutes). This demonstrates that the biological effects of ultrasound are influenced by Ca^ {2+}. The larger increases in G _{rm t} and the time constants confirm other studies addressing the role of Ca ^{2+} in potentiating lipid peroxidation by free radicals, and the role of calcium ions in the formation of tight junctions.

  2. "Life-bearing molecules" versus "life-embodying systems": Two contrasting views on the what-is-life (WIL) problem persisting from the early days of molecular biology to the post-genomic cell- and organism-level biology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki

    2018-05-01

    "What is life?" is an ultimate biological quest for the principle that makes organisms alive. This 'WIL problem' is not, however, a simple one that we have a straightforward strategy to attack. From the beginning, molecular biology tried to identify molecules that bear the essence of life: the double helical DNA represented replication, and enzymes were micro-actuators of biological activities. A dominating idea behind these mainstream biological studies relies on the identification of life-bearing molecules, which themselves are models of life. Another, prevalent idea emphasizes that life resides in the whole system of an organism, but not in some particular molecules. The behavior of a complex system may be considered to embody the essence of life. The thermodynamic view of life system in the early 20th century was remodeled as physics of complex systems and systems biology. The two views contrast with each other, but they are no longer heritage of the historical dualism in biology, such as mechanism/materialism versus vitalism, or reductionism versus holism. These two views are both materialistic and mechanistic, and act as driving forces of modern biology. In reality, molecules function in a context of systems, whereas systems presuppose functional molecules. A key notion to reconcile this conflict is that subjects of biological studies are given before we start to study them. Cell- or organism-level biology is destined to the dialectic of molecules and systems, but this antagonism can be resolved by dynamic thinking involving biological evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    PubMed

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  4. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  5. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  6. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  7. Modelling the biologic effect of ions with the Local Effect Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Thomas; Elsässer, Thilo; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael

    In many cases in radiobiological experiments as well as in ion beam therapy the Local Effect Model (LEM) has proven to be capable to describe the biologic effect of ion irradiation based on the response to X-rays. During the last years, the LEM has been extended to include important processes such as the diffusion of free radicals or the biologic effect enhancement due to clustered lesions of the DNA in a more mechanistic fashion. In its current status the predictive power of the LEM covers a wide range of ions with good quantitative precision. Hence there is potential to also apply the LEM to problems in radiation protection. In this talk, the development stages of the LEM are illustrated. Emphasis is put on the most recent version of the LEM, where spatial distributions of DNA lesions are considered. Applicability, limits and strategies for an advanced model testing are discussed. Finally, planned extensions and applications of the LEM are presented.

  8. The Role of Non-Targeted Effects as Mediators in the Biological Effects of Proton Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Dicello, John F.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the hypothesis that non-DNA targets are primary initiators and mediators of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, such as proton beams and heavy ions, has gained much interest. These phenomena have been denoted as non-targeted or bystander effects to distinguish them from the more traditionally studied model that focuses on direct damage to DNA causing chromosomal rearrangements and mutations as causative of most biological endpoints such as cell killing, tissue damage, and cancer. We review cellular and extra-cellular structures and signal transduction pathways that have been implemented in these recent studies. Non-targeted effects of interest include oxidative damage to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, disruption of the extra-cellular matrix, and modification of cytokine signaling including TGF-beta, and gap junction communication. We present an introduction to these targets and pathways, and contrast there role with DNA damage pathways.

  9. Effects of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi; Hong, Peng K.; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of different forms of photosynthetic life has profoundly altered the activity level of the biosphere, radically reshaping the composition of Earth's oceans and atmosphere over time. However, the mechanistic impacts of a primitive photosynthetic biosphere on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate are poorly understood. Here, we use a global redox balance model to explore the biogeochemical and climatological effects of different forms of primitive photosynthesis. We find that a hybrid ecosystem of H2-based and Fe2+-based anoxygenic photoautotrophs—organisms that perform photosynthesis without producing oxygen—gives rise to a strong nonlinear amplification of Earth's methane (CH4) cycle, and would thus have represented a critical component of Earth's early climate system before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we find that a hybrid photosynthetic biosphere widens the range of geochemical conditions that allow for warm climate states well beyond either of these metabolic processes acting in isolation. Our results imply that the Earth's early climate was governed by a novel and poorly explored set of regulatory feedbacks linking the anoxic biosphere and the coupled H, C and Fe cycles. We suggest that similar processes should be considered when assessing the potential for sustained habitability on Earth-like planets with reducing atmospheres.

  10. Biologically-Effective Rainfall Pulses in Mediterranean and Monsoonal Regions

    In semiarid regions rainfall pulses provide intermittent opportunities for biological activity. These pulses have been shown to affect the activity of microbes and plant differently, altering the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) from these ecosystems. We examine NEE and its components ...

  11. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C.; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PMID:25964451

  12. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tanya; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor’s response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human. PMID:26388760

  13. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tanya; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor's response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

  14. [Effectiveness of an early discharge program after normal childbirth].

    PubMed

    Teulón González, M; Martínez Pillado, M; Cuadrado Martín, M M; Rivero Martín, M J; Cerezuela Requena, J F

    To implement a program of early hospital discharge after an uncomplicated birth, in order to improve the effectiveness, as well as ensuring clinical safety and patient acceptability. Descriptive study of the effectiveness of an early discharge program after uncomplicated delivery between February 2012 and September 2013. The populations are post-partum women and newborns admitted to the University Hospital of Fuenlabrada, with a duration of less than 24h after uncomplicated delivery that met the defined inclusion criteria. Satisfaction was assessed using a Likert scale. The effectiveness of the program was monitored by safety indicators, productivity, adaptation, and continuity of care. A total of 20% of cases capable of early discharge from Fuenlabrada University Hospital completed the program. Almost all (94%) were normal deliveries. The 188 cases included were from 911 patients with uncomplicated childbirth, accounting for 6.5% of the 2,857 total births. The mean stay of patients included showed a decrease of 50% (2.4 to 1.2 days). All patients received continuity of care after hospital discharge. The review consultation was reprogrammed for 4.8% of cases, with 2% of patients re-admitted within 96h. with no serious problems. Four newborns (2%) required attention in the emergency department (mother or newborn) before 96h. The assessment of patient satisfaction achieved a score of 4.5 out of 5. The program achieved a decrease in the average stay by 50%, favouring the autonomy of midwives. This acceptance level is in line with similar interventions. The deployment of the program may be useful for other changes in care processes. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Equitable service provision for inclusive education and effective early intervention.

    PubMed

    Wicks, K M

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.

  16. Early Iron Deficiency Has Brain and Behavior Effects Consistent with Dopaminergic Dysfunction123

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    To honor the late John Beard’s many contributions regarding iron and dopamine biology, this review focuses on recent human studies that test specific hypotheses about effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine system functioning. Short- and long-term alterations associated with iron deficiency in infancy can be related to major dopamine pathways (mesocortical, mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, tuberohypophyseal). Children and young adults who had iron deficiency anemia in infancy show poorer inhibitory control and executive functioning as assessed by neurocognitive tasks where pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies implicate frontal-striatal circuits and the mesocortical dopamine pathway. Alterations in the mesolimbic pathway, where dopamine plays a major role in behavioral activation and inhibition, positive affect, and inherent reward, may help explain altered social-emotional behavior in iron-deficient infants, specifically wariness and hesitance, lack of positive affect, diminished social engagement, etc. Poorer motor sequencing and bimanual coordination and lower spontaneous eye blink rate in iron-deficient anemic infants are consistent with impaired function in the nigrostriatal pathway. Short- and long-term changes in serum prolactin point to dopamine dysfunction in the tuberohypophyseal pathway. These hypothesis-driven findings support the adverse effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine biology. Iron deficiency also has other effects, specifically on other neurotransmitters, myelination, dendritogenesis, neurometabolism in hippocampus and striatum, gene and protein profiles, and associated behaviors. The persistence of poorer cognitive, motor, affective, and sensory system functioning highlights the need to prevent iron deficiency in infancy and to find interventions that lessen the long-term effects of this widespread nutrient disorder. PMID:21346104

  17. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciT

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected bymore » antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These

  18. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  19. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5μM fluoxetine for 6h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5μM) over 24h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K(+) channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ~30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Time-dependent effects of ultraviolet and nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma on the biological activity of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Won-Seok; Cha, Jung-Yul; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Here, we evaluated time-dependent changes in the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPPJ) on the biological activity of titanium compared with that of untreated titanium. Grade IV machined surface titanium discs (12-mm diameter) were used immediately and stored up to 28 days after 15-min UV or 10-min NTAPPJ treatment. Changes of surface characteristics over time were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, surface profiling, contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and surface zeta-potential. Changes in biological activity over time were as determined by analysing bovine serum albumin adsorption, MC3T3-E1 early adhesion and morphometry, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity between groups. We found no differences in the effects of treatment on titanium between UV or NTAPPJ over time; both treatments resulted in changes from negatively charged hydrophobic (bioinert) to positively charged hydrophilic (bioactive) surfaces, allowing enhancement of albumin adsorption, osteoblastic cell attachment, and cytoskeleton development. Although this effect may not be prolonged for promotion of cell adhesion until 4 weeks, the effects were sufficient to maintain ALP activity after 7 days of incubation. This positive effect of UV and NTAPPJ treatment can enhance the biological activity of titanium over time.

  1. Essay writing in biology: An example of effective student learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeegers, Petrus; Giles, Lynne

    1996-12-01

    The views of first-year biology students ( N=337) on an essay writing assignment were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The students were asked to reflect on the strategies they employed, the number and type of resources used, their areas of difficulty and to evaluate their own performance. The data were used to elucidate possible areas of discrepancy between the approach taken by the students and that suggested by the Biology Department via information in student manuals and evaluation criteria. The data were also compared to similar studies on student writing previously reported for students of psychology and history. Finally a series of recommendations is made to help staff to allow their students to develop improved writing strategies, minimise the possible difficulties encountered and allow the writing exercise to fulfil its desired outcome, that of being an integral part of the process of learning.

  2. Effects of contact shape on the scaling of biological attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolenak, Ralph; Gorb, Stanislav; Gao, Huajian; Arzt, Eduard

    2005-02-01

    Adhesion of biological systems has recently received much research attention: the survival of organisms ranging from single cells and mussels to insects, spiders and geckos relies crucially on their mechanical interaction with their environments. For spiders, lizards and possible other 'dry' adhesive systems, explanations for adhesion are based on van der Waals interaction, and the adhesion of single-contact elements has been described by the classical Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model derived for spherical contacts. However, real biological contacts display a variety of shapes and only rarely resemble a hemisphere. Here, we theoretically assess the influence of various contact shapes on the pull-off force for single contacts as well as their scaling potential in contact arrays. It is concluded that other shapes, such as a toroidal contact geometry, should lead to better attachment; such geometries are observed in our microscopic investigations of hair-tip shapes in beetles and flies.

  3. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  4. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Physics Group and professor of electrical engineering, is investigating the limiting of such lines or im— began the two year study after serving on an...Agric. For., Tokyo, Japan), and disturbances in erection , ejaculation , and/or T. Kobaymshi , 0. Mamiya, H. Tamiya , K. Sasaki , and orgasm ...life and physical sciences. The Current state of ORAL VARIATION OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY 11 -~ ~~ H Biological Ef f e c ts Electromagnet ic

  5. Biologic activity of irradiated, autologous, GM-CSF-secreting leukemia cell vaccines early after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent T.; Vanneman, Matthew; Kim, Haesook; Sasada, Tetsuro; Kang, Yoon Joong; Pasek, Mildred; Cutler, Corey; Koreth, John; Alyea, Edwin; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Antin, Joseph H.; Ritz, Jerome; Canning, Christine; Kutok, Jeffery; Mihm, Martin C.; Dranoff, Glenn; Soiffer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Through an immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) affords durable clinical benefits for many patients with hematologic malignancies. Nonetheless, subjects with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia or advanced myelodysplasia often relapse, underscoring the need to intensify tumor immunity within this cohort. In preclinical models, allogeneic HSCT followed by vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete GM-CSF generates a potent antitumor effect without exacerbating the toxicities of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To test whether this strategy might be similarly active in humans, we conducted a Phase I clinical trial in which high-risk acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplasia patients were immunized with irradiated, autologous, GM-CSF-secreting tumor cells early after allogeneic, nonmyeloablative HSCT. Despite the administration of a calcineurin inhibitor as prophylaxis against GVHD, vaccination elicited local and systemic reactions that were qualitatively similar to those previously observed in nontransplanted, immunized solid-tumor patients. While the frequencies of acute and chronic GVHD were not increased, 9 of 10 subjects who completed vaccination achieved durable complete remissions, with a median follow-up of 26 months (range 12–43 months). Six long-term responders showed marked decreases in the levels of soluble NKG2D ligands, and 3 demonstrated normalization of cytotoxic lymphocyte NKG2D expression as a function of treatment. Together, these results establish the safety and immunogenicity of irradiated, autologous, GM-CSF-secreting leukemia cell vaccines early after allogeneic HSCT, and raise the possibility that this combinatorial immunotherapy might potentiate graft-versus-leukemia in patients. PMID:19717467

  6. Evolution of activities in international biological standardization since the early days of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations.

    PubMed

    Sizaret, P

    1988-01-01

    The main activities in international biological standardization during the 18 years that followed the first international biological standardization meeting in London in 1921 were concerned with expressing the potencies of test preparations in comparison with reference materials. After the Second World War, however, it became clear that the testing of biological substances against international reference materials was only one among several measures for obtaining safe and potent products. The activities in international biological standardization were therefore widened so that, by the strict observance of specific manufacturing and control requirements, it was possible to gain further in safety and efficacy. At the end of 1987, 42 international requirements for biological substances were available and were being used as national requirements, sometimes after minor modification, by the majority of WHO's Member States. This is of utmost importance for the worldwide use of safe and potent biological products, including vaccines.

  7. Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Early effects of duloxetine on emotion recognition in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Susan; Penton-Voak, Ian; Pinkney, Verity; Baldwin, David S; Munafò, Marcus R; Garner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine is an effective treatment for major depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Neuropsychological models of antidepressant drug action suggest therapeutic effects might be mediated by the early correction of maladaptive biases in emotion processing, including the recognition of emotional expressions. Sub-chronic administration of duloxetine (for two weeks) produces adaptive changes in neural circuitry implicated in emotion processing; however, its effects on emotional expression recognition are unknown. Forty healthy participants were randomised to receive either 14 days of duloxetine (60 mg/day, titrated from 30 mg after three days) or matched placebo (with sham titration) in a double-blind, between-groups, repeated-measures design. On day 0 and day 14 participants completed a computerised emotional expression recognition task that measured sensitivity to the six primary emotions. Thirty-eight participants (19 per group) completed their course of tablets and were included in the analysis. Results provide evidence that duloxetine, compared to placebo, may reduce the accurate recognition of sadness. Drug effects were driven by changes in participants’ ability to correctly detect subtle expressions of sadness, with greater change observed in the placebo relative to the duloxetine group. These effects occurred in the absence of changes in mood. Our preliminary findings require replication, but complement recent evidence that sadness recognition is a therapeutic target in major depression, and a mechanism through which SNRIs could resolve negative biases in emotion processing to achieve therapeutic effects. PMID:25759400

  9. Climatic and Chemical Effects of Punctuated Volcanism on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The geological record of Mars shows a pronounced peak in volcanic activity during the transition between the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs. This peak appears coeval with profound climatic and chemical changes in the surface environment, including the formation of the majority of known valley networks, open-basin lakes and the deposition of massive sulfate-bearing deposits of aqueous origin. It has been suggested that volcanism maintained a warmer climate and an active hydrological cycle through the radiative effect of volcanically emitted greenhouse gases, such as CO2, H2O and SO2. However, previous model attempts at explaining overland flow with CO2-H2O greenhouse atmospheres required several bars of CO2, even including the warming effect of infrared scattering by CO2 ice clouds. This amount of CO2 is in apparent disagreement with recent estimates of volcanic outgassing on Mars. The net climatic effect of volcanic SO2 emissions into the atmosphere of early Mars has been the topic of recent debate, because it is unclear whether strong greenhouse warming by SO2 or strong cooling by scattering sulfate aerosols should dominate. To address this problem, we considered two previously neglected phenomena: i) the punctuated, rather than continuous, nature of volcanic eruptions, and ii) the role of preexisting dust grains and volcanic ash as condensation nuclei for sulfuric acid. For this purpose we developed a coupled model of volcanic eruption and atmospheric response, including detailed aerosol microphysics. We find that while SO2 concentrations increase rapidly and dramatically with the initiation of a strong volcanic eruption, the dynamics of sulfate aerosol formation in the martian atmosphere results in a delay of aerosol-related cooling by several months to years. Moreover, the existence of dust in the atmosphere prior to the volcanic eruption, as well as the emission and global distribution of fine volcanic ash particles, results in the formation of H2SO4

  10. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    SciT

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723; Choe, Changyong

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetinemore » (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  11. Impact of Release Rates on the Effectiveness of Augmentative Biological Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, David W.

    2007-01-01

    To access the effect of augmentative biological control agents, 31 articles were reviewed that investigated the impact of release rates of 35 augmentative biological control agents on the control of 42 arthropod pests. In 64% of the cases, the release rate of the biological control agent did not significantly affect the density or mortality of the pest insect. Results where similar when parasitoidsor predators were utilized as the natural enemy. Within any order of natural enemy, there were more cases where release rates did not affect augmentative biological control than cases where release rates were significant. There were more cases in which release rates did not affect augmentative biological control when pests were from the orders Hemiptera, Acari, or Diptera, but not with pests from the order Lepidoptera. In most cases, there was an optimal release rate that produced effective control of a pest species. This was especially true when predators were used as a biological control agent. Increasing the release rate above the optimal rate did not improve control of the pest and thus would be economically detrimental. Lower release rates were of ten optimal when biological control was used in conjunction with insecticides. In many cases, the timing and method of biological control applications were more significant factors impacting the effectiveness of biological control than the release rate. Additional factors that may limit the relative impact of release rates include natural enemy fecundity, establishment rates, prey availability, dispersal, and cannibalism. PMID:20307240

  12. Prenatal cocaine effects on brain structure in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Grewen, Karen; Burchinal, Margaret; Vachet, Clement; Gouttard, Sylvain; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Johns, Josephine; Elam, Mala; Gerig, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is related to subtle deficits in cognitive and behavioral function in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Very little is known about the effects of in utero PCE on early brain development that may contribute to these impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain structural differences in infants with and without PCE. We conducted MRI scans of newborns (mean age = 5 weeks) to determine cocaine's impact on early brain structural development. Subjects were three groups of infants: 33 with PCE co-morbid with other drugs, 46 drug-free controls and 40 with prenatal exposure to other drugs (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, SSRIs) but without cocaine. Infants with PCE exhibited lesser total gray matter (GM) volume and greater total cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) volume compared with controls and infants with non-cocaine drug exposure. Analysis of regional volumes revealed that whole brain GM differences were driven primarily by lesser GM in prefrontal and frontal brain regions in infants with PCE, while more posterior regions (parietal, occipital) did not differ across groups. Greater CSF volumes in PCE infants were present in prefrontal, frontal and parietal but not occipital regions. Greatest differences (GM reduction, CSF enlargement) in PCE infants were observed in dorsal prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that PCE is associated with structural deficits in neonatal cortical gray matter, specifically in prefrontal and frontal regions involved in executive function and inhibitory control. Longitudinal study is required to determine whether these early differences persist and contribute to deficits in cognitive functions and enhanced risk for drug abuse seen at school age and in later life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated network analysis and effective tools in plant systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nishida, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1) network visualization tools, (2) pathway analyses, (3) genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4) the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms. PMID:25408696

  15. Chrysotile: its occurrence and properties as variables controlling biological effects.

    PubMed

    Langer, A M; Nolan, R P

    1994-08-01

    Chrysotile formation arises through serpentinization of ultramafics and silicified dolomitic limestones. Rock types tend to control the trace metal content and both the nature and amounts of admixed minerals in the ore, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite) and tremolite. Some associated minerals and trace metals are thought to play a role in biological potential. Tremolite, one of the important associated minerals, may occur with different morphological forms, called habits. These habits range from asbestiform (tremolite asbestos) to common blocky or non-fibrous form (tremolite cleavage fragments). The latter is most common in nature. Tremolite in chrysotile ore varies in habit and concentration, both factors determining the degree of risk following inhalation. Tremolite fibre is thought to be important in relation to the occurrence of mesothelioma. Chrysotile fibrils may vary in diameter. Dust clouds generated following manipulation vary in fibre number and surface area. Chrysotile fibres exhibit a range of physical characteristics. The fibre may be non-flexible ('stiff') and low in tensile strength ('brittle'), and may lack an ability to curl. This fibre, referred to as 'harsh', sheds water more quickly than its curly, flexible 'soft' variety. The behaviour of the harsh fibres is more amphibole-like and their splintery nature suggests an enhanced inhalation potential. Slip fibre ore from Canada tends to contain more fibrous brucite (nemalite) than cross-fibre ore in the same mine. Industrial manipulation, which includes chemical treatment, heating and milling, may impart new surface properties to chrysotile dusts. Biological potential may be enhanced (opening of fibre bundles) or reduced (disruption of surface bonds and lessened ability to interact with organic moieties). Leaching of magnesium from chrysotile occurs at a pH less than about 10. Chrysotile has been demonstrated to lose magnesium in vivo and undergo clearance from the lung. The biological potential of

  16. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p < .05). There was a tendency of difference in the means. The POGIL group may have scored higher on the posttest (M = 8.830 +/- .477 vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical

  17. Leveraging organismal biology to forecast the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Cannistra, Anthony F; John, Aji

    2018-04-26

    Despite the pressing need for accurate forecasts of ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, commonly used modelling approaches exhibit mixed performance because they omit many important aspects of how organisms respond to spatially and temporally variable environments. Integrating models based on organismal phenotypes at the physiological, performance and fitness levels can improve model performance. We summarize current limitations of environmental data and models and discuss potential remedies. The paper reviews emerging techniques for sensing environments at fine spatial and temporal scales, accounting for environmental extremes, and capturing how organisms experience the environment. Intertidal mussel data illustrate biologically important aspects of environmental variability. We then discuss key challenges in translating environmental conditions into organismal performance including accounting for the varied timescales of physiological processes, for responses to environmental fluctuations including the onset of stress and other thresholds, and for how environmental sensitivities vary across lifecycles. We call for the creation of phenotypic databases to parameterize forecasting models and advocate for improved sharing of model code and data for model testing. We conclude with challenges in organismal biology that must be solved to improve forecasts over the next decade.acclimation, biophysical models, ecological forecasting, extremes, microclimate, spatial and temporal variability.

  18. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  19. Climate Change Effects on Stream and River Biological Indicators: A Preliminary Analysis (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Climate Change Effects on Stream and River Biological Indicators: A Preliminary Analysis. This report is a preliminary assessment that describes how biological indicators are likely to respond to climate change, how wel...

  20. Effects of Subject-Matter Knowledge in the Teaching of Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashweh, Maher Z.

    An analysis of science teacher's knowledge of specific biology and physics topics and the effects of this knowledge on their planning for instruction and on simulated teaching are discussed in this report. Six experienced secondary school teachers participated in the study. Each teacher's knowledge of a biology topic and a physics topic was…

  1. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  2. Effects of Biology Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Cognitive Activation on Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge--pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK)--and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on…

  3. A Study Assessing the Potential of Negative Effects in Interdisciplinary Math-Biology Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the…

  4. Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues

    Biological control remains an effective option for managing large-scale weed problems in natural areas. The predation or parasitism of biological control agents by other species present in the introduced range (biotic resistance) is well studied and is often cited as the cause for a lack of establis...

  5. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  6. Studying the Effects of Early Experiences on Women's Career Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.

    Virtually all psychological theories assume that early life experiences have an impact on later life choices. However, increasing doubts have been expressed about the universality and permanence of the relationship between women's work and family lives. To explore how early family experiences and early adult decisions affect women's later career…

  7. [Effect of biological pretreatment with Trametes vesicolor on the enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood and hardwood].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of biological pretreatment with white rot fungus Trametes vesicolor on the enzymatic hydrolysis of two wood species, Chinese willow (Salix babylonica, hardwood) and China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, softwood). The result indicated that the pretreated woods showed significant increases in the final conversion ratios of enzymatic hydrolysis (4.78-fold for hardwood and 4.02-fold for softwood). In order to understand the role of biological pretreatment we investigated the enzyme-substrate interactions. Biological pretreatment enhanced the substrate accessibility to cellulase but not always correlated with the initial conversion rate. However, the change of the conversion rate decreased dramatically with increased desorption values after biological pretreatment. Thus, the biological pretreatment slowed down the declines in conversion rates during enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the irreversible adsorption of cellulase and then improved the enzymatic hydrolysis. Moreover, the decreases of the irreversible adsorption may be attributed to the partial lignin degradation and alteration in lignin structure after biological pretreatment.

  8. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Housing Conditions and Stress in Male Rats - Relevance to Heart Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    animals had higher corticosterone than Combined Enrichment/Not Stressed (CNS) animals (F [1, 22 ] = 6.78, p < 0.01). The greatest effects were in...biological effects of stress. In particular, plasma corticosterone levels have been reported to increase in response to stressors in different... effects of restraint stress on the biological and behavioral factors relevant to cardiovascular disease (e.g., plasma corticosterone levels

  9. The Effects of Breastfeeding Exclusivity on Early Childhood Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between breastfeeding exclusivity and duration and children’s health and cognitive outcomes at ages 2 and 4 years. Methods. We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort, a nationally representative sample of 10 700 children born in the United States in 2001. Parent interviews and child assessments were conducted in measurement waves at 9 months, 2 years, 4 years, and in kindergarten, with the focus on ages 2 and 4 years. We employed propensity scores as a means of adjusting for confounding involving observed characteristics. Results. Outcome analyses using propensity scores showed some small effects of breastfeeding on key outcomes at age 4 years but not at age 2 years. Effects appeared to be concentrated in reading and cognitive outcomes. Overall, we found no consistent evidence for dosage effects of breastfeeding exclusivity. Our sensitivity analyses revealed that a small amount of unobserved confounding could be responsible for the resulting benefits. Conclusions. Our study revealed little or no effect of breastfeeding exclusivity and duration on key child outcomes. PMID:24354838

  10. Longitudinal Effects on Early Adolescent Language: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Smith, Jamie Mahurin; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in language skills during early adolescence, measured by both language sampling and standardized tests, and examined the extent to which these genetic and environmental effects are stable across time. Method We used structural equation modeling on latent factors to estimate additive genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on variance in standardized language skills (i.e., Formal Language) and productive language-sample measures (i.e., Productive Language) in a sample of 527 twins across 3 time points (mean ages 10–12 years). Results Individual differences in the Formal Language factor were influenced primarily by genetic factors at each age, whereas individual differences in the Productive Language factor were primarily due to nonshared environmental influences. For the Formal Language factor, the stability of genetic effects was high across all 3 time points. For the Productive Language factor, nonshared environmental effects showed low but statistically significant stability across adjacent time points. Conclusions The etiology of language outcomes may differ substantially depending on assessment context. In addition, the potential mechanisms for nonshared environmental influences on language development warrant further investigation. PMID:27732720

  11. Effects of outside air temperature on the preparation of antineoplastic drug solutions in biological safety cabinets.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Masayuki; Itoh, Akio; Ando, Yuichi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Wakiya, Yoshifumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2015-08-01

    In Japan, biological safety cabinets are commonly used by medical staff to prepare antineoplastic agents. At the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients, Nagoya University Hospital, a class II B2 biological safety cabinet is used. The temperature inside this biological safety cabinet decreases in winter. In this study, we investigated the effect of low outside air temperature on the biological safety cabinet temperature, time required to admix antineoplastic agents, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement. Studies were conducted from 1 January to 31 March 2008 (winter). The outside air temperature near the biological safety cabinet intake nozzle was compared with the biological safety cabinet temperature. The correlation between the outside air temperature and the biological safety cabinet temperature, time for cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement were investigated at low and high biological safety cabinet temperatures. The biological safety cabinet temperature correlated with the outside air temperature of 5-20℃ (p < 0.0001). Compared to cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization in the biological safety cabinet at 25℃, solubilization at 10℃ was significantly delayed (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Measurement of epirubicin weight by using a syringe lacked accuracy because of epirubicin's high viscosity at low temperatures (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the biological safety cabinet temperature decreases when cool winter air is drawn into the biological safety cabinet, affecting the solubilization of antineoplastic agents. We suggest that a decrease in biological safety cabinet temperature may increase the time required to admix antineoplastic agents, thereby increasing the time for which outpatients must wait for chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Triple Therapy Versus Etanercept Plus Methotrexate in Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hawre; O'Dell, James R; Bridges, S Louis; Cofield, Stacey; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Mikuls, Ted R; Moreland, Larry W; Michaud, Kaleb

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of all 4 interventions in the Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) clinical trial: immediate triple (IT), immediate etanercept (IE), step-up triple (ST), and step-up etanercept (SE). Step-up interventions started with methotrexate and added either etanercept or sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine to patients with persistent disease activity. We built a Markov cohort model that uses individual-level data from the TEAR trial, published literature, and supplemental clinical data. Costs were in US dollars, benefits in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), perspective was societal, and the time horizon was 5 years. The immediate strategies were more efficacious than step-up strategies. SE and IE were more costly than ST and IT, primarily due to treatment cost differences. In addition, IT was the least expensive and most effective strategy when the time horizon was 1 and 2 years. When the time horizon was 5 years, IE was marginally more effective than IT (3.483 versus 3.476 QALYs), but IE was substantially more expensive than IT ($148,800 versus $52,600), producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $12.5 million per QALY. These results were robust to both one-way deterministic and joint probabilistic sensitivity analyses. IT was highly cost-effective in the majority of scenarios. Although IE was more effective in 5 years, a substantial reduction in the cost of biologic agents was required in order for IE to become cost-effective in early aggressive RA under willingness-to-pay thresholds that most health care settings may find acceptable. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  13. A Review of Depleted Uranium Biological Effects: In vivo Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    organs - Uranium retention is long-term - DU causes some neurotoxicity - DU induces genotoxicity - DU urine is mutagenic - DU causes adverse oncogene...Behavior; Locomotor Brain Accumulation Sperm Effects Immune Effects Offspring Effects Behavior Yes Yes Yes No effects Decreased Inflammatory...in Unexposed Offspring Finding: DU Internalized Exposure Induces Germ Cell DNA Damage Uranium Distribution Behavior Neurobio Histopathology Sperm

  14. Cost and effectiveness of biologics for rheumatoid arthritis in a commercially insured population.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Chastek, Benjamin; Becker, Laura; Quach, Caroleen; Harrison, David J; Yun, Huifeng; Joseph, George J; Collier, David H

    2015-04-01

    Administrative claims contain detailed medication, diagnosis, and procedure data, but the lack of clinical outcomes for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) historically has limited their use in comparative effectiveness research. A claims-based algorithm was developed and validated to estimate effectiveness for RA from data for adherence, dosing, and treatment modifications. To implement the claims-based algorithm in a U.S. managed care database to estimate biologic cost per effectively treated patient. The cohort included patients with RA aged 18-63 years in the Optum Research Database who initiated biologic treatment between January 2007 and December 2010 and were continuously enrolled 6 months before through 12 months after the first claim for the biologic (the index date). Patients were categorized as effectively treated by the claims-based algorithm if they met all of the following 6 criteria in the 12-month post-index period: (1) a medication possession ratio ≥ 80% for subcutaneous biologics, or at least as many infusions as specified in U.S. labeling for intravenous biologics; (2) no increase in biologic dose; (3) no switch in biologics; (4) no new nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; (5) no new or increased oral glucocorticoid treatment; and (6) no more than 1 glucocorticoid injection. Drug costs (all biologics) and administration costs (intravenous biologics) were obtained from allowed amounts on claims. Biologic cost per effectively treated patient was defined as total 1-year biologic cost divided by the number of patients categorized by the algorithm as effectively treated with that index biologic. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the total health care costs per effectively treated patient during the first year of biologic therapy. A total of 5,474 individuals were included in the analysis. The index biologic was categorized as effective by the algorithm for 28.9% of patients overall, including 30.6% for subcutaneous biologics and 22

  15. Effects of marine toxins on the reproduction and early stages development of aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Vítor; Azevedo, Joana; Silva, Marisa; Ramos, Vítor

    2010-01-19

    Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  16. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  17. Cost-effectiveness model for prevention of early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Shepard, D S

    1999-07-01

    This study presents and illustrates a model that determines the cost-effectiveness of three successively more complete levels of preventive intervention (minimal, intermediate, and comprehensive) in treating dental caries in disadvantaged children up to 6 years of age. Using existing data on the costs of early childhood caries (ECC), the authors estimated the probable cost-effectiveness of each of the three preventive intervention levels by comparing treatment costs to prevention costs as applied to a typical low-income California child for five years. They found that, in general, prevention becomes cost-saving if at least 59 percent of carious lesions receive restorative treatment. Assuming an average restoration cost of $112 per surface, the model predicts cost savings of $66 to $73 in preventing a one-surface, carious lesion. Thus, all three levels of preventive intervention should be relatively cost-effective. Comprehensive intervention would provide the greatest oral health benefit; however, because more children would receive reparative care, overall program costs would rise even as per-child treatment costs decline.

  18. Early universe cosmology, effective supergravity, and invariants of algebraic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kuver

    2015-09-01

    The presence of light scalars can have profound effects on early universe cosmology, influencing its thermal history as well as paradigms like inflation and baryogenesis. Effective supergravity provides a framework to make quantifiable, model-independent studies of these effects. The Riemannian curvature of the Kähler manifold spanned by scalars belonging to chiral superfields, evaluated along supersymmetry breaking directions, provides an order parameter (in the sense that it must necessarily take certain values) for phenomena as diverse as slow roll modular inflation, nonthermal cosmological histories, and the viability of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. Within certain classes of UV completions, the order parameter for theories with n scalar moduli is conjectured to be related to invariants of n -ary cubic forms (for example, for models with three moduli, the order parameter is given by a function on the ring of invariants spanned by the Aronhold invariants). Within these completions, and under the caveats spelled out, this may provide an avenue to obtain necessary conditions for the above phenomena that are in principle calculable given nothing but the intersection numbers of a Calabi-Yau compactification geometry. As an additional result, abstract relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures are utilized to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis on a wide class of Kähler geometries.

  19. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  20. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose and Effect Thresholds for Early Key Events in a Mode of PPARa-Mediated Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Strategies for predicting adverse health outcomes of environmental chemicals are centered on early key events in toxicity pathways. However, quantitative relationships between early molecular changes in a given pathway and later health effects are often poorly defined. T...

  2. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  3. Disappearance of the inversion effect during memory-guided tracking of scrambled biological motion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changhao; Yue, Guang H; Chen, Tingting; Ding, Jinhong

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system is highly sensitive to biological motion. Even when a point-light walker is temporarily occluded from view by other objects, our eyes are still able to maintain tracking continuity. To investigate how the visual system establishes a correspondence between the biological-motion stimuli visible before and after the disruption, we used the occlusion paradigm with biological-motion stimuli that were intact or scrambled. The results showed that during visually guided tracking, both the observers' predicted times and predictive smooth pursuit were more accurate for upright biological motion (intact and scrambled) than for inverted biological motion. During memory-guided tracking, however, the processing advantage for upright as compared with inverted biological motion was not found in the scrambled condition, but in the intact condition only. This suggests that spatial location information alone is not sufficient to build and maintain the representational continuity of the biological motion across the occlusion, and that the object identity may act as an important information source in visual tracking. The inversion effect disappeared when the scrambled biological motion was occluded, which indicates that when biological motion is temporarily occluded and there is a complete absence of visual feedback signals, an oculomotor prediction is executed to maintain the tracking continuity, which is established not only by updating the target's spatial location, but also by the retrieval of identity information stored in long-term memory.

  4. Safety of High Speed Guided Ground Transportation Systems - The Biological Effects of Maglev Magnetic Field Exposures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-08-01

    This report describes selected biological effects on transformed human cell lines and on rats from exposure to simulated : maglev magnetic fields (MFs). Rats (n = 6 per group) were exposed at various times throughout the 24-h day to MFs : simulating ...

  5. Particle retention by respiratory epithelial cells is associated with persistent biological effect

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effect of particles on respiratory epithelial cells involves, in part, the generation of an oxidative stress and a consequent cascade of reactions culminating in inflammatory mediator release. Whether there is either an immediate, transitory activation or a persist...

  6. Sequestration of mitochondrial iron by silica particles initiates a biological effect.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary Inhalation of particulate matter has presented a challenge to human health for thousands of years. The underlying mechanism for biological effect following particle exposure is incompletely understood. We tested the postulate that particle sequestration of cell and mit...

  7. Early effectiveness of endoscopic posterior urethra primary alignment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Fernando J; Pompeo, Alexandre; Sehrt, David; Molina, Wilson R; Mariano da Costa, Renato M; Juliano, Cesar; Moore, Ernest E; Stahel, Philip F

    2013-08-01

    Posterior urethra primary realignment (PUPR) after complete transection may decrease the gap between the ends of the transected urethra, tamponade the retropubic bleeding, and optimize urinary drainage without the need of suprapubic catheter facilitating concurrent pelvic orthopedic and trauma procedures. Historically, the distorted anatomy after pelvic trauma has been a major surgical challenge. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship of the severity of the pelvic fracture to the success of endoscopic and immediate PUPR following complete posterior urethral disruption using the Young-Burgess classification system. A review of our Level I trauma center database for patients diagnosed with pelvic fracture and complete posterior urethral disruption from January 2005 to April 2012 was performed. Pelvic fracture severity was categorized according to the Young-Burgees classification system. Management consisted of suprapubic catheter insertion at diagnosis followed by early urethral realignment when the patient was clinically stable. Failure of realignment was defined as inability to achieve urethral continuity with Foley catheterization. Clinical follow-up consisted of radiologic, pressure studies and cystoscopic evaluation. A total of 481 patients with pelvic trauma from our trauma registry were screened initially, and 18 (3.7%) were diagnosed with a complete posterior urethral disruption. A total of 15 primary realignments (83.3%) were performed all within 5 days of trauma. The success rate of early realignment was 100%. There was no correlation between the type of pelvic ring fracture and the success of PUPR. Postoperatively, 8 patients (53.3%) developed urethral strictures, 3 patients (20.0%) developed incontinence, and 7 patients (46.7%) reported erectile dysfunction after the trauma. The mean follow-up of these patients was 31.8 months. Endoscopic PUPR may be an effective option for the treatment of complete posterior urethral disruption and

  8. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciT

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15more » juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  9. Effectiveness and biological compatibility of different generations of dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João M F; Rodrigues, José R; Camargo, Carlos H R; Fernandes, Virgilio Vilas Boas; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schweikl, Helmut; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    Besides possessing good mechanical properties, dental materials should present a good biological behavior and should not injure the involved tissues. Bond strength and biocompatibility are both highly significant properties of dentin adhesives. For that matter, these properties of four generations of adhesive systems (Multi-Purpose/Single Bond/SE Plus/Easy Bond) were evaluated. Eighty bovine teeth had their dentin exposed (500- and 200-μm thickness). Adhesive was applied on the dentin layer of each specimen. Following that, the microshearing test was performed for all samples. A dentin barrier test was used for the cytotoxicity evaluation. Cell cultures (SV3NeoB) were collected from testing materials by means of 200- or 500-μm-thick dentin slices and placed in a cell culture perfusion chamber. Cell viability was measured 24 h post-exposition by means of a photometrical test (MTT test). The best bonding performance was shown by the single-step adhesive Easy Bond (21 MPa, 200 μm; 27 MPa, 500 μm) followed by Single Bond (15.6 MPa, 200 μm; 23.4 MPa, 500 μm), SE Plus (18.2 MPa, 200 μm; 20 MPa, 500 μm), and Multi-Purpose (15.2 MPa, 200 μm; 17.9 MPa, 500 μm). Regarding the cytotoxicity, Multi-Purpose slightly reduced the cell viability to 92% (200 μm)/93% (500 μm). Single Bond was reasonably cytotoxic, reducing cell viability to 71% (200 μm)/64% (500 μm). The self-etching adhesive Scotchbond SE decreased cell viability to 85% (200 μm)/71% (500 μm). Conversely, Easy Bond did not reduce cell viability in this test, regardless of the dentin thickness. Results showed that the one-step system had the best bond strength performance and was the least toxic to pulp cells. In multiple-step systems, a correct bonding technique must be done, and a pulp capping strategy is necessary for achieving good performance in both properties. The study showed a promising system (one-step self-etching), referring to it as a good alternative for specific cases, mainly due to its

  10. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  11. Effect of cooking and cold storage on biologically active antibiotic residues in meat.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. J.; Campbell, N.; Conaghan, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to see if cooking or cold storage would destroy or decrease the level of biologically active antibiotic in tissues from animals given therapeutic doses of antibiotic on three occasions prior to slaughter. The effects of cooking and cold storage on the biological activity of the residues of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphadimidine were varied; in some instances the effects were minimal, in others nil. PMID:7310129

  12. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  13. Interaction of carbon nanohorns with plants: Uptake and biological effects

    DOE PAGES

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Chen, Jihua; Irin, Fahmida; ...

    2014-10-07

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns (SWCNHs) are a unique carbon-based nanomaterial with promising application in different fields including, medicine, genetic engineering and horticulture. Here, we investigated the biological response of six crop species (barley, corn, rice, soybean, switchgrass, tomato) and tobacco cell culture to the exposure of SWCNHs. We found that SWCNHs can activate seed germination of selected crops and enhance growth of different organs of corn, tomato, rice and soybean. At cellular level, growth of tobacco cells was increased in response to exposure of SWCNHs (78% increase compared to control). Uptake of SWCNHs by exposed crops and tobacco cells was confirmedmore » by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantified by microwave induced heating (MIH) technique. At genetic level, SWCNHs were able to affect expression of a number of tomato genes that are involved in stress responses, cellular responses and metabolic processes. Our conclusion is that SWCNHs can be used as plant growth regulators and have the potential for plant-related applications.« less

  14. Integrating fluid dynamic and biologic effects on staphylococci bacteria biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Erica; Endres, Jennifer; Bayles, Kenneth; Wei, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are able to form biofilms and distinctive tower structures that facilitate their ability to tolerate treatment and to spread within the human body. The formation of towers, which break off, get carried downstream and serve to initiate biofilms in other parts of the body are of particular interest here. In previous work on biofilm growth and evolution in steady, laminar microchannel flows, it has been established that tower formation occurs around a very limited range of applied shear stresses centered on 0.6 dynes/cm2. Quantifying cell density characteristics as a function of time during biofilm formation reveals indicators of tower development hours before towers actually form and become visible. The next step in this research is to explore biological factors that might explain why this specific shear is so important. Additional studies with mutants, e.g. ica-A, that have been tied to tower formation have been conducted. The shear dependence of these mutants and their correlation to the behavior of wild type S. aureus is examined.

  15. Afferent Mechanisms of Microwave-Induced Biological Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-12

    an effect by treatment with low doses of narcotic antagonist (naloxone or naltrexone ) was used as a criterion for the involvement of endogenous...block number) kEffects of low -level microwave irradiation on neurological function wer-LinesTrgated in the- rat. Results can be summarized in the...effects of microwave exposure and may have important implications in certain occupational situations in which repeated exposure to low -level microwaves is

  16. The obesogenic effect of high fructose exposure during early development

    PubMed Central

    Goran, Michael I.; Dumke, Kelly; Bouret, Sebastien G.; Kayser, Brandon; Walker, Ryan W.; Blumberg, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Obesogens are compounds that disrupt the function and development of adipose tissue or the normal metabolism of lipids, leading to an increased risk of obesity and associated diseases. Evidence for the adverse effects of industrial and agricultural obesogens, such as tributyltin, bisphenol A and other organic pollutants is well-established. Current evidence suggests that high maternal consumption of fat promotes obesity and increased metabolic risk in offspring, but less is known about the effects of other potential nutrient obesogens. Widespread increase in dietary fructose consumption over the past 30 years is associated with chronic metabolic and endocrine disorders and alterations in feeding behaviour that promote obesity. In this Perspectives, we examine the evidence linking high intakes of fructose with altered metabolism and early obesity. We review the evidence suggesting that high fructose exposure during critical periods of development of the fetus, neonate and infant can act as an obesogen by affecting lifelong neuroendocrine function, appetite control, feeding behaviour, adipogenesis, fat distribution and metabolic systems. These changes ultimately favour the long-term development of obesity and associated metabolic risk. PMID:23732284

  17. Biological Effects of Atomic Radiations; ACCIONES BIOLOGICAS DE LAS RADIACIONES ATOMICAS

    SciT

    Patetta-Queirolo, M.A.

    1959-02-01

    A resume is presented of each class in a course on the biological effects of nuclear radiations. The topics discussed include the physical and chemical bases of radiation effects, primary and secondary processes, accumulated effects, biochemical and cellular effects, radiation effects on living organisms and tissues, radioecology, genetic effects, cytogenetic effects, genetics of radiation in mammals, response of mammals to irradiation, dosimetry, and protection against radiations. (J.S.R.)

  18. Biological Effects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement Into the Grafted Alveolar Cleft.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Li, Renmei; Chen, Zhengxi; Huang, Yuanliang; Chen, Zhenqi

    2018-03-01

    Functional stimulus during orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted bone can lead to better alveolar bone grafting outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the biological effects of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar cleft area with histologic staining, fluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An animal model of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar cleft area was established in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into the experimental group and the control group. Four checkpoints were observed: before orthodontic stimuli, day 1 after orthodontic stimuli, day 3 after orthodontic stimuli, and day 5 after orthodontic stimuli. The cleft bone formation conditions, including the collagen fibers and the activities of the osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were evaluated by histologic staining. The expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 was detected by real-time PCR in both groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the remodeling process of iliac autografts was completed when the orthodontic stress was applied, whereas the bone tissues first showed osteoclastogenesis and then osteogenesis. On the basis of TRAP staining, the osteoclasts increased to the maximal amount on day 3 and decreased thereafter. Evidence from tetracycline fluorescence staining indicated that no obvious changes in osteoblast activity were detected at the early stage; however, it gradually increased, especially in the region close to the root surface. According to real-time PCR, the expression of TRAP increased in both the early and middle stages, that of receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand increased in the early stage, and that of Runt-related transcription factor 2 increased in the late stage. Moreover, the results showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups

  19. Effective numbers in the partitioning of biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf

    2016-11-21

    Admissible measures of diversity allow specification of the number of types (species, alleles, etc.) that are "effectively" involved in producing the diversity (the "diversity effective number", also referred to as "true diversity") of a community or population. In metacommunities, effective numbers additionally serve in partitioning the total diversity (symbolized by γ) into one component summarizing the diversity within communities (symbolized by α) and an independent component summarizing the differences between communities (symbolized by β). There is growing consensus that the β-component should be treated in terms of an effective number of "distinct" communities in the metacommunity. Yet, the notion of distinctness is shown in the present paper to remain conceptually ambiguous at least with respect to the diversity within the "distinct" communities. To overcome this ambiguity and to provide the means for designing further desirable effective numbers, a new approach is taken that involves a generalized concept of effective number. The approach relies on first specifying the distributional characteristics of partitioning diversity among communities (among which are differentiation, where the same types tend to occur in the same communities, and apportionment, where different types tend to occur in different communities), then developing the indices which measure these characteristics, and finally inferring the effective numbers from these indices. (1) The β-component reflects apportionment characteristics of metacommunity structure and is quantified by the "apportionment effective number" of communities (number of effectively monomorphic communities). Since differentiation between communities arises only as a side effect of apportionment, the common interpretation of the β-component in terms of differentiation is unwarranted. (2) Multiplicative as well as additive methods of partitioning the total type diversity (γ) involve apportionment effective numbers

  20. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapultseva, E.; Uskalova, D.; Savina, N.; Ustenko, K.

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna. These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia. We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia. Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level.

  1. Effects of a Computer-Based Early Reading Program on the Early Reading and Oral Language Skills of At-Risk Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstetter, Mary; King, James R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Schneider, Jenifer J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a computer-based early reading program (Headsprout Early Reading) on the oral language and early reading skills of at-risk preschool children. In a pretest-posttest control group design, 62 children were randomly assigned to receive supplemental instruction with Headsprout Early Reading (experimental group) or…

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Secukinumab as First Biologic Treatment, Compared with Other Biologics, for Moderate to Severe Psoriasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; McBride, Doreen; Gilloteau, Isabelle; O'Neill, Caitriona; Neidhardt, Katja; Graham, Christopher N

    2018-05-05

    Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes interleukin-17A, has demonstrated strong and sustained efficacy in adults with moderate to severe psoriasis in clinical trials. This analysis compared the cost per responder of secukinumab as first biologic treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, with adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept, and ustekinumab in Germany. A 52-week decision-tree model was developed. Response to treatment was assessed based on the likelihood of achieving a predefined Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response to separate the cohort into responders (PASI ≥75), partial responders (PASI 50 to 74), and non-responders (PASI <50). Responders at week 16 continued initial treatment, whereas partial responders and non-responders were switched to standard of care, which included methotrexate, cyclosporine, phototherapy, and topical corticosteroids. Sustained response was defined as 16-week response maintained at week 52. A German health care system perspective was adopted. Clinical efficacy data was obtained from a mixed-treatment comparison; 2016 resource unit costs from national sources; and adverse events and discontinuation rates from the literature. We calculated cost per PASI 90 responder over week 16 and week 52, as well as cost per sustained responder between weeks 16 and 52. Secukinumab had the lowest cost per PASI 90 responder over 16 weeks (€18,026) compared with ustekinumab (€18,080), adalimumab (€23,499), infliximab (€29,599), and etanercept (€34,037). Over 52 weeks, costs per PASI 90 responder ranged from €42,409 (secukinumab) to €70,363 (etanercept). Likewise, secukinumab had the lowest cost per sustained 52-week PASI 90 responder (€22,690) compared with other biologic treatments. Sensitivity analyses, excluding patient copayments, showed similar results. First biologic treatment with secukinumab for moderate to severe psoriasis is cost-effective, with lowest cost per responder

  3. Early and sustained efficacy with apremilast monotherapy in biological-naïve patients with psoriatic arthritis: a phase IIIB, randomised controlled trial (ACTIVE).

    PubMed

    Nash, Peter; Ohson, Kamal; Walsh, Jessica; Delev, Nikolay; Nguyen, Dianne; Teng, Lichen; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Aelion, Jacob A

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate apremilast efficacy across various psoriatic arthritis (PsA) manifestations beginning at week 2 in biological-naïve patients with PsA. Patients were randomised (1:1) to apremilast 30 mg twice daily or placebo. At week 16, patients whose swollen and tender joint counts had not improved by ≥10% were eligible for early escape. At week 24, all patients received apremilast through week 52. Among 219 randomised patients (apremilast: n=110; placebo: n=109), a significantly greater American College of Rheumatology 20 response at week 16 (primary outcome) was observed with apremilast versus placebo (38.2% (42/110) vs 20.2% (22/109); P=0.004); response rates at week 2 (first assessment) were 16.4% (18/110) versus 6.4% (7/109) (P=0.025). Improvements in other efficacy outcomes, including 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) using C reactive protein (CRP), swollen joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), enthesitis and morning stiffness severity, were observed with apremilast at week 2. At week 16, apremilast significantly reduced PsA disease activity versus placebo, with changes in DAS-28 (CRP) (P<0.0001), HAQ-DI (P=0.023) and Gladman Enthesitis Index (P=0.001). Improvements were maintained with continued treatment through week 52. Over 52 weeks, apremilast's safety profile was consistent with prior phase 3 studies in psoriasis and PsA. During weeks 0-24, the incidence of protocol-defined diarrhoea was 11.0% (apremilast) and 8.3% (placebo); serious adverse event rates were 2.8% (apremilast) and 4.6% (placebo). In biological-naïve patients with PsA, onset of effect with apremilast was observed at week 2 and continued through week 52. The safety profile was consistent with previous reports. NCT01925768; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effects of differentiation on the geodynamics of the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, Andrea; Kaus, Boris; White, Richard; Johnson, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Archean geodynamic processes are not well understood, but there is general agreement that the mantle potential temperature was higher than present, and that as a consequence significant amounts of melt were produced both in the mantle and any overlying crust. This has likely resulted in crustal differentiation. An early attempt to model the geodynamic effects of differentiation was made by Johnson et al. (2014), who used numerical modeling to investigate the crust production and recycling in conjunction with representative phase diagrams (based on the inferred chemical composition of the primary melt in accordance with the Archean temperature field). The results of the simulations show that the base of the over-thickened primary basaltic crust becomes gravitational unstable due to the mineral assemblage changes. This instability leads to the dripping of dense material into the mantle, which causes an asthenospheric return flow, local partial melting and new primary crust generation that is rapidly recycled in to mantle. Whereas they gave important insights, the previous simulations were simplified in a number of aspects: 1) the rheology employed was viscous, and both elasticity and pressure-dependent plasticity were not considered; 2) extracted mantle melts were 100% transformed into volcanic rocks, whereas on the present day Earth only about 20-30% are volcanic and the remainder is plutonic; 3) the effect of a free surface was not studied in a systematic manner. In order to better understand how these simplifications affect the geodynamic models, we here present additional simulations to study the effects of each of these parameters. Johnson, T.E., Brown, M., Kaus, B., and VanTongeren, J.A., 2014, Delamination and recycling of Archaean crust caused by gravitational instabilities: Nature Geoscience, v. 7, no. 1, p. 47-52, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2019.

  5. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according to the program of HD initiation for systemic amyloidosis patients associated with RA. Results Ten patients had been treated with biologics before HD initiation for a mean of 28.2 months (biologic group), while 18 had not (non-biologic group). HD was initiated in patients with similar characteristics except for the tender joint count, swollen joint count, and disease activity score (DAS)28-C-reactive protein (CRP). History of biologics showed that etanercept was frequently used for 8 patients as the first biologic. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.939) and or associated risk of death in an age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (p=0.758) between both groups. Infections were significantly more frequent causes of death in the biologic group than in the non-biologic group (p=0.021). However, treatment with biologics improved the DAS28-CRP score (p=0.004). Conclusion Under the limited conditions of AA amyloidosis treated with HD, the use of biologics might affect infection and thus may not improve the prognosis. Strict infection control is necessary for the use of biologics with HD to improve the prognosis.

  6. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according to the program of HD initiation for systemic amyloidosis patients associated with RA. Results Ten patients had been treated with biologics before HD initiation for a mean of 28.2 months (biologic group), while 18 had not (non-biologic group). HD was initiated in patients with similar characteristics except for the tender joint count, swollen joint count, and disease activity score (DAS)28-C-reactive protein (CRP). History of biologics showed that etanercept was frequently used for 8 patients as the first biologic. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.939) and or associated risk of death in an age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (p=0.758) between both groups. Infections were significantly more frequent causes of death in the biologic group than in the non-biologic group (p=0.021). However, treatment with biologics improved the DAS28-CRP score (p=0.004). Conclusion Under the limited conditions of AA amyloidosis treated with HD, the use of biologics might affect infection and thus may not improve the prognosis. Strict infection control is necessary for the use of biologics with HD to improve the prognosis. PMID:27725536

  7. Effective Leadership and Management in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet

    2006-01-01

    There has recently been an unprecedented focus on early years care and education, particularly on the impact of the various adults who work and play with children in the birth to five/six-years age range. Staff in early years settings have had to adapt to many changes and demands, locally and nationally, from local authorities and national…

  8. "I Have a Hippopotamus!": Preparing Effective Early Childhood Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia; Leeper-Miller, Jennifer; Hamel, Erin; Hong, Soo-Young; Sarver, Susan; Rupiper, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood teacher-preparation program that infuses environmental education and nature experiences into courses, practicum, and student-teaching experiences. Program philosophy, pedagogy, materials, and methods are described and linked to the Early Childhood Environmental Education Programs: Guidelines for…

  9. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  10. Effects of Gravity, Microgravity or Microgravity Simulation on Early Mammalian Development.

    PubMed

    Ruden, Douglas M; Bolnick, Alan; Awonuga, Awoniyi; Abdulhasan, Mohammed; Perez, Gloria; Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2018-06-11

    Plant and animal life forms evolved mechanisms for sensing and responding to gravity on Earth where homeostatic needs require responses. The lack of gravity, such as in the International Space Station (ISS), causes acute, intra-generational changes in the quality of life. These include maintaining calcium levels in bone, maintaining muscle tone, and disturbances in the vestibular apparatus in the ears. These problems decrease work efficiency and quality of life of humans not only during microgravity exposures but also after return to higher gravity on Earth or destinations such as Mars or the Moon. It has been hypothesized that lack of gravity during mammalian development may cause prenatal, postnatal and transgenerational effects that conflict with the environment, especially if the developing organism and its progeny are returned, or introduced de novo, into the varied gravity environments mentioned above. Although chicken and frog pregastrulation development, and plant root development, have profound effects due to orientation of cues by gravity-sensing mechanisms and responses, mammalian development is not typically characterized as gravity-sensing. Although no effects of microgravity simulation (MGS) on mouse fertilization were observed in two reports, negative effects of MGS on early mammalian development after fertilization and before gastrulation are presented in four reports that vary with the modality of MGS. This review will analyze the positive and negative mammalian early developmental outcomes, and enzymatic and epigenetic mechanisms known to mediate developmental responses to simulated microgravity on Earth and microgravity during spaceflight experiments. We will update experimental techniques that have already been developed or need to be developed for zero gravity molecular, cellular, and developmental biology experiments.

  11. Small-scale laser based electron accelerators for biology and medicine: a comparative study of the biological effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labate, Luca; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Baffigi, Federica; Basta, Giuseppina; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Borghini, Andrea; Candiano, Giuliana C.; Casarino, Carlo; Cresci, Monica; Di Martino, Fabio; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Ghetti, Francesco; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Giulietti, Antonio; Köster, Petra; Lenci, Francesco; Levato, Tadzio; Oishi, Yuji; Russo, Giorgio; Sgarbossa, Antonella; Traino, Claudio; Gizzi, Leonida A.

    2013-05-01

    Laser-driven electron accelerators based on the Laser Wakefield Acceleration process has entered a mature phase to be considered as alternative devices to conventional radiofrequency linear accelerators used in medical applications. Before entering the medical practice, however, deep studies of the radiobiological effects of such short bunches as the ones produced by laser-driven accelerators have to be performed. Here we report on the setup, characterization and first test of a small-scale laser accelerator for radiobiology experiments. A brief description of the experimental setup will be given at first, followed by an overview of the electron bunch characterization, in particular in terms of dose delivered to the samples. Finally, the first results from the irradiation of biological samples will be briefly discussed.

  12. The effects of microgravity on gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.

    Gametogenesis fertilization and early embryogenesis are crucial periods for normal development afterwards In past three decades many experiments have been conducted in space and in simulated weightlessness induced by clinostats to elucidate the issue Different animal species including Drosophila wasp shrimp fish amphibian mouse rats etc have been used for the study Oogenesis and spermatogenesis are affected by microgravity in different ways Some researches found that microgravity condition perturbed the process of oogenesis in many species A significant increased frequency of chromosomal non-disjunction was found in Drosophila females resulting the loss of chromosomes during meiosis and inhibition of cell division Studies on wasp showed a decreased hatchability and accumulation of unhatched eggs when the insects were exposed to spaceflight at different stages of oogenesis For experiments conducted on vertebrate animal models the results are somehow different however Microgravity has no significant effect for fish Medaka etc amphibian South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis or mammals mouse Spermatogenesis on the other hand is more significantly affected by microgravity condition Some researches indicated sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force and this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs Sperm swim with higher velocity in microgravity which is coupled with altered protein phosphorylation level in sperm under microgravity condition Microgravity also induced activation of the

  13. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borgia, Francesco; Giuffrida, Roberta; Caradonna, Emanuela; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cannavò, Serafinella P.

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations. PMID:29382133

  14. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciT

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  15. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Valentina; Giovannetti, Giulio; Vanello, Nicola; Lombardi, Massimo; Landini, Luigi; Simi, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic technique, the number of people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased dramatically. In this review, based on the results of a pioneer study showing in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of MRI scans, we report an updated survey about the effects of non-ionizing EMF employed in MRI, relevant for patients’ and workers’ safety. While the whole data does not confirm a risk hypothesis, it suggests a need for further studies and prudent use in order to avoid unnecessary examinations, according to the precautionary principle. PMID:19578460

  16. Early biocompatibility of crosslinked and non-crosslinked biologic meshes in a porcine model of ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Melman, L; Jenkins, E D; Hamilton, N A; Bender, L C; Brodt, M D; Deeken, C R; Greco, S C; Frisella, M M; Matthews, B D

    2011-04-01

    Biologic meshes have unique physical properties as a result of manufacturing techniques such as decellularization, crosslinking, and sterilization. The purpose of this study is to directly compare the biocompatibility profiles of five different biologic meshes, AlloDerm(®) (non-crosslinked human dermal matrix), PeriGuard(®) (crosslinked bovine pericardium), Permacol(®) (crosslinked porcine dermal matrix), Strattice(®) (non-crosslinked porcine dermal matrix), and Veritas(®) (non-crosslinked bovine pericardium), using a porcine model of ventral hernia repair. Full-thickness fascial defects were created in 20 Yucatan minipigs and repaired with the retromuscular placement of biologic mesh 3 weeks later. Animals were euthanized at 1 month and the repair sites were subjected to tensile testing and histologic analysis. Samples of unimplanted (de novo) meshes and native porcine abdominal wall were also analyzed for their mechanical properties. There were no significant differences in the biomechanical characteristics between any of the mesh-repaired sites at 1 month postimplantation or between the native porcine abdominal wall without implanted mesh and the mesh-repaired sites (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Histologically, non-crosslinked materials exhibited greater cellular infiltration, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and neovascularization compared to crosslinked meshes. While crosslinking differentiates biologic meshes with regard to cellular infiltration, ECM deposition, scaffold degradation, and neovascularization, the integrity and strength of the repair site at 1 month is not significantly impacted by crosslinking or by the de novo strength/stiffness of the mesh.

  17. Infant feeding effects on early neurocognitive development in Asian children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shirong; Pang, Wei Wei; Low, Yen Ling; Sim, Lit Wee; Sam, Suet Chian; Bruntraeger, Michaela Bianka; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Fok, Doris; Broekman, Birit F P; Singh, Leher; Richmond, Jenny; Agarwal, Pratibha; Qiu, Anqi; Saw, Seang Mei; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Kramer, Michael S; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to enhance global measures of intelligence in children. However, few studies have examined associations between breastfeeding and specific cognitive task performance in the first 2 y of life, particularly in an Asian population. We assessed associations between early infant feeding and detailed measures of cognitive development in the first 2 y of life in healthy Asian children born at term. In a prospective cohort study, neurocognitive testing was performed in 408 healthy children (aged 6, 18, and 24 mo) from uncomplicated pregnancies (i.e., birth weight >2500 and <4000 g, gestational age ≥37 wk, and 5-min Apgar score ≥9). Tests included memory (deferred imitation, relational binding, habituation) and attention tasks (visual expectation, auditory oddball) as well as the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Children were stratified into 3 groups (low, intermediate, and high) on the basis of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. After potential confounding variables were controlled for, significant associations and dose-response relations were observed for 4 of the 15 tests. Higher breastfeeding exposure was associated with better memory at 6 mo, demonstrated by greater preferential looking toward correctly matched items during early portions of a relational memory task (i.e., relational binding task: P-trend = 0.015 and 0.050 for the first two 1000-ms time bins, respectively). No effects of breastfeeding were observed at 18 mo. At 24 mo, breastfed children were more likely to display sequential memory during a deferred imitation memory task (P-trend = 0.048), and toddlers with more exposure to breastfeeding scored higher in receptive language [+0.93 (0.23, 1.63) and +1.08 (0.10, 2.07) for intermediate- and high-breastfeeding groups, respectively, compared with the low-breastfeeding group], as well as expressive language [+0.58 (-0.06, 1.23) and +1.22 (0.32, 2.12) for intermediate- and high

  18. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    PubMed

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologically effective surface UV climatology at Rome and Aosta, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna Maria; Modesti, Sarah; Casale, Giuseppe Rocco; Diemoz, Henri; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    Given the beneficial and harmful effects of UV radiation on human health, our study aims to provide a characterization of erythemal and vitamin D dose rates at two Italian sites, Rome and Aosta, subject to quite different environmental conditions. Based on the respective UV climatologies, exposure times needed to induce erythema or vitamin D photoproduction are provided as a function of the UV index.

  20. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF UTAH VALLEY PARTICLES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Utah Valley provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) in humans. The area has had intermittently high particle levels with the principal point source being a steel mill. Due to a labor dispute, the mill was shut down. The closu...

  1. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    absorbed power levels. The effect of EMR on CCAs will be evaluated using the following parameters: beat rate, maximum diastolic potential, action 0591...cerebral forma- superior olive were similar to those evoked by tions examined. The swelling of the cytoplasm was acoustic pulses presented binaurally at a

  2. The Remedial Effect of a Biological Learning Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a structured learning game in overcoming learning difficulties encountered by Israeli students when studying the life cycles of fungi because of lack of structural conceptualization. The Fungi Life Cycle Game (FLCG) was used by undergraduate students enrolled in a phytopathology course. (HM)

  3. Effects of temperature on biological activity of permafrost microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kalyonova, L F; Novikova, M A; Subbotin, A M; Bazhin, A S

    2015-04-01

    The number and viability of microorganism specimens Bacillus spp. isolated from permafrost soil remained unchanged after incubation at temperatures of -16-37°C. Experiments on F1 CBA/Black-6 mice showed that incubation of bacteria at -5°C for 72 h promotes a decrease in their toxicity and an increase in their immunostimulating effect.

  4. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciT

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TAmore » are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.« less

  5. Fruit as Potent Natural Antioxidants and Their Biological Effects.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; Da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Nabavi, Seyed M; Mota, Erika F; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana C S; Daglia, Maria; De Melo, Dirce F

    The consumption of fruit has increased in the last 20 years, along with the growing recognition of its nutritional and protective values. Many of the benefits of a diet rich in fruit are attributed to the presence of different bioactive substances, such as vitamins, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Flavanoids, a class of phenolic compounds, present particular antioxidant activity and thus provide protection against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Research suggests that an increased intake of plant foods is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic disease. There is currently a great deal of interest in the study of antioxidants, in particular due to the discovery of the damaging effects of free radicals to the body. Thus, this review aims to address the beneficial effects of the antioxidants present in fruits, on the neutralization of reactive species and the reduction of any damage they may cause.

  6. [Effect of biological electric stimulation on free muscle transfer].

    PubMed

    Yuang, F; Guan, W; Cao, Y

    1997-01-01

    The rectus femoris muscles of rabbits were used as muscle model. The electrical stimulation which resembled the normal motor-unit activity was used to observe its effects on free transferred muscle. After three months, the moist muscle weight (MW), its maximum cross-section area, its contractility and its histochemical characteristics were examined. The results showed that the function and morphology of the muscles were well preserved. These findings might encourage its clinical application.

  7. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  8. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    PubMed

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  10. Potential Biological and Ecological Effects of Flickering Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Inger, Richard; Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered. PMID:24874801

  11. Facilitating Effects of Emotion on the Perception of Biological Motion: Evidence for a Happiness Superiority Effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hannah; Kim, Jejoong

    2017-06-01

    It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect. Point-light walkers with three emotion types (anger, happiness, and neutral) were used, and the threshold to detect BM within noise was measured in Experiment 1. Participants showed higher performance in detecting happy walkers compared with the angry and neutral walkers. Follow-up motion velocity analysis revealed that physical difference among the stimuli was not the main factor causing the effect. The results of the emotion recognition task in Experiment 2 also showed a happiness superiority effect, as in Experiment 1. These results show that emotional valence (happiness) of the stimuli can facilitate the processing of BM.

  12. Unknown biological effects of L-glucose, ALA, and PUFA.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Katsuya; Sato, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takao; Amano, Hizuru; Morimoto, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Key substrates including glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids play core roles in nutrient metabolism. In this review, we describe phenomena observed when key substrates are applied to cells. We focused on three promising substrates: L-glucose derivatives, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid. Since they are assumed to give a specific reaction when they are transported into cells or metabolized in cells, they are expected to be applied in a clinical setting. We provide the latest knowledge regarding their behaviors and effects on cells.

  13. [Biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields: introduction].

    PubMed

    Pira, E

    2003-01-01

    A widespread agreement on the presence, if any, of an association between non deterministic effects and exposure to electromagnetic fields (ELF and RF-MW) has not been reached yet. Some critical points of the pooled analyses of data that lead to the conclusion of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) are examined. While waiting for more well planned scientific studies, it seems important for scientific experts to give the most sober interpretation of current data, considering the widespread and growing attention of the general population for this subject.

  14. The Prodrome of Autism: Early Behavioral and Biological Signs, Regression, Peri- and Post-Natal Development and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirmiya, Nurit; Charman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Autism is one of the most heritable neurodevelopmental conditions and has an early onset, with symptoms being required to be present in the first 3 years of life in order to meet criteria for the "core" disorder in the classification systems. As such, the focus on identifying a prodrome over the past 20 years has been on pre-clinical…

  15. Predicting Cognitive-Language and Social Growth Curves from Early Maternal Behaviors in Children at Varying Degrees of Biological Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Swank, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Used growth modeling to examine relationship of early parenting to cognitive, language, and social development from 6 to 40 months in full-term and very low birth weight (medically low or high risk) children. Found that behaviors that were sensitive to children's focus of interest and did not highly control or restrict their behaviors predicted…

  16. Neutron exposures in human cells: bystander effect and relative biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seth, Isheeta; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Stewart, Robert D; Emery, Robert; Joiner, Michael C; Tucker, James D

    2014-01-01

    Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy), and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM) was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (p<0.0001). These data indicate that neutrons do not induce a bystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0 ± 0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8 ± 2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety.

  17. Testosterone reactivity to provocation mediates the effect of early intervention on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Welker, Keith M; Hariri, Ahmad R; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Fast Track intervention program for high-risk children would reduce adult aggressive behavior and that this effect would be mediated by decreased testosterone responses to social provocation. Participants were a subsample of males from the full trial sample, who during kindergarten had been randomly assigned to the 10-year Fast Track intervention or to a control group. The Fast Track program attempted to develop children's social competencies through child social-cognitive and emotional-coping skills training, peer-relations coaching, academic tutoring, and classroom management, as well as training for parents to manage their child's behavior. At a mean age of 26 years, participants responded to laboratory provocations. Results indicated that, relative to control participants, men assigned to the intervention demonstrated reduced aggression and testosterone reactivity to social provocations. Moreover, reduced testosterone reactivity mediated the effect of intervention on aggressive behavior, which provides evidence for an enduring biological mechanism underlying the effect of early psychosocial intervention on aggressive behavior in adulthood.

  18. Early Life Stress Effects on Glucocorticoid—BDNF Interplay in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; De Kloet, Edo Ronald; Yehuda, Rachel; Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M.

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid (GC) and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. GC-signaling mediates the regulation of stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidance and synaptic integrity. The neurotrophin and GC-signaling pathways co-exist throughout the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hippocampus, which has high expression levels of glucocorticoid-receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid-receptors (MR) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB). This review addresses the effects of ELS paradigms on GC- and BDNF-dependent mechanisms and their crosstalk in the hippocampus, including potential implications for the pathogenesis of common stress-related disorders. PMID:26635521

  19. Effects of Chaos in Peristaltic Flows: Towards Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeley, Paul W.; Blake, John R.; Smith, David J.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2006-11-01

    One in seven couples in the Western World will have problems conceiving naturally and with the cost of state provided fertility treatment in the United Kingdom being over USD 3Million per annum and a round of treatment paid for privately costing around USD 6000, the desire to understand the mechanisms of infertility is leading to a renewed interest in collaborations between mathematicians and reproductive biologists. Hydrosalpinx is a condition in which the oviduct becomes blocked, fluid filled and dilated. Many women with this condition are infertile and the primary method of treatment is in vitro fertilisation, however, it is found that despite the embryo being implanted into the uterus, the hydrosalpinx adversely affects the implantation rate. We shall consider a mathematical model for peristaltic flow with an emphasis towards modelling the fluid flow in the oviducts and the uterus of humans. We shall consider the effects of chaotic behavior on the system and demonstrate that under certain initial conditions trapping regions can be formed and discuss our results with a view towards understanding the effects of hydrosalpinx.

  20. Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2005-02-01

    In recent decades, clinicians and scientists have witnessed a significant increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The factors underlying this phenomenon are clearly complex; however, this rapid increase in the burden of atopic disease has undeniably occurred in parallel with rapid industrialization and urbanization in many parts of the world. Consequently, more people are exposed to air pollutants than at any point in human history. Worldwide, increases in allergic respiratory disease have mainly been observed in urban communities. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations have suggested a strong link between particulate air pollution and detrimental health effects, including cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based summary of the health effects of air pollutants on asthma, focusing on diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) as a model particulate air pollutant. An overview of observational and experimental studies linking DEPs and asthma will be provided, followed by consideration of the mechanisms underlying DEP-induced inflammation and a brief discussion of future research and clinical directions.

  1. Mindmapping: Its effects on student achievement in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Glennis Edge

    The primary goal of schools is to promote the highest degree of learning possible. Yet teachers spend the majority of their time engaged in lecturing while students spend the majority of their time passively present (Cawelti, 1997, Grinder, 1991; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Jenkins, 1996). Helping students develop proficiency in learning, which translates into using that expertise to construct knowledge in subject domains, is a crucial goal of education. Students need exposure to teaching and learning practices that prepare them for both the classroom and their places in the future workforce (Ettinger, 1998; Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, & Rhind, 2001; NRC, 1996; Texley & Wild, 1996). The purpose of this study was to determine if achievement in high school science courses could be enhanced utilizing mindmapping. The subjects were primarily 9th and 10th graders (n = 147) at a suburban South Texas high school. A pretest-posttest control group design was selected to determine the effects of mindmapping on student achievement as measured by a teacher-developed, panel-validated instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the teacher and a purposive sample of students (n = 7) to determine their perceptions of mindmapping and its effects on teaching and learning. Mindmapping is a strategy for visually displaying large amounts of conceptual, hierarchical information in a concise, organized, and accessible format. Mindmaps arrange information similar to that found on the traditional topic outline into colorful spatial displays that offer the user a view of the "forest" as well as the "trees" (Hyerle, 1996; Wandersee, 1990b). An independent samples t-test and a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) determined no significant difference in achievement between the groups. The experimental group improved in achievement at least as much as the control group. Several factors may have played a role in the lack of statistically significant results. These factors include the

  2. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Related to the Operation of MRI/TMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemitsu, Tsukasa; Ueno, Shoogo

    This paper reviews issues of biological effects and safety aspects of the electromagnetic fields related to both Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a diagnostic technique. The noninvasive character of these diagnostic techniques is based on the utilization of the electromagnetic fields such as the static magnetic field, time-varying magnetic field, and radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Following the short view of the history and the principle of these noninvasive techniques, we review the biological effects of the electromagnetic fields, the health effects and safety issues related to MRI/TMS environments. Through a discussion of biological and health effects, it shows briefly guidelines which provide a consideration in human risk for both patients and medical staff. Finally, safety issues related to MRI/TMS are discussed with the highlighting of the guideline such as the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and EMF Directive (Directve2013/35/EU) of European Union.

  3. Long-term biological effects induced by ionizing radiation--implications for dose mediated risk.

    PubMed

    Miron, S D; Astărăstoae, V

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are considered to be risk agents that are responsible for the effects on interaction with living matter. The occurring biological effects are due to various factors such as: dose, type of radiation, exposure time, type of biological tissue, health condition and the age of the person exposed. The mechanisms involved in the direct modifications of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA are reviewed. Classical target theory of energy deposition in the nucleus that causes DNA damages, in particular DNA double-strand breaks and that explanation of the biological consequences of ionizing radiation exposure is a paradigm in radiobiology. Recent experimental evidences have demonstrated the existence of a molecular mechanism that explains the non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Among these novel data, genomic instability and a variety of bystander effects are discussed here. Those bystander effects of ionizing radiation are fulfilled by cellular communication systems that give rise to non-targeted effects in the neighboring non irradiated cells. This paper provides also a commentary on the synergistic effects induced by the co-exposures to ionizing radiation and various physical agents such as electromagnetic fields and the co-exposures to ionizing radiation and chemical environmental contaminants such as metals. The biological effects of multiple stressors on genomic instability and bystander effects are also discussed. Moreover, a brief presentation of the methods used to characterize cyto- and genotoxic damages is offered.

  4. Integration of analytical and biological measurements for assessing the effects of contaminants present at a Great Lakes area of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the potential biological impacts of complex contaminant mixtures in aquatic environments is a challenge. Instrumental analyses of site waters provide insights into the occurrence of contaminants, but provide little information about possible effects. Biological measur...

  5. Examining Biological Vulnerability in Environmental Context: Parenting Moderates Effects of Low Resting Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia on Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Sarah I.; Ahles, Joshua J.; Crowell, Sheila E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyvagal theory suggests that parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function, indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), may be a marker of emotion regulatory capacity and associated with youth psychopathology. Contemporary models of psychopathology suggest that the effects of biological vulnerability may be moderated by developmental context. The aim of the present study was to examine whether parenting, particularly parental responses to youth’s negative emotions, moderated the effects of resting RSA on depressive symptoms among early adolescents. We examined resting RSA, depressive symptoms, and parental responses to youth negative emotions among 120 adolescents aged 11–14 years (M = 12.86, SD = .85; 52.5% female). Resting RSA and lack of supportive parenting interacted to predict youth depressive symptoms, such that low resting RSA predicted more depressive symptoms only in the context of low levels of supportive parental responses to youth’s negative emotions. By contrast, high resting RSA buffered the effects of low supportive parenting on youth depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of understanding joint contributions of biological vulnerability and developmental context on youth depression outcomes. PMID:26290213

  6. Biological effects of Trichoderma harzianum peptaibols on mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Joanna; Ritieni, Alberto; Mikkola, Raimo; Grigoriev, Pavel A; Pócsfalvi, Gabriella; Andersson, Maria A; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2004-08-01

    Trichoderma species isolated from water-damaged buildings were screened for toxicity by using boar sperm cells as indicator cells. The crude methanolic cell extract from Trichoderma harzianum strain ES39 inhibited the boar sperm cell motility at a low exposure concentration (50% effective concentration, 1 to 5 microg [dry weight] ml of extended boar semen(-1)). The same exposure concentration depleted the boar sperm cells of NADH(2). Inspection of the exposed boar sperm cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed damage to the plasma membrane. By using the black lipid membrane technique, it was shown that the semipurified metabolites (eluted from a SepPak C(18) cartridge) of T. harzianum strain ES39 induced voltage-dependent conductivity. The high-performance liquid chromatography-purified metabolites of T. harzianum strain ES39 dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) of human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (cell line A549). The semipurified metabolites (eluted from a SepPak C(18) cartridge) of T. harzianum strain ES39 were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and nanoflow electrospray ionization MS revealed five major peptaibols, each of which contained 18 residues and had a mass ranging from 1,719 to 1,775 Da. Their partial amino acid sequences were determined by collision-induced dissociation tandem MS.

  7. Biological Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Peptaibols on Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Joanna; Ritieni, Alberto; Mikkola, Raimo; Grigoriev, Pavel A.; Pócsfalvi, Gabriella; Andersson, Maria A.; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S.

    2004-01-01

    Trichoderma species isolated from water-damaged buildings were screened for toxicity by using boar sperm cells as indicator cells. The crude methanolic cell extract from Trichoderma harzianum strain ES39 inhibited the boar sperm cell motility at a low exposure concentration (50% effective concentration, 1 to 5 μg [dry weight] ml of extended boar semen−1). The same exposure concentration depleted the boar sperm cells of NADH2. Inspection of the exposed boar sperm cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed damage to the plasma membrane. By using the black lipid membrane technique, it was shown that the semipurified metabolites (eluted from a SepPak C18 cartridge) of T. harzianum strain ES39 induced voltage-dependent conductivity. The high-performance liquid chromatography-purified metabolites of T. harzianum strain ES39 dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) of human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (cell line A549). The semipurified metabolites (eluted from a SepPak C18 cartridge) of T. harzianum strain ES39 were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and nanoflow electrospray ionization MS revealed five major peptaibols, each of which contained 18 residues and had a mass ranging from 1,719 to 1,775 Da. Their partial amino acid sequences were determined by collision-induced dissociation tandem MS. PMID:15294840

  8. Biologic effects of fenbendazole in rats and mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Villar, David; Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2007-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from toxicologic, carcinogenic, immunologic, and metabolic studies on fenbendazole (FBZ). Currently, FBZ is used to treat or prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Because antiparasitic treatments usually are not part of experimental designs, interactions from the medication on the outcomes of ongoing experiments are a concern. At therapeutic levels, FBZ does not alter the total content of cytochromes P450 but does induce certain hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms, namely 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1. Although expressed constitutively at low or undetectable levels, these isoforms particularly are known for bioactivating a number of procarcinogens. Lifetime studies in rats have shown that FBZ is not a carcinogen but that it may behave as a tumor promoter when given after certain initiators. Unlike in other animal species, FBZ treatment-associated myelosuppression has not been reported to occur in rodents. The few currently available immunologic studies in mice, including an autoimmune model, have not shown effects on selected immune responses. However, data from other animal species suggest that the ability of B and T lymphocytes to proliferate in the secondary immune response may be suppressed during treatment with FBZ.

  9. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  10. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-02-28

    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  12. The First Time Ever I Saw Your Feet: Inversion Effect in Newborns' Sensitivity to Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local…

  13. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life-history data are important for understanding the ecology of fishes. In 2008, we conducted captive propagation studies on 3 species of darters of the subgenus Nothonotus: Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter). The length of spawning period and associated range of water temperatures for the Wounded Darter exceeded that of the Spotted Darter and Boulder Darter. The mean number of eggs produced per female was lowest for Boulder Darter and highest in the Wounded Darter. The Boulder Darter had the highest percent of eggs hatched, the lowest percent larval to juvenile stage survivorship, and the lowest mean number of juveniles produced per female. Egg diameters at deposition and prior to hatch were smallest for the Spotted Darter. If reproductive biology and early lifehistory information from captive fishes represent that of wild populations, then the data obtained during this study are relevant to development and implementation of conservation and management plans for these closely related darter species.

  14. Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Henny, Charles J.; Trudeau, Suzanne F.; Leighton, Frederick A.; Kennedy, Sean W.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2001-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,pa??-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,pa??-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

  15. Two years comparative studies on biological effects of environmental UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grof, P.; Ronto, Gyorgyi; Gaspar, S.; Berces, A.; Szabo, Laszlo D.

    1994-07-01

    A method has been developed for determination of the biologically effective UV dose based on T7 phage as biosensor. In field experiments clockwork driven telescope has been used for determining doses from direct and global (direct plus diffuse) solar radiation. On fine summer days at mid-latitude this arrangement allowed the following comparisons: measured doses from direct and global radiation obtained at the same time and measuring site reflecting the biological importance of diffuse radiation; direct and global radiation obtained at the same time and measuring site reflecting the biological importance of diffuse radiation; direct and global doses obtained at the same time on different measuring sites (downtown, suburb, outside the town) reflecting the differences caused by air quality; direct and global doses obtained on the same measuring place, in summertime of two different years reflecting the importance of the long-term measurements for estimating the biological risk caused by increased UV-B radiation; measured data and model calculations.

  16. Biological effects of functionalizing copolymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhe; Pedersen, Torbjorn O; Wu, Xujun; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Kloss, Frank R; Waag, Thilo; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Mustafa, Kamal

    2013-08-01

    Significant evidence has indicated that poly(L-lactide)-co-(ɛ-caprolactone) [(poly(LLA-co-CL)] scaffolds could be one of the suitable candidates for bone tissue engineering. Oxygen-terminated nanodiamond particles (n-DP) were combined with poly(LLA-co-CL) and revealed to be positive for cell growth. In this study, we evaluated the influence of poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds modified by n-DP on attachment, proliferation, differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro, and on bone formation using a sheep calvarial defect model. BMSCs were seeded on either poly(LLA-co-CL)- or n-DP-coated scaffolds and incubated for 1 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy were used in addition to protein and DNA measurements to evaluate cellular attachment on the scaffolds. To determine the effect of n-DP on proliferation of BMSCs, cell/scaffold constructs were harvested after 3 days and evaluated by Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) protein assay and SEM. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of cells grown for 2 weeks on the various scaffolds and in a dynamic culture condition was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Unmodified and modified scaffolds were implanted into the calvaria of six-year-old sheep. The expression of collagen type I (COL I) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) after 4 weeks as well as the formation of new bone after 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Scaffolds modified with n-DP supported increased cell attachment and the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and BMP-2 were significantly increased after 2 weeks of culture. The BMSCs had spread well on the various scaffolds investigated after 3 days in the study with no significant difference in cell proliferation. Furthermore, the in vivo data revealed more positive staining of COL I and BMP-2 in relation to the n-DP-coated scaffolds after 4 weeks and presented more bone formation after 12 and 24 weeks. n

  17. Uranium isotope fractionation in biogenic carbonates: biological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Romaniello, S. J.; Herrmann, A. D.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated small but potentially significant isotope fractionation ( 0.10 ‰ for 238U/235U) during uranium (U) incorporation into abiotic calcite and aragonite, with heavier U isotopes preferentially enriched in the precipitates [1]. In contrast, measurements of natural biogenic carbonates to date have not been able to resolve significant U isotopic fractionation from seawater although this might be expected given a typical measurement precision of ± 0.10 ‰. Determining whether or not biogenic carbonates display U isotope fractionation similar to abiotic carbonates could have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of U incorporation into various biogenic carbonates. Furthermore, because most marine carbonates are biogenic, the extent of isotopic fractionation, if any, could have important implications for the interpretation of sedimentary carbonates record similar to effects observed for Cr and B isotopes [2, 3]. To resolve this discrepancy, we utilized a higher precision 238U/235U method which uses larger sample sizes to improve measurement precision of natural samples to ± 0.02 ‰ (2 se, N = 6) [4]. Using this method, we have surveyed 238U/235U in primary biogenic skeletal carbonates including scleractinian corals, green and red algae, and mollusks, as well as non-skeletal carbonates such as stromatolites, ooids, and carbonate sands from the Bahamas, Gulf of California, and French Polynesia. New high-precision U isotopes measurements reveal that biogenic skeletal carbonates are typically 0.02 - 0.08 ‰ heavier than modern seawater. Scleractinian corals display values closest to seawater (- 0.37 ‰), while green algae, red algae, mollusks, and echinoderms display variable but larger extents of fractionation up to 0.08 ‰. The direction and magnitude of U isotope fractionation in these biogenic precipitates are generally consistent with results from abiotic coprecipitation experiments, but may be

  18. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  19. Older Adults Benefit from Music Training Early in Life: Biological Evidence for Long-Term Training-Driven Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Anderson, Samira; Strait, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Aging results in pervasive declines in nervous system function. In the auditory system, these declines include neural timing delays in response to fast-changing speech elements; this causes older adults to experience difficulty understanding speech, especially in challenging listening environments. These age-related declines are not inevitable, however: older adults with a lifetime of music training do not exhibit neural timing delays. Yet many people play an instrument for a few years without making a lifelong commitment. Here, we examined neural timing in a group of human older adults who had nominal amounts of music training early in life, but who had not played an instrument for decades. We found that a moderate amount (4–14 years) of music training early in life is associated with faster neural timing in response to speech later in life, long after training stopped (>40 years). We suggest that early music training sets the stage for subsequent interactions with sound. These experiences may interact over time to sustain sharpened neural processing in central auditory nuclei well into older age. PMID:24198359

  20. Older adults benefit from music training early in life: biological evidence for long-term training-driven plasticity.

    PubMed

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Anderson, Samira; Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2013-11-06

    Aging results in pervasive declines in nervous system function. In the auditory system, these declines include neural timing delays in response to fast-changing speech elements; this causes older adults to experience difficulty understanding speech, especially in challenging listening environments. These age-related declines are not inevitable, however: older adults with a lifetime of music training do not exhibit neural timing delays. Yet many people play an instrument for a few years without making a lifelong commitment. Here, we examined neural timing in a group of human older adults who had nominal amounts of music training early in life, but who had not played an instrument for decades. We found that a moderate amount (4-14 years) of music training early in life is associated with faster neural timing in response to speech later in life, long after training stopped (>40 years). We suggest that early music training sets the stage for subsequent interactions with sound. These experiences may interact over time to sustain sharpened neural processing in central auditory nuclei well into older age.

  1. Weathering and vegetation effects in early stages of soil formation

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Alice V. Turkington; Daniel A. Marion

    2008-01-01

    Bedrock surfaces in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, exposed by spillway construction and which had not previously been subjected to surface weathering environments, developed 15?20 cm thick soil covers in less than three decades. All open bedrock joints showed evidence of weathering and biological activity. Rock surfaces and fragments also showed evidence of...

  2. The Effects of Responsive Stimulation in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.; Finkelstein, Neal W.

    This study investigated whether infants who were given increased amounts of response-contingent stimulation would evidence positive and nonspecific transfer of learning to situations requiring new responses to control environmental events. Subjects were thirty 3-month-old biologically normal home-reared infants. Infants in the group assigned to a…

  3. Effects of biology teachers' professional knowledge and cognitive activation on students' achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge - pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK) - and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on the topic neurobiology were videotaped twice. Teachers' instruction was coded with regard to cognitive activation using a rating manual. Multilevel path analysis results showed a positive significant effect of cognitive activation on students' learning and an indirect effect of teachers' PCK on students' learning mediated through cognitive activation. These findings highlight the importance of PCK in preservice biology teachers' education. Items of the rating manual may be used to provide exemplars of concrete teaching situations during university seminars for preservice teacher education or professional development initiatives for in-service teachers.

  4. Immediate Early Genes Anchor a Biological Pathway of Proteins Required for Memory Formation, Long-Term Depression and Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Marballi, Ketan K.; Gallitano, Amelia L.

    2018-01-01

    While the causes of myriad medical and infectious illnesses have been identified, the etiologies of neuropsychiatric illnesses remain elusive. This is due to two major obstacles. First, the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Second, numerous genes influence susceptibility for these illnesses. Genome-wide association studies have identified at least 108 genomic loci for schizophrenia, and more are expected to be published shortly. In addition, numerous biological processes contribute to the neuropathology underlying schizophrenia. These include immune dysfunction, synaptic and myelination deficits, vascular abnormalities, growth factor disruption, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. However, the field of psychiatric genetics lacks a unifying model to explain how environment may interact with numerous genes to influence these various biological processes and cause schizophrenia. Here we describe a biological cascade of proteins that are activated in response to environmental stimuli such as stress, a schizophrenia risk factor. The central proteins in this pathway are critical mediators of memory formation and a particular form of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD). Each of these proteins is also implicated in schizophrenia risk. In fact, the pathway includes four genes that map to the 108 loci associated with schizophrenia: GRIN2A, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc3), early growth response 1 (EGR1) and NGFI-A Binding Protein 2 (NAB2); each of which contains the “Index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)” (most SNP) at its respective locus. Environmental stimuli activate this biological pathway in neurons, resulting in induction of EGR immediate early genes: EGR1, EGR3 and NAB2. We hypothesize that dysfunction in any of the genes in this pathway disrupts the normal activation of Egrs in response to stress. This may result in

  5. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bakkal, B.H.; Gultekin, F.A.; Guven, B.; Turkcu, U.O.; Bektas, S.; Can, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage. PMID:23969972

  6. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C.; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A.; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J. Michael; Stauss, Harald M.; White, C. Roger; Clinton, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  7. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease?

    PubMed Central

    Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D H; McMichael, A J; Woodward, A; Cox, J S

    2001-01-01

    The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Shifts in the distribution and behaviour of insect and bird species indicate that biological systems are already responding to this change. It is well established that climate is an important determinant of the spatial and temporal distribution of vectors and pathogens. In theory, a change in climate would be expected to cause changes in the geographical range, seasonality (intra-annual variability), and in the incidence rate (with or without changes in geographical or seasonal patterns). The detection and then attribution of such changes to climate change is an emerging task for scientists. We discuss the evidence required to attribute changes in disease and vectors to the early effects of anthropogenic climate change. The literature to date indicates that there is a lack of strong evidence of the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, tick-borne diseases). New approaches to monitoring, such as frequent and long-term sampling along transects to monitor the full latitudinal and altitudinal range of specific vector species, are necessary in order to provide convincing direct evidence of climate change effects. There is a need to reassess the appropriate levels of evidence, including dealing with the uncertainties attached to detecting the health impacts of global change. PMID:11516383

  8. Are biological effects of desert shrubs more important than physical effects on soil microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Berg, Naama; Steinberger, Yosef

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation cover plays a major role in providing organic matter and in acting as a physical barrier, with both together contributing to the formation of "fertile islands," which play an active role in prolonging biological activity in desert ecosystems. By undertaking this study, a longterm research, we designed an experiment to separate the two components-the physical and biotic parts of the perennial plants-and to identify the factor that contributes the most to the ecosystem. The study site was located in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where 50 Hammada scoparia shrubs and 50 artificial plants were randomly marked. Soil samples were collected monthly over 3 years of research at three locations: under the canopy of H. scoparia shrubs, in the vicinity of the artificial plants, and between the shrubs (control). The contribution to microbial activity was measured by evaluation of the microbial community functions in soil. The functional aspects of the microbial community that were measured were CO2 evolution, microbial biomass, microbial functional diversity, and the physiological profile of the community. The results of this study are presented in two ways: (1) according to the three locations/treatments; and (2) according to the phenological situation of the vegetation (annual and perennial plants) in the research field: the growing phase, the drying process, and the absence of annual plants. The only parameters that were found to affect microbial activity were the contribution of the organic matter of perennial shrubs and the growth of vegetation (annual and perennial) during the growing seasons. The physical component was found to have no effect on soil microbial functional diversity, which elucidates the important contribution of the desert shrub in enhancing biological multiplicity and activity.

  9. Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Mandolesi, Laura; Polverino, Arianna; Montuori, Simone; Foti, Francesca; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE) is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction. PMID:29755380

  10. Early Supplementary Feeding and Cognition: Effects over Two Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared the performance of two groups of subjects on psychoeducational tests taken during adolescence and early adulthood. Adolescents who had received a protein supplement when they were infants scored higher on tests of knowledge, numeracy, reading, and vocabulary and showed faster reaction times in information-processing tasks than adolescents…

  11. New Evidence for the Effectiveness of the Early Screening Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the psychometric properties of the Early Screening Inventory (ESI), a developmental screening instrument designed to identify four- to six-year-olds at high risk for school failure. The ESI was found to be highly reliable and predictive, and it may be possible to increase its accuracy by combining it with the related Parent Questionnaire.…

  12. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

  13. Effects of Early Childhood Education on Kindergarten Readiness Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modeste, Janis Monrose

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study, which took place in a Central Florida school district, was to investigate the relationship between the quality of the early childhood education (ECE) programs and students' kindergarten readiness scores. Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, which states that a child's environment, culture, and language are…

  14. The Peter Effect in Early Experimental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    One of the signatures of scientific writing is its ability to present the claims of science as if they were "untouched by human hands." In the early years of experimental education, researchers achieved this by adopting a citational practice that led to the sedimentation of their cardinal method, the analysis of variance, and their standard for…

  15. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  16. Education Inequality in Slovakia: The Effects of Early Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelmanova, Olga; Korsnakova, Paulina; Tramonte, Lucia; Willms, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Like many other countries in Central and Eastern Europe, children in Slovakia are allocated to different types of schools at an early age based upon their perceived aptitude. Part of the selection process includes an attempt to identify those children who are particularly academic-oriented. Primary and secondary education in Slovakia is divided…

  17. Getting Ready Right from the Start. Effective Early Literacy Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Ed.; Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.

    Presenting descriptions of seven successful emergent literacy programs, this book demonstrates that early literacy intervention programs with a focus on accelerated learning and on authentic reading and writing tasks can prevent many first-grade children from failing to learn to read. Programs described in the book focus on story book reading and…

  18. Invited Review Article: Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Grundt, Jessica E.

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used in a host of medical, military, and security applications. For example, THz systems are now being tested at international airports for security screening purposes, at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis, and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed explosives, drugs, and weapons. Recent advances in THz applications have stimulated renewed interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Biological effects studies are a valuable type of basic science research because they serve to enhance our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern THz interactions with biological systems. Such studies are also important because they often times lay the foundation for the development of future applications. In addition, from a practical standpoint, THz biological effects research is also necessary for accurate health hazard evaluation, the development of empirically-based safety standards, and for the safe use of THz systems. Given the importance and timeliness of THz bioeffects data, the purpose of this review is twofold. First, to provide readers with a common reference, which contains the necessary background concepts in biophysics and THz technology, that are required to both conduct and evaluate THz biological research. Second, to provide a critical review of the scientific literature.

  19. The Parable of the Sower and the Long-Term Effects of Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work on the long-term effects of early reading focuses on whether children can read early (i.e. capability) not on whether this is beneficial (i.e. optimality). The Luke Effect is introduced to predict long-term reading development as a function of when children learn to read. A review of correlational, intervention, and comparative…

  20. Modeling the Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Variables on Parent and Family Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…

  1. Biological effectiveness of accelerated particles for the induction of chromosome damage: track structure effects.

    PubMed

    George, Kerry A; Hada, Megumi; Chappell, Lori; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated how radiation quality affects the induction of chromosomal aberrations in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated high charge and energy (HZE) particles including oxygen, neon, silicon, titanium and iron. Chromosome damage was assessed using three-color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced premature chromosome condensation samples collected at first cell division after irradiation. The LET values for these particles ranged from 30 to 195 keV/μm, and their energies ranged from about 55 MeV/u to more than 1,000 MeV/u. The 89 and 142 MeV/u neon particles produced the most simple-type reciprocal exchanges per unit dose. For complex-type exchanges, 64 MeV/u neon and 450 MeV/u iron were equally effective and induced the greatest amount of complex damage. Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number (Z) will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z, and that a saturation cross section will be observed for different radiation qualities. Our results are consistent with model expectations within the limitation of experimental error, and provide the most extensive data that have been reported on the radiation quality dependences of chromosomal aberrations. © 2013 by Radiation Research Society

  2. [Metabolic side effects of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Goeb, J-L; Marco, S; Duhamel, A; Kechid, G; Bordet, R; Thomas, P; Delion, P; Jardri, R

    2010-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have a favourable risk/benefit profile in early onset schizophrenia (EOS). However, despite increasing use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents, their endocrine and metabolic side-effects (weight gain, obesity, and related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia) are of particular concern, especially within this paediatric population that appears to be at greater risk as compared with adults for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects. In addition to medication, many factors contribute to weigh gain in psychiatric patients, including sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. Excessive weigh gain has several deleterious effects in psychiatric patients, including stigmatization and further social withdrawal, and non compliance with medication. Furthermore, excessive corpulence may evolve to a metabolic syndrome with a high-risk state for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult age. Because youths are still developing at the time of psychotropic drug exposure, in a context of physiological changes in hormonal and endocrines levels and body composition, most reference values need to be adjusted for gender, age and growth charts. Hence, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are crucial to assess weight gain in children and adolescents. Obesity thresholds have been proposed to define "at risk" categories of patients. In recently issued guidelines, thresholds for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults have been set at a 5% increase or one point increase in BMI unit. To date, no definition has reached a consensus in childhood and adolescence. However, some at risk states requiring action are proposed in literature: more than 5% increase in weight within a three-month period; more than half a point increase in BMI Z score; between 85th and 95th BMI percentile plus one adverse health consequence (i.e. hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, or

  3. The effects of small field dosimetry on the biological models used in evaluating IMRT dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, Gene A.

    The primary goal in radiation oncology is to deliver lethal radiation doses to tumors, while minimizing dose to normal tissue. IMRT has the capability to increase the dose to the targets and decrease the dose to normal tissue, increasing local control, decrease toxicity and allow for effective dose escalation. This advanced technology does present complex dose distributions that are not easily verified. Furthermore, the dose inhomogeneity caused by non-uniform dose distributions seen in IMRT treatments has caused the development of biological models attempting to characterize the dose-volume effect in the response of organized tissues to radiation. Dosimetry of small fields can be quite challenging when measuring dose distributions for high-energy X-ray beams used in IMRT. The proper modeling of these small field distributions is essential in reproducing accurate dose for IMRT. This evaluation was conducted to quantify the effects of small field dosimetry on IMRT plan dose distributions and the effects on four biological model parameters. The four biological models evaluated were: (1) the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD), (2) the Tumor Control Probability (TCP), (3) the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and (4) the Probability of uncomplicated Tumor Control (P+). These models are used to estimate local control, survival, complications and uncomplicated tumor control. This investigation compares three distinct small field dose algorithms. Dose algorithms were created using film, small ion chamber, and a combination of ion chamber measurements and small field fitting parameters. Due to the nature of uncertainties in small field dosimetry and the dependence of biological models on dose volume information, this examination quantifies the effects of small field dosimetry techniques on radiobiological models and recommends pathways to reduce the errors in using these models to evaluate IMRT dose distributions. This study demonstrates the importance

  4. A Study Assessing the Potential of Negative Effects in Interdisciplinary Math–Biology Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students. PMID:21364099

  5. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Carmo, Bruno C M; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on children's performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutron Exposures in Human Cells: Bystander Effect and Relative Biological Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Isheeta; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Stewart, Robert D.; Emery, Robert; Joiner, Michael C.; Tucker, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy), and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM) was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (p<0.0001). These data indicate that neutrons do not induce a bystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0±0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8±2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety. PMID:24896095

  7. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. PMID:25774609

  8. Biological effect of microengineered grooved stents on strut healing: a randomised OCT-based comparative study in humans

    PubMed Central

    Vesga, Boris; Hernandez, Hector; Higuera, Sergio; Gasior, Pawel; Echeveri, Dario; Delgado, Juan A; Dager, Antonio; Arana, Camilo; Simonton, Charles; Maehara, Akiko; Palmaz, Julio; Granada, Juan F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biological effect of microengineered stent grooves (MSG) on early strut healing in humans by performing optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis 3 weeks following the implantation. Background In the experimental setting, MSG accelerate endothelial cell migration and reduce neointimal proliferation compared with bare metal stent (BMS). Methods A total of 37 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with de novo coronary lesions were randomly assigned to either MSG (n=19) or an identical BMS controls (n=18). All patients underwent OCT imaging at 3 weeks. A total of 7959 struts were included in the final analysis. Results At 3 weeks following stent implantation, almost all struts analysed (~97%) had evidence of tissue coverage. The percentage of partially covered struts was comparable between both groups. However, the percentage of fully embedded struts was higher in the BMS group (81.22%, 49.75–95.52) compared with the MSG group (74.21%, 58.85–86.38). The stent-level analysis demonstrated reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal hyperplasia area and volume reduction of ~14% and ~19%, respectively) in the MSG versus the BMS group. In the strut-level analysis, an even greater reduction (~22% in neointimal thickness) was seen in the MSG group. Layered neointimal was present in ~6% of the OCT frames in the BMS group while it was not present in the MSG group. Conclusions MSG induced a more homogeneous and predictable pattern of surface healing in the early stages following stent implantation. The biological effect of MSG on stent healing has the potential to improve the safety profile of current generation drug-eluting stents. Classifications BMS, OCT, clinical trials. PMID:28674616

  9. Biological effect of microengineered grooved stents on strut healing: a randomised OCT-based comparative study in humans.

    PubMed

    Vesga, Boris; Hernandez, Hector; Higuera, Sergio; Gasior, Pawel; Echeveri, Dario; Delgado, Juan A; Dager, Antonio; Arana, Camilo; Simonton, Charles; Maehara, Akiko; Palmaz, Julio; Granada, Juan F

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the biological effect of microengineered stent grooves (MSG) on early strut healing in humans by performing optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis 3 weeks following the implantation. In the experimental setting, MSG accelerate endothelial cell migration and reduce neointimal proliferation compared with bare metal stent (BMS). A total of 37 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with de novo coronary lesions were randomly assigned to either MSG (n=19) or an identical BMS controls (n=18). All patients underwent OCT imaging at 3 weeks. A total of 7959 struts were included in the final analysis. At 3 weeks following stent implantation, almost all struts analysed (~97%) had evidence of tissue coverage. The percentage of partially covered struts was comparable between both groups. However, the percentage of fully embedded struts was higher in the BMS group (81.22%, 49.75-95.52) compared with the MSG group (74.21%, 58.85-86.38). The stent-level analysis demonstrated reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal hyperplasia area and volume reduction of ~14% and ~19%, respectively) in the MSG versus the BMS group. In the strut-level analysis, an even greater reduction (~22% in neointimal thickness) was seen in the MSG group. Layered neointimal was present in ~6% of the OCT frames in the BMS group while it was not present in the MSG group. MSG induced a more homogeneous and predictable pattern of surface healing in the early stages following stent implantation. The biological effect of MSG on stent healing has the potential to improve the safety profile of current generation drug-eluting stents. BMS, OCT, clinical trials.

  10. Systems biology of immunity to MF59-adjuvanted versus nonadjuvanted trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Helder I.; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth; Kazmin, Dmitri; Wang, Lili; Cortese, Mario; Bosinger, Steven E.; Patel, Nirav B.; Zak, Daniel E.; Aderem, Alan; Dong, Tao; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Pollard, Andrew J.; Pulendran, Bali; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics and molecular mechanisms underlying vaccine immunity in early childhood remain poorly understood. Here we applied systems approaches to investigate the innate and adaptive responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and MF59-adjuvanted TIV (ATIV) in 90 14- to 24-mo-old healthy children. MF59 enhanced the magnitude and kinetics of serum antibody titers following vaccination, and induced a greater frequency of vaccine specific, multicytokine-producing CD4+ T cells. Compared with transcriptional responses to TIV vaccination previously reported in adults, responses to TIV in infants were markedly attenuated, limited to genes regulating antiviral and antigen presentation pathways, and observed only in a subset of vaccinees. In contrast, transcriptional responses to ATIV boost were more homogenous and robust. Interestingly, a day 1 gene signature characteristic of the innate response (antiviral IFN genes, dendritic cell, and monocyte responses) correlated with hemagglutination at day 28. These findings demonstrate that MF59 enhances the magnitude, kinetics, and consistency of the innate and adaptive response to vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine during early childhood, and identify potential molecular correlates of antibody responses. PMID:26755593

  11. Cost-effectiveness of an early assessment service for young people with early psychosis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenny K; Chan, Sherry K W; Lam, May M L; Hui, Christy L M; Hung, Se F; Tay, Margaret; Lee, K H; Chen, Eric Y H

    2011-08-01

    The Early Assessment Service for Young People with Early Psychosis (EASY) was developed in Hong Kong in 2001 to provide a comprehensive and integrated approach for early detection and intervention for young people suffering from first episode psychosis. The present study examined the cost-effectiveness of the service over a period of 24 months compared to standard care. This is a historical control study. Sixty-five patients who presented to the EASY service in 2001 with first episode psychosis were individually matched (on age, sex and diagnosis) with 65 patients who received standard psychiatric care in a precursor service (pre-EASY) between 1999 and 2000. A retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted over a period of 24 months. The overall average cost of service utilization per patient and the effects on hospitalization rate were compared using bootstrapping analysis. Cost per point improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was also computed with sensitivity analysis. Only direct costs were analysed in the current study. There was no significant difference in service utilization between the EASY and pre-EASY standard care groups. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, which was used to explore uncertainty in estimates of cost and effects, suggested that there was a probability of at least 94% that the EASY model was more cost-effective than the pre-EASY service in reducing psychiatric inpatient admissions. EASY patients also showed superior results in average cost per unit improvement in PANSS. EASY is likely to be more cost-effective in improving outcomes, particularly in reducing hospitalization and improving clinical symptoms among young people with first episode psychosis. This study provides a perspective from the east Asian region, and supports further development of similar services, particularly in the local setting. However, further studies with a longer follow up period and larger sample size are required to verify

  12. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Gillin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%–20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles. PMID:21915155

  13. Estimating effectiveness and cost of biologics for rheumatoid arthritis: application of a validated algorithm to commercial insurance claims.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Schabert, Vernon F; Harrison, David J; Yeaw, Jason; Korn, Jonathan R; Quach, Caroleen; Yun, Huifeng; Joseph, George J; Collier, David H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to implement a claims-based algorithm to estimate biologic cost per effectively treated patient for biologics approved for moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This retrospective analysis included commercially insured adults (aged 18-63 years) with RA in a commercial database, who initiated biologic treatment with abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, or infliximab between 2007 and 2010. The algorithm defined effectiveness as having all of the following: high adherence, no biologic dose increase, no biologic switching, no new nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, no increased or new oral glucocorticoid use, and no more than 1 glucocorticoid injection. For each biologic, cost per effectively treated patient was defined as total drug and administration costs (from allowed amounts on claims), divided by the number of patients categorized as effectively treated. Of 15,351 patients, 12,018 (78.3%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 49.7 (9.6) years. The algorithm categorized treatment as effective in the first year for 30% (1899/6374) of etanercept, 30% (1396/4661) of adalimumab, 20% (560/2765) of infliximab, 27% (361/1338) of abatacept, and 29% (62/213) of golimumab treated patients. The 1-year biologic cost per effectively treated patient, as defined by the algorithm, was nominally lower for subcutaneously injected biologics than for infused biologics. The 1-year biologic cost per effectively treated patient, as defined by the algorithm, was lowest for etanercept ($49,952), followed by golimumab ($50,189), adalimumab ($52,858), abatacept ($71,866), and infliximab ($104,333). Algorithm-defined effectiveness was similar for biologics other than infliximab. The 1-year biologic cost per effectively treated patient, as defined by the algorithm, was nominally lower for subcutaneously injected biologics than for infused biologics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Building New Bridges between In Vitro and In Vivo in Early Drug Discovery: Where Molecular Modeling Meets Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Pearlstein, Robert A; McKay, Daniel J J; Hornak, Viktor; Dickson, Callum; Golosov, Andrei; Harrison, Tyler; Velez-Vega, Camilo; Duca, José

    2017-01-01

    Cellular drug targets exist within networked function-generating systems whose constituent molecular species undergo dynamic interdependent non-equilibrium state transitions in response to specific perturbations (i.e.. inputs). Cellular phenotypic behaviors are manifested through the integrated behaviors of such networks. However, in vitro data are frequently measured and/or interpreted with empirical equilibrium or steady state models (e.g. Hill, Michaelis-Menten, Briggs-Haldane) relevant to isolated target populations. We propose that cells act as analog computers, "solving" sets of coupled "molecular differential equations" (i.e. represented by populations of interacting species)via "integration" of the dynamic state probability distributions among those populations. Disconnects between biochemical and functional/phenotypic assays (cellular/in vivo) may arise with targetcontaining systems that operate far from equilibrium, and/or when coupled contributions (including target-cognate partner binding and drug pharmacokinetics) are neglected in the analysis of biochemical results. The transformation of drug discovery from a trial-and-error endeavor to one based on reliable design criteria depends on improved understanding of the dynamic mechanisms powering cellular function/dysfunction at the systems level. Here, we address the general mechanisms of molecular and cellular function and pharmacological modulation thereof. We outline a first principles theory on the mechanisms by which free energy is stored and transduced into biological function, and by which biological function is modulated by drug-target binding. We propose that cellular function depends on dynamic counter-balanced molecular systems necessitated by the exponential behavior of molecular state transitions under non-equilibrium conditions, including positive versus negative mass action kinetics and solute-induced perturbations to the hydrogen bonds of solvating water versus kT. Copyright© Bentham

  15. Development and Effectiveness of an Educational Card Game as Supplementary Material in Understanding Selected Topics in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Arnel F.

    2014-01-01

    The complex concepts and vocabulary of biology classes discourage many students. In this study, a pretest-posttest model was used to test the effectiveness of an educational card game in reinforcing biological concepts in comparison with traditional teaching methods. The subjects of this study were two biology classes at Bulacan State…

  16. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  17. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  18. [Early diagnosis and early treatment for liver cancer in Qidong: survival of patients and effectiveness of screening].

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Zhang, Y H; Zhu, J; Lu, J H; Wang, J B; Sun, Y; Xue, X F; Lu, L L; Chen, Y S; Wu, Y; Jiang, X P; Ding, L L; Zhang, Q N; Zhu, Y R

    2017-12-23

    Objective: To evaluate the patients' survival and effectiveness of the live cancer screening for population at high risk for liver cancer in Qidong. Methods: According to the Expert Scheme proposed the Expert Committee of Early Detection and Early Treatment, China Cancer Foundation, diagnostical screening by using combined methods of alpha-fetoprotein and B ultrasound monitoring were carried out biannually in individuals with positive HBsAg who were screened from Qidong area. The evaluation indices of the effectiveness are task completion rate of screening, detection rate of liver cancer, early diagnosis rate, and treatment rate. The deadline of the follow-up for the surviving outcome was March 31, 2016. The life-table method was used to calculate the observed survival, and to make comparison and significant tests between survival rates in Group A (those found via repeated periodic screening) and Group B (those diagnosed without periodic screening). Results: Since 2007, 38 016 target population have been screened, and 3 703(9.74%) individuals with positive HBsAg were found. Except for 29 patients with liver cancer at the initial screening, 3 674 persons in the cohort were followed up; 268 patients with liver cancer were detected from the 33 199 person-times screening, with an annual detection rate of 1.61%. Of them, 186 patients were found in Group A(1.12%), in which 149 patients were the early cases, with an early detection rate of 80.11%; 167 out of 186(89.78%) patients received treatment after diagnosis. The incidence of liver cancer in this HBsAg (+ ) cohort of 25 452 person-years was 1 052.96 per 100 000 annually, 187 cases in males(1 488.45/100 000)and 81 cases in females(628.46/100 000). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival of all patients with liver cancer were 64.55%, 40.50%, 32.54%, and 19.65%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 77.16%, 49.04%, 38.53%, and 24.25% in Group A, and were 36.25%, 21.21%, 21.21%, and 0% in Group B

  19. The Effect of Inkjet Printing over Polymeric Films as Potential Buccal Biologics Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Nicolini, Miguel; Reyes, Patricio E; Jara, Miguel O; Vuddanda, Parameswara R; Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Butto, Nicole; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2018-06-22

    The buccal mucosa appears as a promissory route for biologic drug administration, and pharmaceutical films are flexible dosage forms that can be used in the buccal mucosa as drug delivery systems for either a local or systemic effect. Recently, thin films have been used as printing substrates to manufacture these dosage forms by inkjet printing. As such, it is necessary to investigate the effects of printing biologics on films as substrates in terms of their physical and mucoadhesive properties. Here, we explored solvent casting as a conventional method with two biocompatible polymers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and chitosan, and we used electrospinning process as an electrospun film fabrication of polycaprolactone fibers due to its potential to elicit mucoadhesion. Lysozyme was used as biologic drug model and was formulated as a solution for printing by thermal inkjet printing. Films were characterized before and after printing by mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, surface, and ultrastructure morphology through scanning electron microscopy and solid state properties by thermal analysis. Although minor differences were detected in micrographs and thermograms in all polymeric films tested, neither mechanical nor mucoadhesive properties were affected by these differences. Thus, biologic drug printing on films was successful without affecting their mechanical or mucoadhesive properties. These results open way to explore biologics loading on buccal films by inkjet printing, and future efforts will include further in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

  20. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  1. Experimental concept for examination of biological effects of magnetic field concealed by gravity.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Tomita-Yokotani, K; Hashimoto, H; Takai, M; Tsushima, M; Nakamura, T

    2004-01-01

    Space is not only a place to study biological effects of gravity, but also provides unique opportunities to examine other environmental factors, where the biological actions are masked by gravity on the ground. Even the earth's magnetic field is steadily acting on living systems, and is known to influence many biological processes. A systematic survey and assessment of its action are difficult to conduct in the presence of dominant factors, such as gravity. Investigation of responses of biological systems against the combined environment of zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field might establish the baseline for the analysis of biological effects of magnetic factors. We propose, in this paper, an experimental concept in this context, together with a practical approach of the experiments, both in orbit and on the ground, with a thin magnetic shielding film. Plant epicotyl growth was taken as an exemplar index to evaluate technical and scientific feasibility of the proposed system concept. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biologically templated assembly of hybrid semiconducting nanomesh for high performance field effect transistors and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Hye-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Woong; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-10-01

    Delicately assembled composites of semiconducting nanomaterials and biological materials provide an attractive interface for emerging applications, such as chemical/biological sensors, wearable health monitoring devices, and therapeutic agent releasing devices. The nanostructure of composites as a channel and a sensing material plays a critical role in the performance of field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare elaborate composite that can allow the fabrication of high performance FETs and also provide high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting specific chemical/biological targets. In this work, we demonstrate that high performance FETs can be fabricated with a hydrodynamically assembled composite, a semiconducting nanomesh, of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWNTs) and a genetically engineered M13 phage to show strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The semiconducting nanomesh enables a high on/off ratio (~104) of FETs. We also show that the threshold voltage and the channel current of the nanomesh FETs are sensitive to the change of the M13 phage surface charge. This biological gate effect of the phage enables the detection of biologically important molecules such as dopamine and bisphenol A using nanomesh-based FETs. Our results provide a new insight for the preparation of composite material platform for highly controllable bio/electronics interfaces.

  3. Defining the Biological Effectiveness of Components of High-LET Track Structure.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Deepa M; Chappell, Lori J; Whalen, Mary K; Cucinotta, Francis A; Pluth, Janice M

    2015-07-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to a wide array of high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles, with differing energies and resulting biological effects. Risk assessment of these exposures carries a large uncertainty predominantly due to the unique track structure of the particle's energy deposition. The complex damage elicited by high charge and energy (HZE) particles results from both lesions along the track core and from energetic electrons, δ rays, generated as a consequence of particle traversal. To better define how cells respond to this complex radiation exposure, a normal hTERT immortalized skin fibroblast cell line was exposed to a defined panel of particles carefully chosen to tease out track structure effects. Phosphorylation kinetics for several key double-strand break (DSB) response proteins (γ-H2AX, pATF2 and pSMC1) were defined after exposure to ten different high-LET radiation qualities and one low-LET radiation (X ray), at two doses (0.5-2 Gy) and time points (2 and 24 h). The results reveal that the lower energy particles (Fe 300, Si 93 and Ti 300 MeV/u), with a narrower track width and higher number and intensity of δ rays, cause the highest degree of persistent damage response. The persistent γ-H2AX signal at lower energies suggests that damage from these exposures are more difficult to resolve, likely due to the greater complexity of the associated DNA lesions. However, different kinetics were observed for the solely ATM-mediated phosphorylations (pATF2 and pSMC1), revealing a shallow induction at early times and a higher level of residual phosphorylation compared to γ-H2AX. The differing phospho-protein profiles exhibited, compared to γ-H2AX, suggests additional functions for these proteins within the cell. The strong correspondence between the predicted curves for energy deposition per nucleosome for each ion/energy combination and the persistent levels of γ-H2AX indicates that the nature of energy distribution defines

  4. Cost-effectiveness of biological treatment sequences for fistulising Crohn’s disease across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Baji, Petra; Gulácsi, László; Brodszky, Valentin; Végh, Zsuzsanna; Danese, Silvio; Irving, Peter M; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Schreiber, Stefan; Rencz, Fanni; Lakatos, Péter L; Péntek, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, treatment sequences of biologicals are applied for active fistulising Crohn’s disease, however underlying health economic analyses are lacking. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of different biological sequences including infliximab, biosimilar-infliximab, adalimumab and vedolizumab in nine European countries. Methods A Markov model was developed to compare treatment sequences of one, two and three biologicals from the payer’s perspective on a five-year time horizon. Data on effectiveness and health state utilities were obtained from the literature. Country-specific costs were considered. Calculations were performed with both official list prices and estimated real prices of biologicals. Results Biosimilar-infliximab is the most cost-effective treatment against standard care across the countries (with list prices: €34684–€72551/quality adjusted life year; with estimated real prices: €24364–€56086/quality adjusted life year). The most cost-effective two-agent sequence, except for Germany, is the biosimilar-infliximab–adalimumab therapy compared with single biosimilar-infliximab (with list prices: €58533–€133831/quality adjusted life year; with estimated prices: €45513–€105875/quality adjusted life year). The cost-effectiveness of the biosimilar-infliximab–adalimumab–vedolizumab three-agent sequence compared wit biosimilar-infliximab –adalimumab is €87214–€152901/quality adjusted life year. Conclusions The suggested first-choice biological treatment is biosimilar-infliximab. In case of treatment failure, switching to adalimumab then to vedolizumab provides meaningful additional health gains but at increased costs. Inter-country differences in cost-effectiveness are remarkable due to significant differences in costs. PMID:29511561

  5. Effects of biological control agents and exotic plant invasion on deer mouse populations

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...

  6. Wood smoke particle sequesters cell iron to impact a biological effect.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effect of an inorganic particle (i.e., silica) can be associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. Organic compounds included in particles originating from combustion processes can also complex sources of host cell iron to disrupt metal homeostasis. We te...

  7. CHRONIC EXPOSURE OF RATS TO 100-MHZ (CW) RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary approach was employed to assess the possible biological effects of chronic exposure of rats to 100-MHz continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency (RF) radiation. A group of 20 time-bred rats were exposed in a transverse electronmagnetic mode (TEM) transmission line t...

  8. Japanese Children's Awareness of the Effects of Psychological Taste Experiences on Biological Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Japanese children's and adults' awareness of the effects of psychological taste experiences on biological processes such as growth and illness. Studies 1 and 2 showed the following: (1) preschoolers tended to assume that good-tasting experiences would make one grow taller and gain more weight, while adults seldom…

  9. Distribution of Facial Exposure to Non-melanoma Biologically Effective UV Irradiance Changes by Rotation Angles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Yu, Jia Ming; Yang, De Qi; Gao, Qian; Hua, Hui; Liu, Yang

    2017-02-01

    To show the distribution of facial exposure to non-melanoma biologically effective UV irradiance changes by rotation angles. This study selected the cheek, nose, and forehead as representative facial sites for UV irradiance measurements, which were performed using a rotating manikin and a spectroradiometer. The measured UV irradiance was weighted using action spectra to calculate the biologically effective UV irradiances that cause non-melanoma (UVBEnon-mel) skin cancer. The biologically effective UV radiant exposure (HBEnon-mel) was calculated by summing the UVBEnon-mel data collected over the exposure period. This study revealed the following: (1) the maximum cheek, nose and forehead exposure UVA and UVB irradiance times and solar elevation angles (SEA) differed from those of the ambient UV irradiance and were influenced by the rotation angles; (2) the UV irradiance exposure increased in the following order: cheek < nose < forehead; (3) the distribution of UVBEnon-mel irradiance differed from that of unweighted UV radiation (UVR) and was influenced by the rotation angles and exposure times; and (4) the maximum percentage decreases in the UVBEnon-mel radiant exposure for the cheek, nose and forehead from 0°to 180°were 48.41%, 69.48% and 71.71%, respectively. Rotation angles relative to the sun influence the face's exposure to non-melanoma biologically effective UV. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effectiveness of a Virtual Field Trip (VFT) Module in Learning Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haris, Norbaizura; Osman, Kamisah

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT) module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This…

  11. INDEX OF PUBLICATIONS ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (0-100 GHZ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable research effort has been made into the biological effects of electro-magnetic radiation over the frequency range of 0-100 GHz. This work intensified since 1966 when occupational exposure guidelines were made by American Standards Institute - C95.9. During this period...

  12. The Effects of an Innovative Activity-Centered Biology Program on Attitude toward Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donald A.

    One of the primary goals in many teacher education programs is to design and to implement specific courses, strategies, and methods that promote positive attitude toward science and science teaching among elementary education majors. This paper describes the effects of a biology content course, patterned after innovative elementary school science…

  13. Effects of Computer Animation Instructional Package on Students' Achievement in Practical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzat, Abdulrasaq; Bello, Ganiyu; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of computer animation instructional package on secondary school students' achievement in practical biology in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, control group, non-randomised and nonequivalent quasi-experimental design, with a 2x2x3 factorial design. Two intact classes from two secondary…

  14. Effects of Scoring by Section and Independent Scorers' Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…

  15. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  16. The Effectiveness of the New 9th Grade Biology Curriculum on Students' Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Gulcan; Nisanci, Seda Hilal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new 9th grade biology curriculum on students' environmental awareness. Participants included 91 ninth grade students in a high school in Balikesir during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. Two classrooms, including 22 and 24 students respectively, were randomly assigned…

  17. Why magnetic and electromagnetic effects in biology are irreproducible and contradictory?

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The main source of magnetic and electromagnetic effects in biological systems is now generally accepted and demonstrated in this paper to be radical pair mechanism which implies pairwise generation of radicals in biochemical reactions. This mechanism was convincingly established for enzymatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and desoxynucleic acid (DNA) synthesis by using catalyzing metal ions with magnetic nuclei ((25)Mg, (43)Ca, (67)Zn) and supported by magnetic field effects on these reactions. The mechanism, is shown to function in medicine as a medical remedy or technology (trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, nuclear magnetic control of the ATP synthesis in heart muscle, the killing of cancer cells by suppression of DNA synthesis). However, the majority of magnetic effects in biology remain to be irreproducible, contradictory, and enigmatic. Three sources of such a state are shown in this paper to be: the presence of paramagnetic metal ions as a component of enzymatic site or as an impurity in an uncontrollable amount; the property of the radical pair mechanism to function at a rather high concentration of catalyzing metal ions, when at least two ions enter into the catalytic site; and the kinetic restrictions, which imply compatibility of chemical and spin dynamics in radical pair. It is important to keep in mind these factors to properly understand and predict magnetic effects in magneto-biology and biology itself and deliberately use them in medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ocular side effects of biological agents in oncology: what should the clinician be aware of?

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Tobias; Seitz, B

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years, biologicals have become increasingly relevant in oncologic therapy. Depending on the medication used, there are different profiles of ocular side effects. Although these can be present in up to 70% of patients, they are generally underreported in the literature. Therefore, the pathophysiological details of their development are often poorly understood. Herein we attempt to identify groups of biologicals to which a specific side effect profile can be assigned. We also tried to capture all relevant side effects and therefore conducted several database investigation including Medline, Cochrane library, and the drugs section of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), using the following search strings: “name of biological agent (both generic and commercial names)” AND “eye” OR “ocular”. If we found a side effect that has been associated with a drug, we researched Medline using the following search string: “name of biological agent” (both generic and commercial names) AND “term for the specific side effect”. Due to the wealth of material we report only the drugs that are approved by the FDA. PMID:24391443

  19. Using Nonfiction Scientific Literature for Conservation Biology Education: The "Tigerland" Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Paula Kleintjes; Weiss, Nicole M.; Middlesworth, Laura; Wierich, Joseph; Beilke, Elizabeth; Lee, Jacqueline; Rohlinger, Spencer; Pletzer, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Despite the volume of research published and pedagogy practiced in conservation biology, there is little assessment of the effectiveness of pedagogical techniques for improving undergraduate conservation literacy and student engagement. We evaluated student responses (2009-2011) to reading "Tigerland and Other Unintended Destinations" by…

  20. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  1. The effect on biological and moisture resistance of epichlorohydrin chemically modified wood

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Beom-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks...

  2. Biological effects of desert dust in respiratory epithelial cells and a murine model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract As a result of the challenge of recent dust storms to public health, we tested the postulate that desert dust collected in the southwestern United States could impact a biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells and an animal model. Two samples of surface sedime...

  3. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    SciT

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result ofmore » recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.« less

  4. Effects of Conceptual Change Text Based Instruction on Ecology, Attitudes toward Biology and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the conceptual change text based instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts, and attitudes toward biology and environment. Participants were 82 ninth grade students in a public high school in the Northwestern Turkey. A treatment was employed over a five-week…

  5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CHEMICAL EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS (CEBS) TOXICOGENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conceptual Framework for the Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) T oxicogenomics Knowledge Base

    Abstract
    Toxicogenomics studies how the genome is involved in responses to environmental stressors or toxicants. It combines genetics, genome-scale mRNA expressio...

  6. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  7. Quantitative Mass Transfer in Coastal Sediments During Early Diagenesis: Effects of Biological Transport, Mineralogy and Fabric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this...gradually from .0014 m2/m2 at the SWI to 0 at ~25 cm depth.] The stochastic model has also been used to calculate nonlocal irrigation ...2001), however, the stochastic simulation results do not decrease with depth as quickly as the chemically-derived irrigation coefficients

  8. Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Early Effects for Occupational Exposure Limit Setting

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractIn a recent National Research Council document, new strategies for risk assessment were described to enable more accurate and quicker assessments (()(1)()). This report suggested that evaluating individual responses through increased use of biomonitoring could improve dos...

  9. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  10. Biological Motion induced mu suppression is reduced in Early Psychosis (EP) patients with active negative symptoms and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Minichino, Amedeo; Singh, Fiza; Pineda, Jaime; Friederich, Elisabeth; Cadenhead, Kristin S

    2016-04-30

    There is evidence of genetic and neural system overlap in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Early Psychosis (EP). Five datasets were pooled to compare mu suppression index (MSI), a proxy of mirror neuron activity, in EP, high functioning ASD, and healthy subjects (HS). ASDs and EPs with "active" negative symptoms showed significant differences in mu suppression, in response to Biological Motion/point-light display animation, compared to HS. Preliminary findings suggest that similar neural network deficits in ASD and EP could be driven by the expression of negative symptoms in the latter group of patients. These findings may aid future studies on EP and ASD and facilitate the formulation of new hypotheses regarding their pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of early adalimumab therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients from Reuma.pt - EARLY PsA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Helena; Eusébio, Mónica; Borges, Joana; Gonçalves, Diana; Ávila-Ribeiro, Pedro; Faria, Daniela Santos; Lopes, Carina; Rovisco, João; Águeda, Ana; Nero, Patrícia; Valente, Paula; Cravo, Ana Rita; Santos, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients initiating adalimumab (ADA), with short- and long-term disease duration and to evaluate the potential effect of concomitant conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARD) or glucocorticoids. Methods Analyses included adult PsA patients registered in the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) between June 2008-June 2016 who received ADA for ≥3 months. Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC) response, tender and swollen joint count, inflammatory parameters, patient (PtGA) and physician global assessment (PhGA), Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28), and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) were compared between patients with <5 years of disease (early PsA) and those with ≥5 years of disease duration (late PsA). Time to achieving PsARC response was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 135 PsA patients treated with ADA, 126 had information on disease duration (earlyPsA, n=41). PsARC response was achieved by 72.9% of the patients (88.0% early PsA vs 62.2% late PsA; P=0.022) after 3 months and by 85.4% after 24 months (100% early PsA vs 75.9% late PsA; P=0.044). Early PsA patients achieved significantly less painful joints (2.7 vs 6.7, p=0.006), lower mean C-reactive protein (0.5 mg/dL vs 1.3 mg/dL; P=0.011), and PhGA (18.3 vs 28.1; P=0.020) at 3 months. In the long term, early PsA patients also had fewer swollen joints (0.3 vs 1.7; P=0.030) and lower PhGA (6.3 vs 21.9; P<0.001), C-reactive protein (0.4 mg/dL vs 1.0 mg/dL; P=0.026), and DAS28 (2.2 vs 3.2; P=0.030). HAQ-DI decreased in both groups reaching a mean value at 24 months of 0.4 and 0.8 (P=ns) in early and late PsA, respectively. Early PsA patients obtained PsARC response more rapidly than late PsA (3.8 and 7.4 months, respectively; P=0.008). Concomitant csDMARDs showed clinical benefit (2-year PsARC response, 88.3% vs 60.0%; P=0.044). Concomitant glucocorticoids

  12. Biological explanations of generalized anxiety disorder: effects on beliefs about prognosis and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Pyun, John J; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-04-01

    Biological explanations of psychopathology can reduce the extent to which people with mental disorders are blamed for their symptoms but can also yield prognostic pessimism--the belief that psychiatric conditions are relatively immutable. However, few studies have examined whether these effects occur among persons who actually have psychiatric symptoms. This study sought to address this question. Adults living in the United States (N=351) were recruited online in January and February 2012 and assessed for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a biological condition, in which participants (N=176) were provided a description of generalized anxiety disorder and a biological explanation of the etiology of the disorder, and a control condition, in which participants (N=175) were provided the same description without any explanation of etiology. Dependent measures of treatability, duration of symptoms, and responsibility for symptoms were used to gauge beliefs regarding the prognosis and personal responsibility of a typical person with generalized anxiety disorder. Among participants with and without symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, the biological condition was associated with decreased ascriptions of personal responsibility for anxiety (p=.02) and expectations of increased duration of symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (p=.01). This finding has important social and clinical implications, especially because biological conceptualizations of psychopathology are increasingly prevalent. By causing prognostic pessimism about generalized anxiety disorder, including among those with symptoms of the disorder, biological explanations could negatively affect treatment seeking and outcomes. Efforts to dispel the link between biological explanations and prognostic pessimism are needed.

  13. Operational and biological effects zones from base stations of cellular telephony

    SciT

    Geronikolou, St. A., E-mail: sgeronik@bioacademy.gr; Zimeras, S., E-mail: zimste@aegean.gr; Tsitomeneas, S. Th., E-mail: stsit@teipir.gr

    2016-03-25

    The possible environmental impacts of cellular base stations are operational and biological. The operational effects comprise Εlectro-Μagnetic Interference (EMI), lightning alterations and aesthetic degradation. Both thermal and non-thermal biological effects depend on the absorption of UHF radiofrequencies used. We measured, calculated and estimated the impact zones. The results are: (a) The lightning lethal zone equal to the antenna height, (b) the EMI impact in a zone up to 40m and (c) the ICNIRP’s limits exceed to a zone of 8∼20m into the antenna’s radiation pattern (for 2G GSM and 3G UMTS station). Finally we conclude the adverse effects must notmore » expected in a zone of more than 150m from the radiated antenna, whereas, there is possibility of stochastic effects in intermediate distances (20/40-150m).« less

  14. When mothering goes awry: Challenges and opportunities for utilizing evidence across rodent, nonhuman primate and human studies to better define the biological consequences of negative early caregiving☆

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Mar M.; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Across mammalian species, mothers shape socio-emotional development and serve as essential external regulators of infant physiology, brain development, behavior patterns, and emotional regulation. Caregiving quality, consistency and predictability shape the infant's underlying neurobiological processes. Although the requirements for “optimal” caregiving differ across species, the negative long-term consequences of the absence of needed caregiving (e.g. neglect) or the presence of harmful/aversive caregiving (e.g. physical abuse), are translatable across species. Recognizing the significant potential of cross species comparisons in terms of defining underlying mechanisms, effective translation requires consideration of the evolutionary, ecological, and fundamental biological and developmental differences between and among species. This review provides both an overview of several success stories of cross-species translations in relation to negative caregiving and a template for future studies seeking to most effectively define the underlying biological processes and advance research dedicated to mitigating the lasting negative health consequences of child maltreatment. PMID:26506032

  15. Effect of Solid Biological Waste Compost on the Metabolite Profile of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Neugart, Susanne; Wiesner-Reinhold, Melanie; Frede, Katja; Jander, Elisabeth; Homann, Thomas; Rawel, Harshadrai M.; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Large quantities of biological waste are generated at various steps within the food production chain and a great utilization potential for this solid biological waste exists apart from the current main usage for the feedstuff sector. It remains unclear how the usage of biological waste as compost modulates plant metabolites. We investigated the effect of biological waste of the processing of coffee, aronia, and hop added to soil on the plant metabolite profile by means of liquid chromatography in pak choi sprouts. Here we demonstrate that the solid biological waste composts induced specific changes in the metabolite profiles and the changes are depending on the type of the organic residues and its concentration in soil. The targeted analysis of selected plant metabolites, associated with health beneficial properties of the Brassicaceae family, revealed increased concentrations of carotenoids (up to 3.2-fold) and decreased amounts of glucosinolates (up to 4.7-fold) as well as phenolic compounds (up to 1.5-fold). PMID:29616051

  16. Effects of early sea-floor processes on the taphonomy of temperate shelf skeletal carbonate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Nelson, Campbell S.

    2003-10-01

    Cool-water shelf carbonates differ from tropical carbonates in their sources, modes, and rates of deposition, geochemistry, and diagenesis. Inorganic precipitation, marine cementation, and sediment accumulation rates are absent or slow in cool waters, so that temperate carbonates remain longer at or near the sea bed. Early sea-floor processes, occurring between biogenic calcification and ultimate deposition, thus take on an important role, and there is the potential for considerable taphonomic loss of skeletal information into the fossilised record of cool-water carbonate deposits. The physical breakdown processes of dissociation, breakage, and abrasion are mediated mainly by hydraulic regime, and are always destructive. Impact damage reduces the size of grains, removes structure and therefore information, and ultimately may transform skeletal material into anonymous particles. Abrasion is highly selective amongst and within taxa, their skeletal form and structure strongly influencing resistance to mechanical breakdown. Dissolution and precipitation are the end-members of a two-way chemical equilibrium operating in sea water. In cool waters, inorganic precipitation is rare. There is conflicting opinion about the importance of diagenetic dissolution of carbonate skeletons on the temperate sea floor, but test maceration and early loss of aragonite in particular are reported. Dissolution may relate to undersaturated acidic pore waters generated locally by a combination of microbial metabolisation of organic matter, strong bioturbation, and oxidation of solid phase sulphides immediately beneath the sea floor in otherwise very slowly accumulating skeletal deposits. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface-to-volume ratio and skeletal mineralogy are both important in determining skeletal resistance to dissolution. Biological processes on the sea floor include encrustation and bioerosion. Encrustation, a constructive process, may be periodic or seasonal, and can be

  17. Effectiveness and efficacy of early detection of hearing impairment in children.

    PubMed

    Ruben, R J

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the industrial world, technology and techniques are now available so that any child, no matter how young or how impaired, can have an accurate and precise assessment of middle ear function, auditory reactivity, and physiological processing of auditory stimuli. Yet, a major problem exists in the lack of timely identification of many children with hearing impairments. Presently, identification systems are primarily proactive and are based on technology. These consist of testing of infants with biological risk factors and the use of hearing screening programs at various times during the first decade of life. The reactive sources of referral appear to be inadequate, an impression that is supported by the data on the delay of diagnosis. These inadequacies appear to be due to a lack of awareness on the part of health providers as to the potential hearing losses; ignorance concerning the ability to diagnose them; and a lack of awareness of the potential of effective intervention. Two additional approaches are suggested which would be added to those already existing for improving the number of children who will have their diagnoses made in a timely fashion. The first of these is educational: health providers should have required and continuing education concerning the effects of hearing loss, the ability to diagnose, and to intervene effectively. A parallel educational program should be provided for the public. The second is the periodic assessment of speech and language from early infancy through the first few years of life for all children. This would enable children with suspected impairments to be referred for definitive testing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Thermodynamic modeling of transcription: sensitivity analysis differentiates biological mechanism from mathematical model-induced effects.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Jacqueline M; Liu, Xiaozhou; Arnosti, David N; Ay, Ahmet

    2010-10-24

    Quantitative models of gene expression generate parameter values that can shed light on biological features such as transcription factor activity, cooperativity, and local effects of repressors. An important element in such investigations is sensitivity analysis, which determines how strongly a model's output reacts to variations in parameter values. Parameters of low sensitivity may not be accurately estimated, leading to unwarranted conclusions. Low sensitivity may reflect the nature of the biological data, or it may be a result of the model structure. Here, we focus on the analysis of thermodynamic models, which have been used extensively to analyze gene transcription. Extracted parameter values have been interpreted biologically, but until now little attention has been given to parameter sensitivity in this context. We apply local and global sensitivity analyses to two recent transcriptional models to determine the sensitivity of individual parameters. We show that in one case, values for repressor efficiencies are very sensitive, while values for protein cooperativities are not, and provide insights on why these differential sensitivities stem from both biological effects and the structure of the applied models. In a second case, we demonstrate that parameters that were thought to prove the system's dependence on activator-activator cooperativity are relatively insensitive. We show that there are numerous parameter sets that do not satisfy the relationships proferred as the optimal solutions, indicating that structural differences between the two types of transcriptional enhancers analyzed may not be as simple as altered activator cooperativity. Our results emphasize the need for sensitivity analysis to examine model construction and forms of biological data used for modeling transcriptional processes, in order to determine the significance of estimated parameter values for thermodynamic models. Knowledge of parameter sensitivities can provide the necessary

  19. The role of cell hydration in realization of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR).

    PubMed

    Ayrapetyan, Sinerik