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Sample records for early biospheric metabolisms

  1. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  2. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8 Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  3. Contributions of Planetary Science to Studies of Early Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The history of impact cratering on the Moon, and extrapolations of crater chronologies to the inner planets, suggests that the late accretionary history of the Earth overlapped with other crucial events in the its history, including the origin of terrestrial life. This evidence, acquired from studies of other planetary bodies in the inner solar system, has profoundly affected how we view the early history of the Earth and evolution of the biosphere. Pre-biotic chemical evolution and the origin of life would have been delayed by the probable existence of a global magma ocean until -4.2 Ga. The early crust was largely destroyed by recycling, thus accounting for the sparse Archean record on Earth. Once life had developed, large impacts may have extinguished it several times before it finally gained a foothold. Potentially sterilizing impacts could have occurred as late as 3.7 Ga. At the very least, large impacts would have forced the biosphere through major environmental "bottlenecks" thereby canalizing its subsequent evolution. One legacy of these early events may be the structure of the present RNA-tree which indicates that extreme thermophiles are primitive within the Archaea, and may be the last common ancestors of life. By 3.5 Ga, marine sedimentary sequences contain unequivocal microbial fossils that attest to the presence of a terrestrial biosphere. The diversity of microbial forms present in these earliest fossil assemblages implies a preceding interval of evolution during which major evolutionary advances (e.g. photosynthesis) could have taken place. Evidence cited above places the origin of life within the interval 3.5 and 4.2 Ga, a period of 700 Ma. Thus, it appears that terrestrial life not only evolved rapidly, but perhaps more than once. This expands the possibilities that life may have also developed elsewhere. Of the other planets in our solar system, Mars holds the greatest chance of having developed life. But, the present surface of Mars is hostile

  4. The impact of solar UV radiation on the early biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    2007-08-01

    sensing mechanisms; (ii) application of external shielding, such as covering by mud, sand or rock material; (iii) development of intrinsic UV screening pigments, such as tanning, inductive flavonoid production of plants, intracellular mycosporin production in cyanobacteria, (iv) accumulation of antioxidants and quenching substances. However, if UV damage has been induced - in spite of all avoidance efforts, organisms may restore their functionality by numerous repair processes. Repair pathways of a rich diversity and functional universality include (i) direct repair with the reversal of photochemical abnormalities, e.g. in the DNA; (ii) recombination repair removing the UV-induced abnormality by homologous recombination; and (iii) excision repair, where the section of the DNA strand containing the abnormality is removed and a repair patch is synthesized using the intact strand as a template. In addition to efficient repair systems for radiation-induced DNA injury, life has developed a variety of defense mechanisms, such as the increase in the production of stress proteins and the activation of the immune defence system. Some of these capacities have certainly already been evolved in the early biosphere, when it was exposed to the extended UV-spectrum of the sun. Only since the early Proterozoic, due to a rapid rise in the atmospheric oxygen concentration and consequently a photochemical built up of the stratospheric ozone layer, a more moderate UV radiation climate prevailed with wavelengths shorter than 295 nm being effectively cut off.

  5. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  6. Sulfoquinovose in the biosphere: occurrence, metabolism and functions.

    PubMed

    Goddard-Borger, Ethan D; Williams, Spencer J

    2017-02-20

    The sulfonated carbohydrate sulfoquinovose (SQ) is produced in quantities estimated at some 10 billion tonnes annually and is thus a major participant in the global sulfur biocycle. SQ is produced by most photosynthetic organisms and incorporated into the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as within some archaea for incorporation into glycoprotein N-glycans. SQDG is found mainly within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast, where it appears to be important for membrane structure and function and for optimal activity of photosynthetic protein complexes. SQDG metabolism within the sulfur cycle involves complex biosynthetic and catabolic processes. SQDG biosynthesis is largely conserved within plants, algae and bacteria. On the other hand, two major sulfoglycolytic pathways have been discovered for SQDG degradation, the sulfo-Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (sulfo-EMP) and sulfo-Entner-Doudoroff (sulfo-ED) pathways, which mirror the major steps in the glycolytic EMP and ED pathways. Sulfoglycolysis produces C3-sulfonates, which undergo biomineralization to inorganic sulfur species, completing the sulfur cycle. This review discusses the discovery and structural elucidation of SQDG and archaeal N-glycans, the occurrence, distribution, and speciation of SQDG, and metabolic pathways leading to the biosynthesis of SQDG and its catabolism through sulfoglycolytic and biomineralization pathways to inorganic sulfur. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Biospheric-atmospheric coupling on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations performed with a one-dimensional photochemical model have been performed to assess the biospheric-atmospheric transfer of gases. Ozone reached levels to shield the Earth from biologically lethal solar ultraviolet radiation (220-300 nm) when atmospheric oxygen reached about 1/10 of its present atmospheric level. In the present atmosphere, about 90 percent of atmospheric nitrous oxide is destroyed via solar photolysis in the stratosphere with about 10 percent destroyed via reaction with excited oxygen atoms. The reaction between nitrous oxide and excited oxygen atoms leads to the production of nitric oxide in the stratosphere, which is responsible for about 70 percent of the global destruction of oxygen in the stratosphere. In the oxygen/ozone deficient atmosphere, solar photolysis destroyed about 100 percent of the atmospheric nitrous oxide, relegating the production of nitric oxide via reaction with excited oxygen to zero. Our laboratory and field measurements indicate that atmospheric oxygen promotes the biogenic production of N2O and NO via denitrification and the biogenic production of methane by methanogenesis.

  8. FLUXNET to MODIS: Connecting the dots to capture heterogenious biosphere metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, K. D.; Schwalm, C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Massey, R.; Poulter, B.; Kolb, T.

    2015-12-01

    Eddy co-variance flux towers provide our most widely distributed network of direct observations for land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Carbon flux sensitivity analysis is a method that uses in situ networks to understand how ecosystems respond to changes in climatic variables. Flux towers concurrently observe key ecosystem metabolic processes (e..g. gross primary productivity) and micrometeorological variation, but only over small footprints. Remotely sensed vegetation indices from MODIS offer continuous observations of the vegetated land surface, but are less direct, as they are based on light use efficiency algorithms, and not on the ground observations. The marriage of these two data products offers an opportunity to validate remotely sensed indices with in situ observations and translate information derived from tower sites to globally gridded products. Here we provide correlations between Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and MODIS gross primary production with FLUXNET derived estimates of gross primary production, respiration and net ecosystem exchange. We demonstrate remotely sensed vegetation products which have been transformed to gridded estimates of terrestrial biosphere metabolism on a regional-to-global scale. We demonstrate anomalies in gross primary production, respiration, and net ecosystem exchange as predicted by both MODIS-carbon flux sensitivities and meteorological driver-carbon flux sensitivities. We apply these sensitivities to recent extreme climatic events and demonstrate both our ability to capture changes in biosphere metabolism, and differences in the calculation of carbon flux anomalies based on method. The quantification of co-variation in these two methods of observation is important as it informs both how remotely sensed vegetation indices are correlated with on the ground tower observations, and with what certainty we can expand these observations and relationships.

  9. Records of our Early Biosphere Illuminate our Origins and Guide our Search for Life Beyond Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    A scientific "mission of exploration to early Earth" will help us chart the distribution of life elsewhere. We must discriminate between attributes of biospheres that are universal versus those attributes that represent principally the outcomes of long-term survival specifically on Earth. In addition to the basic physics and chemistry of matter, the geologic evolution of rocky habitable planets and their climates might be similar elsewhere in the Universe. Certain key agents that drive long-term environmental change (e.g., stellar evolution, impacts, geothermal heat flow, tectonics, etc.) can help us to reconstruct ancient climates and to compare their evolution among populations of Earth- like planets. Early Earth was tectonically more active than today and therefore it exhaled reduced chemical species into the more oxidized surface environment at greater rates. This tectonic activity thus sustained oxidation-reduction reactions that provided the basis for the development of biochemical pathways that harvest chemical energy ("bioenergetics"). Most examples of bioenergetics today that extract energy by reacting oxidized and reduced chemicals in the environment were likely more pervasive among our microbial ancestors than are the presently known examples of photosynthesis. The geologic rock record indicates that, as early as 3.5 billion years ago (3.5 Ga), microbial biofilms were widespread within the coastal environments of small continents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing (non-oxygenic) photosynthesis preceded oxygenic photosynthesis, but all types of photosynthesis contributed substantially to the long-term increase in global primary biological productivity. Evidence of photosynthesis is tentative by 3.5 Ga and compelling by 2.7 Ga. Evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis is strong by 2.7 Ga and compelling by 2.3 Ga. These successive innovations transformed life from local communities that survived principally by catalyzing chemical

  10. Microbial metagenomes from three aquifers in the Fennoscandian shield terrestrial deep biosphere reveal metabolic partitioning among populations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofen; Holmfeldt, Karin; Hubalek, Valerie; Lundin, Daniel; Åström, Mats; Bertilsson, Stefan; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms in the terrestrial deep biosphere host up to 20% of the earth's biomass and are suggested to be sustained by the gases hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A metagenome analysis of three deep subsurface water types of contrasting age (from <20 to several thousand years) and depth (171 to 448 m) revealed phylogenetically distinct microbial community subsets that either passed or were retained by a 0.22 μm filter. Such cells of <0.22 μm would have been overlooked in previous studies relying on membrane capture. Metagenomes from the three water types were used for reconstruction of 69 distinct microbial genomes, each with >86% coverage. The populations were dominated by Proteobacteria, Candidate divisions, unclassified archaea and unclassified bacteria. The estimated genome sizes of the <0.22 μm populations were generally smaller than their phylogenetically closest relatives, suggesting that small dimensions along with a reduced genome size may be adaptations to oligotrophy. Shallow ‘modern marine' water showed community members with a predominantly heterotrophic lifestyle. In contrast, the deeper, ‘old saline' water adhered more closely to the current paradigm of a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. The data were finally used to create a combined metabolic model of the deep terrestrial biosphere microbial community. PMID:26484735

  11. Microbial metagenomes from three aquifers in the Fennoscandian shield terrestrial deep biosphere reveal metabolic partitioning among populations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofen; Holmfeldt, Karin; Hubalek, Valerie; Lundin, Daniel; Åström, Mats; Bertilsson, Stefan; Dopson, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Microorganisms in the terrestrial deep biosphere host up to 20% of the earth's biomass and are suggested to be sustained by the gases hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A metagenome analysis of three deep subsurface water types of contrasting age (from <20 to several thousand years) and depth (171 to 448 m) revealed phylogenetically distinct microbial community subsets that either passed or were retained by a 0.22 μm filter. Such cells of <0.22 μm would have been overlooked in previous studies relying on membrane capture. Metagenomes from the three water types were used for reconstruction of 69 distinct microbial genomes, each with >86% coverage. The populations were dominated by Proteobacteria, Candidate divisions, unclassified archaea and unclassified bacteria. The estimated genome sizes of the <0.22 μm populations were generally smaller than their phylogenetically closest relatives, suggesting that small dimensions along with a reduced genome size may be adaptations to oligotrophy. Shallow 'modern marine' water showed community members with a predominantly heterotrophic lifestyle. In contrast, the deeper, 'old saline' water adhered more closely to the current paradigm of a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. The data were finally used to create a combined metabolic model of the deep terrestrial biosphere microbial community.

  12. Growth and metabolic characteristics of oleaginous microalgal isolates from Nilgiri biosphere Reserve of India.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Kalaiselvi; Radha Krishnan, Preethi; Nagaiah, Srimeena; Kuppusamy, Senthil; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Rajadorai, Jude Sudhagar; Nellaiappan Olaganathan, Gopal; Dananjeyan, Balachandar

    2018-01-03

    Renewable energy for sustainable development is a subject of a worldwide debate since continuous utilization of non-renewable energy sources has a drastic impact on the environment and economy; a search for alternative energy resources is indispensable. Microalgae are promising and potential alternate energy resources for biodiesel production. Thus, our efforts were focused on surveying the natural diversity of microalgae for the production of biodiesel. The present study aimed at identification, isolation, and characterization of oleaginous microalgae from shola forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), the biodiversity hot spot of India, where the microalgal diversity has not yet been systematically investigated. Overall the higher biomass yield, higher lipid accumulation and thermotolerance observed in the isolated microalgal strains have been found to be the desirable traits for the efficient biodiesel production. Species composition and diversity analysis yielded ten potential microalgal isolates belonging to Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae classes. The chlorophytes exhibited higher growth rate, maximum biomass yield, and higher lipid accumulation than Cyanophyceae. Among the chlorophytes, the best performing strains were identified and represented by Acutodesmus dissociatus (TGA1), Chlorella sp. (TGA2), Chlamydomonadales sp. (TGA3) and Hindakia tetrachotoma (PGA1). The Chlamydomonadales sp. recorded with the highest growth rate, lipid accumulation and biomass yield of 0.28 ± 0.03 day -1 (μ exp ), 29.7 ± 0.69% and 134.17 ± 16.87 mg L -1  day -1 , respectively. It was also found to grow well at various temperatures, viz., 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C, indicating its suitability for open pond cultivation. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of stationary phase cultures of selected four algal strains by tandem mass spectrograph showed C16:0, C18:1 and C18:3 as dominant fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. All the three

  13. The Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Preston

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the earth's biosphere, considering how the microbial, animal and plant life (which make up the biosphere) are sustained by the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Also considers how these three earth features have powerfully shaped the evolution of these organisms. (JN)

  14. Integrating Crystallography into Early Metabolism Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Aristei, Yasmin; Goracci, Laura; Carosati, Emanuele

    Since bioavailability, activity, toxicity, distribution, and final elimination all depend on metabolic biotransformations, it would be extremely advantageous if this information to be produced early in the discovery phase. Once obtained, researchers can judge whether or not a potential candidate should be eliminated from the pipeline, or modified to improve chemical stability or safety. The use of in silico methods to predict the site of metabolism in Phase I cytochrome-mediated reactions is a starting point in any metabolic pathway prediction. This paper presents a new method, which provides the site of metabolism for any CYP-mediated reaction acting on unknown substrates. The methodology can be applied automatically to all the cytochromes whose Xray 3D structure is known, but can be also applied to homology model 3D structures. The fully automated procedure can be used to detect positions that should be protected in order to avoid metabolic degradation, or to check the suitability of a new scaffold or pro-drug. Therefore the procedure is also a valuable new tool in early ADME-Tox, where drug-safety and metabolic profile patterns must be evaluated as soon, and as early, as possible.

  15. Early Evolution of Earth's Geochemical Cycle and Biosphere: Implications for Mars Exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon (C) has played multiple key roles for life and its environment. C has formed organics, greenhouse gases, aquatic pH buffers, redox buffers, and magmatic constituents affecting plutonism and volcanism. These roles interacted across a network of reservoirs and processes known as the biogeochemical C cycle. Changes in the cycle over geologic time were driven by increasing solar luminosity, declining planetary heat flow, and continental and biological evolution. The early Archean C cycle was dominated by hydrothermal alteration of crustal rocks and by thermal emanations of CO2 and reduced species (eg., H2, Fe(2+) and sulfides). Bioorganic synthesis was achieved by nonphotosynthetic CO2-fixing bacteria (chemoautotrophs) and, possibly, bacteria (organotrophs) utilizing any available nonbiological organic C. Responding both to abundant solar energy and to a longterm decline in thermal sources of chemical energy and reducing power, the blaspheme first developed anoxygenic photosynthesis, then, ultimately, oxygenic photosynthesis. O2-photosynthesis played a central role in transforming the ancient environment and blaspheme to the modem world. The geochemical C cycles of early Earth and Mars were quite similar. The principal differences between the modem C cycles of these planets arose during the later evolution of their heat flows, crusts, atmospheres and, perhaps, their blasphemes.

  16. Modern Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's Early Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The survival of our early biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the early evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for early evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of early Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's early atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving early environment. For example, modern mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater

  17. Exploring the Deep Biosphere in Ophiolite-hosted Systems: What Can Metabolic Processes in Surface Seeps Tell Us About Subsurface Ecosystems in Serpentinizing Fluids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Vallalar, B.; Casar, C.; Simon, A.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization in the subsurface produces highly reduced, high pH fluids that provide microbial habitats. It is assumed that these deep subsurface fluids contain copious H2 and CH4 gas, little/no inorganic carbon, and limited electron acceptors. As serpentinized fluids reach the oxygenated surface environment, microbial biomes shift and organisms capable of metabolizing O2 thrive (Woycheese et al., 2015). However, the relationship of microbial communities found in surface expressions of serpentinizing fluids to the subsurface biosphere is still a target of exploration. Our work in the Zambales ophiolite (Philippines) defines surface microbial habitats with geochemistry, targeted culturing efforts, and community analysis (Cardace et al., 2015; Woycheese et al., 2015). Springs range from pH 9-11.5, and contain 0.06-2 ppm DO, 0-3.7 ppm sulfide, 30-800 ppm silica. Gases include H2 and CH4 > 10uM, CO2 > 1 mM, and trace amounts of CO. These surface data allow prediction of the subsurface metabolic landscape. For example, Cardace et al., (2015) predicted that metabolism of iron is important in both biospheres. Growth media were designed to target iron reduction yielding heterotrophic and autotrophic iron reducers at high pH. Reduced iron minerals were produced in several cultures (Casar et al., sub.), and isolation efforts are underway. Shotgun metagenomic analysis shows the metabolic capacity for methanogenesis, suggesting microbial origins for some CH4 present. The enzymes methyl coenzyme M reductase, and formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were detected, and relative abundance increased near the near-anoxic spring source. The metagenomes indicate carbon cycling at these sites is reliant on methanogenesis, acetogenesis, sulfate reduction, and H2 and CH4 oxidation. In this tropical climate, cellulose is also a likely carbon source; cellulose degrading isolates have been obtained. These results indicate a metabolically flexible community at the surface where serpentinizing

  18. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2012-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ∼2.0-2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean-Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms.

  19. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2013-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ∼2.0–2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean–Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

  20. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation in Lipid Biosynthesis of Piezophilic Bacteria - Implications for Studying Microbial Metabolism and Carbon Cycle in Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Dasgupta, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, J.; Kato, C.; Bartlett, D.

    2012-12-01

    Piezophiles are pressure-loving microorganisms, which reproduce preferentially or exclusively at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. In this study, we examined stable carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation in fatty acid biosynthesis of a piezophilic bacterium Moritella japonica DSK1. The bacterium was grown to stationary phase at hydrstatic pressures of 0.1, 10, 20, and 50 MPa (mega-passcal) in media prepared using sterilized natural seawater supplied with glucose as the sole carbon source. Bacterial cell biomass and individual fatty acids exhibited consistent pressure-dependent carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionations relative to substrates. Average carbon isotope fractionation (delta(FA-glucose)) at high pressures was much higher than that for surface bacteria: -15.7, -15.3, and -18.3‰ at 10, 20, and 50 MPa, respectively. For deltaD, fatty acids are more depleted in D relative to glucose than to water. Monounsaturated fatty acids are more depleted in D than corresponding saturated fatty acids by as much as 36‰. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are most depleted in D. For example, DHA (22:6omega3) has the most negative hydrogen isotope ratio (-170.91‰) (delta(FA-glucose) = -199, delta(FA-water) = -176). The observed isotope effects can be ascribed to the kinetics of enzymatic reactions that are affected by hydrostatic pressure and to operating of two independent lipid biosynthetic pathways of the piezophilic bacteria. Given that most of the biosphere lives under high pressures, our results have important important implications for studying microbial metabolism and carbon cycle in the deep biosphere.

  1. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  2. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, S.; Grenfell, J. L.; Stock, J. W.; Lehmann, R.; Godolt, M.; von Paris, P.; Rauer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O2, whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O2 is formed abiotically via CO2 photolysis. The O2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. (2006) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH4 with increasing O2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O2 is unique. Mixing, CH4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases remove O2 that

  3. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  4. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S; Grenfell, J L; Stock, J W; Lehmann, R; Godolt, M; von Paris, P; Rauer, H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O 2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O 2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O 2 , whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O 2 is formed abiotically via CO 2 photolysis. The O 2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. ( 2006 ) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH 4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH 4 with increasing O 2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O 2 is unique. Mixing, CH 4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O 2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O 2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases

  5. Accessing Autonomic Function Can Early Screen Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001). Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001). Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0–24), participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50–100) had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265

  6. Early Postnatal Cardiomyocyte Proliferation Requires High Oxidative Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi; Bassaneze, Vinícius; Forni, Maria Fernanda; Keusseyan, Aline Alfonso; Kowaltowski, Alicia Juliana; Krieger, José Eduardo

    2017-11-13

    Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth. Cardiomyocyte extracellular flux analysis indicated that the decrease in oxidative metabolism between the first and seventh days after birth was mostly related to lower rates of ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that overall energetic demands decrease during this period. In parallel, the proliferation rate was higher for early cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, in vitro nonlethal chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration reduced the proliferative capacity of early cardiomyocytes, indicating a high energy demand to sustain cardiomyocyte proliferation. Altogether, we provide evidence that early postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity correlates with high oxidative energy metabolism. The energy requirement decreases as the proliferation ceases in the following days, and both oxidative-dependent metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis subside.

  7. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity.

  8. Metabolomic Markers of Altered Nucleotide Metabolism in Early Stage Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F.; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L.; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and non-malignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (Stage IA–IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared to non-malignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by: 1) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, 2) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, 3) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, 4) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis and 5) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  9. Gene expression in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William D; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Christman, Glenn D; Biddle, Jennifer F

    2013-07-11

    Scientific ocean drilling has revealed a deep biosphere of widespread microbial life in sub-seafloor sediment. Microbial metabolism in the marine subsurface probably has an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, but deep biosphere activities are not well understood. Here we describe and analyse the first sub-seafloor metatranscriptomes from anaerobic Peru Margin sediment up to 159 metres below the sea floor, represented by over 1 billion complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence reads. Anaerobic metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids seem to be the dominant metabolic processes, and profiles of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) transcripts are consistent with pore-water sulphate concentration profiles. Moreover, transcripts involved in cell division increase as a function of microbial cell concentration, indicating that increases in sub-seafloor microbial abundance are a function of cell division across all three domains of life. These data support calculations and models of sub-seafloor microbial metabolism and represent the first holistic picture of deep biosphere activities.

  10. The metabolic profile in early rheumatoid arthritis: a high prevalence of metabolic obesity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Raili; Kull, Mart; Põlluste, Kaja; Aart, Annika; Eglit, Triin; Lember, Margus; Kallikorm, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in early RA patients with age-gender-matched population controls focusing on the presence of MetS in different weight categories. The study group consisted of 91 consecutive patients with early RA and 273 age- and gender-matched controls subjects. MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) criteria. Mean age in both groups was 52 years, and 72.5 % were female. The prevalence of MetS did not differ between the two groups (35.2 % in RA, 34.1 % in control group). Mean systolic blood pressure in the RA group was 137 mmHg, in control group 131 mmHg, P = 0.01, and diastolic blood pressure 85 versus 81 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.01). We found that 20 of 65 (30.8 %) of RA patients compared to 80 of 152 (52.6 %) of the control subjects with elevated blood pressure received antihypertensive treatment (P < 0.01). When comparing subgroups with normal BMI, the odds of having MetS (being metabolically obese) were higher among early RA subjects (OR 5.6, CI 1.3-23.8). Of the individual components of metabolic syndrome, we found increased prevalence of hypertension (OR 2.8, CI 1.3-6.0) and hyperglycemia (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.0) in the RA group. Recognition of abnormal metabolic status among normal-weight RA patients who have not yet developed CVD could provide a valuable opportunity for preventative intervention.

  11. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  12. Early embryonic androgen exposure induces transgenerational epigenetic and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2014-08-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study.

  13. Early Embryonic Androgen Exposure Induces Transgenerational Epigenetic and Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K.; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai

    2014-01-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study. PMID:24992182

  14. Network-level fossil of a phosphate-free biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldford, J.; Hartman, H.; Smith, T. F.; Segre, D.

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of a metabolism capable of sustaining cellular life on early Earth is a major unresolved enigma. Such a transition from prebiotic chemistry to an organized biochemical network seemingly required the concurrent availability of multiple molecular components. One of these components, phosphate, carries several essential functions in present-day metabolism, most notably energy transduction through ATP. However, the ubiquity of phosphate in living systems today stands in sharp contrast with its poor geochemical availability, prompting previous efforts to search for plausible prebiotic sources. The alternative, intriguing possibility is that primitive life did not require phosphate. Here we explore this possibility by determining the feasibility and functional potential of a phosphate-independent metabolism amongst the set of all known biochemical reactions in the biosphere. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism that can be generated from simple sets of compounds thought to be available on early Earth. This network can support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. The enzymes contained in this network display a striking enrichment for dependence on iron-sulfur and transition metal coenzymes, a fundamental cornerstone of early biochemistry. We furthermore show that phosphate-independent precursors of present-day cofactors could have helped overcome thermodynamic energy barriers, enabling the production of a rich set of biomolecules, including 15 out of the 20 amino acids, vitamins, pentoses and nucleobases. Altogether, our results suggest that present-day biochemical networks may contain vestiges of a very ancient past, and that a complex thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system.

  15. Reconnecting to the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Folke, Carl; Jansson, Asa; Rockström, Johan; Olsson, Per; Carpenter, Stephen R; Chapin, F Stuart; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Daily, Gretchen; Danell, Kjell; Ebbesson, Jonas; Elmqvist, Thomas; Galaz, Victor; Moberg, Fredrik; Nilsson, Måns; Osterblom, Henrik; Ostrom, Elinor; Persson, Asa; Peterson, Garry; Polasky, Stephen; Steffen, Will; Walker, Brian; Westley, Frances

    2011-11-01

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere--a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  16. [Metabolic side effects of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Goeb, J-L; Marco, S; Duhamel, A; Kechid, G; Bordet, R; Thomas, P; Delion, P; Jardri, R

    2010-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have a favourable risk/benefit profile in early onset schizophrenia (EOS). However, despite increasing use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents, their endocrine and metabolic side-effects (weight gain, obesity, and related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia) are of particular concern, especially within this paediatric population that appears to be at greater risk as compared with adults for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects. In addition to medication, many factors contribute to weigh gain in psychiatric patients, including sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. Excessive weigh gain has several deleterious effects in psychiatric patients, including stigmatization and further social withdrawal, and non compliance with medication. Furthermore, excessive corpulence may evolve to a metabolic syndrome with a high-risk state for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult age. Because youths are still developing at the time of psychotropic drug exposure, in a context of physiological changes in hormonal and endocrines levels and body composition, most reference values need to be adjusted for gender, age and growth charts. Hence, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are crucial to assess weight gain in children and adolescents. Obesity thresholds have been proposed to define "at risk" categories of patients. In recently issued guidelines, thresholds for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults have been set at a 5% increase or one point increase in BMI unit. To date, no definition has reached a consensus in childhood and adolescence. However, some at risk states requiring action are proposed in literature: more than 5% increase in weight within a three-month period; more than half a point increase in BMI Z score; between 85th and 95th BMI percentile plus one adverse health consequence (i.e. hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, or

  17. Biospheric energization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Ozel, M. E.; Gunduz, G.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the physical properties of a hypothetical molecular schema giving rise to an autocatalytic biosphere. A key concept is the driving of terrestrial life as a parametric oscillation: i.e. that the biosphere behaves fundamentally as an oscillatory system into which solar energy is diurnally deposited. The schema, containing 'A, B and C' type components acting together in a 'bottom-up' driving mechanism, underlies all biospheric superstructure. Surviving modes of the oscillation are consistent with Darwinian organization, or hierarchical structures appearing to have top-down propagation through the growth of cellular replication. The model was detailed by Budding et al (2012), where experimental support from the work of Powner et al (2009) is presented, as well as suggestions on supportive fossil evidence. Although the growth in total energization is very slow in this model, it is important to notice its exponential character, suggestive of potential instability. The model is applicable to generally expectable processes on planets, including zonal segregation, complexity growth and Haeckel's biogenic principle within surviving life-forms. Fermi's exobiological paradox can be resolved in terms of the exponential growth and low L solutions of Drake's equation. Feasible values for the particular growth of selected species (the human one in herelevent terrestrial case) allow for L to be less than a few  100 y, recalling Rees' (2004) 'final century' discussion. This arises when the species' disposable energization attains a value comparable to that of the total available daily driving energy. At that point, accidental, or stochastic disturbances of this species' energy ("error") can significantly disrupt the daily driving mechanism.

  18. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  19. Detecting Biosphere anomalies hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Mahecha, Miguel; Flach, Milan; Denzler, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The current amount of satellite remote sensing measurements available allow for applying data-driven methods to investigate environmental processes. The detection of anomalies or abnormal events is crucial to monitor the Earth system and to analyze their impacts on ecosystems and society. By means of a combination of statistical methods, this study proposes an intuitive and efficient methodology to detect those areas that present hotspots of anomalies, i.e. higher levels of abnormal or extreme events or more severe phases during our historical records. Biosphere variables from a preliminary version of the Earth System Data Cube developed within the CAB-LAB project (http://earthsystemdatacube.net/) have been used in this study. This database comprises several atmosphere and biosphere variables expanding 11 years (2001-2011) with 8-day of temporal resolution and 0.25° of global spatial resolution. In this study, we have used 10 variables that measure the biosphere. The methodology applied to detect abnormal events follows the intuitive idea that anomalies are assumed to be time steps that are not well represented by a previously estimated statistical model [1].We combine the use of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models with a distance metric like Mahalanobis distance to detect abnormal events in multiple biosphere variables. In a first step we pre-treat the variables by removing the seasonality and normalizing them locally (μ=0,σ=1). Additionally we have regionalized the area of study into subregions of similar climate conditions, by using the Köppen climate classification. For each climate region and variable we have selected the best ARMA parameters by means of a Bayesian Criteria. Then we have obtained the residuals by comparing the fitted models with the original data. To detect the extreme residuals from the 10 variables, we have computed the Mahalanobis distance to the data's mean (Hotelling's T^2), which considers the covariance matrix of the joint

  20. Biosphere 2: The True Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and current developments of the Biosphere 2 Project, a prototype for enclosed self-sustaining structures for space colonization built in the Arizona Desert. Biosphere 2 was created to educate and provide solutions to environmental problems and revenue from research. (MCO)

  1. Active Serpentinization and the Potential for a Diverse Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, P. A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    the system and create a thermodynamic drive sufficient to convert all of the dissolved inorganic carbon into methane. This indicates that the system is poised to create the reducing conditions necessary to support a subsurface biosphere very early in the serpentinizing process, and that the subsurface biosphere could extend upwards to very near the surface. The mixing model simulates the percolation of surface water into the active serpentinization zone. During the mixing process, methane is calculated to be more stable than carbonate species until approximately 100g of surface water have been added to 1 kg of the serpentinizing fluid. These results suggest that unreacted surface water flowing directly into the serpentinizing zone can create the disequilibria necessary for methanogenesis, and possibly other metabolisms, to proceed while still maintaining the low redox state of the system. As long as the recharge to the hyperalkaline reservoir does not exceed ten percent of the reservoir, methanogenesis and other serpentinization metabolisms can thrive off the disequilibria generated through mixing.

  2. Implications of Biospheric Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, Edd; Demircan, Osman; Gündüz, Güngör; Emin Özel, Mehmet

    2016-07-01

    Our physical model relating to the origin and development of lifelike processes from very simple beginnings is reviewed. This molecular ('ABC') process is compared with the chemoton model, noting the role of the autocatalytic tuning to the time-dependent source of energy. This substantiates a Darwinian character to evolution. The system evolves from very simple beginnings to a progressively more highly tuned, energized and complex responding biosphere, that grows exponentially; albeit with a very low net growth factor. Rates of growth and complexity in the evolution raise disturbing issues of inherent stability. Autocatalytic processes can include a fractal character to their development allowing recapitulative effects to be observed. This property, in allowing similarities of pattern to be recognized, can be useful in interpreting complex (lifelike) systems.

  3. The Earth's Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  4. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  6. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  7. Exploration of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Volcanic Massive Sulfide: Results of the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Fernandez, D.

    2005-12-01

    Biological systems on Earth require three key ingredients-- liquid water, an energy source, and a carbon source, that are found in very few extraterrestrial environments. Previous examples of independent subsurface ecosystems have been found only in basalt aquifers. Such lithotrophic microbial ecosystems (LME) have been proposed as models for steps in the early evolution of Earth's biosphere and for potential biospheres on other planets where the surface is uninhabitable, such as Mars and Europa.. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has searched in a volcanic massive sulfide deposit in Rio Tinto Spain for a subsurface biosphere capable of living without sunlight or oxygen and found a subsurface ecosystem driven by the weathering of the massive sulfide deposit (VMS) in which the rock matrix provides sufficient resources to support microbial metabolism, including the vigorous production of H2 by water-rock interactions. Microbial production of methane and sulfate occurred in the sulfide orebody and microbial production of methane and hydrogen sulfide continued in an anoxic plume downgradient from the sulfide ore. Organic carbon concentrations in the parent rock were too low to support microbes. The Rio Tinto system thus represents a new type of subsurface ecosystem with strong relevance for exobiological studies. Commercial drilling was used to reach the aquifer system at 100 m depth and conventional laboratory techniques were used to identify and characterize the biosphere. Then, the life search strategy that led to successful identification of this biosphere was applied to the development of a robotic drilling, core handling, inspection, subsampling, and life detection system built on a prototype planetary lander that was deployed in Rio Tinto Spain in September 2005 to test the capability of a robotic drilling system to search for subsurface life. A remote science team directed the simulation and analyzed the data from the MARTE robotic drill. The results

  8. Victims of Chinese famine in early life have increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yu, Caizheng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Zheng, Dan; Tang, Yuhan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2018-02-05

    To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005). Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between famine exposure in early life and metabolic syndrome risk in adults. The metabolic syndrome prevalence in non-, fetal-, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood- exposed groups were 25.2%, 26.9%, 30.3%, 32.7%, and 32.7%, respectively. Compared with non-exposed group, participants exposed to famine in the fetal (0.96, 95% CI: 0.77-1.20), early childhood (1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52), mid childhood (1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.72), and late childhood (1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.63) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk in adults after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.0001). In gender-specific analyses, women exposed to famine in early childhood (1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), mid childhood (1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), and late childhood (1.47, 95% CI: 1.18-1.84) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk than non-exposed women (P for trend < 0.0001). There was a famine-gender interaction on metabolic syndrome prevalence risk (P for interaction = 0.0001). Results in the present study indicated that exposure to famine in early life increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biospheric Cooling and the Emergence of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    The long-term cooling history of the Earth's biosphere implies a temperature constraint on the timing of major events in biologic evolution, e.g., emergence of cyanobacteria, eucaryotes and Metazoa apparently occurred at times when temperatures were near their upper growth limits. Could biospheric cooling also have been a necessary condition for the emergence of veterbrates and their encephalization? The upper temperature limit for vertebrate growth is about 10 degrees below the limit for Metazoa (50 degrees C). Heterothermy followed by full homeothermy was likely a necessary condition for greater encephalization because of the energy requirement of larger brains. The temperature differential between an animal and a cooler environment, all other factors equal, will increase the efficiency of heat loss from the brain, but too large a differential will shift metabolic energy away from the brain to the procurement of food. Encephalization has also entailed the evolution of internal cooling mechanisms to avoid overheating the brain. The two periods of pronounced Phanerozoic cooling, the PermoCarboniferous and late Cenozoic, corresponded to the emergence of mammal-like reptiles and hominids respectively, with a variety of explanations offered for the apparent link. The origin of highly encephalized whales, dolphins and porpoises occurred with the drop in ocean temperatures 25-30 mya. Of course, other possible paths to encephalization are conceivable, with radically different solutions to the problem of heat dissipation. But the intrinsic requirements for information processing capacity necessary for intelligence suggest our terrestrial pattern may resemble those of alien biospheres given similar histories.

  10. The biosphere below.

    PubMed

    Grossman, D; Shulman, S

    1995-06-01

    More than a mile below Earth's surface, tiny creatures thrive in searing heat and crushing pressure. Scientists think these microorganisms might teach us about the origins and evolution of early life.

  11. The Biosphere: A Decadal Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Curran, Paul J.; Mlynzcak, Marty; Miller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on biosphere-climate interactions including the influences of human activities. Recognizing this is only one aspect of biospheric processes, this places an emphasis of those biogeochemical processes that have a profound effect on numerous other aspects of the biosphere and the services it provides, services which are critical to sustaining life on Earth. And, the paper will focus on the various scientific aspects of assessing the availability of fresh water, including its sensitivity to climate variance and land use changes. Finally, this paper hopes to emphasize the potential role that greatly expanded space observations and interactive modeling can play in developing our understanding of Earth and its the living systems.

  12. Adipose tissue lipolysis and energy metabolism in early cancer cachexia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Tian, Min; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Belury, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a progressive metabolic disorder that results in depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A growing body of literature suggests that maintaining adipose tissue mass in cachexia may improve quality-of-life and survival outcomes. Studies of lipid metabolism in cachexia, however, have generally focused on later stages of the disorder when severe loss of adipose tissue has already occurred. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism in adipose, liver and muscle tissues during early stage cachexia – before severe fat loss – in the colon-26 murine model of cachexia. White adipose tissue mass in cachectic mice was moderately reduced (34–42%) and weight loss was less than 10% of initial body weight in this study of early cachexia. In white adipose depots of cachectic mice, we found evidence of enhanced protein kinase A - activated lipolysis which coincided with elevated total energy expenditure and increased expression of markers of brown (but not white) adipose tissue thermogenesis and the acute phase response. Total lipids in liver and muscle were unchanged in early cachexia while markers of fatty oxidation were increased. Many of these initial metabolic responses contrast with reports of lipid metabolism in later stages of cachexia. Our observations suggest intervention studies to preserve fat mass in cachexia should be tailored to the stage of cachexia. Our observations also highlight a need for studies that delineate the contribution of cachexia stage and animal model to altered lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia and identify those that most closely mimic the human condition. PMID:25457061

  13. Mitochondrial metabolism in early neural fate and its relevance for neuronal disease modeling.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Carmen; Prigione, Alessandro

    2017-12-01

    Modulation of energy metabolism is emerging as a key aspect associated with cell fate transition. The establishment of a correct metabolic program is particularly relevant for neural cells given their high bioenergetic requirements. Accordingly, diseases of the nervous system commonly involve mitochondrial impairment. Recent studies in animals and in neural derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) highlighted the importance of mitochondrial metabolism for neural fate decisions in health and disease. The mitochondria-based metabolic program of early neurogenesis suggests that PSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) may be used for modeling neurological disorders. Understanding how metabolic programming is orchestrated during neural commitment may provide important information for the development of therapies against conditions affecting neural functions, including aging and mitochondrial disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research. PMID:29326657

  16. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Østergaard, Karen; Gjedde, Albert; Rodell, Anders; Bailey, Christopher J; Vafaee, Manoucher S

    2012-02-15

    Decreased activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This model would most likely predict a decrease in the rate of cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). To test this hypothesis, we compared CMRO(2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) PET scans from PD patients and healthy controls. Nine early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent PET scans for quantitative mapping of CMRO(2) and CBF. Between-group differences were evaluated for absolute data and intensity-normalized values. No group differences were detected in regional magnitudes of CMRO(2) or CBF. Upon normalization using the reference cluster method, significant relative CMRO(2) decreases were evident in widespread prefrontal, parieto-occipital, and lateral temporal regions. Sensory-motor and subcortical regions, brainstem, and the cerebellum were spared. A similar pattern was evident in normalized CBF data, as described previously. While the data did not reveal substantially altered absolute CMRO(2) in brain of PD patients, employing data-driven intensity normalization revealed widespread relative CMRO(2) decreases in cerebral cortex. The detected pattern was very similar to that reported in earlier CBF and CMRglc studies of PD, and in the CBF images from the same subjects. Thus, the present results are consistent with the occurrence of parallel declines in CMRO(2), CBF, and CMRglc in spatially contiguous cortical regions in early PD, and support the hypothesis that ETC dysfunction could be a primary pathogenic mechanism in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere

    SciT

    Bomble, Yannick J.; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Amore, Antonella

    Microorganisms have evolved different and yet complementary mechanisms to degrade biomass in the biosphere. The chemical biology of lignocellulose deconstruction is a complex and intricate process that appears to vary in response to specific ecosystems. These microorganisms rely on simple to complex arrangements of glycoside hydrolases to conduct most of these polysaccharide depolymerization reactions and also, as discovered more recently, oxidative mechanisms via lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases or non-enzymatic Fenton reactions which are used to enhance deconstruction. It is now clear that these deconstruction mechanisms are often more efficient in the presence of the microorganisms. In general, a major fraction ofmore » the total plant biomass deconstruction in the biosphere results from the action of various microorganisms, primarily aerobic bacteria and fungi, as well as a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Beyond carbon recycling, specialized microorganisms interact with plants to manage nitrogen in the biosphere. Understanding the interplay between these organisms within or across ecosystems is crucial to further our grasp of chemical recycling in the biosphere and also enables optimization of the burgeoning plant-based bioeconomy.« less

  18. Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bomble, Yannick J; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Amore, Antonella; Wei, Hui; Holwerda, Evert K; Ciesielski, Peter N; Donohoe, Bryon S; Decker, Stephen R; Lynd, Lee R; Himmel, Michael E

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms have evolved different and yet complementary mechanisms to degrade biomass in the biosphere. The chemical biology of lignocellulose deconstruction is a complex and intricate process that appears to vary in response to specific ecosystems. These microorganisms rely on simple to complex arrangements of glycoside hydrolases to conduct most of these polysaccharide depolymerization reactions and also, as discovered more recently, oxidative mechanisms via lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases or non-enzymatic Fenton reactions which are used to enhance deconstruction. It is now clear that these deconstruction mechanisms are often more efficient in the presence of the microorganisms. In general, a major fraction of the total plant biomass deconstruction in the biosphere results from the action of various microorganisms, primarily aerobic bacteria and fungi, as well as a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Beyond carbon recycling, specialized microorganisms interact with plants to manage nitrogen in the biosphere. Understanding the interplay between these organisms within or across ecosystems is crucial to further our grasp of chemical recycling in the biosphere and also enables optimization of the burgeoning plant-based bioeconomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Aeolian Processes and the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Sujith; D'Odorico, Paolo; Breshears, David D.; Field, Jason P.; Goudie, Andrew S.; Huxman, Travis E.; Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Swap, Robert J.; Thomas, Andrew D.; Van Pelt, Scott; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Zobeck, Ted M.

    2011-08-01

    Aeolian processes affect the biosphere in a wide variety of contexts, including landform evolution, biogeochemical cycles, regional climate, human health, and desertification. Collectively, research on aeolian processes and the biosphere is developing rapidly in many diverse and specialized areas, but integration of these recent advances is needed to better address management issues and to set future research priorities. Here we review recent literature on aeolian processes and their interactions with the biosphere, focusing on (1) geography of dust emissions, (2) impacts, interactions, and feedbacks, (3) drivers of dust emissions, and (4) methodological approaches. Geographically, dust emissions are highly spatially variable but also provide connectivity at global scales between sources and effects, with “hot spots” being of particular concern. Recent research reveals that aeolian processes have impacts, interactions, and feedbacks at a variety of scales, including large-scale dust transport and global biogeochemical cycles, climate mediated interactions between atmospheric dust and ecosystems, impacts on human health, impacts on agriculture, and interactions between aeolian processes and dryland vegetation. Aeolian dust emissions are driven largely by, in addition to climate, a combination of soil properties, soil moisture, vegetation and roughness, biological and physical crusts, and disturbances. Aeolian research methods span laboratory and field techniques, modeling, and remote sensing. Together these integrated perspectives on aeolian processes and the biosphere provide insights into management options and aid in identifying research priorities, both of which are increasingly important given that global climate models predict an increase in aridity in many dryland systems of the world.

  20. [Obesity associated metabolic impairment is evident at early ages: Spanish collaborative study].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Bueno, Gloria; Bahillo, Pilar; Bernal, Susana; Feliu, Albert; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Palomo, Enrique; Ruiz, Rafael; Vela, Amaia

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, anthropometric characteristics and metabolic abnormalities in children with early-onset (< 10 years) and of very-early-onset obesity (< 5 years). We also evaluate the diagnostic ability using the definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to different criteria. It is a retrospective, case-control, cross-sectional, multicenter study. A total of 10 Pediatric Endocrinology Units in different Spanish hospitals were involved. A group of 469 children with early-onset obesity and another group of 30 children with very early-onset obesity were studied. The control group consisted of 224 healthy children younger than 10 years. Anthropometric and analytical determination of carbohydrates metabolism parameters and the lipid profile were performed. The presence of metabolic alterations associated with obesity in children and adolescents in Spain is remarkable, either on their own, or encompassed within the definition of MS. This prevalence increases substantially when considering the peripheral resistance to insulin action as a diagnostic criterion. It also shows how children who could not be diagnosed with MS according to the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) due to age below 10 years, these alterations are already present in a remarkable percentage. In fact, metabolic abnormalities are already present in the very-early-onset obese children ( <5 years). In Spanish children there are metabolic alterations associated with obesity in the infant-juvenile stages alone or encompassed within the definition of MS,and are already present at earlier ages. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectral Ratio Biospheric Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Knox, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    A new active vegetation index measurement technique has been developed and demonstrated using low-power laser diodes to make horizontal-path lidar measurements of nearby deciduous foliage. The two wavelength laser transmitter operates within and adjacent to the 680 nm absorption feature exhibited by all chlorophyll containing vegetation. Measurements from early October through late November 2003 are presented and the results are discussed.

  2. Impact of metabolic syndrome on early recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masatomo; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Toshifumi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The present study included a total of 302 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. In this study, postoperative urinary continence was defined as no leak or the use of a security pad. The continence status was assessed by interviews before and 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Metabolic syndrome was defined as follows: body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and two or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The effect of the presence of metabolic syndrome on the continence status of these patients was retrospectively examined. A total of 116 (38.4%) and 203 (67.2%) of the 302 patients were continent at 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, respectively. A total of 31 (10.3%) patients were judged to have metabolic syndrome. Despite the operative time being longer in patients with metabolic syndrome, no significant differences were observed in the remaining preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative variables between patients with or without metabolic syndrome. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome and the duration of hospitalization were significantly correlated with the 1-month continence status. Similarly, metabolic syndrome and estimated blood loss during surgery were independent predictors of continence rates at 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome could have a significant impact on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Metabolic differentiation of early Lyme disease from southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI).

    PubMed

    Molins, Claudia R; Ashton, Laura V; Wormser, Gary P; Andre, Barbara G; Hess, Ann M; Delorey, Mark J; Pilgard, Mark A; Johnson, Barbara J; Webb, Kristofor; Islam, M Nurul; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Molla, Irida; Jewett, Mollie W; Belisle, John T

    2017-08-16

    Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients, we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N -acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. Development of classification models with the 261-MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to inform patient management by objectively distinguishing early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Metabolic Differentiation of Early Lyme Disease from Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI)

    PubMed Central

    Molins, C. R.; Ashton, L. V.; Wormser, G. P.; Andre, B. G.; Hess, A. M.; Delorey, M. J.; Pilgard, M. A.; Johnson, B. J.; Webb, K.; Islam, M. N.; Pegalajar-Jurado, A; Molla, I.; Jewett, M. W.; Belisle, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is co-prevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the Eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N-acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. More importantly, development of classification models with the 261 MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to objectively distinguish early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms. PMID:28814545

  5. Metabolic Disruption Early in Life is Associated With Latent Carcinogenic Activity of Dichloroacetic Acid in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life environmental factors can influence later-life susceptibility to cancer. Recent evidence suggests that metabolic pathways may mediate this type of latency effect. Previously, we reported that short-term exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA) increased liver cancer in mi...

  6. How Close Are We to the Temperature Tipping Point of the Biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    All biological processes accelerate rapidly with increasing temperature (Tinf); reaching a maximum rate (Tmax), after which they decline. However different biological processes may not be synchronised in their response to increasing temperatures resulting in major dis-equilibria of ecosystem processes. Particularly, the linked processes of photosynthesis and respiration have different curvature that is determined by their inherent sensitivity to temperature. Constraining the difference in temperature curves between photosynthesis and respiration allows us to quantify changes to global carbon metabolism and the land sink of carbon as a whole. During the last century the biosphere has acted as a sink of carbon from the atmosphere partly mitigating accumulation of CO2 derived from burning of fossil fuels Here we ask the following questions: As global temperature increases will photosynthesis and respiration become de-coupled and when? What is Tmax for the land sink, and where is current mean temperature range in regard to this important threshold? At what global and regional temperatures do we expect the biosphere to become a source of carbon to the atmosphere? To address these questions we used the recently released FLUXNET2015 dataset comprised of 212 eddy covariance flux tower sites which concurrently measure land-atmosphere carbon exchange along with micro-meteorological variables. Here, we illustrate our results for Tinf and Tmax of the land sink by biome and for the biosphere as a whole. Our results suggest that recent warming has already pushed us past the inflection point of photosynthesis, and that any additional warming will increase the cumulative annual dose of time spent past Tmax for the land sink. Even under moderate climate projections, we expect to see a slowing of the terrestrial carbon sink by as early as 2040.

  7. Cell-Intrinsic Glycogen Metabolism Supports Early Glycolytic Reprogramming Required for Dendritic Cell Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Phyu M; Pelgrom, Leonard; Cooper, Rachel; Beauchamp, Saritha; Reisz, Julie A; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Everts, Bart; Amiel, Eyal

    2017-09-05

    Dendritic cell (DC) activation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists causes rapid glycolytic reprogramming that is required to meet the metabolic demands of their immune activation. Recent efforts in the field have identified an important role for extracellular glucose sourcing to support DC activation. However, the contributions of intracellular glucose stores to these processes have not been well characterized. We demonstrate that DCs possess intracellular glycogen stores and that cell-intrinsic glycogen metabolism supports the early effector functions of TLR-activated DCs. Inhibition of glycogenolysis significantly attenuates TLR-mediated DC maturation and impairs their ability to initiate lymphocyte activation. We further report that DCs exhibit functional compartmentalization of glucose- and glycogen-derived carbons, where these substrates preferentially contribute to distinct metabolic pathways. This work provides novel insights into nutrient homeostasis in DCs, demonstrating that differential utilization of glycogen and glucose metabolism regulates their optimal immune function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment with soy isoflavones during early adulthood improves metabolism in early postnatally overfed rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.

  9. Fluidized muds: a novel setting for the generation of biosphere diversity through geologic time.

    PubMed

    Aller, J Y; Aller, R C; Kemp, P F; Chistoserdov, A Y; Madrid, V M

    2010-06-01

    Reworked and fluidized fine-grained deposits in energetic settings are a major modern-day feature of river deltas and estuaries. Similar environments were probably settings for microbial evolution on the early Earth. These sedimentary systems act as efficient biogeochemical reactors with high bacterial phylogenetic diversity and functional redundancy. They are temporally rather than spatially structured, with repeated cycling of redox conditions and successive stages of microbial metabolic processes. Intense reworking of the fluidized bed entrains bacteria from varied habitats providing new, diverse genetic materials to contribute to horizontal gene transfer events and the creation of new bacterial ecotypes. These vast mud environments may act as exporters and promoters of biosphere diversity and novel adaptations, potentially on a globally important scale.

  10. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  11. Development of a metabolic biosignature for detection of early Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Molins, Claudia R; Ashton, Laura V; Wormser, Gary P; Hess, Ann M; Delorey, Mark J; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Schriefer, Martin E; Belisle, John T

    2015-06-15

    Early Lyme disease patients often present to the clinic prior to developing a detectable antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent. Thus, existing 2-tier serology-based assays yield low sensitivities (29%-40%) for early infection. The lack of an accurate laboratory test for early Lyme disease contributes to misconceptions about diagnosis and treatment, and underscores the need for new diagnostic approaches. Retrospective serum samples from patients with early Lyme disease, other diseases, and healthy controls were analyzed for small molecule metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A metabolomics data workflow was applied to select a biosignature for classifying early Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patients. A statistical model of the biosignature was trained using the patients' LC-MS data, and subsequently applied as an experimental diagnostic tool with LC-MS data from additional patient sera. The accuracy of this method was compared with standard 2-tier serology. Metabolic biosignature development selected 95 molecular features that distinguished early Lyme disease patients from healthy controls. Statistical modeling reduced the biosignature to 44 molecular features, and correctly classified early Lyme disease patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 88% (84%-95%), and a specificity of 95% (90%-100%). Importantly, the metabolic biosignature correctly classified 77%-95% of the of serology negative Lyme disease patients. The data provide proof-of-concept that metabolic profiling for early Lyme disease can achieve significantly greater (P < .0001) diagnostic sensitivity than current 2-tier serology, while retaining high specificity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development of a Metabolic Biosignature for Detection of Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molins, Claudia R.; Ashton, Laura V.; Wormser, Gary P.; Hess, Ann M.; Delorey, Mark J.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Schriefer, Martin E.; Belisle, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Early Lyme disease patients often present to the clinic prior to developing a detectable antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent. Thus, existing 2-tier serology-based assays yield low sensitivities (29%–40%) for early infection. The lack of an accurate laboratory test for early Lyme disease contributes to misconceptions about diagnosis and treatment, and underscores the need for new diagnostic approaches. Methods. Retrospective serum samples from patients with early Lyme disease, other diseases, and healthy controls were analyzed for small molecule metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A metabolomics data workflow was applied to select a biosignature for classifying early Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patients. A statistical model of the biosignature was trained using the patients' LC-MS data, and subsequently applied as an experimental diagnostic tool with LC-MS data from additional patient sera. The accuracy of this method was compared with standard 2-tier serology. Results. Metabolic biosignature development selected 95 molecular features that distinguished early Lyme disease patients from healthy controls. Statistical modeling reduced the biosignature to 44 molecular features, and correctly classified early Lyme disease patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 88% (84%–95%), and a specificity of 95% (90%–100%). Importantly, the metabolic biosignature correctly classified 77%–95% of the of serology negative Lyme disease patients. Conclusions. The data provide proof-of-concept that metabolic profiling for early Lyme disease can achieve significantly greater (P < .0001) diagnostic sensitivity than current 2-tier serology, while retaining high specificity. PMID:25761869

  13. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  14. A global biogeocenotical biosphere simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseyev, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    This model of the D. Forrester type, constructed in differential equations, predicts the food and mineral supply for the factors biosphere population, depending on two socio-economic factors, until about the year 2500. If contemporary rates of natural resources utilization are maintained and there is no management of the environment, food resources will begin to limit human population growth after 2200, and mineral resources will after 2300. A decrease in the biosphere pollution, increase in effective agricultural production, and discovery of new energy sources may forestall or completely avert the onset of a crisis situation. Conservation measures, according to the model, are to a considerable extent realizable only if carried out simultaneously in both areas.

  15. New non-invasive method for early detection of metabolic syndrome in the working population.

    PubMed

    Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Fuentes-Jiménez, Francisco J; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Álvarez-Fernández, Carlos; Molina-Recio, Guillermo; López-Miranda, José

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new method for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in the working population, which was free of biomarkers (non-invasive) and based on anthropometric variables, and to validate it in a new working population. Prevalence studies and diagnostic test accuracy to determine the anthropometric variables associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as the screening validity of the new method proposed, were carried out between 2013 and 2015 on 636 and 550 workers, respectively. The anthropometric variables analysed were: blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage and waist-hip ratio. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis and obtained receiver operating curves to determine the predictive ability of the variables. The new method for the early detection of metabolic syndrome we present is based on a decision tree using chi-squared automatic interaction detection methodology. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.9%. The area under the curve for waist-height ratio and waist circumference was 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. The anthropometric variables associated with metabolic syndrome in the adjusted model were waist-height ratio, body mass index, blood pressure and body fat percentage. The decision tree was configured from the waist-height ratio (⩾0.55) and hypertension (blood pressure ⩾128/85 mmHg), with a sensitivity of 91.6% and a specificity of 95.7% obtained. The early detection of metabolic syndrome in a healthy population is possible through non-invasive methods, based on anthropometric indicators such as waist-height ratio and blood pressure. This method has a high degree of predictive validity and its use can be recommended in any healthcare context. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  16. Early Life Metabolism of Bisphenol A: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Rebecca M.; Hartle, Jennifer C.; Lees, Peter S. J.; Groopman, John D.

    2014-01-01

    When a comprehensive report on BPA was published in 2008, few data were available to assess the extent to which known poor glucuronidation capacity impacts BPA internal dose in infants and young children. In this paper, evidence that has emerged since the 2008 report is summarized, including: 1) human biomarker studies in children aged 0–5 years; 2) animal studies of neonatal toxicokinetics; and 3) physically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. To address limitations in these studies, we recommend more human biomonitoring studies in children aged 0–5 years in which unmetabolized (free) BPA and BPA metabolites are separately quantified and detailed quality-control data are reported, investigation of metabolic differences between humans and animal species used for the study of BPA metabolism, and enzyme ontogeny studies, which along with biomonitoring studies would reduce uncertainty in PBPK models of early-life BPA metabolism. PMID:25838989

  17. The Benefits of Exercise and Metabolic Interventions for the Prevention and Early Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Lynch, Madelaine; Oore, Jonathan Jordan; Nagy, Paul Michael; Aubert, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, vascular pathology and cognitive decline. Furthermore, deficits in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin resistance are being increasingly recognized in AD. Many lifestyle-modifying approaches, including diet and exercise, have yielded promising results in modulating brain morphology and function for the prevention and early treatment of AD. This review focuses on the effects of physical exercise on rescuing cognition and limiting the progression of AD pathology. Specifically, the impact of exercise, in human and animal models of AD, on the stimulation and preservation of cognition, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, vasculature, glucose metabolism and insulin signaling is discussed. Studies have highlighted the potential of physical activity to improve overall brain health, which could delay or lessen AD-related cognitive deficits and pathology. Physical activity influences cognitive function, vascular health and brain metabolism, which taken together offers benefits for the aging population, including AD patients.

  18. Impaired Circulating Angiogenic Cells Mobilization and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Dynamic Exercise in Early Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Natalia G.; Sales, Allan R. K.; Penedo, Leticia A.; Pereira, Felipe S.; Silva, Mayra S.; Miranda, Renan L.; Silva, Jemima F. R.; Silva, Bruno M.; Santos, Aline A.; Nobrega, Antonio C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of adhesion molecules or metalloproteinases (MMPs) may indicate endothelial dysfunction. Exercise mobilizes circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) from bone marrow in healthy subjects, improving vascular function. However, it is unclear whether this mechanism is preserved in the early stages of metabolic syndrome (early MetS). We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of exercise on adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, MMPs, and CACs in early MetS. Fifteen subjects with early MetS and nine healthy controls underwent an exercise session and a nonexercise session, randomly. Adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, CACs, and MMPs were evaluated before and after exercise or nonexercise sessions. At baseline, levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 were higher in early MetS than in controls (P ≤ 0.03). After exercise, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 levels were still higher in early MetS (P < 0.05). Subjects with early MetS presented less CACs (P = 0.02) and higher MMP-9 activity (P ≤ 0.04), while healthy controls presented higher MMP-2 activity after exercise. There was no difference between moments in nonexercise session (P > 0.05). In conclusion, subjects with early MetS already presented impaired endothelial function at rest along with a decrease in CACs and an increase in MMP-9 activity in response to exercise. PMID:26557715

  19. Impaired Circulating Angiogenic Cells Mobilization and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Dynamic Exercise in Early Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Natalia G; Sales, Allan R K; Penedo, Leticia A; Pereira, Felipe S; Silva, Mayra S; Miranda, Renan L; Silva, Jemima F R; Silva, Bruno M; Santos, Aline A; Nobrega, Antonio C L

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of adhesion molecules or metalloproteinases (MMPs) may indicate endothelial dysfunction. Exercise mobilizes circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) from bone marrow in healthy subjects, improving vascular function. However, it is unclear whether this mechanism is preserved in the early stages of metabolic syndrome (early MetS). We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of exercise on adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, MMPs, and CACs in early MetS. Fifteen subjects with early MetS and nine healthy controls underwent an exercise session and a nonexercise session, randomly. Adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, CACs, and MMPs were evaluated before and after exercise or nonexercise sessions. At baseline, levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 were higher in early MetS than in controls (P ≤ 0.03). After exercise, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 levels were still higher in early MetS (P < 0.05). Subjects with early MetS presented less CACs (P = 0.02) and higher MMP-9 activity (P ≤ 0.04), while healthy controls presented higher MMP-2 activity after exercise. There was no difference between moments in nonexercise session (P > 0.05). In conclusion, subjects with early MetS already presented impaired endothelial function at rest along with a decrease in CACs and an increase in MMP-9 activity in response to exercise.

  20. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  1. Historical overview of the Biosphere 2 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive historical overview is given of the Biosphere 2 project. The overview begins in late 1969, as the moon landings commenced, when work began on ecological projects which laid the conceptual foundation for the current Biosphere 2 project. Continuing through to taking a complete functional suite of microbes together with their associated aquatic elements and an air volume and putting them inside a closed lab flask in which to measure the oxygen and CO2 levels, study energy flows and visually observe the changes therein. The laws of biospherics formulated by the author which can be tested in the Biosphere 2 project are listed.

  2. Neuropsychiatric subsyndromes and brain metabolic network dysfunctions in early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, Tommaso; Iaccarino, Leonardo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Ayakta, Nagehan; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Rabinovici, Gil D; Perani, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) often occur in early-age-of-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and cluster into sub-syndromes (SSy). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 18 F-FDG-PET regional and connectivity-based brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychiatric SSy. NPSs were assessed in 27 EOAD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and further clustered into four SSy (apathetic, hyperactivity, affective, and psychotic SSy). Eighty-five percent of EOAD showed at least one NPS. Voxel-wise correlations between SSy scores and brain glucose metabolism (assessed with 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography) were studied. Interregional correlation analysis was used to explore metabolic connectivity in the salience (aSN) and default mode networks (DMN) in a larger sample of EOAD (N = 51) and Healthy Controls (N = 57). The apathetic, hyperactivity, and affective SSy were highly prevalent (>60%) as compared to the psychotic SSy (33%). The hyperactivity SSy scores were associated with increase of glucose metabolism in frontal and limbic structures, implicated in behavioral control. A comparable positive correlation with part of the same network was found for the affective SSy scores. On the other hand, the apathetic SSy scores were negatively correlated with metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal and dorsolateral frontal cortex known to be involved in motivation and decision-making processes. Consistent with these SSy regional correlations with brain metabolic dysfunction, the connectivity analysis showed increases in the aSN and decreases in the DMN. Behavioral abnormalities in EOAD are associated with specific dysfunctional changes in brain metabolic activity, in particular in the aSN that seems to play a crucial role in NPSs in EOAD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4234-4247, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neuropsychiatric Subsyndromes and Brain Metabolic Network Dysfunctions in Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tommaso, Ballarini; Leonardo, Iaccarino; Giuseppe, Magnani; Nagehan, Ayakta; Bruce L, Miller; William J, Jagust; Luisa, Gorno-Tempini Maria; Gil D, Rabinovici; Daniela, Perani

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) often occur in early-age-of-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) and cluster into sub-syndromes (SSy). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 18F-FDG-PET regional and connectivity-based brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychiatric SSy. NPSs were assessed in 27 EOAD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and further clustered into four SSy (apathetic, hyperactivity, affective and psychotic SSy). 85% of EOAD showed at least one NPS. Voxel-wise correlations between SSy scores and brain glucose metabolism (assessed with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography) were studied. Interregional correlation analysis was used to explore metabolic connectivity in the salience (aSN) and default mode networks (DMN) in a larger sample of EOAD (N=51) and Healthy Controls (N=57). The apathetic, hyperactivity and affective SSy were highly prevalent (>60%) as compared to the psychotic SSy (33%). The hyperactivity SSy scores were associated with increase of glucose metabolism in frontal and limbic structures, implicated in behavioral control. A comparable positive correlation with part of the same network was found for the affective SSy scores. On the other hand, the apathetic SSy scores were negatively correlated with metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal and dorsolateral frontal cortex known to be involved in motivation and decision-making processes. Consistent with these SSy regional correlations with brain metabolic dysfunction, the connectivity analysis showed increases in the aSN and decreases in the DMN. Behavioral abnormalities in EOAD are associated with specific dysfunctional changes in brain metabolic activity, in particular in the aSN that seems to play a crucial role in NPSs in EOAD. PMID:27412866

  4. Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Lorena Sonia; Blanco, Estela; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicators have increased globally among the pediatric population. MetS indicators in the young elevate their risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders later in life. This study examined early onset obesity as a risk factor for MetS risk in adolescence. Methods A cohort of Chilean participants (N = 673) followed from infancy was assessed at age 5 years and in adolescence (mean age, 16.8 y). Adiposity was measured at both time points; blood pressure and fasting blood samples were assessed in adolescence only. Early onset obesity was defined as a World Health Organization z score of 2 standard deviations (SDs) or more for body mass index (BMI) at age 5 years. We used linear regression to examine the association between early onset obesity and adolescent MetS risk z score, adjusting for covariates. Results Eighteen percent of participants had early onset obesity, and 50% of these remained obese in adolescence. Mean MetS risk z score in adolescence was significantly higher among those with early onset obesity than among those without (1.0; SD, 0.8 vs 0.2; SD, 0.8 [P < .001]). In the multivariable model, early onset obesity independently contributed to a higher MetS risk score in adolescence (β = 0.27, P < .001), controlling for obesity status at adolescence and sex, and explained 39% of the variance in MetS risk. Conclusion Early onset obesity as young as age 5 years relates to higher MetS risk. PMID:29023232

  5. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Manoel C. S.; Barbosa, Maurício F.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Codogno, Jamile S.; Freitas, Ismael F.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. Method: The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Results: Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Conclusion: Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity. PMID:25372009

  6. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lima, Manoel C S; Barbosa, Maurício F; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b95%CI=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.

  7. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Berman, S M; Voytek, B; Mandelkern, M A; Hassid, B D; Isaacson, A; Monterosso, J; Miotto, K; Ling, W; London, E D

    2008-09-01

    Changes in brain function during the initial weeks of abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse may substantially affect clinical outcome, but are not well understood. We used positron emission tomography with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to quantify regional cerebral glucose metabolism, an index of brain function, during performance of a vigilance task. A total of 10 methamphetamine-dependent subjects were tested after 5-9 days of abstinence, and after 4 additional weeks of supervised abstinence. A total of 12 healthy control subjects were tested at corresponding times. Global glucose metabolism increased between tests (P=0.01), more in methamphetamine-dependent (10.9%, P=0.02) than control subjects (1.9%, NS). Glucose metabolism did not change in subcortical regions of methamphetamine-dependent subjects, but increased in neocortex, with maximal increase (>20%) in parietal regions. Changes in reaction time and self-reports of negative affect varied more in methamphetamine-dependent than in control subjects, and correlated both with the increase in parietal glucose metabolism, and decrease in relative activity (after scaling to the global mean) in some regions. A robust relationship between change in self-reports of depressive symptoms and relative activity in the ventral striatum may have great relevance to treatment success because of the role of this region in drug abuse-related behaviors. Shifts in cortical-subcortical metabolic balance either reflect new processes that occur during early abstinence, or the unmasking of effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse that are obscured by suppression of cortical glucose metabolism that continues for at least 5-9 days after cessation of methamphetamine self-administration.

  8. The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1984-01-01

    Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve…

  9. The Study of Socio-Biospheric Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Andrew M.

    Concepts, tools, and a methodology are needed which will permit the analysis of emergent socio-biospheric problems and facilitate their effective management. Many contemporary problems may be characterized as socio-biospheric; for example, pollution of the seas, acid rain, the growth of cities, and an atmosphere loaded with carcinogens. However,…

  10. Selection, management and utilization of biosphere reserves.

    Jerry F. Franklin; Stanley L. Krugman

    1979-01-01

    This publication is directed to the analysis of the selection, management, and utilization of Biosphere Reserves as viewed by scientists from the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet papers focus on types of research and monitoring programs that should be developed on Biosphere Reserves, with emphasis on their use in pollutant monitoring....

  11. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  12. Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sloboda, Deborah M.; Li, Minglan; Patel, Rachna; Clayton, Zoe E.; Yap, Cassandra; Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies. PMID:24864200

  13. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  14. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  15. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    PubMed

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  16. Environmental Consequences of an Emerging Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    It seems feasible to detect biological signatures ("biosignatures") in other planetary systems using the tools of astronomy. There are at least two types of biosignatures; spectral and/or polarization features created by biological products, and electromagnetic signals created by technology. The latter example of a biosignature requires SETI-like searches. This presentation addresses only spectral signatures of biological products and properties of habitable planets. Spectral biosignatures are indeed promising targets for near-term exploration. They can arise from organic constituents (e.g., vegetation) and/or inorganic products (e.g., atmospheric O2). Features originating from a planet's surface are likely to be localized in specific regions, whereas gaseous biosignatures can become globally distributed by atmospheric circulation. Biosignatures should be most abundant within environments that are, or once were, habitable. We currently believe that habitable environments necessarily provide Liquid water and biochemically useful energy. However, we do not yet fully comprehend the diversity of features that might arise within these environments that are non-biological in origin, yet mimic biosignatures. For example, atmospheres reflect the events leading to their origins as well as a host of ongoing planetary processes that might include biological activity. We are persuaded that abundant atmospheric oxygen in an environment with abundant liquid water constitutes definitive evidence of life. However, our own early biosphere thrived for more than a billion years in the absence of abundant atmospheric oxygen. The production of other, more reduced, gaseous biomarkers of "young" and/or anaerobic biospheres has not been systematically studied. Biological gas production is strongly controlled by the structure and function of microbial ecosystems. Investigations of microbial ecosystems that are close analogs of ancient communities offer multiple benefits. Such studies can

  17. Early adiposity rebound is associated with metabolic risk in 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    González, L; Corvalán, C; Pereira, A; Kain, J; Garmendia, M L; Uauy, R

    2014-10-01

    Early adiposity rebound (AR <5 years) has been consistently associated with increased obesity risk, but its relationship with metabolic markers is less clear; in addition, the biologic mechanisms involved in these associations have not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the association between timing of AR and metabolic status at age 7 years, evaluating the potential role of adiposity, adipose functionality and skeletal maturation in this association. We estimated the age of AR from the body mass index (BMI) trajectories from 0 to 7 years in 910 children from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study (GOCS). At 7 years, we measured waist circumference (WC) and blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and constructed a metabolic risk score. We also measured percent fat mass (adiposity), plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin (adipose functionality) and bone age using wrist ultrasound (skeletal maturation). We found that 44% of the children had an AR <5 years. Earlier AR was associated with larger WC (β: 5.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.29-5.91)), higher glucose (β: 1.02 (1.00-1.03)), insulin resistance (β Homeostatic Model Assessment: 1.06 (1.03-1.09)), triglycerides (β: 10.37 (4.01-6.73)) and adverse metabolic score (β: 0.30 (0.02-0.37)). Associations decreased significantly if adiposity was added to the models (i.e. β WC: 0.85 (0.33-1.38)) and, to a lesser extent, when adipokines (i.e. β WC: 0.73 (0.14-1.32)) and skeletal maturation (i.e. β WC: 0.65 (0.10-1.20)) were added. In GOCS children, AR at a younger age predicts higher metabolic risk at 7 years; these associations are mostly explained by increased adiposity, but adipose dysfunction and accelerated skeletal maturation also have a role.

  18. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  19. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson ... Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2014:chap ...

  20. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... El metabolismo Metabolism Basics Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical ... that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking ...

  1. Early and late menarche are associated with oligomenorrhea and predict metabolic syndrome 26 years later.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether simple, clinical information on late and early menarche could help identify adult women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and oligomenorrhea. We carried out a 26-year prospective follow-up of 272 suburban schoolgirls from ages 5-22 to 30-46. Early menarche (≤10 years, 5.2% of girls) and late menarche (≥16 years, 6.7% of girls) were both associated with oligomenorrhea (≥42 days) in adulthood, 29% and 11%, vs. 5% for normal menarche (11-15 years), p=.004. Early menarche was characterized by high childhood BMI (LS mean±SE: 21.2 ±1.0 kg/m2) and by high childhood and adult MetS (15%, 36%). Girls with late menarche had the lowest childhood BMI (18.1±1.0), no childhood MetS, and the highest adult MetS (47%). Increasing age at menarche was associated with uniformly decreasing childhood BMI and MetS, but with a U-shaped pattern of BMI (p = .05), MetS (p=.008), and oligomenorrhea (p=.02) in adulthood. Change to MetS from median ages 13 to 38 was associated with early-late menarche (OR=3.11, 95% CI 1.37-7.07, p=.007). MetS in adulthood was associated with childhood MetS (OR=8.03, 95% CI 2.57-25.08, p=.0003) and with early-late menarche (OR =3.43, 95% CI 1.44-8.15, p=.005). Menarche age had a curvilinear ('U' shaped) relationship with MetS and oligomenorrhea in adulthood. Late menarche and early menarche are risk factors for adult oligomenorrhea, MetS, and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Girls with early (≤ age 10) and with late menarche (≥ 16) represent a group at high risk for adult cardiometabolic abnormalities and oligomenorrhea that is easily identifiable by physicians. © 2013.

  2. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  3. [Search for life in deep biospheres].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-12-01

    The life in deep biospheres bridges conventional biology and future exobiology. This review focuses the microbiological studies from the selected deep biospheres, i.e., deep-sea hydrothermal vents, sub-hydrothermal vents, terrestrial subsurface and a sub-glacier lake. The dark biospheres facilitate the emergence of organisms and communities dependent on chemolithoautotrophy, which are overwhelmed by photoautotrophy (photosynthesis) in the surface biospheres. The life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents owes much to chemolithoautotrophy based on the oxidation of sulfide emitted from the vents. It is likely that similarly active bodies such as the Jovian satellite Europa may have hydrothermal vents and associated biological communities. Anoxic or anaerobic condition is characteristic of deep subsurface biospheres. Subsurface microorganisms exploit available oxidants, or terminal electron acceptors (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These deep biosphere "platforms" provide new knowledge about the diversity and potential of the Earth's life. The expertise obtained from the deep biosphere expeditions will facilitate the capability of exobiologial exploration.

  4. Software automation tools for increased throughput metabolic soft-spot identification in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zelesky, Veronica; Schneider, Richard; Janiszewski, John; Zamora, Ismael; Ferguson, James; Troutman, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    The ability to supplement high-throughput metabolic clearance data with structural information defining the site of metabolism should allow design teams to streamline their synthetic decisions. However, broad application of metabolite identification in early drug discovery has been limited, largely due to the time required for data review and structural assignment. The advent of mass defect filtering and its application toward metabolite scouting paved the way for the development of software automation tools capable of rapidly identifying drug-related material in complex biological matrices. Two semi-automated commercial software applications, MetabolitePilot™ and Mass-MetaSite™, were evaluated to assess the relative speed and accuracy of structural assignments using data generated on a high-resolution MS platform. Review of these applications has demonstrated their utility in providing accurate results in a time-efficient manner, leading to acceleration of metabolite identification initiatives while highlighting the continued need for biotransformation expertise in the interpretation of more complex metabolic reactions.

  5. Energy metabolic reprogramming in the hypertrophied and early stage failing heart: a multisystems approach.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Keller, Mark P; Martin, Ola J; Broman, Aimee T; Nigro, Jessica; Kapoor, Kapil; Koves, Timothy R; Stevens, Robert; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Vega, Rick B; Attie, Alan D; Muoio, Deborah M; Kelly, Daniel P

    2014-11-01

    An unbiased systems approach was used to define energy metabolic events that occur during the pathological cardiac remodeling en route to heart failure (HF). Combined myocardial transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling were conducted in a well-defined mouse model of HF that allows comparative assessment of compensated and decompensated (HF) forms of cardiac hypertrophy because of pressure overload. The pressure overload data sets were also compared with the myocardial transcriptome and metabolome for an adaptive (physiological) form of cardiac hypertrophy because of endurance exercise training. Comparative analysis of the data sets led to the following conclusions: (1) expression of most genes involved in mitochondrial energy transduction were not significantly changed in the hypertrophied or failing heart, with the notable exception of a progressive downregulation of transcripts encoding proteins and enzymes involved in myocyte fatty acid transport and oxidation during the development of HF; (2) tissue metabolite profiles were more broadly regulated than corresponding metabolic gene regulatory changes, suggesting significant regulation at the post-transcriptional level; (3) metabolomic signatures distinguished pathological and physiological forms of cardiac hypertrophy and served as robust markers for the onset of HF; and (4) the pattern of metabolite derangements in the failing heart suggests bottlenecks of carbon substrate flux into the Krebs cycle. Mitochondrial energy metabolic derangements that occur during the early development of pressure overload-induced HF involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. A subset of the myocardial metabolomic profile robustly distinguished pathological and physiological cardiac remodeling. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alling, Abigail; Leigh, Linda S.; Maccallum, Taber; Alvarez-Romo, Norberto

    1990-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 Test Module is a facility which has the capability to do either short or long term closures: five month closures with plants were conducted. Also conducted were investigations of specific problems, such as trace gas purification by bioregenerative systems by in-putting a fixed concentration of a gas and observing its uptake over time. In other Test Module experiments, the concentration of one gas was changed to observe what effects this has on other gases present or on the system. The science of biospherics which encompasses the study of closed biological systems provides an opening into the future in space as well as in the Earth's biosphere.

  7. Swansong biospheres II: the final signs of life on terrestrial planets near the end of their habitable lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Cockell, Charles S.; Greaves, Jane S.; Raven, John A.

    2014-07-01

    The biosignatures of life on Earth do not remain static, but change considerably over the planet's habitable lifetime. Earth's future biosphere, much like that of the early Earth, will consist of predominantly unicellular microorganisms due to the increased hostility of environmental conditions caused by the Sun as it enters the late stage of its main sequence evolution. Building on previous work, the productivity of the biosphere is evaluated during different stages of biosphere decline between 1 and 2.8 Gyr from present. A simple atmosphere-biosphere interaction model is used to estimate the atmospheric biomarker gas abundances at each stage and to assess the likelihood of remotely detecting the presence of life in low-productivity, microbial biospheres, putting an upper limit on the lifetime of Earth's remotely detectable biosignatures. Other potential biosignatures such as leaf reflectance and cloud cover are discussed.

  8. Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  9. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M; Esguerra, Camila V; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  10. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  11. Early Cellular Changes in the Ascending Aorta and Myocardium in a Swine Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Rabya; Huang, Thomas; Mahmood, Feroze; Owais, Khurram; Bardia, Amit; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Liu, David; Senthilnathan, Venkatachalam; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Sellke, Frank; Matyal, Robina

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with pathological remodeling of the heart and adjacent vessels. The early biochemical and cellular changes underlying the vascular damage are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to establish the nature, extent, and initial timeline of cytochemical derangements underlying reduced ventriculo-arterial compliance in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. Yorkshire swine (n = 8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-cholesterol (HCD) for 12 weeks. Myocardial function and blood flow was assessed before harvesting the heart. Immuno-blotting and immuno-histochemical staining were used to assess the cellular changes in the myocardium, ascending aorta and left anterior descending artery (LAD). There was significant increase in body mass index, blood glucose and mean arterial pressures (p = 0.002, p = 0.001 and p = 0.024 respectively) in HCD group. At the cellular level there was significant increase in anti-apoptotic factors p-Akt (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002) and Bcl-xL (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01) in the HCD aorta and myocardium, respectively. Pro-fibrotic markers TGF-β (p = 0.01), pSmad1/5 (p = 0.03) and MMP-9 (p = 0.005) were significantly increased in the HCD aorta. The levels of pro-apoptotic p38MAPK, Apaf-1 and cleaved Caspase3 were significantly increased in aorta of HCD (p = 0.03, p = 0.04 and p = 0.007 respectively). Similar changes in coronary arteries were not observed in either group. Functionally, the high cholesterol diet resulted in significant increase in ventricular end systolic pressure and-dp/dt (p = 0.05 and p = 0.007 respectively) in the HCD group. Preclinical metabolic syndrome initiates pro-apoptosis and pro-fibrosis pathways in the heart and ascending aorta, while sparing coronary arteries at this early stage of dietary modification.

  12. Improving Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health at an Early Psychosis Intervention Program in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fredrikson, Diane H.; Boyda, Heidi N.; Tse, Lurdes; Whitney, Zachary; Pattison, Mark A.; Ott, Fred J.; Hansen, Laura; Barr, Alasdair M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health early psychosis intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication, and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients’ physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program, where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment, where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study that evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25249985

  13. The Possible Emergence of Life and Differentiation of a Shallow Biosphere on Irradiated Icy Worlds: The Example of Europa.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael J; Murray, Alison E; Hand, Kevin P

    2017-12-01

    Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs-relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts-could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms. In such chemostatic environments, fuels may eventually outweigh oxidants. Ice-covered oceans are primarily heated from below, creating convection that could transport putative microbial cells and cellular cooperatives upward to congregate beneath an ice shell, potentially giving rise to a highly focused shallow biosphere. It is here where electron acceptors, ultimately derived from the irradiated surface, could be delivered to such life-forms through exchange with the icy surface. Such zones would act as "electron disposal units" for the biosphere, and occupants might be transferred toward the surface by buoyant diapirs and even entrained into plumes. Key Words: Biofilms-Europa-Extraterrestrial life-Hydrothermal systems. Astrobiology 17, 1265-1273.

  14. The Possible Emergence of Life and Differentiation of a Shallow Biosphere on Irradiated Icy Worlds: The Example of Europa

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alison E.; Hand, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs—relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts—could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms. In such chemostatic environments, fuels may eventually outweigh oxidants. Ice-covered oceans are primarily heated from below, creating convection that could transport putative microbial cells and cellular cooperatives upward to congregate beneath an ice shell, potentially giving rise to a highly focused shallow biosphere. It is here where electron acceptors, ultimately derived from the irradiated surface, could be delivered to such life-forms through exchange with the icy surface. Such zones would act as “electron disposal units” for the biosphere, and occupants might be transferred toward the surface by buoyant diapirs and even entrained into plumes. Key Words: Biofilms—Europa—Extraterrestrial life—Hydrothermal systems. Astrobiology 17, 1265–1273. PMID:29016193

  15. The Possible Emergence of Life and Differentiation of a Shallow Biosphere on Irradiated Icy Worlds: The Example of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Michael J.; Murray, Alison E.; Hand, Kevin P.

    2017-12-01

    Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs - relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts - could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms. In such chemostatic environments, fuels may eventually outweigh oxidants. Ice-covered oceans are primarily heated from below, creating convection that could transport putative microbial cells and cellular cooperatives upward to congregate beneath an ice shell, potentially giving rise to a highly focused shallow biosphere. It is here where electron acceptors, ultimately derived from the irradiated surface, could be delivered to such life-forms through exchange with the icy surface. Such zones would act as "electron disposal units" for the biosphere, and occupants might be transferred toward the surface by buoyant diapirs and even entrained into plumes.

  16. Systematic Review of Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers: A Panel for Early Detection, Management, and Risk Stratification in the West Virginian Population

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Feyh, Andrew; Visweshwar, Haresh; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Sodhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of related metabolic abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, with central obesity and insulin resistance in particular recognized as causative factors. These metabolic derangements present significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is commonly recognized as the primary clinical outcome, although other outcomes are possible. Metabolic syndrome is a progressive condition that encompasses a wide array of disorders with specific metabolic abnormalities presenting at different times. These abnormalities can be detected and monitored via serum biomarkers. This review will compile a list of promising biomarkers that are associated with metabolic syndrome and this panel can aid in early detection and management of metabolic syndrome in high risk populations, such as in West Virginia. Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar to search for markers related to metabolic syndrome. Biomarkers searched included adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), neuropeptides (ghrelin), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), markers of antioxidant status (OxLDL, PON-1, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1). Results: According to the literature, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), markers of pro-oxidant status (OxLDL, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1) were elevated in metabolic syndrome. Additionally, leptin concentrations were found to be elevated in metabolic syndrome as well, likely due to leptin resistance. In contrast, concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), ghrelin, adiponectin, and antioxidant factors (PON-1) were decreased in metabolic syndrome, and these decreases also correlated with specific disorders within the cluster. Conclusion: Based on the evidence presented within the literature, the

  17. Effects of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi; Hong, Peng K.; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of different forms of photosynthetic life has profoundly altered the activity level of the biosphere, radically reshaping the composition of Earth's oceans and atmosphere over time. However, the mechanistic impacts of a primitive photosynthetic biosphere on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate are poorly understood. Here, we use a global redox balance model to explore the biogeochemical and climatological effects of different forms of primitive photosynthesis. We find that a hybrid ecosystem of H2-based and Fe2+-based anoxygenic photoautotrophs—organisms that perform photosynthesis without producing oxygen—gives rise to a strong nonlinear amplification of Earth's methane (CH4) cycle, and would thus have represented a critical component of Earth's early climate system before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we find that a hybrid photosynthetic biosphere widens the range of geochemical conditions that allow for warm climate states well beyond either of these metabolic processes acting in isolation. Our results imply that the Earth's early climate was governed by a novel and poorly explored set of regulatory feedbacks linking the anoxic biosphere and the coupled H, C and Fe cycles. We suggest that similar processes should be considered when assessing the potential for sustained habitability on Earth-like planets with reducing atmospheres.

  18. Increased plasma leptin attenuates adaptive metabolism in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Richard A; Foskolos, Andreas; Giesy, Sarah L; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Krumm, Christopher S; Butler, W Ronald; Quirk, Susan M; Waldron, Matthew R; Boisclair, Yves R

    2016-05-01

    Mammals meet the increased nutritional demands of lactation through a combination of increased feed intake and a collection of adaptations known as adaptive metabolism (e.g., glucose sparing via insulin resistance, mobilization of endogenous reserves, and increased metabolic efficiency via reduced thyroid hormones). In the modern dairy cow, adaptive metabolism predominates over increased feed intake at the onset of lactation and develops concurrently with a reduction in plasma leptin. To address the role of leptin in the adaptive metabolism of early lactation, we asked which adaptations could be countered by a constant 96-h intravenous infusion of human leptin (hLeptin) starting on day 8 of lactation. Compared to saline infusion (Control), hLeptin did not alter energy intake or milk energy output but caused a modest increase in body weight loss. hLeptin reduced plasma glucose by 9% and hepatic glycogen content by 73%, and these effects were associated with a 17% increase in glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. hLeptin attenuated the accumulation of triglyceride in the liver by 28% in the absence of effects on plasma levels of the anti-lipolytic hormone insulin or plasma levels of free fatty acids, a marker of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue. Finally, hLeptin increased the plasma concentrations of T4 and T3 by nearly 50% without affecting other neurally regulated hormones (i.e., cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH)). Overall these data implicate the periparturient reduction in plasma leptin as one of the signals promoting conservation of glucose and energy at the onset of lactation in the energy-deficient dairy cow. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Delving into the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, S. L.; Sogin, M. L.; Boetius, A.; Briggs, B. R.; Brazelton, W. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Edwards, K. J.; Fisk, M. R.; Gaidos, E.; Gralnick, J.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazar, C.; Lavalleur, H.; Lever, M. A.; Marteinsson, V.; Moser, D. P.; Orcutt, B.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, R.; Ramette, A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Sylvan, J. B.; Smith, A. R.; Teske, A.; Walsh, E. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Census of Deep Life organized an international survey of microbial community diversity in terrestrial and marine deep subsurface environments. Habitats included subsurface continental fractured rock aquifers, volcanic and metamorphic subseafloor sedimentary units from the open ocean, subsurface oxic and anoxic sediments and underlying basaltic oceanic crust, and their overlying water columns. Our survey employed high-throughput pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4-V6 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. We detected 1292 bacterial genera representing 40 phyla, and 99 archaeal genera from 30 phyla. Of these, a core group of thirteen bacterial genera occurred in every environment. A genus of the South African Goldmine Group (Euryarchaeota) was always present whenever archaea were detected. Members of the rare biosphere in one system often represented highly abundant taxa in other environments. Dispersal could account for this observation but mechanisms of transport remain elusive. Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria) represented highly abundant taxa in marine communities and terrestrial rock, but generally low abundance organisms in groundwater. Some of these taxa could represent sample contamination, and their extensive distribution in several systems requires further assessment. An unknown Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes) genus, Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Acidovorax and Aquabacterium (both Betaproteobacteria), a Chlorobiales genus, and a TM7 genus were in the core group as well but more prevalent in terrestrial environments. Similarly, Bacillus (Firmicutes), a new cyanobacterial genus, Bradyrhizobium and Sphingomonas (both Alphaproteobacteria), a novel Acidobacteriaceae genus, and Variovorax (Betaproteobacteria) frequently occurred in marine systems but represented low abundance taxa in other environments. Communities tended to cluster by biome and material, and many genera were unique to systems. For example, certain Rhizobiales

  20. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p < 0.001). Those with lower mood were fatter (r = -0.24, p < 0.001), had higher HOMA-IR (r = -0.12, p = 0.05), higher cholesterol:HDL ratio (r = -0.14, p = 0.02), were less active (r = 0.20, p = 0.003) and had earlier pubertal development (r = 0.19, p = 0.004). Inverse associations between mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Instability of different adolescent metabolic syndrome definitions tracked into early adulthood metabolic syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS).

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Eftekharzadeh, Anita; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Ghareh, Sahar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-02-01

    There are substantial controversies about the clinical utility of adolescent metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study examined the stability of adolescent MetS by assessing the agreement and discriminative abilities of four different definitions of adolescent MetS and the adult MetS definition during a 10.4-yr follow up. For this study, 1424 adolescents (55.2% female), who participated in the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were included. Kappa was calculated for agreement between adolescent MetS definitions [Cook, de Ferranti, pediatric National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and pediatric International Diabetes Federation (IDF)] and the adulthood MetS definition defined by the joint interim statement (JIS) criteria. MetS persistence, instability, and incidence were assessed, and for each of the four adolescent definitions, sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) for the counting of categorical adulthood MetS components was evaluated. The agreement between the four adolescent MetS definitions and JIS was poor (κ = 0.094-0.255). All definitions showed low sensitivity and high specificity, except for de Ferranti's, which contrary to other definitions, had higher sensitivity and lower specificity. All four adolescent definitions revealed generally low AUCs (0.601-0.647). Compared with the pubertal group (11-14 yr), the predictive power was slightly higher in the late-pubertal group (15-18 yr). Cook's and de Ferranti's definitions showed fairly better predictive powers (0.647 and 0.644, respectively). Across all definitions, instability ranged between 5.4 and 19.6%. The adolescent definitions show considerable amount of instability defined as poor agreement and low discriminative abilities tracked into early adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Feedbacks between climate change and biosphere integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lade, Steven; Anderies, J. Marty; Donges, Jonathan; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan; Richardson, Katherine; Cornell, Sarah; Norberg, Jon; Fetzer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The terrestrial and marine biospheres sink substantial fractions of human fossil fuel emissions. How the biosphere's capacity to sink carbon depends on biodiversity and other measures of biosphere integrity is however poorly understood. Here, we (1): review assumptions from literature regarding the relationships between the carbon cycle and the terrestrial and marine biospheres; and (2) explore the consequences of these different assumptions for climate feedbacks using the stylised carbon cycle model PB-INT. We find that: terrestrial biodiversity loss could significantly dampen climate-carbon cycle feedbacks; direct biodiversity effects, if they exist, could rival temperature increases from low-emission trajectories; and the response of the marine biosphere is critical for longer term climate change. Simple, low-dimensional climate models such as PB-INT can help assess the importance of still unknown or controversial earth system processes such as biodiversity loss for climate feedbacks. This study constitutes the first detailed study of the interactions between climate change and biosphere integrity, two of the 'planetary boundaries'.

  3. Biomedical program at Space Biospheres Ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walford, Roy

    1990-01-01

    There are many similarities and some important differences between potential health problems of Biosphere 2 and those of which might be anticipated for a space station or a major outpost on Mars. The demands of time, expense, and equipment would not readily allow medical evacuation from deep space for a serious illness or major trauma, whereas personnel can easily be evacuated from Biosphere 2 if necessary. Treatment facilities can be somewhat less inclusive, since distance would not compel the undertaking of heroic measures or highly complicated surgical procedures on site, and with personnel not fully trained for these procedures. The similarities are given between medical requirements of Biosphere 2 and the complex closed ecological systems of biospheres in space or on Mars. The major problems common to all these would seem to be trauma, infection, and toxicity. It is planned that minor and moderate degrees of trauma, including debridement and suturing of wounds, x ray study of fractures, will be done within Biosphere 2. Bacteriologic and fungal infections, and possibly allergies to pollen or spores are expected to be the commonest medical problem within Biosphere 2.

  4. Early Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome: The Role of Environmental Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects more than 47 million people in the U.S. Even more alarming, MetS, once regarded as an “adult problem”, has become increasingly common in children. To date, most related research and intervention efforts have occurred in the adult medicine arena, with limited understanding of the root causes and lengthy latency of MetS. This review highlights new science on the early life origins of MetS, with a particular focus on exposure to two groups of environmental toxicants: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and metals during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, and their specific effects and important differences in the development of MetS. It also summarizes available data on epigenetic effects, including the role of EDCs in the androgen/estrogen pathways. Emerging evidence supports the link between exposures to environmental toxicants during early life and the development of MetS later in life. Additional research is needed to address important research gaps in this area, including prospective birth cohort studies to delineate temporal and dose-response relationships, important differences in the effects of various environmental toxicants and their joint effects on MetS, as well as epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of specific toxicants such as EDCs and metals. PMID:24883264

  5. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Mora, Ana M.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. Methods: We studied 665 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999–2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Results: Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., –10.1% (95% CI: –17.3, –2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: –15.6% (95% CI: –25.4, –4.6) vs. –6.1% (95% CI: –16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. Conclusions: We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481–487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303 PMID:27586368

  6. Metabolic syndrome marks early risk for cognitive decline with APOE4 gene variation: A case study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dawson; Gibas, Kelly J

    2018-04-20

    A vast amount of research has been done on the APOE4 genetic marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its connection to metabolic processes associated with peripheral insulin resistance and cerebral glucose metabolism is still relatively unknown. The APOE4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, particularly in individuals who have inherited two copies of the gene (Zhao et al., 2017). In this case study, a 38 year old male with metabolic syndrome (MetS), the APOE4 gene, early stage memory problems and a family history of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was placed on a ketogenic diet combined with high intensity interval training (HIIT) for 10 weeks. The primary intervention goal was reduce insulin defect, impaired cerebral and peripheral insulin signaling, associated with metabolic syndrome. Recent research demonstrates that insulin defect competes for space with APOE4 in brain cells, thus exacerbating amyloid pathology (Zhao et al., 2017). Primary biomarkers for metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks. The MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) was administered at baseline and after 10 weeks. The results were statistically significant. The HOMA-IR (homeostatic measure of insulin resistance) decreased by 59% from 4.3 to 1.8. The triglyceride/HDL ratio decreased by 77% from 14.7 to 3.4. Fasting triglycerides were reduced from 573 mg/dL to 167 mg/dL (71% reduction); VLDL decreased from 114.6 mg/dL to 33.4 mg/dL (71% decrease); and fasting insulin was reduced by 55% from 15.6 mU/L to 7.1 mU/L. The baseline MoCA score was 22/30; post treatment score was 30/30. If APOEE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's Disease, then implementing a ketogenic diet and high intensity exercise could essentially turn "off" the effects of this APOE4 gene earlier in life for prevention of future neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  7. Early adventures in drug metabolism. 1. Role of the Bratton-Marshall reagent

    SciT

    Glazko, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Bratton-Marshall reagent is one of the real land-marks in the development of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, coming at a time when highly sensitive and specific analytical procedures were desperately needed for the measurement of drug concentrations in the body. Examples of its applications are taken from early work in the mid-40's and 50's in the Parke-Davis Research Laboratories, extending from primary aromatic amines (e.g., sulfonamides), to p-nitrophenyl compounds that must first be reduced to amines (e.g., chloramphenicol), and to phenyl derivatives that must be nitrated on a microgram scale and then reduced to aryl amines (e.g., phenytoin). The developmentmore » and use of separation techniques such as liquid/liquid counter-current partition and paper chromatography is described. Emphasis is placed upon continued, progressive improvement in the basic assay procedures over long periods of time.« less

  8. Duration of Fasting, Serum Lipids, and Metabolic Profile in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura N; Maguire, Jonathon L; Lebovic, Gerald; Hanley, Anthony J; Hamilton, Jill; Adeli, Khosrow; McCrindle, Brian W; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between fasting duration and lipid and metabolic test results. A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy children aged 0-6 years from The Applied Research Group for Kids! (TARGet Kids!) primary care practice network, Toronto, Canada, 2008-2013. The associations between duration of fasting at blood collection and serum lipid tests and metabolic tests were evaluated using linear regression. Among 2713 young children with blood tests the fasting time ranged from 0 to 5 hours (1st and 99th percentiles). Fasting duration was not significantly associated with total cholesterol (β = 0.006; P = .629), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (β = 0.002; P = .708), low-density lipoprotein (β = 0.0013; P = .240), non-HDL (β = 0.004; P = .744), or triglycerides (β = -0.016; P = .084) adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, maternal ethnicity, and time of blood draw. Glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly associated with fasting duration, and the average percent change between 0 and 5 hours was -7.2%, -67.1%, and -69.9%, respectively. The effect of fasting on lipid or metabolic test results did not differ by age or sex; HDL and triglycerides may differ by weight status. In this cohort of healthy young children, we found little evidence to support the need for fasting prior to measurement of lipids. The effect of fasting on glucose was small and may not be clinically important. When measuring serum lipid tests in early childhood, fasting makes a very small difference. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0186953. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    PubMed

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  10. Starch Turnover and Metabolism during Flower and Early Embryo Development1[CC-BY

    PubMed Central

    Pazmino, Diana; Gagliardini, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of starch within photosynthetic tissues and within dedicated storage organs has been characterized extensively in many species, and a function in buffering carbon availability or in fueling later growth phases, respectively, has been proposed. However, developmentally regulated starch turnover within heterotrophic tissues other than dedicated storage organs is poorly characterized, and its function is not well understood. Here, we report on the characterization of starch turnover during flower, early embryo, and silique development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using a combined clearing-staining technique on whole-mount tissue. Besides the two previously documented waves of transient starch accumulation in the stamen envelope, occurring during meiosis and pollen mitosis I, we identified a novel, third wave of starch amylogenesis/amylolysis during the last stages of stamen development. To gain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms, we analyzed publicly available microarray data, which revealed a developmentally coordinated expression of carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes during these waves of transient starch accumulation. Based on this analysis, we characterized starch dynamics in mutants affecting hexose phosphate metabolism and translocation, and identified the Glc-6-phosphate/phosphate antiporter GPT1 as the putative translocator of Glc-6-phosphate for starch biosynthesis in reproductive tissues. Based on these results, we propose a model of starch synthesis within the pollen grain and discuss the nutrient transport route feeding the embryo within the developing seed. PMID:27794100

  11. Ocean acidification alters early successional coral reef communities and their rates of community metabolism.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Sam H C; Kluibenschedl, Anna; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2018-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to alter community composition on coral reefs, but its effects on reef community metabolism are poorly understood. Here we document how early successional benthic coral reef communities change in situ along gradients of carbon dioxide (CO2), and the consequences of these changes on rates of community photosynthesis, respiration, and light and dark calcification. Ninety standardised benthic communities were grown on PVC tiles deployed at two shallow-water volcanic CO2 seeps and two adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Along the CO2 gradient, both the upward facing phototrophic and the downward facing cryptic communities changed in their composition. Under ambient CO2, both communities were dominated by calcifying algae, but with increasing CO2 they were gradually replaced by non-calcifying algae (predominantly green filamentous algae, cyanobacteria and macroalgae, which increased from ~30% to ~80% cover). Responses were weaker in the invertebrate communities, however ascidians and tube-forming polychaetes declined with increasing CO2. Differences in the carbonate chemistry explained a far greater amount of change in communities than differences between the two reefs and successional changes from five to 13 months, suggesting community successions are established early and are under strong chemical control. As pH declined from 8.0 to 7.8, rates of gross photosynthesis and dark respiration of the 13-month old reef communities (upper and cryptic surfaces combined) significantly increased by 10% and 20%, respectively, in response to altered community composition. As a consequence, net production remained constant. Light and dark calcification rates both gradually declined by 20%, and low or negative daily net calcification rates were observed at an aragonite saturation state of <2.3. The study demonstrates that ocean acidification as predicted for the end of this century will strongly alter reef communities, and will significantly

  12. Ocean acidification alters early successional coral reef communities and their rates of community metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kluibenschedl, Anna; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2018-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to alter community composition on coral reefs, but its effects on reef community metabolism are poorly understood. Here we document how early successional benthic coral reef communities change in situ along gradients of carbon dioxide (CO2), and the consequences of these changes on rates of community photosynthesis, respiration, and light and dark calcification. Ninety standardised benthic communities were grown on PVC tiles deployed at two shallow-water volcanic CO2 seeps and two adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Along the CO2 gradient, both the upward facing phototrophic and the downward facing cryptic communities changed in their composition. Under ambient CO2, both communities were dominated by calcifying algae, but with increasing CO2 they were gradually replaced by non-calcifying algae (predominantly green filamentous algae, cyanobacteria and macroalgae, which increased from ~30% to ~80% cover). Responses were weaker in the invertebrate communities, however ascidians and tube-forming polychaetes declined with increasing CO2. Differences in the carbonate chemistry explained a far greater amount of change in communities than differences between the two reefs and successional changes from five to 13 months, suggesting community successions are established early and are under strong chemical control. As pH declined from 8.0 to 7.8, rates of gross photosynthesis and dark respiration of the 13-month old reef communities (upper and cryptic surfaces combined) significantly increased by 10% and 20%, respectively, in response to altered community composition. As a consequence, net production remained constant. Light and dark calcification rates both gradually declined by 20%, and low or negative daily net calcification rates were observed at an aragonite saturation state of <2.3. The study demonstrates that ocean acidification as predicted for the end of this century will strongly alter reef communities, and will significantly

  13. Analysis of Low-Biomass Microbial Communities in the Deep Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Morono, Y; Inagaki, F

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the subseafloor biosphere has been explored by scientific ocean drilling to depths of about 2.5km below the seafloor. Although organic-rich anaerobic sedimentary habitats in the ocean margins harbor large numbers of microbial cells, microbial populations in ultraoligotrophic aerobic sedimentary habitats in the open ocean gyres are several orders of magnitude less abundant. Despite advances in cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, exploring the low-biomass environment remains technologically challenging, especially in the deep subseafloor biosphere. Reviewing the historical background of deep-biosphere analytical methods, the importance of obtaining clean samples and tracing contamination, as well as methods for detecting microbial life, technological aspects of molecular microbiology, and detecting subseafloor metabolic activity will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Delucchi, Kevin L; Benowitz, Neal L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-05-01

    Although the early time course of smoking withdrawal effects has been characterized, the clinical significance of early withdrawal symptoms and their predictors are unknown. This study evaluated the relationships of early smoking withdrawal effects with quit attempt outcomes and the rate of nicotine metabolism. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers abstained from smoking for 4 hr in the laboratory before a quit attempt. Withdrawal measures included heart rate, sustained attention, and self-report. Following baseline assessment, withdrawal measures were administered every 30 min. At the conclusion of the 4-hr early withdrawal session, participants received a brief smoking cessation intervention and then returned 1 week and 12 weeks later for outcome assessments that included biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence, cigarettes smoked in the past 24hr, and self-reported withdrawal symptoms. The rate of nicotine metabolism was estimated at intake with the nicotine metabolite ratio (trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) measured in saliva. Greater self-reported negative affect and concentration difficulty during early withdrawal, most notably anxiety, were related with poorer quit attempt outcomes. There was some indication that although a faster increase in craving and greater hunger during early withdrawal were associated with more favorable outcomes, a greater decrease in heart rate during this time was associated with poorer outcomes. Faster nicotine metabolism was related to a faster increase in anxiety but a slower increase in craving during early withdrawal. These findings lend support to the clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects. The rate of nicotine metabolism may be a useful predictor of early withdrawal symptoms.

  15. Identifying poor metabolic adaptation during early lactation in dairy cows using cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, M; Kammer, M; Lange, H; Plattner, S; Baumgartner, C; Stegeman, J A; Duda, J; Mansfeld, R; Döpfer, D

    2018-05-02

    Currently, cows with poor metabolic adaptation during early lactation, or poor metabolic adaptation syndrome (PMAS), are often identified based on detection of hyperketonemia. Unfortunately, elevated blood ketones do not manifest consistently with indications of PMAS. Expected indicators of PMAS include elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin, decreased rumen fill, reduced rumen contractions, and a decrease in milk production. Cows with PMAS typically are higher producing, older cows that are earlier in lactation and have greater body condition score at the start of lactation. It was our aim to evaluate commonly used measures of metabolic health (input variables) that were available [i.e., blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid, milk fat:protein ratio, blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA)] to characterize PMAS. Bavarian farms (n = 26) with robotic milking systems were enrolled for weekly visits for an average of 6.7 wk. Physical examinations of the cows (5-50 d in milk) were performed by veterinarians during each visit, and blood and milk samples were collected. Resulting data included 790 observations from 312 cows (309 Simmental, 1 Red Holstein, 2 Holstein). Principal component analysis was conducted on the 3 input variables, followed by K-means cluster analysis of the first 2 orthogonal components. The 5 resulting clusters were then ascribed to low, intermediate, or high PMAS classes based on their degree of agreement with expected PMAS indicators and characteristics in comparison with other clusters. Results revealed that PMAS classes were most significantly associated with blood NEFA levels. Next, we evaluated NEFA values that classify observations into appropriate PMAS classes in this data set, which we called separation values. Our resulting NEFA separation values [<0.39 mmol/L (95% confidence limits = 0.360-0.410) to identify low PMAS observations and ≥0.7 mmol/L (95% confidence limits = 0.650-0.775) to identify high PMAS observations] were similar to values

  16. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  17. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Decline in Early Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Amber S.; Loskutova, Natalia; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Johnson, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors (i.e., abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose and insulin dysregulation) that is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. Recent studies addressing the association of MetS with cognitive performance and risk for dementia report mixed results. An important step in clarifying these conflicting results is determining whether cognition is influenced by the effects of individual MetS components versus the additive effects of multiple components. We assessed the effect of MetS on cognitive performance and decline over two years in 75 cases of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and 73 healthy older adult controls in the Brain Aging Project. Using factor analytic techniques, we compared the effect of a combined MetS factor to the effect of individual MetS components on change in attention, verbal memory, and mental status. In healthy controls, a combined MetS factor did not significantly predict cognitive performance, though higher insulin predicted poorer cognitive performance outcomes. In the AD group, higher scores on a combined MetS factor predicted better cognitive outcomes. Our findings suggest that MetS does not have the same association with cognitive decline in healthy older adults and those with early AD. We suggest that individual MetS components should not be evaluated in isolation and that careful methodological approaches are needed to understand the timing and non-linear relationships among these components over time. PMID:23388170

  19. Effects of dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Yu, Changning; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of different dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrow (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, DLY) pigs (65.0±2.0 kg) were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets: A (44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat, and 12.6% neutral detergent fibre [NDF]), B (37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat, and 15.4% NDF) or C (30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat, and 17.8% NDF). After the duration of 28-day feeding experiment, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered and the M. longissimus lumborum (LL) samples at 45 min postmortem were collected. Compared with diet A, diet C resulted in greater adenosine triphosphate and decreased phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, greater activity of creatine kinase and reduced percentage bound activities of hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in LL muscles (p<0.05). Moreover, diet C decreased the phosphor-AKT level and increased the hydroxy-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) level, as well as decreased the bound protein expressions of HK II, PKM2, and lactate dehydrogenase A (p<0.05). Diet C with the lowest level of starch and the highest levels of fat and NDF could enhance the PCr utilization and attenuate glycolysis early postmortem in LL muscle of finishing pigs.

  20. Effects of dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Gao, T; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0.05). Moreover, the PS diet led to reduced percentage of bound hexokinase activity, decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (P<0.05) and increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet with high amylose content might promote PCr degradation and inhibit the rate of glycolysis, followed by attenuation of early postmortem glycolysis in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  2. Early-life glucocorticoids programme behaviour and metabolism in adulthood in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K S; Tucker, C S; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Holmes, M C; Hadoke, P W F; Kenyon, C J

    2016-01-01

    development in the zebrafish and that, like other species, manipulating GC status pharmacologically, physiologically or genetically in early life leads to programmable metabolic and behavioural traits in adulthood. PMID:27390302

  3. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  4. Water T2 as an early, global and practical biomarker for metabolic syndrome: an observational cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michelle D; Mishra, Ina; Deodhar, Sneha; Patel, Vipulkumar; Gordon, Katrina V; Vintimilla, Raul; Brown, Kim; Johnson, Leigh; O'Bryant, Sid; Cistola, David P

    2017-12-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent condition that identifies individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Prevention of these diseases relies on early detection and intervention in order to preserve pancreatic β-cells and arterial wall integrity. Yet, the clinical criteria for MetS are insensitive to the early-stage insulin resistance, inflammation, cholesterol and clotting factor abnormalities that characterize the progression toward type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we report the discovery and initial characterization of an atypical new biomarker that detects these early conditions with just one measurement. Water T 2 , measured in a few minutes using benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, is exquisitely sensitive to metabolic shifts in the blood proteome. In an observational cross-sectional study of 72 non-diabetic human subjects, the association of plasma and serum water T 2 values with over 130 blood biomarkers was analyzed using bivariate, multivariate and logistic regression. Plasma and serum water T 2 exhibited strong bivariate correlations with markers of insulin, lipids, inflammation, coagulation and electrolyte balance. After correcting for confounders, low water T 2 values were independently and additively associated with fasting hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation. Plasma water T 2 exhibited 100% sensitivity and 87% specificity for detecting early insulin resistance in normoglycemic subjects, as defined by the McAuley Index. Sixteen normoglycemic subjects with early metabolic abnormalities (22% of the study population) were identified by low water T 2 values. Thirteen of the 16 did not meet the harmonized clinical criteria for metabolic syndrome and would have been missed by conventional screening for diabetes risk. Low water T 2 values were associated with increases in the mean concentrations of 6 of the 16 most abundant acute phase proteins and

  5. Victor Kovda, Soil Science and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I.

    2012-04-01

    Victor Kovda (1904-1991) was one of the most famous soil scientists at the national and international soil science community. He published more than 500 scientific works including about 400 papers, 17 collective monographs, 30 personal monographs, and more than 200 interviews and popular papers describing the role of soils not only for food production, but for the functioning of the biosphere. Victor Kovda was a talented organizer, who founded the new Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (known at the present time as the Institute of physico-chemical and biological problems of soil science in Pushchino, Russia). During six years from 1959 to 1964 he was the head of Science Department in UNESCO, where he initiated a set of international projects (ex. Soil World Map of FAO-UNESCO, Source-book on irrigation and drainage). He continued his international activity after UNESCO as a President of the International Soil Science Society (1968-1974), organizer of the X international Soil Science Congress in Moscow (1974), president of SCOPE (1973-1976), working for ICSU. The last three decades of his national and international activities Victor Kovda initiated and was strongly involved in the popularization of biosphere role and functions of soils and soil cover. The start point for this activity was his special talk "Biosphere and man" presented during the intergovernmental conference in the framework of the international program "Man and Biosphere" organized by UNESCO in 1968 in Paris. The next key presentation "Soil as a component of biosphere" Victor Kovda gave as a plenary lecture during the X International congress of soil scientists. This presentation determined the focus of soil science for the next decades: at least Russian soil science became oriented towards the investigation of biosphere functions and role of soils. Soils science was accepted not only for agriculture and food production, but also as a fundamental science with a large environmental

  6. Identification of early indicators of altered metabolism in normal development using a rodent model system.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, Ashok Daniel; Karakkat, Jimsheena Valiyakath; Vijayan, Ranjit; Chalissery, Jisha; Ibrahim, Marwa F; Kaimala, Suneesh; Adeghate, Ernest A; Al-Marzouqi, Ahmed Hassan; Ansari, Suraiya Anjum; Mensah-Brown, Eric; Emerald, Bright Starling

    2018-03-01

    Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as a model to link this with later adult disease. Because embryonic size variation also occurs under normal growth and differentiation, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important. The birth weight of rat pups vary according to the uterine horn positions. Using birth weight as a marker, we compared two groups of rat pups - lower birth weight (LBW, 5th to 25th percentile) and average birth weight (ABW, 50th to 75th percentile) - using morphological, biochemical and molecular biology, and genetic techniques. Our results show that insulin metabolism, Pi3k/Akt and Pparγ signaling and the genes regulating growth and metabolism are significantly different in these groups. Methylation at the promoter of the InsII ( Ins2 ) gene and DNA methyltransferase 1 in LBW pups are both increased. Additionally, the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which includes Hdac1, Rb (Rb1) and E2f1, was also upregulated in LBW pups. We conclude that the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which regulates the restriction point of the cell cycle, retards the rate at which cells traverse the G1 or G0 phase of the cell cycle in LBW pups, thereby slowing down growth. This regulatory mechanism mediated by Dnmt1 might contribute to the production of small-size pups and altered physiology and pathology in adult life. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Identification of early indicators of altered metabolism in normal development using a rodent model system

    PubMed Central

    Prabakaran, Ashok Daniel; Karakkat, Jimsheena Valiyakath; Chalissery, Jisha; Ibrahim, Marwa F.; Kaimala, Suneesh; Adeghate, Ernest A.; Al-Marzouqi, Ahmed Hassan; Ansari, Suraiya Anjum

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as a model to link this with later adult disease. Because embryonic size variation also occurs under normal growth and differentiation, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important. The birth weight of rat pups vary according to the uterine horn positions. Using birth weight as a marker, we compared two groups of rat pups – lower birth weight (LBW, 5th to 25th percentile) and average birth weight (ABW, 50th to 75th percentile) – using morphological, biochemical and molecular biology, and genetic techniques. Our results show that insulin metabolism, Pi3k/Akt and Pparγ signaling and the genes regulating growth and metabolism are significantly different in these groups. Methylation at the promoter of the InsII (Ins2) gene and DNA methyltransferase 1 in LBW pups are both increased. Additionally, the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which includes Hdac1, Rb (Rb1) and E2f1, was also upregulated in LBW pups. We conclude that the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which regulates the restriction point of the cell cycle, retards the rate at which cells traverse the G1 or G0 phase of the cell cycle in LBW pups, thereby slowing down growth. This regulatory mechanism mediated by Dnmt1 might contribute to the production of small-size pups and altered physiology and pathology in adult life. PMID:29434026

  8. Early life lipid profile and metabolic programming in very young children.

    PubMed

    Wijnands, K P J; Obermann-Borst, S A; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2015-06-01

    Lipid derangements during early postnatal life may induce stable epigenetic changes and alter metabolic programming. We investigated associations between serum lipid profiles in very young children and DNA methylation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and leptin (LEP). Secondly, we explored if the maternal serum lipid profile modifies DNA methylation in the child. In 120 healthy children at 17 months of age, DNA methylation of TNFα and LEP was measured in DNA derived from whole blood. Linear mixed models were used to calculate exposure-specific differences and associations. Total cholesterol in children was associated with decreased methylation of TNFα (-5.8%, p = 0.036), and HDL-cholesterol was associated with decreased methylation of both TNFα (-6.9%, p = 0.013) and LEP (-3.4%, p = 0.021). Additional adjustment for gestational age at birth, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding and educational level attenuated the effects, TNFα (-6.1%, p = 0.058) and LEP (-3.1%, p = 0.041). In mothers, HDL-cholesterol only was associated with decreased methylation of TNFα in the child (-8.7%, p = 0.001). Our data support the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis by showing that total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in very young children are associated with epigenetic metabolic programming, which may affect their vulnerability for developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecology and exploration of the rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael D J; Neufeld, Josh D

    2015-04-01

    The profound influence of microorganisms on human life and global biogeochemical cycles underlines the value of studying the biogeography of microorganisms, exploring microbial genomes and expanding our understanding of most microbial species on Earth: that is, those present at low relative abundance. The detection and subsequent analysis of low-abundance microbial populations—the 'rare biosphere'—have demonstrated the persistence, population dynamics, dispersion and predation of these microbial species. We discuss the ecology of rare microbial populations, and highlight molecular and computational methods for targeting taxonomic 'blind spots' within the rare biosphere of complex microbial communities.

  10. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  11. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  12. Sex steroid metabolism polymorphisms and mammographic density in pre- and early perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Sehl, Mary E; Crawford, Sybil L; Gold, Ellen B; Habel, Laurel A; Butler, Lesley M; Sowers, MaryFran R; Greendale, Gail A; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We examined the association between mammographic density and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding CYP1A1, CYP1B1, aromatase, 17β-HSD, ESR1, and ESR2 in pre- and early perimenopausal white, African-American, Chinese, and Japanese women. Methods The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal community-based cohort study. We analyzed data from 451 pre- and early perimenopausal participants of the ancillary SWAN Mammographic Density study for whom we had complete information regarding mammographic density, genotypes, and covariates. With multivariate linear regression, we examined the relation between percentage mammographic breast density (outcome) and each SNP (primary predictor), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, parity, cigarette smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Results After multivariate adjustment, the CYP1B1 rs162555 CC genotype was associated with a 9.4% higher mammographic density than the TC/TT genotype (P = 0.04). The CYP19A1 rs936306 TT genotype was associated with 6.2% lower mammographic density than the TC/CC genotype (P = 0.02). The positive association between CYP1A1 rs2606345 and mammographic density was significantly stronger among participants with BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 than among those with BMI less than 25 kg/m2 (Pinteraction = 0.05). Among white participants, the ESR1 rs2234693 CC genotype was associated with a 7.0% higher mammographic density than the CT/TT genotype (P = 0.01). Conclusions SNPs in certain genes encoding sex steroid metabolism enzymes and ESRs were associated with mammographic density. Because the encoded enzymes and ESR1 are expressed in breast tissue, these SNPs may influence breast cancer risk by altering mammographic density. PMID:19630952

  13. R6/2 Huntington's disease mice develop early and progressive abnormal brain metabolism and seizures.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Prado, Efrain; Popp, Susanna; Khan, Usman; Stefanov, Dimitre; Rodríguez, Jorge; Menalled, Liliana B; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Small, Scott A; Moreno, Herman

    2012-05-09

    A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional MRI (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI signals [relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs)] and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions, thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [(14)C] 2-deoxyglucose maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models.

  14. Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere - SAMAB.ORG

    Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Home Who We Are SAMAB Initiatives Archives Welcome to SAMAB This slideshow requires JavaScript. The Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere (SAMAB

  15. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lutaif, N.A.; Palazzo, R.; Gontijo, J.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile. PMID:24519093

  16. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis.

    PubMed

    Lutaif, N A; Palazzo, R; Gontijo, J A R

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  17. Effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken breast muscle early postmortem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sidang; Li, Chunbao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-04-01

    Pre-slaughter fasting is a very important practice in the meat industry. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken muscle early postmortem. A total of 30 Yellow-feathered chickens were deprived of feed for 0 h, 12 h and 24 h before slaughter (n=10 each group). Breast muscles were removed and cut into 3 parts and stored at 0°C for 0 h, 3 h and 10 h. Samples were used for analyses of zymography, cathepsins, pH, glycogen/ATP/ADP/AMP, hormones and ultrastructure. Fasting caused the accelerated depletion (p<0.05) of glycogen, ATP and ADP before or immediately after slaughter, but no difference existed in ATP at 3 and 10 h (p>0.05). Fasting resulted in greater ultimate pH (p<0.05). Zymography indicated that fasting delayed the activation of μ/m-calpain (p<0.05), however, it accelerated the release of lysosomal enzymes (p<0.05). Fasting for 24 h resulted in greater ultrastructural changes and plasma corticosterone levels than fasting for 12 h and control groups. Therefore, fasting for no more than 12 h is acceptable in practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic system alterations in pancreatic cancer patient serum: potential for early detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the poorest among all cancers, due largely to the lack of methods for screening and early detection. New biomarkers for identifying high-risk or early-stage subjects could significantly impact PC mortality. The goal of this study was to find metabolic biomarkers associated with PC by using a comprehensive metabolomics technology to compare serum profiles of PC patients to healthy control subjects. Methods A non-targeted metabolomics approach based on high-resolution, flow-injection Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FI-FTICR-MS) was used to generate comprehensive metabolomic profiles containing 2478 accurate mass measurements from the serum of Japanese PC patients (n=40) and disease-free subjects (n=50). Targeted flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry (FI-MS/MS) assays for specific metabolic systems were developed and used to validate the FI-FTICR-MS results. A FI-MS/MS assay for the most discriminating metabolite discovered by FI-FTICR-MS (PC-594) was further validated in two USA Caucasian populations; one comprised 14 PCs, six intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasims (IPMN) and 40 controls, and a second comprised 1000 reference subjects aged 30 to 80, which was used to create a distribution of PC-594 levels among the general population. Results FI-FTICR-MS metabolomic analysis showed significant reductions in the serum levels of metabolites belonging to five systems in PC patients compared to controls (all p<0.000025). The metabolic systems included 36-carbon ultra long-chain fatty acids, multiple choline-related systems including phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins, as well as vinyl ether-containing plasmalogen ethanolamines. ROC-AUCs based on FI-MS/MS of selected markers from each system ranged between 0.93 ±0.03 and 0.97 ±0.02. No significant correlations between any of the systems and disease-stage, gender, or treatment were observed

  19. Standard metabolic rates of early life stages of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), an estuarine turtle, suggest correlates between life history changes and the metabolic economy of hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L

    2018-04-01

    I estimated standard metabolic rates (SMR) using measurements of oxygen consumption rates of embryos and unfed, resting hatchlings of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) three times during embryonic development and twice during the early post-hatching period. The highest observed SMRs occurred during mid to late embryonic development and the early post-hatching period when hatchlings were still reliant on yolk reserves provided by the mother. Hatchlings that were reliant on yolk displayed per capita SMR 135 % higher than when measured 25 calendar days later after they became reliant on exogenous resources. The magnitude of the difference in hatchling SMR between yolk-reliant and exogenously feeding stages was much greater than that attributed to costs of digestion (specific dynamic action) observed in another emydid turtle, suggesting that processing of the yolk was not solely responsible for the observed difference. The pre-feeding period of yolk reliance of hatchlings corresponds with the period of dispersal from the nesting site, suggesting that elevated SMR during this period could facilitate dispersal activities. Thus, I hypothesize that the reduction in SMR after the development of feeding behaviors may reflect an energy optimization strategy in which a high metabolic expenditure in support of development and growth of the embryo and dispersal of the hatchling is followed by a substantial reduction in metabolic expenditure coincident with the individual becoming reliant on exogenous resources following yolk depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Lung Metabolic Activation as an Early Biomarker of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Local Gene Expression Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Tyler J.; de Prost, Nicolas; Tucci, Mauro; Winkler, Tilo; Baron, Rebecca M.; Filipczak, Piotr; Raby, Benjamin; Chu, Jen-hwa; Harris, R. Scott; Musch, Guido; dos Reis Falcao, Luiz F.; Capelozzi, Vera; Venegas, Jose; Melo, Marcos F. Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Background The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition comprising diffuse lung edema and alveolar damage. ARDS frequently results from regional injury mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether detectable inflammation precedes lung edema and opacification, and whether topographically differential gene expression consistent with heterogeneous injury occurs in early ARDS. We aimed to determine the temporal relationship between pulmonary metabolic activation and density in a large animal model of early ARDS, and to assess gene expression in differentially activated regions. Methods We produced ARDS in sheep with intravenous LPS (10ng/kg/h) and mechanical ventilation for 20h. Using positron emission tomography, we assessed regional cellular metabolic activation with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose, perfusion and ventilation with 13NN-saline, and aeration using transmission scans. Species-specific micro-array technology was used to assess regional gene expression. Results Metabolic activation preceded detectable increases in lung density (as required for clinical diagnosis) and correlated with subsequent histological injury, suggesting its predictive value for severity of disease progression. Local time-courses of metabolic activation varied, with highly perfused and less aerated dependent lung regions activated earlier than non-dependent regions. These regions of distinct metabolic trajectories demonstrated differential gene expression for known and potential novel candidates for ARDS pathogenesis. Conclusions Heterogeneous lung metabolic activation precedes increases in lung density in the development of ARDS due to endotoxemia and mechanical ventilation. Local differential gene expression occurs in these early stages and reveals molecular pathways relevant to ARDS biology and of potential use as treatment targets. PMID:27611185

  1. The effect of early-life stress and chronic high-sucrose diet on metabolic outcomes in female rats.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress affects metabolic outcomes and choice of diet influences the development of metabolic disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic sugar intake exacerbates metabolic deficits induced by early-life stress. Early-life stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using limited nesting material in early lactation (LN, postnatal days 2-9), and siblings were given chow alone or with additional sucrose post weaning (n = 9-17 per group). Female control and LN siblings had unlimited access to either chow plus water, or chow and water plus 25% sucrose solution (Sucrose), from 3-15 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and food intake were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested at 13 and 14 weeks of age, respectively. Rats were killed at 15 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and markers of lipid synthesis - fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and oxidation - and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc-1α) were examined. Mediators of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism, specifically 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11βHSD-1), 5-α reductase, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs were also measured. Sucrose increased caloric intake in both groups, but overall energy intake was not altered by LN exposure. LN exposure had no further impact on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. Hepatic markers of fat synthesis and oxidation were concomitantly activated and 11βHSD-1 mRNA expression was increased by 53% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Adiposity was increased by 26% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Thus, LN exposure had minimal adverse metabolic effects despite high-sugar diet postweaning.

  2. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  3. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciT

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty,more » and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.« less

  4. Trends and future challenges in sampling the deep terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Michael J; Daly, Rebecca A; Mouser, Paula J; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R; Wrighton, Kelly C; Biddle, Jennifer F; Denis, Elizabeth H; Fredrickson, Jim K; Kieft, Thomas L; Onstott, Tullis C; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M; Phelps, Tommy J; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2014-01-01

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on "Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface" was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation's Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  5. First-borns carry a higher metabolic risk in early adulthood: evidence from a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siervo, Mario; Horta, Bernardo L; Stephan, Blossom C M; Victora, Cesar G; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2010-11-09

    Birth order has been associated with early growth variability and subsequent increased adiposity, but the consequent effects of increased fat mass on metabolic risk during adulthood have not been assessed. We aimed to quantify the metabolic risk in young adulthood of being first-born relative to those born second or subsequently. Body composition and metabolic risk were assessed in 2,249 men, aged 17-19 years, from a birth cohort in southern Brazil. Metabolic risk was assessed using a composite z-score integrating standardized measurements of blood pressure, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides and fat mass. First-borns had lower birth weight z-score (Δ = -0.25, 95%CI -0.35, -0.15,p<0.001) but showed greater weight gain during infancy (change in weight z-score from birth to 20 months: Δ = 0.39, 95%CI 0.28-0.50, p<0.0001) and had greater mean height (Δ = 1.2 cm, 95%CI: 0.7-1.6, p<0.0001) and weight (Δ = 0.34 kg, 95%CI: 0.13-0.55, p<0.002) at 43 months. This greater weight and height tracked into early adulthood, with first-borns being significantly taller, heavier and with significantly higher fat mass than later-borns. The metabolic risk z-score was significantly higher in first-borns. First-born status is associated with significantly elevated adiposity and metabolic risk in young adult men in Brazil. Our results, linking cardiovascular risk with life history variables, suggest that metabolic risk may be associated with the worldwide trend to smaller family size and it may interact with changes in behavioural or environmental risk factors.

  6. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p < 0.05) and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Nitric oxide production of EPCs was substantially increased after exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with

  7. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  8. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn’t differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic. PMID:29338022

  9. Original Research: Metabolic alterations from early life thyroxine replacement therapy in male Ames dwarf mice are transient.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Justin; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal M; McFadden, Sam; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Ames dwarf mice are exceptionally long-lived due to a Prop1 loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Deficiency in thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone leads to greatly reduced levels of circulating thyroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, as well as a reduction in insulin secretion. Early life growth hormone replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice significantly shortens their longevity, while early life thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy does not. Possible mechanisms by which early life growth hormone replacement therapy shortens longevity include deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, which are long lasting. A mechanism explaining why early life T4 replacement therapy does not shorten longevity remains elusive. Here, we look for a possible explanation as to why early life T4 replacement therapy does not impact longevity of Ames dwarf mice. We found that early life T4 replacement therapy increased body weight and advanced the age of sexual maturation. We also find that early life T4 replacement therapy does not impact glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity, and any deleterious effects on oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and heat production are transient. Lastly, we find that early life T4 replacement therapy has long-lasting effects on bone mineral density and bone mineral content. We suggest that the transient effects on energy metabolism and lack of effects on glucose homeostasis are the reasons why there is no shortening of longevity after early life T4 replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaron L.; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Horton, J. Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ~35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ~35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  11. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Voytek, Mary A; Gronstal, Aaron L; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S; Sanford, Ward E; Horton, J Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S

    2012-03-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ∼35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ∼35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  12. Hepatic gene expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in transition cows: effects of fat mobilization during early lactation in relation to milk performance and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M

    2013-09-01

    Insufficient feed intake during early lactation results in elevated body fat mobilization to meet energy demands for milk production. Hepatic energy metabolism is involved by increasing endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose output for milk synthesis and by adaptation of postcalving fuel oxidation. Given that cows differ in their degree of fat mobilization around parturition, indicated by variable total liver fat concentration (LFC), the study investigated the influence of peripartum fat mobilization on hepatic gene expression involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and cholesterol synthesis, as well as transcriptional factors referring to energy metabolism. German Holstein cows were grouped according to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 after parturition as low [<200mg of total fat/g of dry matter (DM); n=10], medium (200-300 mg of total fat/g of DM; n=10), and high (>300 mg of total fat/g of DM; n=7), indicating fat mobilization during early lactation. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum and held under equal conditions. Liver biopsies were taken at d 56 and 15 before and d 1, 14, 28, and 49 after parturition to measure mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase (PC); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; glucose-6-phosphatase; propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase α; carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A); acyl-CoA synthetase, long chain 1 (ASCL1); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and 2; sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1; and peroxisome proliferator-activated factor α. Total LFC postpartum differed greatly among cows, and the mRNA abundance of most enzymes and transcription factors changed with time during the experimental period. Abundance of PC mRNA increased at parturition to a greater extent in high- and medium-LFC groups than in the low-LFC group. Significant LFC × time interactions for ACSL1 and CPT1A during the experimental period indicated variable

  13. Nature and Nurture in the Early-Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Garcia-Contreras, Consolacion; Vazquez-Gomez, Marta

    The combination of genetic background together with food excess and lack of exercise has become the cornerstone of metabolic disorders associated to lifestyle. The scenario is furthermore reinforced by their interaction with other environmental factors (stress, sleeping patterns, education, culture, rural versus urban locations, and xenobiotics, among others) inducing epigenetic changes in the exposed individuals. The immediate consequence is the development of further alterations like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and other adverse health conditions (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive, immune and neurological disorders). Thus, having in mind the impact of the metabolic syndrome on the worldwide public health, the present review affords the relative roles and the interrelationships of nature (genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome) and nurture (lifestyle and environmental effects causing epigenetic changes), on the establishment of the metabolic disorders in women; disorders that may evolve to metabolic syndrome prior or during pregnancy and may be transmitted to their descendants.

  14. Development of metabolic and inflammatory mediator biomarker phenotyping for early diagnosis and triage of pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mickiewicz, Beata; Thompson, Graham C; Blackwood, Jaime; Jenne, Craig N; Winston, Brent W; Vogel, Hans J; Joffe, Ari R

    2015-09-09

    The first steps in goal-directed therapy for sepsis are early diagnosis followed by appropriate triage. These steps are usually left to the physician's judgment, as there is no accepted biomarker available. We aimed to determine biomarker phenotypes that differentiate children with sepsis who require intensive care from those who do not. We conducted a prospective, observational nested cohort study at two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and one pediatric emergency department (ED). Children ages 2-17 years presenting to the PICU or ED with sepsis or presenting for procedural sedation to the ED were enrolled. We used the judgment of regional pediatric ED and PICU attending physicians as the standard to determine triage location (PICU or ED). We performed metabolic and inflammatory protein mediator profiling with serum and plasma samples, respectively, collected upon presentation, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Ninety-four PICU sepsis, 81 ED sepsis, and 63 ED control patients were included. Metabolomic profiling revealed clear separation of groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.89, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.96 (standard deviation [SD] 0.01), and predictive ability (Q(2)) of 0.60. Protein mediator profiling also showed clear separation of the groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.78 and AUROC of 0.88 (SD 0.03). Combining metabolomic and protein mediator profiling improved the model (Q(2) =0.62), differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.87 and AUROC of 0.95 (SD 0.01). Separation of PICU sepsis or ED sepsis from ED controls was even more accurate. Prespecified age subgroups (2-5 years old and 6-17 years old) improved model accuracy minimally. Seventeen metabolites or protein mediators accounted for separation of PICU sepsis and ED sepsis with 95% confidence. In children ages 2-17 years, combining metabolomic and

  15. IOTF thresholds for overweight and obesity and their relation to metabolic risk in children (EarlyBird 20).

    PubMed

    Voss, L D; Metcalf, B S; Jeffery, A N; Wilkin, T J

    2006-04-01

    The International Obesity TaskForce has published paediatric cutoffs from the age of 2 years for overweight and obesity, based on adult thresholds. We question their rationale. The adult cutoffs were based on known health risk; the children's were not. Data from the EarlyBird Study show that BMI category for overweight and obesity in young children are poor markers of insulin resistance and, by implication, of metabolic risk and diabetes. Moreover, BMI is known to track poorly from early childhood to adulthood. We know even less about the tracking of insulin resistance and other indices of metabolic risk from the earliest years. Until we understand more about which children acquire such risk factors, any such thresholds for overweight and obesity should be used with caution in the very young, as they may unnecessarily stigmatise the heavier child.

  16. Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021

  17. Connections Between the Gut Microbiome and Metabolic Hormones in Early Pregnancy in Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Morrison, Mark; Dekker Nitert, Marloes

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obese women are at a higher risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. The gut microbiome could modulate metabolic health and may affect insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to reveal relationships between gut microbiome composition and circulating metabolic hormones in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation. Fecal microbiota profiles from overweight (n = 29) and obese (n = 41) pregnant women were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Fasting metabolic hormone (insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, incretin, and adipokine) concentrations were measured using multiplex ELISA. Metabolic hormone levels as well as microbiome profiles differed between overweight and obese women. Furthermore, changes in some metabolic hormone levels were correlated with alterations in the relative abundance of specific microbes. Adipokine levels were strongly correlated with Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, which are dominant families in energy metabolism. Insulin was positively correlated with the genus Collinsella. Gastrointestinal polypeptide was positively correlated with the genus Coprococcus but negatively with family Ruminococcaceae This study shows novel relationships between gut microbiome composition and the metabolic hormonal environment in overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation. These results suggest that manipulation of the gut microbiome composition may influence pregnancy metabolism. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The biosphere comprises the Earth s crust, atmosphere, oceans, and ice caps and the living organisms that survive within this habitat. The discoveries of barophilic chemolithoautotrophic thermophiles living deep within the crust and in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and psychrophiles in permafrost and deep within the Antarctic Ice Sheet indicate the Earth s biosphere is far more extensive than previously recognized. Molecular biomarkers and Bacterial Paleontology provide evidence that life appeared very early on the primitive Earth and the origin of the biosphere is closely linked with the emergence of life. The role of comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust in the delivery of water, organics and prebiotic chemicals has long been recognized. Deuterium enrichment of seawater and comets indicates that comets delivered oceans to the early Earth. Furthermore, the similarity of the D/H ratios and the chemical compositions of CI carbonaceous meteorites and comets indicate that the CI meteorites may be remnants of cometary nuclei with most volatiles removed. Comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust also contain complex organic chemicals, amino acids, macromolecules, and kerogen-like biopolymers and may have played a crucial role in the delivery of complex organics and prebiotic chemicals during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Gyr) period of heavy bombardment. The existence of indigenous microfossils of morphotypes of cyanobacteria in the CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm that life originated endogenously in the primitive oceans of early Earth may require re-consideration. Recent data on the hot (300-400 K) black crust on comet P/Halley and Stardust images of P/Wild 2 showing depressions, tall cliffs, and pinnacles, indicate the presence of thick, durable, dark crusts on comets. If cavities within the ice and crust sustain vapor pressures in excess of 10 millibar, then localized pools of liquid water and brines could exist within the comet. Since life

  19. The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for Biospherics and Closed Ecological System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review these accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research accomplishments and publications which have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of leak detection and sealing, and achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal b ogeochemical cycling and ranges ofi atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained down to 15% oxygen could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved

  20. Early and progressive impairment of spinal blood flow-glucose metabolism coupling in motor neuron degeneration of ALS model mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kazunori; Masamoto, Kazuto; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Mimoto, Takahumi; Obata, Takayuki; Kanno, Iwao; Abe, Koji

    2012-03-01

    The exact mechanism of selective motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains still unclear. In the present study, we performed in vivo capillary imaging, directly measured spinal blood flow (SBF) and glucose metabolism, and analyzed whether if a possible flow-metabolism coupling is disturbed in motor neuron degeneration of ALS model mice. In vivo capillary imaging showed progressive decrease of capillary diameter, capillary density, and red blood cell speed during the disease course. Spinal blood flow was progressively decreased in the anterior gray matter (GM) from presymptomatic stage to 0.80-fold of wild-type (WT) mice, 0.61 at early-symptomatic, and 0.49 at end stage of the disease. Local spinal glucose utilization (LSGU) was transiently increased to 1.19-fold in anterior GM at presymptomatic stage, which in turn progressively decreased to 0.84 and 0.60 at early-symptomatic and end stage of the disease. The LSGU/SBF ratio representing flow-metabolism uncoupling (FMU) preceded the sequential pathological changes in the spinal cord of ALS mice and was preferentially found in the affected region of ALS. The present study suggests that this early and progressive FMU could profoundly involve in the whole disease process as a vascular factor of ALS pathology, and could also be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of ALS.

  1. Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism Are Essential for Early Embryonic Development of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237

  2. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets. Design We administered HF and HP diets (4 months) to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a). Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as well as a marker of

  3. Data management at Biosphere 2 center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreary, Leone F.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the history of Biosphere 2, the collecting and recording of biological data has been sporadic. Currently no active effort to administer and record regular biological surveys is being made. Also, there is no central location, such as an on-site data library, where all records from various studies have been archived. As a research institute, good, complete data records are at the core of all Biosphere 2's scientific endeavors. It is therefore imperative that an effective data management system be implemented within the management and research departments as soon as possible. Establishing this system would require three general phases: (1) Design/implement a new archiving/management program (including storage, cataloging and retrieval systems); (2) Organize and input baseline and intermediate data from existing archives; and (3) Maintain records by inputting new data.

  4. Metabolic effects of growth factors and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on cultured human placental cells of early and late gestation

    SciT

    Guyda, H.J.

    1991-03-01

    The metabolic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-II were determined on human placental cells in monolayer culture obtained from early gestation (less than 20 weeks) and late gestation (38-42 weeks). Parameters studied were uptake of aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), uptake of 3-O-methylglucose and (3H)thymidine incorporation into cell protein. Since benzo(alpha)pyrene (BP) inhibits EGF binding and autophosphorylation in cultured human placental cells, particularly in early gestation, we also studied the effect of benzo(alpha)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on EGF-mediated AIB uptake. The metabolic effects of EGF, insulin, and the IGFs in cultured humanmore » placental cells varied with gestational age and the growth factor studied. All three classes of growth factors stimulated AIB uptake in both early and late gestation at concentrations from 10-100 micrograms/L, well within a physiological range. However, insulin stimulation of AIB uptake was maximal at a high concentration in both early and late gestation cells, suggesting an action via type 1 IGF receptors rather than via insulin receptors. EGF stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake only in term placental cells. No significant stimulation of (3H)thymidine incorporation by any of the growth factors tested was seen with either early or late gestation cells. The effect of PAHs on AIB uptake by cultured placental cells was variable. BP alone stimulated AIB uptake by both very early and late gestation cells and enhanced EGF-stimulated AIB uptake. alpha-naphthoflavone alone inhibited AIB uptake at all gestational ages and inhibited EGF-stimulated AIB uptake. beta-Naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene minimally inhibited AIB uptake by early gestation cells and did not modify EGF-stimulated uptake at any gestational period.« less

  5. Harvesting the biosphere: the human impact.

    PubMed

    Smil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The human species has evolved to dominate the biosphere: global anthropomass is now an order of magnitude greater than the mass of all wild terrestrial mammals. As a result, our dependence on harvesting the products of photosynthesis for food, animal feed, raw materials, and energy has grown to make substantial global impacts. During the past two millennia these harvests, and changes of land use due to deforestation and conversions of grasslands and wetlands, have reduced the stock of global terrestrial plant mass by as much as 45 percent, with the twentieth-century reduction amounting to more than 15 percent. Current annual harvests of phytomass have been a significant share of the global net primary productivity (NPP, the total amount of new plant tissues created by photosynthesis). Some studies put the human appropriation of NPP (the ratio of these two variables) as high as 40 percent but the measure itself is problematic. Future population growth and improved quality of life will result in additional claims on the biosphere, but options to accommodate these demands exist without severely compromising the irreplaceable biospheric services.

  6. Fuels, Hormones, and Liver Metabolism at Term and during the Early Postnatal Period in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Girard, J. R.; Cuendet, G. S.; Marliss, E. B.; Kervran, A.; Rieutort, M.; Assan, R.

    1973-01-01

    hepatic glycogen content and blood lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol levels but of stable or increasing amino acid concentrations. Hepatic gluconeogenesis in this phase of depleted glycogen stores was insufficient to maintain euglycemia. Substrates derived from fat showed early changes of smaller magnitude. The rise in free fatty acids which occurred was less than twofold the value at birth, though this rise persisted up to 6 h. Whereas glycerol rose transiently, acetoacetate did not change and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration fell. Both ketone bodies showed a marked rise at 16 h. at a time of diminished free fatty acid levels. Plasma growth hormone, though higher in the fetal than the maternal circulation, showed no consistent change during the period of observation. The changes in levels of the endocrine pancreatic hormones at birth were appropriate in time, magnitude, and direction to be implicated as prime regulators of the metabolic response during the neonatal period in the rat. PMID:4750449

  7. Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Padilla, Eimeira; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holtzman rat pups using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, which reflects long-term changes in brain metabolic capacity, following two weeks of repeated, prolonged maternal separation, and compared this to both early handled and non-handled pups. Quantitative image analysis revealed that maternal separation reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Maternal separation reduced prefrontal cytochrome oxidase to a greater degree in female pups than in males. Early handling reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior parietal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and subiculum, but increased cytochrome oxidase activity in the lateral frontal cortex. The sex-dependent effects of early handling on cytochrome oxidase activity were limited to the medial prefrontal cortex. Regardless of separation group, females had greater cytochrome oxidase activity in the habenula and ventral tegmental area compared to males. These findings suggest that early life mother-infant separation results in dysfunction of prefrontal and mesolimbic regions in the preweanling rat brain that may contribute to behavioral changes later in life. PMID:20969837

  8. Metabolic responses to exogenous ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in humans.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Antoun, Joseph; Sidani, Reem M; Clements, Austin; Harmata, Emily E; Marks-Shulman, Pam; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Williams, Brandon; Clements, Ronald H; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg -1  min -1 ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and 2 weeks after RYGB. Central responses were assessed by GH and pancreatic polypeptide (surrogate for vagal activity) secretion. Peripheral responses were assessed by hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Ghrelin-stimulated GH secretion was attenuated in obese subjects, but was restored by RYGB to a response similar to that of lean subjects. The heightened pancreatic polypeptide response to ghrelin infusion in the obese was attenuated after RYGB. Hepatic glucose production and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not altered by ghrelin infusion in RYGB subjects. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was impaired to a similar degree in lean, obese and post-RYGB individuals in response to ghrelin infusion. These data suggest that obesity is characterized by abnormal central, but not peripheral, responsiveness to ghrelin that can be restored early after RYGB before significant weight loss. Further work is necessary to fully elucidate the role of ghrelin in the metabolic changes that occur in obesity and following RYGB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Influence of metabolic-linked early life factors on the eruption timing of the first primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Un Lam, Carolina; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Yee, Robert; Koh, David; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Cai, Meijin; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith; Gluckman, Peter; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-11-01

    Early eruption of permanent teeth has been associated with childhood obesity and diabetes mellitus, suggesting links between tooth eruption and metabolic conditions. This longitudinal study aimed to identify pre-, peri- and postnatal factors with metabolic consequences during infancy that may affect the eruption timing of the first primary tooth (ETFT) in children from an ethnically heterogeneous population residing within the same community. Participants were recruited (n = 1033) through the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) birth cohort (n = 1237). Oral examinations were performed at 3-month intervals from 6 to 18 months of age. Crude and adjusted analyses, with generalized linear modelling, were conducted to link ETFT to potential determinants occurring during pregnancy, delivery/birth and early infancy. Overall mean eruption age of the first primary tooth was 8.5 (SD 2.6) months. Earlier tooth eruption was significantly associated with infant's rate of weight gain during the first 3 months of life and increased maternal childbearing age. Compared to their Chinese counterparts, Malay and Indian children experienced significantly delayed tooth eruption by 1.2 and 1.7 months, respectively. Infant weight gain from birth to 3 months, ethnicity and maternal childbearing age were significant determinants of first tooth eruption timing. Early life influences can affect primary tooth development, possibly via metabolic pathways. Timing of tooth eruption is linked to general growth and metabolic function. Therefore, it has potential in forecasting oral and systemic conditions such as caries and obesity.

  10. Deep Biosphere Secrets of the Mediterranean Salt Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Lugli, Stefano; McGenity, Terry; Kuroda, Junichiro; Takai, Ken; Treude, Tina; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    One component of the IODP multi-platform drilling proposal called DREAM (Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messisnian Events), plans to investigate the deep biosphere associated to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) Salt Giant. We propose that the MSC Salt Giant, because of the variety of chemical environments it produces, has the potential to harbour an unprecedented diversity of microbial life with exceptional metabolic activity. Gypsum and anhydrite deposits provide a virtually unlimited source of sulphate at depths where oxidants are a rarity in other sedimentary environments. When reduced organic carbon comes into contact with these minerals there is the potential for a dynamic deep biosphere community of sulphate reducers to develop, with implications for sedimentary biogeochemical cycles and the souring of cruide oil. But the thickness of the Messinian evaporites and the range of chemical environments it harbours poses fundamental questions: will the interaction of several extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, pressure and chemical composition limit the ability of microbes to take advantage of such favourable thermodynamic conditions? And has such a diverse set of physical and chemical environments fostered microbal diversity, rather than phylogenetic specialization, as recent research into deep Mediterranean brine systems seems to indicate ? Over three kilometres in thickness, approaching the known temperature limits of life and with fluids precipitating carbonate, sulphate, halite and potash salts, microbes living within and around the MSC Salt Giant will be subject to the most exotic combinations of extremes, and have likely evolved yet unknown adaptations. Gypsum and Halite crystals contain fluid inclusions that are a micro-habitat in which microbes survive for tens of thousands, to possibly millions, of years, posing the fundamental question of cells devoting nearly all of their energy flow to somatic maintenance needs, rather than growth and

  11. On the levels of enzymatic substrate specificity: Implications for the early evolution of metabolic pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, A.; Diaz-Villagomez, E.; Mills, T.; Oro, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently invoked explanation for the origin of metabolic pathways is the retrograde evolution hypothesis. In contrast, according to the so-called 'patchwork' theory, metabolism evolved by the recruitment of relatively inefficient small enzymes of broad specificity that could react with a wide range of chemically related substrates. In this paper it is argued that both sequence comparisons and experimental results on enzyme substrate specificity support the patchwork assembly theory. The available evidence supports previous suggestions that gene duplication events followed by a gradual neoDarwinian accumulation of mutations and other minute genetic changes lead to the narrowing and modification of enzyme function in at least some primordial metabolic pathways.

  12. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, James T; Bankstahl, Jens P; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid (11)C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher (11)C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial (11)C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased (11)C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased (11)C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and (11)C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated (11)C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. (11)C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies.

  13. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Thackeray, James T.; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid 11C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher 11C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial 11C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased 11C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased 11C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and 11C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated 11C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. 11C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  14. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Daniel R.; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W.; Boyd, Eric S.; Spear, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a “deep, hot biosphere” in the Earth’s crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth’s subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative. PMID:28674200

  15. [Microbes on the edge of global biosphere].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, T

    2000-12-01

    The search for life on the edge of global biosphere is a frontier to bridge conventional bio/ecology and exo/astrobiology. This communication reviews the foci of microbiological studies on the inhabitants of the selected "edges", i.e., deep-sea, deep subsurface and Antarctic habitats. The deep-sea is characterized as the no-light (non-photosynthetic) habitat, and the primary production is mostly due to the chemosynthetic autotrophy at the hydrothermal vents and methane-rich seeps. Formation of the chemosynthesis-dependent animal communities in the deep leads to the idea that such communities may be found in "ocean" of the Jovian satellite, Europa. The oxygen minimal layer (OML) in mid-water provides another field of deep-sea research. Modern OML is a relatively thin layer, found between the water depth of 200 and 1000 m, but was much thicker during the periods of oceanic anoxia events (OAEs) in the past. The history of oceanic biosphere is regarded as the cycle of OAE and non-OAE periods, and the remnants of the past OAEs may be seen in the modem OML. Anoxic (no-O2) condition is also characteristic of deep subsurface biosphere. Microorganisms in deep subsurface biosphere exploit every available oxidant, or terminal electron acceptor (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Subsurface of hydrothermal vents, or sub-vent biosphere, may house brine (high salt) habitats and halophilic microorganisms. Some sub-vent halophiles were phylogenetically closely similar to the ones found in the Antarctic habitats which are extremely dry by the liophilizing climate. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, has been a target of "life in extreme environments" and is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These 'microbiological platforms' will provide new knowledge about the

  16. Which Came First, Proteins or Cofactors? Recreating Metabolic Reactions of the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltais, T. R.; VanderVelde, D.; LaRowe, D.; Goldman, A. D.; Barge, L. M.

    2017-07-01

    We test whether cofactors can promote parts of core metabolic pathways by examining Coenzyeme A (CoA), the cofactor central to citrate synthesis in the citric acid cycle, as a target for examining cofactor activity without its protein enzyme.

  17. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  18. Early metabolic crisis-related brain atrophy and cognition in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, Matthew J; McArthur, David L; Alger, Jeffry R; Van Horn, Jack; Irimia, Andrei; Filippou, Maria; Glenn, Thomas C; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury often results in acute metabolic crisis. We recently demonstrated that this is associated with chronic brain atrophy, which is most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Interestingly, the neuropsychological profile of traumatic brain injury is often characterized as 'frontal-temporal' in nature, suggesting a possible link between acute metabolic crisis-related brain atrophy and neurocognitive impairment in this population. While focal lesions and diffuse axonal injury have a well-established role in the neuropsychological deficits observed following traumatic brain injury, no studies to date have examined the possible contribution of acute metabolic crisis-related atrophy in the neuropsychological sequelae of traumatic brain injury. In the current study we employed positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neuropsychological assessments to ascertain the relationship between acute metabolic crisis-related brain atrophy and neurocognitive outcome in a sample of 14 right-handed traumatic brain injury survivors. We found that acute metabolic crisis-related atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes was associated with poorer attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities at 12 months post-injury. Furthermore, participants with gross frontal and/or temporal lobe atrophy exhibited numerous clinically significant neuropsychological deficits in contrast to participants with other patterns of brain atrophy. Our findings suggest that interventions that reduce acute metabolic crisis may lead to improved functional outcomes for traumatic brain injury survivors.

  19. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla; António, Carla; Ortuño, Maria Fernanda; Dobrev, Petre I; Hartung, Wolfram; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Vanková, Radomira; Chaves, M Manuela; Wilson, Julie C

    2011-10-01

    The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit is perceived before the change in plant water status. The slow, progressive decline in soil water content started to be visible 3 d after withholding water (3 DAW). The earliest plant changes were associated with organ-specific metabolic responses (particularly in the leaves) and with leaf conductance and only later with plant water status and photosynthetic rate (4 DAW) or photosynthetic capacity (according to the Farquhar model; 6 DAW). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the physiological parameters, the carbohydrate and the hormone levels and their relative values, as well as leaf water-soluble metabolites full scan data (LC-MS/MS), showed separation of the different sampling dates. At 6 DAW classically described stress responses are observed, with plant water status, ABA level, and root hormonal balance contributing to the separation of these samples. Discrimination of earlier stress stages (3 and 4 DAW) is only achieved when the relative levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (Cks), and carbon metabolism (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch levels) are taken into account. Our working hypothesis is that, in addition to single responses (e.g. ABA increase), the combined alterations in hormone and carbohydrate levels play an important role in the stress response mechanism. Response to more advanced stress appears to be associated with a combination of cumulative changes, occurring in several plant organs. The carbohydrate and hormonal balance in the leaf (IAA to bioactive-Cks; soluble sugars to IAA and starch to IAA; relative abundances of the

  1. Nutrition in early life, and risk of cancer and metabolic disease: alternative endings in an epigenetic tale?

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A; Jackson, Alan A

    2008-01-01

    There is substantial evidence which shows that constraints in the early life environment is an important determinant of risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. There is emerging evidence that higher birth weight, which reflects a more abundant prenatal environment, is associated with increased risk of cancer, in particular breast cancer and childhood leukaemia. Using specific examples from epidemiology and experimental studies, this review discusses the hypothesis that increased susceptibility to cardiovascular, metabolic disease and cancer have a common origin in developmental changes induced in the developing fetus by aspects of the intra uterine environment including nutrition which involve stable changes to the epigenetic regulation of specific genes. However, the induction of specific disease risk is dependent upon the nature of the environmental challenge and interactions between the susceptibility set by the altered epigenome and the environment throughout the life course. PMID:19079817

  2. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    To achieve sustainable and healthy closed ecological systems requires successful solutions to the challenge of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/soil leachate and evaporateed water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system, total footprint of the airtight area is 12,700 m2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m3 with a total water capacity of some 6 x 106 liters of water presented a complex challenge because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as a range of analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40m3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15m3 - is a very simplified system, but with some similar issues such as salinity management and the provision of water quality sufficient for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, adequately freshwater was needed for terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4x106 liters, soil with 2 x 106 liters, primary storage tanks with a capacity for up to 8 x 105 liters and storage tanks for condensate collection and mixing tanks with 1.5 x 105 liters to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 x 103 liters), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 x 103 liters). Key technologies included condensation from humidity in the airhandlers and from the glass

  3. High fat diet-induced metabolically obese and normal weight rabbit model shows early vascular dysfunction: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Mirta; Medina, Analia; Peral, Maria; Jerez, Susana

    2018-01-30

    Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks. Body weight, TBARS and gluthathione serum levels were similar between the groups; fasting glucose, triglycerides, C reactive protein (CRP), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) were higher in the HFD group. Compared to CD, the HFD rabbits had glucose intolerance and lower HDL-cholesterol and plasma nitrites levels. Thoracic aortic rings from HFD rabbits exhibited: (a) a reduced acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation; (b) a greater contractile response to norepinephrine and KCl; (c) an improved angiotensin II-sensibility. The HFD-effect on acetylcholine-response was reversed by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (NS398) and the cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor (SC560), and the HFD-effect on angiotensin II was reversed by NS398 and the TP receptor blocker (SQ29538). Immunohistochemistry and western blot studies showed COX-2 expression only in arteries from HFD rabbits. Our study shows a positive pro-inflammatory status of HFD-induced MONW characterized by raised COX-2 expression, increase of the CRP levels, reduction of NO release and oxidative stress-controlled conditions in an early stage of metabolic alterations characteristic of metabolic syndrome. Endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular reactivity in MONW individuals may be biomarkers of early vascular injury. Therefore, the metabolic changes induced by HFD even in normal

  4. Is vaspin related to cardio-metabolic status and autonomic function in early stages of glucose intolerance and in metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Dimova, Rumyana; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Kirilov, Georgi; Chakarova, Nevena; Dakovska, Lilia; Grozeva, Greta

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess serum vaspin in early stages of glucose intolerance and in the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to evaluate vaspin correlation to different cardio-metabolic parameters and autonomic tone in these subjects. 185 subjects (80 males and 105 females) of mean age 45.8 ± 11.6 years and mean BMI 31.2 ± 6.3 kg/m(2), divided into groups according to: glucose tolerance, presence of MetS and cardio-vascular autonomic dysfunction (CAD), were enrolled. Glucose tolerance was studied during OGTT. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, HbA1c, serum lipids, hsCRP, fasting immunoreactive insulin and serum vaspin were measured. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis. AGEs were assessed by skin fluorescence. CAD was assessed by ANX-3.0. There was no difference in vaspin levels between the groups according to glucose tolerance, presence of MetS, and CAD. Regression analysis revealed independent association between serum vaspin and total body fat in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (NDT2D) group, and between serum vaspin and age and total body fat in MetS group. Vaspin negatively correlated with both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and just with parasympathetic tone in NGT without MetS. Our results demonstrate no overt fluctuations in vaspin levels in the early stages of glucose intolerance and in MetS. Total body fat seems to be related to vaspin levels in MetS and NDT2D. Our data show negative correlation between vaspin and autonomic function in NGT, as vaspin is associated with parasympathetic activity even in the absence of MetS.

  5. Snowball Earth: Response of the biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2001-05-01

    Snowball Earth is a script for global catastrophe that rivals giant impact theories in the likely severity of its environmental effects. This is particularly true for the "hard" version of the hypothesis, which requires the atmosphere to be effectively isolated from the ocean so that its carbon dioxide concentration can build up to the level ( ~100 PAL) ultimately required to melt the ice. However, coupled GCM-EMB models (Hyde et al. Nature 405, 425-430; Crowley & Hyde, GRL 28, 283-286) allow equatorial open water solutions under plausible Neoproterozoic conditions. These "softer" scenarios are more appealing if one considers the possible effects of snowball Earth episodes on the global biosphere. The meager Neoproterozoic fossil record makes it difficult to observe the biospheric response directly, but we know from evolutionary trees constructed from aligned protein and DNA sequences from living organisms, calibrated by the fossil record, that many lines of descent passed through the Cryogenian glacial periods. They include various kinds of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, a range of protists, and probably, a number of different kinds of animals and fungi. In addition, most of the microbial groups shown on comprehensive 16S rRNA trees have molecular clock ages that predate the snowball episodes. As the global environmental perturbations associated with the "hard" snowball hypothesis (freezing temperatures; huge and rapid changes in temperature; sudden carbon dioxide overload) are thought to have been biologically limiting during the Phanerozoic, the inferred response of the biosphere to Neoprotereozic glaciations may, indeed, provide a way of testing alternative snowball Earth scenarios.

  6. Man and the Biosphere: Ground Truthing Coral Reefs for the St. John Island Biosphere Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; And Others

    Research on the coral species composition of St. John's reefs in the Virgin Islands was conducted through the School for Field Studies (SFS) Coral Reef Ecology course (winter 1984). A cooperative study program based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (Unesco) program, Man and the Biosphere, was undertaken by…

  7. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  8. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  9. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-12-29

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived.

  10. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived. PMID:14728789

  11. Blood constituents trigger brain swelling, tissue death, and reduction of glucose metabolism early after acute subdural hematoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Baechli, Heidi; Behzad, Melika; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2010-03-01

    Outcome from acute subdural hematoma is often worse than would be expected from the pure increase of intracranial volume by bleeding. The aim was to test whether volume-independent pathomechanisms aggravate damage by comparing the effects of blood infusion with those of an inert fluid, paraffin oil, on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), local cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation, glucose metabolism ([18F]-deoxyglucose, MicroPET ), and histological outcome. Rats were injured by subdural infusion of 300 muL venous blood or paraffin. ICP, CPP, and CBF changes, assessed during the first 30 mins after injury, were not different between the injury groups at most time points (n=8 per group). Already at 2 h after injury, blood caused a significantly more pronounced decrease in glucose metabolism in the injured cortex when compared with paraffin (P<0.001, n=5 per group). Ipsilateral brain edema did not differ between groups at 2 h, but was significantly more pronounced in the blood-treated groups at 24 and 48 h after injury (n=8 per group). These changes caused a 56.2% larger lesion after blood when compared with paraffin (48.1+/-23.0 versus 21.1+/-11.8 mm(3); P<0.02). Blood constituent-triggered pathomechanisms aggravate the immediate effects due to ICP, CPP, and CBF during hemorrhage and lead to early reduction of glucose metabolism followed by more severe edema and histological damage.

  12. Early-life programming of susceptibility to dysregulation of glucose metabolism and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Holness, M J; Langdown, M L; Sugden, M C

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing epidemiological evidence in humans which associates low birthweight with later metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. There is evidence that nutritional and hormonal factors (e.g. maternal protein restriction, exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids) markedly influence intra-uterine growth and development. A picture is also emerging of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that may underlie these effects. This review focuses on recent research directed towards understanding the molecular basis of the relationship between indices of poor early growth and the subsequent development of glucose intolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus using animal models that attempt to recreate the process of programming via an adverse intra-uterine or neonatal environment. Emphasis is on the chain of events and potential mechanisms by which adverse adaptations affect pancreatic-beta-cell insulin secretion and the sensitivity to insulin of key metabolic processes, including hepatic glucose production, skeletal-muscle glucose disposal and adipose-tissue lipolysis. Unravelling the molecular details involved in metabolic programming may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of impaired glucoregulation and Type 2 diabetes. PMID:10903125

  13. Decreased Glucose Metabolism in Medial Prefrontal Areas is Associated with Nutritional Status in Patients with Prodromal and Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Taiki; Nakamura, Akinori; Kato, Takashi; Iwata, Kaori; Saji, Naoki; Arahata, Yutaka; Hattori, Hideyuki; Bundo, Masahiko; Ito, Kengo; Niida, Shumpei; Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To clarify the associations between nutritional status and AD-related brain changes using Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and structural MRI. The subjects were 34 amyloid-β (Aβ)-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early AD (prodromal/early AD), and 55 Aβ-negative cognitively normal (CN) subjects who attended the Multimodal Neuroimaging for AD Diagnosis (MULNIAD) study. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by body mass index and waist to height ratio (waist circumference/height). The associations between nutritional status and brain changes were examined by multiple regression analysis using statistical parametric mapping. In the prodromal/early AD group, nutritional status was significantly positively correlated with regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the medial prefrontal cortices, while different topographical associations were seen in the CN group, suggesting these changes were AD-specific. Aβ deposition and gray matter volume were not significantly associated with nutritional status. Sub-analysis in the prodromal/early AD group demonstrated that fat mass index, but not fat-free mass index, was positively correlated with rCGM in the medial prefrontal areas. This present study provides preliminary results suggesting that hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal areas is specifically associated with AD-related weight loss, and decrease in fat mass may have a key role.

  14. Design of the NL-ENIGMA study: Exploring the effect of Souvenaid on cerebral glucose metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scheltens, Nienke M E; Kuyper, Ingrid S; Boellaard, Ronald; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Broersen, Laus M; Lansbergen, Marieke M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Berckel, Bart N M; Scheltens, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with early synaptic loss. Specific nutrients are known to be rate limiting for synapse formation. Studies have shown that administering specific nutrients may improve memory function, possibly by increasing synapse formation. This Dutch study explores the Effect of a specific Nutritional Intervention on cerebral Glucose Metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease (NL-ENIGMA, Dutch Trial Register NTR4718, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4718). The NL-ENIGMA study is designed to test whether the specific multinutrient combination Fortasyn Connect present in the medical food Souvenaid influences cerebral glucose metabolism as a marker for improved synapse function. This study is a double-blind, randomized controlled parallel-group single-center trial. Forty drug-naive patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia with evidence of amyloid deposition are 1:1 randomized to receive either the multinutrient combination or placebo once daily. Main exploratory outcome parameters include absolute quantitative positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (including arterial sampling) and standard uptake value ratios normalized for the cerebellum or pons after 24 weeks. We expect the NL-ENIGMA study to provide further insight in the potential of this multinutrient combination to improve synapse function.

  15. The early ontogeny of digestive and metabolic enzyme activities in two commercial strains of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.).

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Le François, Nathalie R; Blier, Pierre U

    2003-10-01

    The extent to which growth performance is linked to digestive or energetic capacities in the early life stages of a salmonid species was investigated. We compared two strains of Arctic charr known to have different growth potentials during their early development (Fraser and Yukon gold). Trypsin, lipase, and amylase activities of whole alevins were measured at regular intervals from hatching through 65 days of development. To assess catabolic ability, we also measured five enzymes representing the following metabolic pathways: amino acid oxidation (amino aspartate transferase), fatty acid oxidation (beta-hydroxy acyl CoA-dehydrogenase), tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase), glycolysis (pyruvate kinase), and anaerobic glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase). The measurement of these enzyme activities in individual fish allowed a clear evaluation of digestive capacity in relation to energetic demand. We also compared triploid and diploid individuals within the Yukon gold strain. For the whole experimental period, diploid Yukon gold fish exhibited the highest growth rate (1.08+/-0.18% length/day) followed by triploid Yukon gold fish (1.00+/-0.28% length/day) and finally Fraser strain fish (0.84+/-0.28% length/day). When differences in enzyme activities were observed, the Fraser strain showed higher enzyme activities at a given length than the Yukon gold strain (diploid and triploid). Higher growth performance appears to be linked to lower metabolic capacity. Our results suggest that fish may have to reach an important increase in the ratio of digestive to catabolic enzyme activities or a leveling off of metabolic enzyme activities before the onset of large increases in mass. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. NEW DIRECTIONS: VOCS AND BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shallcross and Monks [New Directions: a Role For Isoprene in Biosphere-Climate-Chemistry Feedbacks, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34 (2000) pp. 1659-1660] recently summarized the importance of biogenic isoprene in a biosphere-atmosphere system under constant change. In this art...

  18. Racial differences in kidney function among individuals with obesity and metabolic syndrome: results from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Klemmer, Philip J; McCullough, Peter A; Bakris, George L

    2010-03-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome may differ by race. For participants in the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), we examined whether African American and white participants with obesity and metabolic syndrome differ regarding albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), anemia, and bone/mineral metabolism derangements in chronic kidney disease (CKD). 3 study cohorts were assembled: (1) eligible African American and white KEEP participants with body mass index > or = 30 kg/m(2), (2) a subgroup meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome, and (3) a subgroup with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and laboratory measurements for hemoglobin, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus. Patient characteristics and kidney function assessments were compared and tested using chi(2) (categorical variables) and t test (continuous variables). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations of race with kidney disease measures. Of 37,107 obese participants, 48% were African American and 52% were white. Whites were more likely to have metabolic syndrome components (hypertension, 87.1% vs 84.8%; dyslipidemia, 81.6% vs 66.7%; diabetes, 42.7% vs 34.9%) and more profoundly decreased eGFR than African Americans (CKD stages 3-5 prevalence, 23.6% vs 13.0%; P < 0.001). African Americans were more likely to have abnormal urinary albumin excretion (microalbuminuria, 12.5% vs 10.2%; OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.76]; macroalbuminuria, 1.3% vs 1.2%; OR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.23-2.12]) and CKD stages 1-2 (10.3% vs 7.1%; OR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.38-1.72]). For participants with CKD stages 3-5, anemia prevalence was 32.4% in African Americans and 14.1% in whites; corresponding values for secondary hyperparathyroidism were 66.2% and 46.6%, respectively. Obesity and metabolic syndrome may be heterogeneous disease states in African Americans and whites, possibly explaining differences in long-term kidney and cardiovascular

  19. First report about the mode of action of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on hepatic metabolism in nonketotic early lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, L; Deniz, A; Bruckmaier, R M; van Dorland, H A

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the effect of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin on liver metabolism in early lactating cows through mRNA expression measurements of genes encoding 31 enzymes and transport proteins of major metabolic processes in the liver using 16 multiparous early lactating dairy cows. The treatments included i.v. injection of 10 mL/100 kg of body weight combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin (TG, n = 8) on 3 d consecutively at 25 ± 3 d in milk or injection with physiological saline solution similarly applied (CG, n = 8). Results include a higher daily milk production for TG cows (41.1 ± 0.9 kg, mean ± SEM) compared with CG cows (39.5 ± 0.7 kg). In plasma, the concentration of inorganic phosphorus was lower in the TG cows (1.25 ± 0.08 mmol/L) after the treatment than in the CG cows (1.33 ± 0.07 mmol/L). The plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was 0.65 ± 0.13 mmol/L for all cows before the treatment, and remained unaffected post treatment. The unique result was that in the liver, the mRNA abundance of acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 1, involved in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis, was lower across time points after the treatment for TG compared with CG cows (17.5 ± 0.15 versus 18.1 ± 0.24 cycle threshold, log(2), respectively). In conclusion, certain effects of combined butafosfan and cyanocobalamin were observed on mRNA abundance of a gene in the liver of nonketotic early lactating cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; ...

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially changemore » MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less

  1. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciT

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntingzger, Deborah; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2015-06-10

    Multi-model ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill-based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve (“one model – one vote”) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (–1.16 vs. –1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materiallymore » change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less

  2. Optical metabolic imaging measures early drug response in an allograft murine breast cancer model (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    Previous work has shown that cellular-level Optical Metabolic Imaging (OMI) of organoids derived from human breast cancer cell-line xenografts accurately and rapidly predicts in vivo response to therapy. To validate OMI as a predictive measure of treatment response in an immune-competent model, we used the polyomavirus middle-T (PyVmT) transgenic mouse breast cancer model. The PyVmT model includes intra-tumoral heterogeneity and a complex tumor microenvironment that can influence treatment responses. Three-dimensional organoids generated from primary PyVmT tumor tissue were treated with a chemotherapy (paclitaxel) and a PI3K inhibitor (XL147), each alone or in combination. Cellular subpopulations of response were measured using the OMI Index, a composite endpoint of metabolic response comprised of the optical redox ratio (ratio of the fluorescence intensities of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H to FAD) as well as the fluorescence lifetimes of NAD(P)H and FAD. Combination treatment significantly decreased the OMI Index of PyVmT tumor organoids (p<0.0001) and in vivo tumors (p<0.0001) versus controls. Subpopulation analyses revealed a homogeneous response to combined therapy in both cultured organoids and in vivo tumors, while single agent treatment with XL147 alone or paclitaxel alone elicited heterogeneous responses in organoids. Tumor volume decreased with combination treatment through treatment day 30. These results indicate that OMI of organoids generated from PyVmT tumors can accurately reflect drug response in heterogeneous allografts with both innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, this method is promising for use in humans to predict long-term treatment responses accurately and rapidly, and could aid in clinical treatment planning.

  3. CD64-Neutrophil expression and stress metabolic patterns in early sepsis and severe traumatic brain injury in children.

    PubMed

    Fitrolaki, Diana-Michaela; Dimitriou, Helen; Kalmanti, Maria; Briassoulis, George

    2013-03-01

    Critical illness constitutes a serious derangement of metabolism. The aim of our study was to compare acute phase metabolic patterns in children with sepsis (S) or severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) to those with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls (C) and to evaluate their relations to neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte expressions of CD64 and CD11b. Sixty children were enrolled in the study. Forty-five children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were classified into three groups: TBI (n = 15), S (n = 15), and SS (n = 15). C consisted of 15 non- SIRS patients undergoing screening tests for minor elective surgery. Blood samples were collected within 6 hours after admission for flow cytometry of neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte expression of CD64 and CD11b (n = 60). Procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high (HDL) or low-density-lipoproteins (LDL) were also determined in all groups, and repeated on day 2 and 3 in the 3 SIRS groups (n = 150). CRP, PCT and TG (p < 0.01) were significantly increased in S and SS compared to TBI and C; glucose did not differ among critically ill groups. Significantly lower were the levels of TC, LDL, and HDL in septic groups compared to C and to moderate changes in TBI (p < 0.0001) but only LDL differed between S and SS (p < 0.02). Among septic patients, PCT levels declined significantly (p < 0.02) with time, followed by parallel decrease of HDL (p < 0.03) and increase of TG (p < 0.02) in the SS group. Neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) expression was higher in patients with SS (81.2%) and S (78.8%) as compared to those with TBI (5.5%) or C (0.9%, p < 0.0001). nCD64 was positively related with CRP, PCT, glucose, and TG (p < 0.01) and negatively with TC, LDL, and HDL (p < 0.0001), but not with severity of illness, hematologic indices, length of stay or mechanical ventilation duration. In sepsis, the early stress-metabolic pattern is characterized by

  4. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 10 research interns for a 10 week period during the summer of 1998. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 10 students for Columbia University summer field courses. Students participating in these programs were involved in numerous earth systems activities, collecting data in the field and conducting analyses in the laboratory. Students enrolled in the field program were expected to design independent research projects as part of their coursework. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Field school students were involved in field trips exposing them to the geology and ecology of the region including Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California. Interns participated in laboratory-based research. All students were expected to complete oral and written presentations of their work during the summer.

  5. Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, O R; Marra, C A; Raschia, A; Rodriguez, S; Gagliardino, J J

    2008-11-01

    The possible contribution of early changes in lipid composition, function, and antioxidant status of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress (OS) was studied. Wistar rats were fed with a commercial diet with (FRD) or without 10% fructose in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The glucose (G), triglyceride (TG), and insulin (I) plasma levels, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lyposoluble antioxidants, total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation as TBARS, fatty acid (FA) composition of AAT-TG as well as their release by incubated pieces of AAT were measured. Rats fed with a FRD have significantly higher plasma levels of G, TG, and I. Their AAT showed a marked increase in content and ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, TBARS, and catalase, GSH-transferase and GSH-reductase, together with a decrease in superoxide dismutase and GSH-peroxidase activity, and total GSH, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene content. Incubated AAT from FRD released in vitro higher amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) with higher ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Our data suggest that FRD induced an early prooxidative state and metabolic dysfunction in AAT that would favor the overall development of IR and OS and further development of pancreatic beta-cell failure; therefore, its early control would represent an appropriate strategy to prevent alterations such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Biosphere Reserve for All: Potentials for Involving Underrepresented Age Groups in the Development of a Biosphere Reserve through Intergenerational Practice.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanenko, Tamara; Snajdr, Julia; Muhar, Andreas; Penker, Marianne; Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, Elisabeth

    2018-05-22

    Stakeholder participation is of high importance in UNESCO biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development; however, certain groups remain underrepresented. The paper proposes Intergenerational Practice (IP) as a means of involving youth and elderly women and explores its options and barriers, using the example of the Salzburger Lungau and Kärntner Nockberge Biosphere Reserve in Austria. Case study analysis is used involving mixed methods. The results reveal obstacles and motivations to participating in biosphere reserve implementation and intergenerational activities for the youth and the elderly women and imply that much potential for IP exists in the biosphere reserve region. The authors propose suitable solutions from the intergenerational field to overcome identified participation obstacles and suggest benefits of incorporating IP as a management tool into biosphere reserve activities. Suggestions for future research include evaluating applications of IP in the context of protected areas, testing of methods used in other contexts, and contribution to theory development.

  7. Metabolic profiles of flooding-tolerant mechanism in early-stage soybean responding to initial stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Nishimura, Minoru; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Metabolomic analysis of flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid-treated soybeans suggests that accumulated fructose might play a role in initial flooding tolerance through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress, which markedly reduces plant growth. To explore the mechanism underlying initial-flooding tolerance in soybean, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was performed using flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic-acid treated soybeans. Among the commonly-identified metabolites in both flooding-tolerant materials, metabolites involved in carbohydrate and organic acid displayed same profile at initial-flooding stress. Sugar metabolism was highlighted in both flooding-tolerant materials with the decreased and increased accumulation of sucrose and fructose, respectively, compared to flooded soybeans. Gene expression of hexokinase 1 was upregulated in flooded soybean; however, it was downregulated in both flooding-tolerant materials. Metabolites involved in carbohydrate/organic acid and proteins related to glycolysis/tricarboxylic acid cycle were integrated. Increased protein abundance of phosphofructokinase was identified in both flooding-tolerant materials, which was in agreement with its enzyme activity. Furthermore, sugar metabolism was pointed out as the tolerant-responsive process at initial-flooding stress with the integration of metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics. Moreover, application of fructose declined the increased fresh weight of plant induced by flooding stress. These results suggest that fructose might be the critical metabolite through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase to confer initial-flooding stress in soybean.

  8. Bidirectional Expression of Metabolic, Structural, and Immune Pathways in Early Myopia and Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Nina; Giummarra, Loretta; Hall, Nathan E.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2016-01-01

    Myopia (short-sightedness) affects 1.45 billion people worldwide, many of whom will develop sight-threatening secondary disorders. Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. The biological and genetic mechanisms underpinning the retina's local control of these growth patterns remain unclear. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the retina/RPE/choroid across 3 days of optically-induced myopia and hyperopia induction in chick. Data were analyzed for differential expression of single genes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to identify gene sets correlated with ocular axial length and refraction across lens groups. Like previous studies, we found few single genes that were differentially-expressed in a sign-of-defocus dependent manner (only BMP2 at 1 day). Using GSEA, however, we are the first to show that more subtle shifts in structural, metabolic, and immune pathway expression are correlated with the eye size and refractive changes induced by lens defocus. Our findings link gene expression with the morphological characteristics of refractive error, and suggest that physiological stress arising from metabolic and inflammatory pathway activation could increase the vulnerability of myopic eyes to secondary pathologies. PMID:27625591

  9. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Yael R.; Cox, Laura M.; Kirigin, Francis F.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M.; Goldfarb, David S.; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment. PMID:26123276

  10. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Yael R; Cox, Laura M; Kirigin, Francis F; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M; Goldfarb, David S; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-06-30

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment.

  11. Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Peter D; Lillycrop, Karen A; Vickers, Mark H; Pleasants, Anthony B; Phillips, Emma S; Beedle, Alan S; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A

    2007-07-31

    Developmental plasticity in response to environmental cues can take the form of polyphenism, as for the discrete morphs of some insects, or of an apparently continuous spectrum of phenotype, as for most mammalian traits. The metabolic phenotype of adult rats, including the propensity to obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperphagia, shows plasticity in response to prenatal nutrition and to neonatal administration of the adipokine leptin. Here, we report that the effects of neonatal leptin on hepatic gene expression and epigenetic status in adulthood are directionally dependent on the animal's nutritional status in utero. These results demonstrate that, during mammalian development, the direction of the response to one cue can be determined by previous exposure to another, suggesting the potential for a discontinuous distribution of environmentally induced phenotypes, analogous to the phenomenon of polyphenism.

  12. Early changes in parameters of bone and mineral metabolism during therapy for hyper- and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sabuncu, T; Aksoy, N; Arikan, E; Ugur, B; Tasan, E; Hatemi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormones on various organs and metabolic systems have been the focus of intensive research. In this study we investigated the mechanisms of the changes in some parameters of bone and mineral metabolism before and during treatment of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Our study groups were as follows; 1) Untreated hyperthyroid patients (n= 38), 2) Hyperthyroid patients treated for three months (n=21), 3) Untreated hypothyroid patients (n=27), 4) Hypothyroid patients treated for three months (n= 20), and 5) Euthyroid control subjects (age, weight, sex and menopausal status matched) (n = 47). As expected, the mean serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urinary Ca/creatinine and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr)/creatinine levels were higher in group-1 than in the control group. Serum PTH level was lower in group-1 than in group-5. However, after treatment for three months (group-2) we found that the serum and urinary levels of these parameters (except ALP) were not different than in the control group. Group-3 and group-4 did not show any differences in these parameters compared with group-5. Covariance analysis showed that urinary D-Pyr excretion had a positive, independent relationship to the serum free T3 level and age (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). These results suggest that both bone formation and resorption markers increase in hyperthyroid patients, and with the treatment, particularly, in the period of first three months the bone resorption markers decrease rapidly. If the treatment is maintained the decrease slows, becoming more gradual. However, bone formation markers like ALP remain high in hyperthyroid patients during the treatment. In the light of this data, it is possible to conclude that osteoblastic activity lasts longer in hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, we demonstrated that these bone formation and resorption markers do not seem to be different in hypothyroid patients, even during the treatment, compared

  13. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  14. Comparative Physiology of Energy Metabolism: Fishing for Endocrine Signals in the Early Vertebrate Pool

    PubMed Central

    van de Pol, Iris; Flik, Gert; Gorissen, Marnix

    2017-01-01

    Energy is the common currency of life. To guarantee a homeostatic supply of energy, multiple neuro-endocrine systems have evolved in vertebrates; systems that regulate food intake, metabolism, and distribution of energy. Even subtle (lasting) dysregulation of the delicate balance of energy intake and expenditure may result in severe pathologies. Feeding-related pathologies have fueled research on mammals, including of course the human species. The mechanisms regulating food intake and body mass are well-characterized in these vertebrates. The majority of animal life is ectothermic, only birds and mammals are endotherms. What can we learn from a (comparative) study on energy homeostasis in teleostean fishes, ectotherms, with a very different energy budget and expenditure? We present several adaptation strategies in fish. In recent years, the components that regulate food intake in fishes have been identified. Although there is homology of the major genetic machinery with mammals (i.e., there is a vertebrate blueprint), in many cases this does not imply analogy. Although both mammals and fish must gain their energy from food, the expenditure of the energy obtained is different. Mammals need to spend vast amounts of energy to maintain body temperature; fishes seem to utilize a broader metabolic range to their advantage. In this review, we briefly discuss ecto- and endothermy and their consequences for energy balance. Next, we argue that the evolution of endothermy and its (dis-)advantages may explain very different strategies in endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis among vertebrates. We follow a comparative and evolutionary line of thought: we discuss similarities and differences between fish and mammals. Moreover, given the extraordinary radiation of teleostean fishes (with an estimated number of 33,400 contemporary species, or over 50% of vertebrate life forms), we also compare strategies in energy homeostasis between teleostean species. We present recent

  15. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  16. Regionally strong feedbacks between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia K.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Berry, Joseph; Entekhabi, Dara; Kolassa, Jana; Lee, Jung-Eun; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interact through a series of feedback loops. Variability in terrestrial vegetation growth and phenology can modulate fluxes of water and energy to the atmosphere, and thus affect the climatic conditions that in turn regulate vegetation dynamics. Here we analyse satellite observations of solar-induced fluorescence, precipitation, and radiation using a multivariate statistical technique. We find that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks are globally widespread and regionally strong: they explain up to 30% of precipitation and surface radiation variance in regions where feedbacks occur. Substantial biosphere-precipitation feedbacks are often found in regions that are transitional between energy and water limitation, such as semi-arid or monsoonal regions. Substantial biosphere-radiation feedbacks are often present in several moderately wet regions and in the Mediterranean, where precipitation and radiation increase vegetation growth. Enhancement of latent and sensible heat transfer from vegetation accompanies this growth, which increases boundary layer height and convection, affecting cloudiness, and consequently incident surface radiation. Enhanced evapotranspiration can increase moist convection, leading to increased precipitation. Earth system models underestimate these precipitation and radiation feedbacks mainly because they underestimate the biosphere response to radiation and water availability. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks cluster in specific climatic regions that help determine the net CO2 balance of the biosphere.

  17. Regionally Strong Feedbacks Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Julia K.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Lee, Jung-Eun; Berry, Joseph; Entekhabi, Dara; Kolassa, Jana; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interact through a series of feedback loops. Variability in terrestrial vegetation growth and phenology can modulate fluxes of water and energy to the atmosphere, and thus affect the climatic conditions that in turn regulate vegetation dynamics. Here we analyze satellite observations of solar-induced fluorescence, precipitation, and radiation using a multivariate statistical technique. We find that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks are globally widespread and regionally strong: they explain up to 30 of precipitation and surface radiation variance. Substantial biosphere-precipitation feedbacks are often found in regions that are transitional between energy and water limitation, such as semi-arid or monsoonal regions. Substantial biosphere-radiation feedbacks are often present in several moderately wet regions and in the Mediterranean, where precipitation and radiation increase vegetation growth. Enhancement of latent and sensible heat transfer from vegetation accompanies this growth, which increases boundary layer height and convection, affecting cloudiness, and consequently incident surface radiation. Enhanced evapotranspiration can increase moist convection, leading to increased precipitation. Earth system models underestimate these precipitation and radiation feedbacks mainly because they underestimate the biosphere response to radiation and water availability. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks cluster in specific climatic regions that help determine the net CO2 balance of the biosphere.

  18. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  19. Physical and metabolic requirements for early interaction of poliovirus and human rhinovirus with HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lonberg-Holm, K; Whiteley, N M

    1976-01-01

    Attachment, ""tight binding'' and eclipse of radioactive poliovirus 2 (P2) and human rhinovirus 2 (HRV 2) were investigated. The activation energy for attachment of both HRV2 and P2 was about 13 kcal/mol. HRV2 differed from P2 in two respects: the Arrhenius plot for attachment of HRV2 showed a break at 15 to 19 degrees C when the cells were first treated several hours at 0 degrees C, and attachment of HRV2 was inhibited by treatment of cells with metabolic poisons able to reduce cellular ATP by more than 90%. Tight binding was determined by isolation of a specific P2-membrane complex or by loss of EDTA dissociability of HRV2. Tight binding of both viruses was slowed by 0.01 M iodoacetamide but not by 0.02 M F-; F- plus 0.002 M CN- slowed tight binding of HRV2 but not of P2. Eclipse, the irreversible alteration of parental virions, was detected by isolation of cell-associated subviral particles or by loss of cell-associated infectious virus. Eclipse of both viruses is slowed by iodoacetamide or F-. It seems likely that the early steps of infection with picornaviruses may be sensitive to alterations in the cell membrane produced by metabolic inhibitors or by treatment at low temperature. PMID:184301

  20. Association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with early carotid artery atherosclerosis: A cross-sectional study in middle-aged Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengguo; Sun, Xiaohui; Lin, Hanli; Zheng, Ruizhi; Ruan, Liansheng; Sun, Zhanhang; Zhu, Yimin

    2018-03-21

    Homocysteine is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with the presence of early carotid artery atherosclerosis remains unknown in middle-aged Chinese adults. Chinese adults (n = 1607) of Han ethnicity, age 35 to 65 y, and living in their communities >2 y were surveyed. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as homocysteine concentrations >15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque were examined by ultrasonography. All participants were classified into four groups by hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome status. Participants with both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome had the highest levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure compared with the three other groups. The highest proportion of increased carotid intima-media thickness (61.3%) was in the subgroup of both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. After adjustments for the covariates, the risk of increased carotid intima-media thickness was only significantly higher in the group with metabolic syndrome but without hyperhomocysteinemia (odds ratio: 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.93) compared with people without hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, statistically significant variances of prevalence of plaque among the four subgroups were not discovered. Our study demonstrated that metabolic syndrome had a strong effect on carotid intima-media thickness However, the increased homocysteine levels were not significantly associated with early carotid artery atherosclerosis in middle-aged Chinese people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolism of monoterpenes: early steps in the metabolism of d-neomenthyl-. beta. -D-glucoside in peppermint (Mentha piperita) rhizomes

    SciT

    Croteau, R.; Sood, V.K.; Renstroem, B.

    1984-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the monoterpene ketone l-(G-/sup 3/H) menthone is reduced to the epimeric alcohols l-menthol and d-neomenthol in leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), and that a portion of the menthol is converted to methyl acetate while the bulk of the neomenthol is transformed to neomenthyl-..beta..-D-glucoside which is then transported to the rhizome. Analysis of the disposition of l-(G)/sup 3/H)menthone applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis and transport of the monoterpenyl glucoside to be determined, and gave strong indication that the glucoside was subsequently metabolized in the rhizome. Studiesmore » with d-(G-/sup 3/H)neomenthyl-..beta..-D-glucoside as substrate, using excised rhizomes or rhizome segments, confirmed the hydrolysis of the glucoside as an early step in metabolism at this site, and revealed that the terpenoid moiety was further converted to a series of ether-soluble, methanol-soluble, and water-soluble products. The conversion of menthone to the lactone, and of the lactone to more polar products, were confirmed in vivo using l-(G-/sup 3/H)menthone and l-(G-/sup 3/H)-3,4-menthone lactone as substrates. Additional oxidation products were formed in vivo via the desaturation of labeled neomenthol and/or menthone, but none of these transformations appeared to lead to ring opening of the p-menthane skeleton. Each step in the main reaction sequence, from hydrolysis of neomenthyl glucoside to lactonization of menthone, was demonstrated in cell-free extracts from the rhizomes of flowering mint plants. The lactomization step is of particular significance in providing a means of cleaving the p-methane ring to afford an acyclic carbon skeleton that can be further degraded by modifications of the well-known ..beta..-oxidation sequence. 41 references, 3 figures, 1 table.« less

  2. Effects of butafosfan with or without cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of early lactating cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Nuber, U; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one dairy cows with subclinical ketosis were used to investigate the effects of butafosfan alone or in combination with cyanocobalamin on metabolism. Treatments included i.v. injection of 10 ml/100 kg of body weight with butafosfan (BUT) or combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan (BUTCO) at a similar concentration as in Catosal(®) . Control cows (CON) received a 0.9% saline solution. Cows were injected on days 1-3 at 22.3 ± 0.7 days post-partum. Milk production and composition were not affected by the treatments. In plasma, CON cows had a significantly higher plasma NEFA concentration (0.59 ± 0.03 mm) across the study period than BUTCO cows (p < 0.05; 0.42 ± 0.03 mm), whereas the plasma NEFA concentration of BUT was intermediate (0.52 ± 0.03 mm) but not significantly different from CON. Both BUTCO and BUT cows had lower (p < 0.05) plasma BHBA concentrations (1.02 ± 0.06 mm and 1.21 ± 0.06 mm, respectively) across the study period than CON (1.34 ± 0.06 mm). Plasma glucose was not different between treatments, but plasma glucagon concentrations were consistently high in BUT compared to BUTCO and CON. Lowest post-treatment glucagon levels were observed in BUTCO. Hepatic mRNA abundance of liver X receptor α, a nuclear receptor protein involved in lipid metabolism, was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.05) on day 7. Furthermore, on day 7, the mRNA abundance of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 2 was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.01). In conclusion, injections of combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan post-partum in early lactation ketotic dairy cows act on lipid metabolism with effects on plasma metabolites, most likely mediated via modified activity of key factors in the liver. Results indicate that the application of butafosfan only in combination with cyanocobalamin exhibits the expected positive effects on metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Tamoxifen metabolism predicts drug concentrations and outcome in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saladores, P; Mürdter, T; Eccles, D; Chowbay, B; Zgheib, N K; Winter, S; Ganchev, B; Eccles, B; Gerty, S; Tfayli, A; Lim, J S L; Yap, Y S; Ng, R C H; Wong, N S; Dent, R; Habbal, M Z; Schaeffeler, E; Eichelbaum, M; Schroth, W; Schwab, M; Brauch, H

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the standard-of-care treatment for estrogen receptor-positive premenopausal breast cancer. We examined tamoxifen metabolism via blood metabolite concentrations and germline variations of CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in 587 premenopausal patients (Asians, Middle Eastern Arabs, Caucasian-UK; median age 39 years) and clinical outcome in 306 patients. N-desmethyltamoxifen (DM-Tam)/(Z)-endoxifen and CYP2D6 phenotype significantly correlated across ethnicities (R2: 53%, P<10−77). CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 correlated with norendoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen concentrations, respectively (P<0.001). DM-Tam was influenced by body mass index (P<0.001). Improved distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) was associated with decreasing DM-Tam/(Z)-endoxifen (P=0.036) and increasing CYP2D6 activity score (hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43–0.91; P=0.013). Low (<14 nM) compared with high (>35 nM) endoxifen concentrations were associated with shorter DRFS (univariate P=0.03; multivariate HR=1.94; 95% CI, 1.04–4.14; P=0.064). Our data indicate that endoxifen formation in premenopausal women depends on CYP2D6 irrespective of ethnicity. Low endoxifen concentration/formation and decreased CYP2D6 activity predict shorter DRFS. PMID:25091503

  4. {sup 1}H NMR-based spectroscopy detects metabolic alterations in serum of patients with early-stage ulcerative colitis

    SciT

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Lianjie; Xu, Yanbin

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Twenty ulcerative colitis patients and nineteen healthy controls were enrolled. •Increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, phenylalanine, and decreased lipid were found. •We report early stage diagnosis of ulcerative colitis using NMR-based metabolomics. -- Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) has seriously impaired the health of citizens. Accurate diagnosis of UC at an early stage is crucial to improve the efficiency of treatment and prognosis. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis was performed on serum samples collected from active UC patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 19), respectively. The obtained spectral profiles were subjected tomore » multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that consistent metabolic alterations were present between the two groups. Compared to healthy controls, UC patients displayed increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, β-glucose, α-glucose, and phenylalanine, but decreased lipid in serum. These findings highlight the possibilities of NMR-based metabolomics as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for UC.« less

  5. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    differentiation. The majority of these proteins are involved in amino acid-protein metabolism and photosynthetic activity. In accordance with proteomic analysis, metabolic profiling using 1D and 2D NMR techniques showed the importance of numerous compounds related with sugar mobilization and nitrogen metabolism. NMR analysis techniques also allowed the identification of some secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds whose accumulation was enhanced during shoot differentiation. Conclusion The subculture of embryogenic/organogenic calli onto shoot differentiation medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism principally at three levels namely (i) initiation of photosynthesis, glycolysis and phenolic compounds synthesis; (ii) amino acid - protein synthesis, and protein stabilization; (iii) sugar degradation. These biochemical mechanisms associated with the initiation of shoot formation during protocorm - like body (PLB) organogenesis could be coordinated by the removal of TDZ in callus maintenance medium. These results might contribute to elucidate the complex mechanism that leads to vanilla callus differentiation and subsequent shoot formation into PLB organogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an early intermediate metabolic event in vanillin biosynthetic pathway with respect to secondary metabolism. Indeed, for the first time in vanilla tissue culture, phenolic compounds such as glucoside A and glucoside B were identified. The degradation of these compounds in specialized tissue (i.e. young green beans) probably contributes to the biosynthesis of glucovanillin, the parent compound of vanillin. PMID:20444255

  6. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage.

    PubMed

    Palama, Tony L; Menard, Patrice; Fock, Isabelle; Choi, Young H; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Bahut, Muriel; Payet, Bertrand; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-05-05

    differentiation. The majority of these proteins are involved in amino acid-protein metabolism and photosynthetic activity. In accordance with proteomic analysis, metabolic profiling using 1D and 2D NMR techniques showed the importance of numerous compounds related with sugar mobilization and nitrogen metabolism. NMR analysis techniques also allowed the identification of some secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds whose accumulation was enhanced during shoot differentiation. The subculture of embryogenic/organogenic calli onto shoot differentiation medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism principally at three levels namely (i) initiation of photosynthesis, glycolysis and phenolic compounds synthesis; (ii) amino acid-protein synthesis, and protein stabilization; (iii) sugar degradation. These biochemical mechanisms associated with the initiation of shoot formation during protocorm-like body (PLB) organogenesis could be coordinated by the removal of TDZ in callus maintenance medium. These results might contribute to elucidate the complex mechanism that leads to vanilla callus differentiation and subsequent shoot formation into PLB organogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an early intermediate metabolic event in vanillin biosynthetic pathway with respect to secondary metabolism. Indeed, for the first time in vanilla tissue culture, phenolic compounds such as glucoside A and glucoside B were identified. The degradation of these compounds in specialized tissue (i.e. young green beans) probably contributes to the biosynthesis of glucovanillin, the parent compound of vanillin.

  7. Menstrual cycle alterations during adolescence: early expression of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Isabel Cristina da Silva; Cader, Samária Ali; Leão, Lenora; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina; Braga, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    To assess the importance of the menstrual pattern as a marker for clinical and laboratory alterations related to metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Endocrine Gynecology Outpatient Clinic of the Adolescent Health Studies Center (NESA) at the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital. 59 girls (12-19 years old) were classified by their menstrual cycles as regular (n = 23) and irregular (n = 36). None. Biochemical collections were made of peripheral blood after fasting for 12 hours, and the oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of anhydrous glucose. PCOS, MS, and the criteria for MS were significantly more frequent (P < .05) in the subgroup with irregular menstruation. Adolescents with irregular cycles presented a significant increase in waist circumference, glycemia 2 hours after oral glucose overload (2 h), fasting and 2-h insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides. In contrast, the glucose/insulin ratio, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index, and HDL serum levels were significantly lower among patients with irregular menstruation, compared to those with regular cycles. In the logistic regression, we noted that insulin 2 h ≥ 75 μIU/mL (r = 1.90; P = .018), waist circumference > 95 cm (r = 2.21; P = .006) and diagnosis of PCOS (r = 1.93; P = .023) were significantly correlated to irregular cycles. We concluded that close observation of menstrual cycle patterns is an important tool for identifying adolescents at higher risk of developing PCOS and MS. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wilson disease: changes in methionine metabolism and inflammation affect global DNA methylation in early liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Woods, Rima; Liu, Sarah; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Török, Natalie J.; Jiang, Joy X.; Havel, Peter J.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Halsted, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic methionine metabolism may play an essential role in regulating methylation status and liver injury in Wilson disease (WD) through the inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) by copper (Cu) and the consequent accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). We studied the transcript levels of selected genes related to liver injury, levels of SAHH, SAH, DNA methyltransferases genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) and global DNA methylation in the tx-j mouse (tx-j), an animal model of WD. Findings were compared to those in control C3H mice, and in response to Cu chelation by penicillamine (PCA) and dietary supplementation of the methyl donor betaine to modulate inflammatory and methylation status. Transcript levels of selected genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation were down-regulated at baseline in tx-j mice, further down-regulated in response to PCA, and showed little to no response to betaine. Hepatic Sahh transcript and protein levels were reduced in tx-j mice with consequent increase of SAH levels. Hepatic Cu accumulation was associated with inflammation, as indicated by histopathology and elevated serum ALT and liver tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α) levels. Dnmt3b was down-regulated in tx-j mice together with global DNA hypomethylation. PCA treatment of tx-j mice reduced Tnf-α and ALT levels, betaine treatment increased S-adenosylmethionine and up-regulated Dnmt3b levels, and both treatments restored global DNA methylation levels. Conclusion: reduced hepatic Sahh expression was associated with increased liver SAH levels in the tx-j model of WD, with consequent global DNA hypomethylation. Increased global DNA methylation was achieved by reducing inflammation by Cu chelation or by providing methyl groups. We propose that increased SAH levels and inflammation affect widespread epigenetic regulation of gene expression in WD. PMID:22945834

  9. Heightened extended amygdala metabolism following threat characterizes the early phenotypic risk to develop anxiety-related psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Shackman, Alexander J.; Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an anxious temperament (AT) are prone to heightened shyness and behavioral inhibition (BI). When chronic and extreme, this anxious, inhibited phenotype is an important early-life risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, depression, and co-morbid substance abuse. Individuals with extreme AT often show persistent distress in the absence of immediate threat and this contextually inappropriate anxiety predicts future symptom development. Despite its clear clinical relevance, the neural circuitry governing the maladaptive persistence of anxiety remains unknown. Here, we used a well-established nonhuman primate model of childhood temperament and high-resolution 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging to understand the neural systems governing persistent anxiety and clarify their relevance to early-life phenotypic risk. We focused on BI, a core component of anxious temperament, because it affords the moment-by-moment temporal resolution needed to assess contextually appropriate and inappropriate anxiety. From a pool of 109 peri-adolescent rhesus monkeys, we formed groups characterized by high or low levels of BI, as indexed by freezing in response to an unfamiliar human intruder’s profile. The High-BI group showed consistently elevated signs of anxiety and wariness across more than 2 years of assessments. At the time of brain imaging, 1.5 years after initial phenotyping, the High-BI group showed persistently elevated freezing during a 30-min ‘recovery’ period following an encounter with the intruder — more than an order of magnitude greater than the Low-BI group — and this was associated with increased metabolism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a key component of the central extended amygdala. These observations provide a neurobiological framework for understanding the early phenotypic risk to develop anxiety-related psychopathology, for accelerating the development of improved interventions, and

  10. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele

    2017-10-01

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  11. Characterizing land processes in the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Tuyahov, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    NASA long-term planning for the satellite remote sensing of land areas is discussed from the perspective of a holistic interdisciplinary approach to the study of the biosphere. The earth is characterized as a biogeochemical system; the impact of human activity on this system is considered; and the primary scientific goals for their study are defined. Remote-sensing programs are seen as essential in gaining an improved understanding of energy budgets, the hydrological cycle, other biogeological cycles, and the coupling between these cycles, with the construction of a global data base and eventually the development of predictive simulation models which can be used to assess the impact of planned human activities. Current sensor development at NASA includes a multilinear array for the visible and IR and the L-band Shuttle Imaging Radar B, both to be flown on Shuttle missions in the near future; for the 1990s, a large essentially permanent man-tended interdisciplinary multisensor platform connected to an advanced data network is being planned.

  12. High Performance Geostatistical Modeling of Biospheric Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Smith, J. A.; Schnase, J. L.; Crosier, C. S.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    We are using parallel geostatistical codes to study spatial relationships among biospheric resources in several study areas. For example, spatial statistical models based on large- and small-scale variability have been used to predict species richness of both native and exotic plants (hot spots of diversity) and patterns of exotic plant invasion. However, broader use of geostastics in natural resource modeling, especially at regional and national scales, has been limited due to the large computing requirements of these applications. To address this problem, we implemented parallel versions of the kriging spatial interpolation algorithm. The first uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in a master/slave paradigm on an open source Linux Beowulf cluster, while the second is implemented with the new proprietary Xgrid distributed processing system on an Xserve G5 cluster from Apple Computer, Inc. These techniques are proving effective and provide the basis for a national decision support capability for invasive species management that is being jointly developed by NASA and the US Geological Survey.

  13. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Colodner, Debra; Griffin, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 11 research interns for 6 to 8 weeks each during the summer of 1997. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 14 students for Columbia University summer field courses. These two types of programs engaged students in much of the range of activity of practicing Earth Scientists, with an emphasis on the collection and analysis of data in both the field and the laboratory. Research interns and students in the field courses also played an important part in the design and evolution of their research projects. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Research interns were exposed to the geology and ecology of the region via short field trips to the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California, while field course students were exposed to laboratory-based research via intern-led hands-on demonstrations of their work. All students made oral and written presentations of their work during the summer, and two of the research interns have applied to present their results at the National Conference on Undergraduate Research in Maryland in April, 1998.

  14. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.

  15. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    PubMed

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Cardiac and Metabolic Physiology of Early Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reflects Parental Swimming Stamina

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Matthew; Burggren, Warren W.

    2012-01-01

    Swimming stamina in adult fish is heritable, it is unknown if inherited traits that support enhanced swimming stamina in offspring appear only in juveniles and/or adults, or if these traits actually appear earlier in the morphologically quite different larvae. To answer this question, mature adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were subjected to a swimming performance test that allowed separation into low swimming stamina or high swimming stamina groups. Adults were then bred within their own performance groups. Larval offspring from each of the two groups, designated high (LHSD) and low stamina-derived larvae (LLSD), were then reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O2). Routine (fH,r) and active (fH,a) heart rate, and routine (Ṁo2,r) and active (Ṁo2,a) mass-specific oxygen consumption were recorded from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) through 21 dpf, and gross cost of transport and factorial aerobic metabolic scope were derived from Ṁo2 measurements. Heart rate generally ranged between 150 and 225 bpm in both LHSD and LLSD populations. However, significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between the LLSD and LHSD populations at 5 and 14 dpf in fH,r and at days 10 and 15 dpf in fH,a. Ṁo2,r was 0.04–0.32 μmol mg−1 h−1, while Ṁo2,a was 0.2–1.2 μmol mg−1 h−1. Significant (P < 0.05) differences between the LLSD and LHSD populations in Ṁo2,r occurred at 7, 10, and 21 dpf and in Ṁo2,a at 7 dpf. Gross cost of transport was ∼6–10 μmol O2·μg−1 m−1 at 5 dpf, peaking at 14–19 μmol O2 μg−1 m−1 at 7–10 dpf, before falling again to 5–6 μmol O2 μg−1 m−1 at 21 dpf, with gross cost of transport significantly higher in the LLSD population at 7 dpf. Collectively, these data indicate that inherited physiological differences known to contribute to enhanced stamina in adult parents also appear in their larval offspring well before attainment of juvenile or adult features. PMID

  17. Cardiac and Metabolic Physiology of Early Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reflects Parental Swimming Stamina.

    PubMed

    Gore, Matthew; Burggren, Warren W

    2012-01-01

    Swimming stamina in adult fish is heritable, it is unknown if inherited traits that support enhanced swimming stamina in offspring appear only in juveniles and/or adults, or if these traits actually appear earlier in the morphologically quite different larvae. To answer this question, mature adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were subjected to a swimming performance test that allowed separation into low swimming stamina or high swimming stamina groups. Adults were then bred within their own performance groups. Larval offspring from each of the two groups, designated high (L(HSD)) and low stamina-derived larvae (L(LSD)), were then reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O(2)). Routine (f(H),r) and active (f(H),a) heart rate, and routine [Formula: see text] and active [Formula: see text] mass-specific oxygen consumption were recorded from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) through 21 dpf, and gross cost of transport and factorial aerobic metabolic scope were derived from [Formula: see text] measurements. Heart rate generally ranged between 150 and 225 bpm in both L(HSD) and L(LSD) populations. However, significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between the L(LSD) and L(HSD) populations at 5 and 14 dpf in f(H),r and at days 10 and 15 dpf in f(H),a. [Formula: see text] was 0.04-0.32 μmol mg(-1) h(-1), while [Formula: see text] was 0.2-1.2 μmol mg(-1) h(-1). Significant (P < 0.05) differences between the L(LSD) and L(HSD) populations in [Formula: see text] occurred at 7, 10, and 21 dpf and in [Formula: see text] at 7 dpf. Gross cost of transport was ∼6-10 μmol O(2)·μg(-1) m(-1) at 5 dpf, peaking at 14-19 μmol O(2) μg(-1) m(-1) at 7-10 dpf, before falling again to 5-6 μmol O(2) μg(-1) m(-1) at 21 dpf, with gross cost of transport significantly higher in the L(LSD) population at 7 dpf. Collectively, these data indicate that inherited physiological differences known to contribute to enhanced stamina in adult

  18. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  19. CD64-Neutrophil expression and stress metabolic patterns in early sepsis and severe traumatic brain injury in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ventilation duration. Conclusions In sepsis, the early stress-metabolic pattern is characterized by a high (nCD64, glucose, TG) - low (TC, HDL, LDL) combination in contrast to the moderate pattern of TBI in which only glucose increases combined with a moderate cholesterol - lipoprotein decrease. These early metabolic patterns persist the first 3 days of acute illness and are associated with the acute phase CD64 expression on neutrophils. PMID:23452299

  20. On Detecting Biospheres from Chemical Thermodynamic Disequilibrium in Planetary Atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Bergsman, David S; Catling, David C

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in Solar System atmospheres, in which we quantify the available Gibbs energy: the Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere minus that of atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere is mostly attributable to O2 and CH4. The available Gibbs energy is not unusual compared to other Solar System atmospheres and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's fluid envelope contains an ocean, allowing gases to react with water and requiring a multiphase calculation with aqueous species. The disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole of atmosphere) ranges from ∼20 to 2 × 10(6) times larger than the disequilibria of other atmospheres in the Solar System, where Mars is second to Earth. Only on Earth is the chemical disequilibrium energy comparable to the thermal energy per mole of atmosphere (excluding comparison to Titan with lakes, where quantification is precluded because the mean lake composition is unknown). Earth's disequilibrium is biogenic, mainly caused by the coexistence of N2, O2, and liquid water instead of more stable nitrate. In comparison, the O2-CH4 disequilibrium is minor, although kinetics requires a large CH4 flux into the atmosphere. We identify abiotic processes that cause disequilibrium in the other atmospheres. Our metric requires minimal assumptions and could potentially be calculated from observations of exoplanet atmospheres. However, further work is needed to establish whether thermodynamic disequilibrium is a practical exoplanet biosignature, requiring an assessment of false positives, noisy

  1. Association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelei; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chen, Gong; Pei, Lijun; Xiao, Hailong; Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Jiaomei; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Duo

    2018-02-21

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss (ESPL) in Chinese women. Seventy women with ESPL and 29 healthy pregnant women who asked for legal induced abortion were included in the case and control groups, respectively. The gestational age of the subject foetuses in both the case and control groups ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. The total fatty acids composition in the decidual and villous tissues was detected by gas-liquid chromatography using a standard method. Metabonomics analysis of the decidual and villous tissues was conducted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS). The total C18:3n-3 in the decidual and villous tissues, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) in the decidual tissue, and total C18:2n-6 in the villous tissue were all significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. The ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 in villous tissue was significantly higher, but prostaglandin I 2 as well as hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, leukotriene B 5 and thromboxane B 3 in the villous tissue were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. In addition, the low content of lysophosphatide in the decidual and villous tissues and the low content of diacylglycerol in the villous tissue were also associated with the occurance of ESPL. In conclusion, the lack of essential fatty acids, high ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3, abnormal eicosanoids metabolism and low content of lysophosphatide and diacylglycerol in the placenta were all potential risk factors for ESPL in Chinese.

  2. Effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density and metabolism in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Jamal; Keidar, Zohar; Basher, Walid; Israel, Ora

    2004-01-01

    At the present time, tamoxifen is the most widely used anti-estrogen for adjuvant therapy and metastatic disease in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, a population at high risk for osteoporosis. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of adjuvant tamoxifen on bone mineral density and all biochemical markers concomitantly in women with early-stage breast cancer in one study. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, prior to and 12 mo after tamoxifen treatment, bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured in 44 women with T1-T2N0M0 estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen 20 mg/d. Biomarkers that can affect bone mineral metabolism were measured before and after 3 and 12 mo of tamoxifen treatment. Bone mineral density was minimally increased in lumbar spine and femoral neck after 12 mo treatment with tamoxifen (p = 0.79 and 0.55, respectively). No differences were found in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, creatinine, ALAT, albumin, LDH, calcitonin, or estradiol. A significant decrease in osteocalcin levels was found after 3 and 12 mo (p < or = 0.01). TSH and PTH levels were increased (p < or = 0.05) after 3 mo, returning to baseline after 12 mo. In conclusion, tamoxifen has an estrogen-like effect on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and is associated with preservation of bone mineral density in lumbar spine and femoral neck. Changes in serum concentration of biochemical markers may reflect decreased bone turnover or bone remodeling and add to the understanding of tamoxifen's effect on bone mineral density.

  3. An XRCC4 Splice Mutation Associated With Severe Short Stature, Gonadal Failure, and Early-Onset Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Mericq, Verónica; Andrew, Shayne F.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Losekoot, Monique; Porollo, Aleksey; Garcia, Hernán; Kuang, Yi; Hanson, Dan; Clayton, Peter; van Gent, Dik C.; Wit, Jan M.; Hwa, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Severe short stature can be caused by defects in numerous biological processes including defects in IGF-1 signaling, centromere function, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. Many syndromic causes of short stature are associated with medical comorbidities including hypogonadism and microcephaly. Objective: To identify an underlying genetic etiology in two siblings with severe short stature and gonadal failure. Design: Clinical phenotyping, genetic analysis, complemented by in vitro functional studies of the candidate gene. Setting: An academic pediatric endocrinology clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Two adult siblings (male patient [P1] and female patient 2 [P2]) presented with a history of severe postnatal growth failure (adult heights: P1, −6.8 SD score; P2, −4 SD score), microcephaly, primary gonadal failure, and early-onset metabolic syndrome in late adolescence. In addition, P2 developed a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor at age 28. Intervention(s): Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray and exome sequencing. Results: Combined microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing of the two affected siblings and one unaffected sister identified a homozygous variant in XRCC4 as the probable candidate variant. Sanger sequencing and mRNA studies revealed a splice variant resulting in an in-frame deletion of 23 amino acids. Primary fibroblasts (P1) showed a DNA damage repair defect. Conclusions: In this study we have identified a novel pathogenic variant in XRCC4, a gene that plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining DNA repair. This finding expands the spectrum of DNA damage repair syndromes to include XRCC4 deficiency causing severe postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, gonadal failure, metabolic syndrome, and possibly tumor predisposition. PMID:25742519

  4. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in obese Czech children: the importance of early detection of insulin resistance using homeostatic indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI.

    PubMed

    Pastucha, D; Filipčíková, R; Horáková, D; Radová, L; Marinov, Z; Malinčíková, J; Kocvrlich, M; Horák, S; Bezdičková, M; Dobiáš, M

    2013-01-01

    Common alimentary obesity frequently occurs on a polygenic basis as a typical lifestyle disorder in the developed countries. It is associated with characteristic complex metabolic changes, which are the cornerstones for future metabolic syndrome development. The aims of our study were 1) to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome (based on the diagnostic criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents) in Czech obese children, 2) to evaluate the incidence of insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR and QUICKI homeostatic indexes in obese children with and without metabolic syndrome, and 3) to consider the diagnostic value of these indexes for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in obese children. We therefore performed anthropometric and laboratory examinations to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the group of 274 children with obesity (128 boys and 146 girls) aged 9-17 years. Metabolic syndrome was found in 102 subjects (37 %). On the other hand, the presence of insulin resistance according to QUICKI <0.357 was identified in 86 % and according to HOMA-IR >3.16 in 53 % of obese subjects. This HOMA-IR limit was exceeded by 70 % children in the MS(+) group, but only by 43 % children in the MS(-) group (p<0.0001). However, a relatively high incidence of insulin resistance in obese children without metabolic syndrome raises a question whether the existing diagnostic criteria do not falsely exclude some cases of metabolic syndrome. On the basis of our results we suggest to pay a preventive attention also to obese children with insulin resistance even if they do not fulfill the actual diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  5. Successful early management of a female patient with a metabolic stroke due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tummolo, Albina; Favia, Vito; Bellantuono, Rosa; Bellino, Vito; Ranieri, Antonio; Morrone, Amelia; De Palo, Tommaso; Papadia, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC-D) is a urea cycle disorder caused by dysfunction of ornithine transcarbamylase, which frequently leads to hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia represents a medical emergency requiring prompt treatment to reduce plasma ammonia levels and prevent severe neurological damage, coma, and death, particularly in patients with acute decompensation-related coma. The clinical symptoms of OTC-D can manifest themselves either at an early stage, which is often associated with severe symptoms, or in later life (late-onset OTC-D), when symptoms may be less severe. There is currently little agreement over diagnostic signs of the condition or the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Hyperammonemia is usually treated with ammonia scavengers, continuous venovenous hemodialysis, and dietary changes. N-carbamylglutamate is approved for the treatment of hyperammonemia in N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency and may have efficacy in other urea cycle disorders. Here, we report a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed with OTC-D at the age of 3 years. On this occasion, the patient presented with vomiting, lethargy, and mental confusion. Despite biochemical parameters being within normal ranges, she was comatose within a few hours. She was promptly treated with a combined therapy of continuous venovenous hemodialysis and N-carbamylglutamate, resulting in a gradual normalization of clinical symptoms within 30 hours. No neurological damage was apparent at 18 months after treatment. This case demonstrates that clinical benefits can be obtained by beginning aggressive treatment of OTC-D within a few hours of the onset of severe neurological symptoms even in the absence of altered biochemical markers.

  6. Thermopreference, tolerance and metabolic rate of early stages juvenile Octopus maya acclimated to different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing acclimation temperatures. The endpoint for CTMax was ink release and for CTMin was tentacles curled, respectively. A thermal tolerance polygon over the range of 18-30°C resulted in a calculated area of 210.0°C(2). The oxygen consumption rate increased significantly α=0.05 with increasing acclimation temperatures between 18 and 30°C. Maximum and minimum temperature quotients (Q10) were observed between 26-30°C and 22-26°C as 3.03 and 1.71, respectively. These results suggest that O. maya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic analysis allows for early detection of potential markers of metabolic impairment in very young obese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of initial metabolic derangements in young obese children could influence their management; however, this impairment is frequently not overt, but subtle and undetectable by routinely used clinical assays. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of serum proteomic analysis to detect these incipient metabolic alterations in comparison to standard clinical methods and to identify new candidate biomarkers. Methods A cross-sectional study of fasting serum samples from twenty-two prepubertal, Caucasian obese (OB; 9.22 ± 1.93 years; 3.43 ± 1.08 BMI-SDS) and twenty-one lean controls (C; 8.50 ± 1.98 years; -0.48 ± 0.81 BMI-SDS) and a prospective study of fasting serum samples from twenty prepubertal, Caucasian obese children (11 insulin resistant [IR]) before (4.77 ± 1.30 BMI-SDS) and after weight reduction (2.57 ± 1.29 BMI-SDS) by conservative treatment in a reference hospital (Pros-OB) was performed. Proteomic analysis (two-dimension-eletrophoresis + mass spectrometry analysis) of serum and comparative evaluation of the sensitivity of routinely used assays in the clinics to detect the observed differences in protein expression level, as well as their relationship with anthropometric features, insulin resistance indexes, lipid profile and adipokine levels were carried out. Results Study of the intensity data from proteomic analysis showed a decrease of several isoforms of apolipoprotein-A1, apo-J/clusterin, vitamin D binding protein, transthyretin in OBvs. C, with some changes in these proteins being enhanced by IR and partially reversed after weight loss. Expression of low molecular weight isoforms of haptoglobin was increased in OB, enhanced in IR and again decreased after weight loss, being positively correlated with serum interleukin-6 and NAMPT/visfatin levels. After statistical correction for multiple comparisons, significance remained for a single isoform of low MW haptoglobin (OB vs. C and IR vs. non-IR) and

  8. The Biosphere Under Potential Paris Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostberg, Sebastian; Boysen, Lena R.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Rapid economic and population growth over the last centuries have started to push the Earth out of its Holocene state into the Anthropocene. In this new era, ecosystems across the globe face mounting dual pressure from human land use change (LUC) and climate change (CC). With the Paris Agreement, the international community has committed to holding global warming below 2°C above preindustrial levels, yet current pledges by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions appear insufficient to achieve that goal. At the same time, the sustainable development goals strive to reduce inequalities between countries and provide sufficient food, feed, and clean energy to a growing world population likely to reach more than 9 billion by 2050. Here, we present a macro-scale analysis of the projected impacts of both CC and LUC on the terrestrial biosphere over the 21st century using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to illustrate possible trajectories following the Paris Agreement. We find that CC may cause major impacts in landscapes covering between 16% and 65% of the global ice-free land surface by the end of the century, depending on the success or failure of achieving the Paris goal. Accounting for LUC impacts in addition, this number increases to 38%-80%. Thus, CC will likely replace LUC as the major driver of ecosystem change unless global warming can be limited to well below 2°C. We also find a substantial risk that impacts of agricultural expansion may offset some of the benefits of ambitious climate protection for ecosystems.

  9. Early and Long-term Undernutrition in Female Rats Exacerbates the Metabolic Risk Associated with Nutritional Rehabilitation*

    PubMed Central

    Lizárraga-Mollinedo, Esther; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; García-San Frutos, Miriam; de Toro-Martín, Juan; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel; Álvarez, Carmen; Escrivá, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human studies have suggested that early undernutrition increases the risk of obesity, thereby explaining the increase in overweight among individuals from developing countries who have been undernourished as children. However, this conclusion is controversial, given that other studies do not concur. This study sought to determine whether rehabilitation after undernutrition increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders. We employed a published experimental food-restriction model. Wistar female rats subjected to severe food restriction since fetal stage and controls were transferred to a moderately high-fat diet (cafeteria) provided at 70 days of life to 6.5 months. Another group of undernourished rats were rehabilitated with chow. The energy intake of undernourished animals transferred to cafeteria formula exceeded that of the controls under this regime and was probably driven by hypothalamic disorders in insulin and leptin signal transduction. The cafeteria diet resulted in greater relative increases in both fat and lean body mass in the undernourished rats when compared with controls, enabling the former group to completely catch up in length and body mass index. White adipose tissues of undernourished rats transferred to the high-lipid regime developed a browning which, probably, contributed to avoid the obesigenic effect observed in controls. Nevertheless, the restricted group rehabilitated with cafeteria formula had greater accretion of visceral than subcutaneous fat, showed increased signs of macrophage infiltration and inflammation in visceral pad, dyslipidemia, and ectopic fat accumulation. The data indicate that early long-term undernutrition is associated with increased susceptibility to the harmful effects of nutritional rehabilitation, without causing obesity. PMID:26105051

  10. Cognitive impairment in metabolically-obese, normal-weight rats: identification of early biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Cifre, Margalida; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Metabolically-obese, normal-weight (MONW) individuals are not obese in terms of weight and height but have a number of obesity-related features (e.g. greater visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease). The MONW phenotype is related to the intake of unbalanced diets, such as those rich in fat. Increasing evidence shows a relationship between high-fat diet consumption and mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus, MONW individuals could be at a greater risk of cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate whether MONW-like animals present gene expression alterations in the hippocampus associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment, and to identify early biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Wistar rats were chronically fed with a 60% (HF60) or a 45% (HF45) high-fat diet administered isocalorically to control animals to mimic MONW features. Expression analysis of cognitive decline-related genes was performed using RT-qPCR, and working memory was assessed using a T-maze. High-fat diet consumption altered the pattern of gene expression in the hippocampus, clearly pointing to cognitive decline, which was accompanied by a worse performance in the T-maze in HF60 animals. Remarkably, Syn1 and Sorl1 mRNA showed the same expression pattern in both the hippocampus and the PBMC obtained at different time-points in the HF60 group, even before other pathological signs were observed. Our results demonstrate that long-term intake of high-fat diets, even in the absence of obesity, leads to cognitive disruption that is reflected in PBMC transcriptome. Therefore, PBMC are revealed as a plausible, minimally-invasive source of early biomarkers of cognitive impairment associated with increased fat intake.

  11. The compositional and evolutionary logic of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Metabolism is built on a foundation of organic chemistry, and employs structures and interactions at many scales. Despite these sources of complexity, metabolism also displays striking and robust regularities in the forms of modularity and hierarchy, which may be described compactly in terms of relatively few principles of composition. These regularities render metabolic architecture comprehensible as a system, and also suggests the order in which layers of that system came into existence. In addition metabolism also serves as a foundational layer in other hierarchies, up to at least the levels of cellular integration including bioenergetics and molecular replication, and trophic ecology. The recapitulation of patterns first seen in metabolism, in these higher levels, motivates us to interpret metabolism as a source of causation or constraint on many forms of organization in the biosphere. Many of the forms of modularity and hierarchy exhibited by metabolism are readily interpreted as stages in the emergence of catalytic control by living systems over organic chemistry, sometimes recapitulating or incorporating geochemical mechanisms. We identify as modules, either subsets of chemicals and reactions, or subsets of functions, that are re-used in many contexts with a conserved internal structure. At the small molecule substrate level, module boundaries are often associated with the most complex reaction mechanisms, catalyzed by highly conserved enzymes. Cofactors form a biosynthetically and functionally distinctive control layer over the small-molecule substrate. The most complex members among the cofactors are often associated with the reactions at module boundaries in the substrate networks, while simpler cofactors participate in widely generalized reactions. The highly tuned chemical structures of cofactors (sometimes exploiting distinctive properties of the elements of the periodic table) thereby act as ‘keys’ that incorporate classes of organic reactions

  12. Characterization of Reconstructed Ancestral Proteins Suggests a Change in Temperature of the Ancient Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Satoshi

    2017-08-06

    Understanding the evolution of ancestral life, and especially the ability of some organisms to flourish in the variable environments experienced in Earth's early biosphere, requires knowledge of the characteristics and the environment of these ancestral organisms. Information about early life and environmental conditions has been obtained from fossil records and geological surveys. Recent advances in phylogenetic analysis, and an increasing number of protein sequences available in public databases, have made it possible to infer ancestral protein sequences possessed by ancient organisms. However, the in silico studies that assess the ancestral base content of ribosomal RNAs, the frequency of each amino acid in ancestral proteins, and estimate the environmental temperatures of ancient organisms, show conflicting results. The characterization of ancestral proteins reconstructed in vitro suggests that ancient organisms had very thermally stable proteins, and therefore were thermophilic or hyperthermophilic. Experimental data supports the idea that only thermophilic ancestors survived the catastrophic increase in temperature of the biosphere that was likely associated with meteorite impacts during the early history of Earth. In addition, by expanding the timescale and including more ancestral proteins for reconstruction, it appears as though the Earth's surface temperature gradually decreased over time, from Archean to present.

  13. Bioenergetic Insufficiencies Due to Metabolic Alterations Regulated by the Inhibitory Receptor PD-1 Are an Early Driver of CD8(+) T Cell Exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Bengsch, Bertram; Johnson, Andy L; Kurachi, Makoto; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Pauken, Kristen E; Attanasio, John; Stelekati, Erietta; McLane, Laura M; Paley, Michael A; Delgoffe, Greg M; Wherry, E John

    2016-08-16

    Dynamic reprogramming of metabolism is essential for T cell effector function and memory formation. However, the regulation of metabolism in exhausted CD8(+) T (Tex) cells is poorly understood. We found that during the first week of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, before severe dysfunction develops, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells were already unable to match the bioenergetics of effector T cells generated during acute infection. Suppression of T cell bioenergetics involved restricted glucose uptake and use, despite persisting mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and upregulation of many anabolic pathways. PD-1 regulated early glycolytic and mitochondrial alterations and repressed transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Improving bioenergetics by overexpression of PGC-1α enhanced function in developing Tex cells. Therapeutic reinvigoration by anti-PD-L1 reprogrammed metabolism in a subset of Tex cells. These data highlight a key metabolic control event early in exhaustion and suggest that manipulating glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism might enhance checkpoint blockade outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of CHAID Decision Trees to Formulate Pathways for the Early Detection of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young adults (age 20–39) is often undiagnosed. A simple screening tool using a surrogate measure might be invaluable in the early detection of MetS. Methods. A chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis with waist circumference user-specified as the first level was used to detect MetS in young adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 Cohort as a representative sample of the United States population (n = 745). Results. Twenty percent of the sample met the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP) classification criteria for MetS. The user-specified CHAID model was compared to both CHAID model with no user-specified first level and logistic regression based model. This analysis identified waist circumference as a strong predictor in the MetS diagnosis. The accuracy of the final model with waist circumference user-specified as the first level was 92.3% with its ability to detect MetS at 71.8% which outperformed comparison models. Conclusions. Preliminary findings suggest that young adults at risk for MetS could be identified for further followup based on their waist circumference. Decision tree methods show promise for the development of a preliminary detection algorithm for MetS. PMID:24817904

  15. [Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy recognition of metabolic patterns in fecal extracts for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Wang, Z N; Ma, C C; Liu, C K; Yang, J R; Shen, Z W; Wu, R H

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To characterize the metabolic " fingerprint" of fecal extracts for diagnosis of early-stage colorectal cancer(CRC)using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy( 1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics coupled with pattern recognition. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2014, we collected fecal samples at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, from 25 patients with colorectal adenomas(CR-Ad), 20 with stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ CRC, and 32 healthy controls(HCs). The patients were diagnosed by histopathology. No subjects had any complicating diseases. HCs showed no abnormalities from blood tests, endoscopic examination, diagnostic imaging, and/or medical interviews. We excluded participants who used antibiotics, NSAIDS, statins, or probiotics within two months of study participation, and any patients who underwent chemotherapy or radiation treatments prior to surgery. We used orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA)for pattern recognition(dimension reduction)on 1 H-NMR processed data( 1 H frequency of 400.13 MHz), to find metabolic differences among CR-Ad, carcinoma and HC fecal samples; and receiver operating characteristic(ROC)analysis to determine the diagnostic value of the fecal metabolic biomarkers. Results: Fecal samples were collected from 20 patients with Stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ CRC(11 M, 9 F, median age(52±13)years), 25 with CR-Ad(14 M, 11 F, median age(53 ± 11)years)and 32 HCs(15 M, 17 F, median age(53 ± 14)years). OPLS-DA clearly distinguished CR-Ad and stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ CRC from HC samples, based on their metabolomic profiles. Relative signal intensities in HCs were significantly lower than in the cancer patients for butyrate(HC: 23.0±6.0; CR-Ad: 18.0±5.0; CRC: 14.0±6.0; Z =-2.07, P =0.008), acetate(HC: 45.0±11.0; CR-Ad: 31.0±11.0; CRC: 24.0±8.0; Z =- 2.32, P =0.011), propionate(HC: 26.0 ± 7.0; CR-Ad: 22.0 ± 6.0; CRC: 19.0 ± 5.0; Z =- 2.43, P =0.032), glucose(HC: 37.0±7.0; CR-Ad: 31.0±7.0; CRC: 26.0±8

  16. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2016-05-15

    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  17. Microbial metabolism of tholin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Boston, P. J.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Segal, W.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, we show that a wide variety of common soil bacteria are able to obtain their carbon and energy needs from tholin (a class of complex organic heteropolymers thought to be widely distributed through the solar system; in this case tholin was produced by passage of electrical discharge through a mixture of methane, ammonia, and water vapor). We have isolated aerobic, anaerobic, and facultatively anaerobic bacteria which are able to use tholin as a sole carbon source. Organisms which metabolize tholin represent a variety of bacterial genera including Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Paracoccus, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus, Cornebacterium, Aerobacter, Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium,and Actinomyces. Aerobic tholin-using bacteria were firrst isolated from soils containing unusual or sparse carbon sources. Some of these organisms were found to be facultatively anaerobic. Strictly anaerobic tholin-using bacteria were isolated from both carbon-rich and carbon-poor anaerobic lake muds. In addition, both aerobic and anaerobic tholin-using bacteria were isolated from common soil collected outside the laboratory building. Some, but not all, of the strains that were able to obtain carbon from tholin were also able to obtain their nitrogen requirements from tholin. Bacteria isolated from common soils were tested for their ability to obtain carbon from the water-soluble fraction, the ethanol-soluble fraction, and the water/ethanol-insoluble fraction of the tholin. Of the 3.5 × 10 7 bacteria isolated per gram of common soils, 1.7 0.5, and 0.2%, respectively, were able to obtaib their carbon requirements from the water-soluble fraction, the ethanol-soluble fraction and the water/ethanol-insoluble fraction of the tholin. The palatability of tholins to modern microbes may have implications for the early evolution of microbial life on Earth. Tholins may have formed the base of the food chain for an early heterotrophic biosphere before the evolution of

  18. Association between textural and morphological tumor indices on baseline PET-CT and early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in bulky malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Tabaa, Yassine Al; Kafrouni, Marilyne; Cartron, Guillaume; Vauchot, Fabien; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether metabolic, textural, and morphological tumoral indices evaluated on baseline PET-CT were predictive of early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in a cohort of patients with bulky Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas. This retrospective study included 57 patients referred for initial PET-CT examination. In-house dedicated software was used to delineate tumor contours using a fixed 30% threshold of SUV max and then to compute tumoral metabolic parameters (SUV max, mean, peak, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, metabolic tumoral volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis, and area under the curve of the cumulative histogram), textural parameters (Moran's and Geary's indices, energy, entropy, contrast, correlation derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix, area under the curve of the power spectral density, auto-correlation distance, and granularity), and shape parameters (surface, asphericity, convexity, surfacic extension, and 2D and 3D fractal dimensions). Early metabolic response was assessed on interim PET-CT using the Deauville 5-point scale and patients were ranked according to the Lugano classification as complete or not complete metabolic responders. The impact of the segmentation method (alternate threshold at 41%) and image resolution (Gaussian postsmoothing of 3, 5, and 7 mm) was investigated. The association of the proposed parameters with early response was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Their added predictive value was explored using supervised classification by support vector machines (SVM). We evaluated in leave-one-out cross-validation three SVMs admitting as input features (a) MTV, (b) MTV + histological type, and (c) MTV + histology + relevant texture/shape indices. Features associated with complete metabolic response were low MTV (P = 0.01), low TLG (P = 0.003), high power spectral density AUC (P = 0.007), high surfacic extension (P = 0.006), low 2D fractal dimension (P

  19. Integrating Biodiversity into Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions Using Individual-Based Models (IBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Lerdau, M.

    2017-12-01

    A key component regulating complex, nonlinear, and dynamic biosphere-atmosphere interactions is the inherent diversity of biological systems. The model frameworks currently widely used, i.e., Plant Functional Type models) do not even begin to capture the metabolic and taxonomic diversity found in many terrestrial systems. We propose that a transition from PFT-based to individual-based modeling approaches (hereafter referred to as IBM) is essential for integrating biodiversity into research on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The proposal emerges from our studying the interactions of forests with atmospheric processes in the context of climate change using an individual-based forest volatile organic compounds model, UVAFME-VOC. This individual-based model can explicitly simulate VOC emissions based on an explicit modelling of forest dynamics by computing the growth, death, and regeneration of each individual tree of different species and their competition for light, moisture, and nutrient, from which system-level VOC emissions are simulated by explicitly computing and summing up each individual's emissions. We found that elevated O3 significantly altered the forest dynamics by favoring species that are O3-resistant, which, meanwhile, are producers of isoprene. Such compositional changes, on the one hand, resulted in unsuppressed forest productivity and carbon stock because of the compensation by O3-resistant species. On the other hand, with more isoprene produced arising from increased producers, a possible positive feedback loop between tropospheric O3 and forest thereby emerged. We also found that climate warming will not always stimulate isoprene emissions because warming simultaneously reduces isoprene emissions by causing a decline in the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. These results suggest that species diversity is of great significance and that individual-based modelling strategies should be applied in studying biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  20. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  1. Studies of land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation in the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia.

    Dar A. Robertsa; Michael Keller; Joao Vianei Soares

    2003-01-01

    We summarize early research on land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation from the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) experiment in Amazoˆnia. LBA is an international research program developed to evaluate regional function and to determine how land-use and climate modify biological, chemical and physical processes there. Remote sensing has...

  2. Community Assembly Processes of the Microbial Rare Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiu; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcão Salles, Joana

    2018-03-14

    Our planet teems with microorganisms that often present a skewed abundance distribution in a local community, with relatively few dominant species coexisting alongside a high number of rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that these rare taxa serve as limitless reservoirs of genetic diversity, and perform disproportionate types of functions despite their low abundances. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling rarity and the processes promoting the development of the rare biosphere. Here, we propose the use of multivariate cut-offs to estimate rare species and phylogenetic null models applied to predefined rare taxa to disentangle the relative influences of ecoevolutionary processes mediating the assembly of the rare biosphere. Importantly, the identification of the factors controlling rare species assemblages is critical for understanding the types of rarity, how the rare biosphere is established, and how rare microorganisms fluctuate over spatiotemporal scales, thus enabling prospective predictions of ecosystem responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Landenmark, Hanna K. E.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time. PMID:26066900

  4. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Landenmark, Hanna K E; Forgan, Duncan H; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

  5. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  6. Microbial metabolism of Tholin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Boston, P. J.; Segal, W.; Khare, B. N.

    1990-01-01

    Tholin, a class of complex organic heteropolymers hypothesized to possess wide solar system distribution, is shown to furnish the carbon and energy requirements of a wide variety of common soil bacteria which encompasses aerobic, anaerobic, and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Some of these bacteria are able to derive not merely their carbon but also their nitrogen requirements from tholin. The palatability of tholins to modern microbes is speculated to have implications for the early evolution of microbial life on earth; tholins may have formed the base of the food chain for an early heterotrophic biosphere, prior to the evolution of autotrophy on the early earth.

  7. Effect of Early ≤ 3 Mets (Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks) of Physical Activity on Patient's Outcome after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Asif Ali; Khalid, Zara; Farheen, Hania; Siddiqi, Furqan Ahmed; Amjad, Imran

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of <3 Mets (Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks) of physical activity on zero postoperative days for improving hemodynamic and respiratory parameters of patients after cardiac surgeries. Randomized control trial. BARMWTHospital, Rawalpindi, from March to August 2015. Arandomized controlled trial was conducted on 174 CABG and valvular heart disease patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. After selection of sample via non-probability purposive sampling, they were randomly allocated into interventional group (n=87) and control group (n=87). Treatment protocol for experimental group was ≤3 Mets of physical activity, i.e. chest physiotherapy, sitting over edge of bed, standing and sitting on chair at bedside, on zero postoperative day but the control group was treated with conventional treatment on first postoperative day. Pre- and post-treatment assessment was done in control and interventional groups on both zero and first postoperative days. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 21. The patients' mean age was 51.86 ±13.76 years. Male to female ratio was 132:42. Statistically significant differences in respiratory rate and SpO2 (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) were found between both groups. Among ABG's, PCO2 and pH showed significant differences with p values of 0.039 and <0.001, respectively. No significant differences were observed between both groups regarding electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, p-values of 0.361, 0.575 and 0.120 respectively) and creatinine (p=0.783). Marked improvement in oxygen saturation, dyspnea and a fall in systolic BPwas seen in interventional group. There was also observed to be a reduction in the length of ICU stay among interventional group patients as frequency with percentage of total stay was compared to control group. Early physical activity (≤3 METS) post-cardiac surgeries prevent respiratory complications through improvement in dyspnea, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation.

  8. Early Life Stress Increases Metabolic Risk, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Depressive-Like Behavior When Combined with Postweaning Social Isolation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that

  9. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    PubMed

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population. A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group). Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model. Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population. PMID:26717388

  11. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  12. Gaian bottlenecks and planetary habitability maintained by evolving model biospheres: the ExoGaia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Arwen E.; Wilkinson, David M.; Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2018-06-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets inspires the question - how do habitable planets form? Planet habitability models traditionally focus on abiotic processes and neglect a biotic response to changing conditions on an inhabited planet. The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences the Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self-regulating system, and hence that life can maintain habitable conditions on its host planet. If life has a strong influence, it will have a role in determining a planet's habitability over time. We present the ExoGaia model - a model of simple `planets' host to evolving microbial biospheres. Microbes interact with their host planet via consumption and excretion of atmospheric chemicals. Model planets orbit a `star' that provides incoming radiation, and atmospheric chemicals have either an albedo or a heat-trapping property. Planetary temperatures can therefore be altered by microbes via their metabolisms. We seed multiple model planets with life while their atmospheres are still forming and find that the microbial biospheres are, under suitable conditions, generally able to prevent the host planets from reaching inhospitable temperatures, as would happen on a lifeless planet. We find that the underlying geochemistry plays a strong role in determining long-term habitability prospects of a planet. We find five distinct classes of model planets, including clear examples of `Gaian bottlenecks' - a phenomenon whereby life either rapidly goes extinct leaving an inhospitable planet or survives indefinitely maintaining planetary habitability. These results suggest that life might play a crucial role in determining the long-term habitability of planets.

  13. Induced and catalysed mineral precipitation in the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Authigenic and early diagenetic minerals provide archives of past (bio)geochemical processes. In particular, isotopic signatures preserved in the diagenetic phases have been shown to document drastic changes of subsurface microbial activity (the deep biosphere) over geological time periods (Contreras et al., 2013; Meister, 2015). Geochemical and isotopic signatures in authigenic minerals may also document surface conditions and past climate. Nevertheless, such use of authigenic mineral phases as (bio)geochemical archives is often hampered by the insufficient understanding of mineral precipitation mechanisms. Accordingly the time, place and rate of mineral precipitation are often not well constrained. Also, element partitioning and isotopic fractionation may be modified as a result of the precipitation mechanism. Early diagenetic dolomite and quartz from drilled sequences in the Pacific were compared with adjacent porewater compositions and isotope signatures to gain fundamental insight into the factors controlling mineral precipitation. The formation of dolomite in carbonate-free organic carbon-rich ocean margin sediments (e.g. Peru Margin; Ocean Drilling Program, ODP, Site 1229; Meister et al., 2007) relies on the alkalinity-increase driven by anaerobic oxidation of methane and, perhaps, by alteration of clay minerals. In contrast, quartz is often significantly oversaturated in marine porewaters as the dissolved silica concentration is buffered by more soluble opal-A. For example, quartz does not form throughout a 400 metre thick sedimentary sequence in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (ODP Site 1226; Meister et al., 2014) because it is kinetically inhibited. This behaviour can be explained by Ostwald's step rule, which suggests that the metastable phase forms faster. However, hard-lithified quartz readily forms where silica concentration drops sharply below opal-saturation. This violation of Ostwald's step rule must be driven by an auxiliary process, such as the

  14. Fatty acid metabolic reprogramming via mTOR-mediated inductions of PPARγ directs early activation of T cells

    PubMed Central

    Angela, Mulki; Endo, Yusuke; Asou, Hikari K.; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tumes, Damon J.; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Yokote, Koutaro; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    To fulfil the bioenergetic requirements for increased cell size and clonal expansion, activated T cells reprogramme their metabolic signatures from energetically quiescent to activated. However, the molecular mechanisms and essential components controlling metabolic reprogramming in T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that the mTORC1–PPARγ pathway is crucial for the fatty acid uptake programme in activated CD4+ T cells. This pathway is required for full activation and rapid proliferation of naive and memory CD4+ T cells. PPARγ directly binds and induces genes associated with fatty acid uptake in CD4+ T cells in both mice and humans. The PPARγ-dependent fatty acid uptake programme is critical for metabolic reprogramming. Thus, we provide important mechanistic insights into the metabolic reprogramming mechanisms that govern the expression of key enzymes, fatty acid metabolism and the acquisition of an activated phenotype during CD4+ T cell activation. PMID:27901044

  15. [Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

    2012-06-01

    The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico.

  16. Toward an understanding of global change: Initial priorities for US contributions to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A limited number of high-priority research initiatives are recommended for early implementation as part of the U.S. contribution to the preparatory phase of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. The recommendations are based on the committee's analysis of the most critical gaps in the scientific knowledge needed to understand the changes that are occurring in the earth system not being addressed by existing programs. The report articulates a number of important key issues and interactions that characterize global change in the geosphere-biosphere system on time scales of decades to centuries; identifies the knowledge that is the most urgently needed to improve understanding of those issues and interactions; and formulates initial priorities for initial U.S. contributions to the IGBP, recognizing the contributions of other ongoing and proposed programs.

  17. Evidence for an active rare biosphere within freshwater protists community.

    PubMed

    Debroas, Didier; Hugoni, Mylène; Domaizon, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the active rare biosphere at the RNA level are mainly focused on Bacteria and Archaea and fail to include the protists, which are involved in the main biogeochemical cycles of the earth. In this study, the richness, composition and activity of the rare protistan biosphere were determined from a temporal survey of two lakes by pyrosequencing. In these ecosystems, the always rare OTUs represented 77.2% of the total OTUs and 76.6% of the phylogenetic diversity. From the various phylogenetic indices computed, the phylogenetic units (PUs) constituted exclusively by always rare OTUs were discriminated from the other PUs. Therefore, the rare biosphere included mainly taxa that are distant from the reference databases compared to the dominant ones. In addition, the rarest OTUs represented 59.8% of the active biosphere depicted by rRNA and the activity (rRNA:rDNA ratio) increased with the rarity. The high rRNA:rDNA ratio determined in the rare fraction highlights that some protists were active at low abundances and contribute to ecosystem functioning. Interestingly, the always rare and active OTUs were characterized by seasonal changes in relation with the main environmental parameters measured. In conclusion, the rare eukaryotes represent an active, dynamic and overlooked fraction in the lacustrine ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Publications of the biospheric research program: 1981-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a list of publications of investigators supported by the Biospheric Research Program of the Biological Systems Research Branch, Life Sciences Division, and the Office of Space Science and Applications. It includes publications dated as of December 31, 1987 and entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database at the George Washington University. Publications are organized by the year published.

  19. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  20. Bird checklist, Guánica Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg; Miguel Canals; Jerry Bauer

    2015-01-01

    This research note compiles 43 years of research and monitoring data to produce the first comprehensive checklist of the dry forest avian community found within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. We provide an overview of the reserve along with sighting locales, a list of 185 birds with their resident status and abundance, and a list of the available bird habitats....

  1. Carboxydotrophy potential of uncultivated Hydrothermarchaeota from the oceanic crust deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, S. A.; Jungbluth, S.; Rappe, M. S.; Orcutt, B.

    2017-12-01

    The marine sedimentary and crustal subsurface biospheres harbor many uncultured microorganisms, including those belonging to Hydrothermarchaeota, formerly known as Marine Benthic Group E. SSU rRNA sequences of Hydrothermarchaeota have been identified in marine sediments across the globe, often in low abundance. Recently, crustal fluids from two subseafloor borehole observatories located on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (i.e., CORKs at IODP Holes U1362A and U1362B), were collected for single-cell and metagenomic analyses. Both techniques revealed Hydrothermarchaeota to be prevalent in this system. Collectively, single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) depict Hydrothermarchaeota as opportunists, potentially capable of dissimilative and assimilative carboxydotrophy, sulfate reduction, thiosulfate reduction, nitrate reduction, chemotaxis, and motility. We propose that this diverse suit of metabolic potential may be advantageous for the hydrologically and geochemically dynamic subsurface crustal aquifer, an environment thought to be energy and nutrient limited.

  2. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  3. Carbon 13 exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Thompson, M. V.; Randerson, J. T.; MalmströM, C. M.; Vitousek, P. M.; Collatz, G. James; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A. S.; Badeck, F.; John, J.

    1997-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the gross 12C and 13C exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and their influence on the δ13C variations in the atmosphere. The photosynthetic discrimination Δ against 13C is derived from a biophysical model coupled to a general circulation model [Sellers et al., 1996a], where stomatal conductance and carbon assimilation are determined simultaneously with the ambient climate. The δ13C of the respired carbon is calculated by a biogeochemical model [Potter et al., 1993; Randerson et al., 1996] as the sum of the contributions from compartments with varying ages. The global flux-weighted mean photosynthetic discrimination is 12-16‰, which is lower than previous estimates. Factors that lower the discrimination are reduced stomatal conductance and C4 photosynthesis. The decreasing atmospheric δ13C causes an isotopic disequilibrium between the outgoing and incoming fluxes; the disequilibrium is ˜0.33‰ for 1988. The disequilibrium is higher than previous estimates because it accounts for the lifetime of trees and for the ages rather than turnover times of the biospheric pools. The atmospheric δ13C signature resulting from the biospheric fluxes is investigated using a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer model. The isotopic disequilibrium alone produces a hemispheric difference of ˜0.02‰ in atmospheric δ13C, comparable to the signal from a hypothetical carbon sink of 0.5 Gt C yr-1 into the midlatitude northern hemisphere biosphere. However, the rectifier effect, due to the seasonal covariation of CO2 fluxes and height of the atmospheric boundary layer, yields a background δ13C gradient of the opposite sign. These effects nearly cancel thus favoring a stronger net biospheric uptake than without the background CO2 gradient. Our analysis of the globally averaged carbon budget for the decade of the 1980s indicates that the biospheric uptake of fossil fuel CO2 is likely to be greater than the oceanic uptake; the

  4. Implementation of the Biosphere Compatibility Principle in Urban Planning: How to Train Next-Generation Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Zinaida Ilyinichna; Yudenkova, Olga Valeryevna; Ishkov, Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shnyrenkov, Evgeny Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The co-authors address the relevant issues concerning the need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for the symbiotic co-existence of man and nature. Caring treatment of the biosphere, termination of its excessive exploitation, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of specific areas…

  5. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on

  6. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews.

  7. Genome-resolved metaproteomic characterization of preterm infant gut microbiota development reveals species-specific metabolic shifts and variabilities during early life

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Weili; Brown, Christopher T.; Morowitz, Michael J.; ...

    2017-07-10

    Establishment of the human gut microbiota begins at birth. This early-life microbiota development can impact host physiology during infancy and even across an entire life span. But, the functional stability and population structure of the gut microbiota during initial colonization remain poorly understood. Metaproteomics is an emerging technology for the large-scale characterization of metabolic functions in complex microbial communities (gut microbiota). We applied a metagenome-informed metaproteomic approach to study the temporal and inter-individual differences of metabolic functions during microbial colonization of preterm human infants’ gut. By analyzing 30 individual fecal samples, we identified up to 12,568 protein groups for eachmore » of four infants, including both human and microbial proteins. With genome-resolved matched metagenomics, proteins were confidently identified at the species/strain level. The maximum percentage of the proteome detected for the abundant organisms was ~45%. A time-dependent increase in the relative abundance of microbial versus human proteins suggested increasing microbial colonization during the first few weeks of early life. We observed remarkable variations and temporal shifts in the relative protein abundances of each organism in these preterm gut communities. Given the dissimilarity of the communities, only 81 microbial EggNOG orthologous groups and 57 human proteins were observed across all samples. These conserved microbial proteins were involved in carbohydrate, energy, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism while conserved human proteins were related to immune response and mucosal maturation. We also identified seven proteome clusters for the communities and showed infant gut proteome profiles were unstable across time and not individual-specific. By applying a gut-specific metabolic module (GMM) analysis, we found that gut communities varied primarily in the contribution of nutrient (carbohydrates, lipids, and amino

  8. Genome-resolved metaproteomic characterization of preterm infant gut microbiota development reveals species-specific metabolic shifts and variabilities during early life

    SciT

    Xiong, Weili; Brown, Christopher T.; Morowitz, Michael J.

    Establishment of the human gut microbiota begins at birth. This early-life microbiota development can impact host physiology during infancy and even across an entire life span. But, the functional stability and population structure of the gut microbiota during initial colonization remain poorly understood. Metaproteomics is an emerging technology for the large-scale characterization of metabolic functions in complex microbial communities (gut microbiota). We applied a metagenome-informed metaproteomic approach to study the temporal and inter-individual differences of metabolic functions during microbial colonization of preterm human infants’ gut. By analyzing 30 individual fecal samples, we identified up to 12,568 protein groups for eachmore » of four infants, including both human and microbial proteins. With genome-resolved matched metagenomics, proteins were confidently identified at the species/strain level. The maximum percentage of the proteome detected for the abundant organisms was ~45%. A time-dependent increase in the relative abundance of microbial versus human proteins suggested increasing microbial colonization during the first few weeks of early life. We observed remarkable variations and temporal shifts in the relative protein abundances of each organism in these preterm gut communities. Given the dissimilarity of the communities, only 81 microbial EggNOG orthologous groups and 57 human proteins were observed across all samples. These conserved microbial proteins were involved in carbohydrate, energy, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism while conserved human proteins were related to immune response and mucosal maturation. We also identified seven proteome clusters for the communities and showed infant gut proteome profiles were unstable across time and not individual-specific. By applying a gut-specific metabolic module (GMM) analysis, we found that gut communities varied primarily in the contribution of nutrient (carbohydrates, lipids, and amino

  9. Genome-resolved metaproteomic characterization of preterm infant gut microbiota development reveals species-specific metabolic shifts and variabilities during early life.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weili; Brown, Christopher T; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F; Hettich, Robert L

    2017-07-10

    Establishment of the human gut microbiota begins at birth. This early-life microbiota development can impact host physiology during infancy and even across an entire life span. However, the functional stability and population structure of the gut microbiota during initial colonization remain poorly understood. Metaproteomics is an emerging technology for the large-scale characterization of metabolic functions in complex microbial communities (gut microbiota). We applied a metagenome-informed metaproteomic approach to study the temporal and inter-individual differences of metabolic functions during microbial colonization of preterm human infants' gut. By analyzing 30 individual fecal samples, we identified up to 12,568 protein groups for each of four infants, including both human and microbial proteins. With genome-resolved matched metagenomics, proteins were confidently identified at the species/strain level. The maximum percentage of the proteome detected for the abundant organisms was ~45%. A time-dependent increase in the relative abundance of microbial versus human proteins suggested increasing microbial colonization during the first few weeks of early life. We observed remarkable variations and temporal shifts in the relative protein abundances of each organism in these preterm gut communities. Given the dissimilarity of the communities, only 81 microbial EggNOG orthologous groups and 57 human proteins were observed across all samples. These conserved microbial proteins were involved in carbohydrate, energy, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism while conserved human proteins were related to immune response and mucosal maturation. We identified seven proteome clusters for the communities and showed infant gut proteome profiles were unstable across time and not individual-specific. Applying a gut-specific metabolic module (GMM) analysis, we found that gut communities varied primarily in the contribution of nutrient (carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids

  10. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  11. Role of tectonomagmatic processes for surface environmental changes and evolution of biosphere on terrestrial planets: Evidence for evolution of the life on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii; Bogina, Maria

    It is known that ecological systems on the Earth in the Middle Paleoproterozoic was experienced fundamental change, which finally led to the appearance of multicellular organisms. Though life has been already existed in the Paleoarchean (Harris et al., 2009 and references herein), the multicellular organisms appeared only in the middle Paleoproterozoic about 1.6 Ga ago. It was preceded by fundamental change of tectononagmatic processes at period from 2.35 to 2.0 Ga, when early Precambrian high-Mg magmas, derived from depleted mantle, were gradually changed by geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts, similar to Phanerozoic within-plate magmas. A drastic change of the tectonic pattern occurred at ca. 2 Ga when plate-tectonics changed plume-tectonics of the early Precambrian. Since that time tectonomagmatic processes irretrievably changed over the whole Earth and gradually change of ancient continental crust for secondary oceanic (basaltic) crust has occurred. New type of magmatic melts, appeared in the Middle Paleoproterozoic, was characterized by elevated and high contents of Fe, Ti, Cu, P, Mn, alkalis, LREE, and other incompatible elements (Zr, Ba, Sr, U, Th, F, etc.). A large-scale influx of alkalis in the World Ocean presumably neutralized its water, making it more suitable for the life, while input of Fe-group metals, P, and other trace elements, which are required for metabolism and fermentation, rapidly expanded the possibility for the development of bio-sphere. This caused a rapid evolution of organic life, especially photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and, subsequently, the emergence of oxidizing atmosphere, marked by formation of cupriferous red beds at all Precambrian shields and generation of first hydrocarbon deposits (Melezhik et al., 2005). A drop in atmospheric CO2 presumably suppressed the greenhouse effect, while significant intensification of relief ruggedness caused by wide development of plate tectonics after 2 Ga resulted in the change of

  12. WEB-DHM: A distributed biosphere hydrological model developed by coupling a simple biosphere scheme with a hillslope hydrological model

    The coupling of land surface models and hydrological models potentially improves the land surface representation, benefiting both the streamflow prediction capabilities as well as providing improved estimates of water and energy fluxes into the atmosphere. In this study, the simple biosphere model 2...

  13. Behavioral, environmental, metabolic and intergenerational components of early life undernutrition leading to later obesity in developing nations and in minority groups in the U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Frisancho, A Roberto; Bogin, Barry; Chatkoff, David; Smith, Patricia K; Dickinson, Federico; Winham, Donna

    2007-03-01

    Nutritional transition, urbanization, and physical inactivity are primary factors responsible for the worldwide epidemic of overweight/obesity (OW/OB). However, these factors fail to explain the epidemic of OW/OB in developing countries and in recent-migrants to developed countries. Among these, OW/OB is associated with short/stunted stature and coexists with undernutrition at much higher rates than is statistically expected. Changes in metabolic pathways toward reduced fat oxidation and increased metabolism of carbohydrate may explain, in part, this phenomenon. Also, intergenerational consequences of malnutrition and poor health of the mothers may lead to impaired phenotypes in their offspring. We propose a novel methodology to assess the history of early life malnutrition by assessing the sitting height ratio of the mothers. The degree of "short leggedness" reflects undernutrition when the mother was an infant/child. Collectively, behavioral, environmental, metabolic and intergenerational components of early life undernutrition may provide a more satisfactory explanation for later life obesity.

  14. A socio-environmental monitoring system for a UNESCO biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Kim

    2017-11-03

    To identify potentially critical changes in an area's ongoing ability to produce multiple ecosystem services, a monitoring system was designed and implemented for the Mornington Peninsula and Westernport Biosphere Reserve in southeast Australia. The system is underpinned by an "environmental vital signs" (EVS) approach that was adopted to provide early warning of critical changes in human and natural characteristics of the area. The six themes monitored are non-coastal water, land including vegetation, biodiversity, natural heritage, built environment (including human population and economic activity), and coasts. These are monitored for the entire area, and each of its five constituent town council areas. After a critical change in any of these is identified, further investigation is required to identify causal factors and, if required, determine an appropriate response. The system relies on data available from external (third-party) organisations to monitor the natural and human characteristics of the area that were important in its designation as a UNESCO biosphere reserve. Strengths and weaknesses associated with the use of third-party data are discussed. These include adoption of baseline years and data reporting periods for different factors, costs, and data quality.

  15. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María; Cobb, Jeff; Planet, Evarist; Cooper, Diane; Pazderska, Agnieszka; Wanic, Krzystof; O'Hanlon, Declan; Gomez, Antonio; de la Ballina, Laura R; Esteller, Manel; Palacin, Manuel; O'Gorman, Donal J; Nolan, John J; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-10-23

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused studies were also performed in tissues from ob/ob and db/db mice. We document that T2D, both early and late onset, are characterized by reduced muscle expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism. Weighted Co-expression Networks Analysis provided support to idea that the BCAA genes are relevant in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and that mitochondrial BCAA management is impaired in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. In diabetic mice model we detected alterations in skeletal muscle proteins involved in BCAA metabolism but not in obese mice. Metabolomic analysis revealed increased levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), and BCAA in plasma of T2D patients, which may result from the disruption of muscle BCAA management. Our data support the view that inhibition of genes involved in BCAA handling in skeletal muscle takes place as part of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and this occurs both in early-onset and in classical type 2 diabetes.

  16. The past, present and future supernova threat to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2011-12-01

    A brief review of the threat posed to Earth's biosphere via near-by supernova detonations is presented. The expected radiation dosage, cosmic ray flux and expanding blast wave collision effects are considered, and it is argued that a typical supernova must be closer than ˜10-pc before any appreciable and potentially harmful atmosphere/biosphere effects are likely to occur. In contrast, the critical distance for Gamma-ray bursts is of order 1-kpc. In spite of the high energy effects potentially involved, the geological record provides no clear-cut evidence for any historic supernova induced mass extinctions and/or strong climate change episodes. This, however, is mostly a reflection of their being numerous possible (terrestrial and astronomical) forcing mechanisms acting upon the biosphere and the difficulty of distinguishing between competing scenarios. Key to resolving this situation, it is suggested, is the development of supernova specific extinction and climate change linked ecological models. Moving to the future, we estimate that over the remaining lifetime of the biosphere (˜2 Gyr) the Earth might experience 1 GRB and 20 supernova detonations within their respective harmful threat ranges. There are currently at least 12 potential pre-supernova systems within 1-kpc of the Sun. Of these systems IK Pegasi is the closest Type Ia pre-supernova candidate and Betelgeuse is the closest potential Type II supernova candidate. We review in some detail the past, present and future behavior of these two systems. Developing a detailed evolutionary model we find that IK Pegasi will likely not detonate until some 1.9 billion years hence, and that it affords absolutely no threat to Earth's biosphere. Betelgeuse is the closest, reasonably well understood, pre-supernova candidate to the Sun at the present epoch, and may undergo detonation any time within the next several million years. The stand-off distance of Betelgeuse at the time of its detonation is estimated to fall

  17. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  18. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  19. Cytonuclear genetics of experimental fish hybrid zones inside Biosphere 2

    Scribner, K.T.; Avise, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Two species of mosquitofish (family Poeciliidae) known to hybridize in nature were introduced into freshwater habitats inside Biosphere 2, and their population genetics were monitored after 2 years. Within four to six generations, nuclear and cytoplasmic markers characteristic of Gambusia holbrooki had risen greatly in frequency, although some Gambusia affinis alleles and haplotypes were retained primarily in recombinant genotypes, indicative of introgressive hybridization. The temporal cytonuclear dynamics proved similar to population genetic changes observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations outside of Biosphere 2, thus indicating strong directional selection favoring G. holbrooki genotypes across the range of environments monitored. When interpreted in the context of species-specific population demographies observed previously, results suggest that the extremely rapid evolution in these zones of secondary contact is attributable primarily to species differences in life-history traits.

  20. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  1. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life.

  2. Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R; Hilbert, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    Evolution has transformed life through key innovations in information storage and replication, including RNA, DNA, multicellularity, and culture and language. We argue that the carbon-based biosphere has generated a cognitive system (humans) capable of creating technology that will result in a comparable evolutionary transition. Digital information has reached a similar magnitude to information in the biosphere. It increases exponentially, exhibits high-fidelity replication, evolves through differential fitness, is expressed through artificial intelligence (AI), and has facility for virtually limitless recombination. Like previous evolutionary transitions, the potential symbiosis between biological and digital information will reach a critical point where these codes could compete via natural selection. Alternatively, this fusion could create a higher-level superorganism employing a low-conflict division of labor in performing informational tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploration and protection of Europa's biosphere: implications of permeable ice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Europa has become a high-priority objective for exploration because it may harbor life. Strategic planning for its exploration has been predicated on an extreme model in which the expected oceanic biosphere lies under a thick ice crust, buried too deep to be reached in the foreseeable future, which would beg the question of whether other active satellites might be more realistic objectives. However, Europa's ice may in fact be permeable, with very different implications for the possibilities for life and for mission planning. A biosphere may extend up to near the surface, making life far more readily accessible to exploration while at the same time making it vulnerable to contamination. The chances of finding life on Europa are substantially improved while the need for planetary protection becomes essential. The new National Research Council planetary protection study will need to go beyond its current mandate if meaningful standards are to be put in place. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  4. SeaWiFS Third Anniversary Global Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    September 18,2000 is the third anniversary of the start of regular SeaWiFS operations of this remarkable planet called Earth. This SeaWiFS image is of the Global Biosphere depicting the ocean's long-term average phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration acquired between September 1997 and August 2000 combined with the SeaWiFS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over land during July 2000.

  5. Developing Starlight connections with UNESCO sites through the Biosphere Smart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2015-08-01

    The large number of UNESCO Sites around the world, in outstanding sites ranging from small islands to cities, makes it possible to build and share a comprehensive knowledge base on good practices and policies on the preservation of the night skies consistent with the protection of the associated scientific, natural and cultural values. In this context, the Starlight Initiative and other organizations such as IDA play a catalytic role in an essential international process to promote comprehensive, holistic approaches on dark sky preservation, astronomical observation, environmental protection, responsible lighting, sustainable energy, climate change and global sustainability.Many of these places have the potential to become models of excellence to foster the recovery of the dark skies and its defence against light pollution, included some case studies mentioned in the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.Fighting light pollution and recovering starry sky are already elements of a new emerging culture in biosphere reserves and world heritage sites committed to acting on climate change and sustainable development. Over thirty territories, including biosphere reserves and world heritage sites, have been developed successful initiatives to ensure night sky quality and promote sustainable lighting. Clear night skies also provide sustainable income opportunities as tourists and visitors are eagerly looking for sites with impressive night skies.Taking into account the high visibility and the ability of UNESCO sites to replicate network experiences, the Starlight Initiative has launched an action In cooperation with Biosphere Smart, aimed at promoting the Benchmark sites.Biosphere Smart is a global observatory created in partnership with UNESCO MaB Programme to share good practices, and experiences among UNESCO sites. The Benchmark sites window allows access to all the information of the most relevant astronomical heritage sites, dark sky protected areas and other places

  6. Yeast Metabolism of D-[U-14C]-Glucose: A Student Study of the Early Stages of Glycolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Richard L.; Harwood, Betty G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment which gives students experience with uncertainties encountered in studying metabolic pathways; handling/use of radioisotopes; application of thin layer chromatography; and liquid scintillation counting and fluorography as methods of detecting radioactivity. The experiment can be accomplished in two to three laboratory…

  7. Lipid metabolic changes in an early divergent fungus govern the establishment of a mutualistic symbiosis with endobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lastovetsky, Olga A.; Gaspar, Maria L.; Mondo, Stephen J.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Sandor, Laura; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pawlowska, Teresa E.

    2016-01-01

    The recent accumulation of newly discovered fungal–bacterial mutualisms challenges the paradigm that fungi and bacteria are natural antagonists. To understand the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance over evolutionary time of mutualisms between fungi and bacteria, we studied a symbiosis of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus (Mucoromycotina) and its Burkholderia endobacteria. We found that nonhost R. microsporus, as well as other mucoralean fungi, interact antagonistically with endobacteria derived from the host and are not invaded by them. Comparison of gene expression profiles of host and nonhost fungi during interaction with endobacteria revealed dramatic changes in expression of lipid metabolic genes in the host. Analysis of the host lipidome confirmed that symbiosis establishment was accompanied by specific changes in the fungal lipid profile. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) activity was important for these lipid metabolic changes, as its inhibition altered the fungal lipid profile and caused a shift in the host–bacterial interaction into an antagonism. We conclude that adjustments in host lipid metabolism during symbiosis establishment, mediated by DGKs, are required for the mutualistic outcome of the Rhizopus–Burkholderia symbiosis. In addition, the neutral and phospholipid profiles of R. microsporus provide important insights into lipid metabolism in an understudied group of oleaginous Mucoromycotina. Lastly, our study revealed that the DGKs involved in the symbiosis form a previously uncharacterized clade of DGK domain proteins. PMID:27956601

  8. Lipid metabolic changes in an early divergent fungus govern the establishment of a mutualistic symbiosis with endobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lastovetsky, Olga A; Gaspar, Maria L; Mondo, Stephen J; LaButti, Kurt M; Sandor, Laura; Grigoriev, Igor V; Henry, Susan A; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2016-12-27

    The recent accumulation of newly discovered fungal-bacterial mutualisms challenges the paradigm that fungi and bacteria are natural antagonists. To understand the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance over evolutionary time of mutualisms between fungi and bacteria, we studied a symbiosis of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus (Mucoromycotina) and its Burkholderia endobacteria. We found that nonhost R. microsporus, as well as other mucoralean fungi, interact antagonistically with endobacteria derived from the host and are not invaded by them. Comparison of gene expression profiles of host and nonhost fungi during interaction with endobacteria revealed dramatic changes in expression of lipid metabolic genes in the host. Analysis of the host lipidome confirmed that symbiosis establishment was accompanied by specific changes in the fungal lipid profile. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) activity was important for these lipid metabolic changes, as its inhibition altered the fungal lipid profile and caused a shift in the host-bacterial interaction into an antagonism. We conclude that adjustments in host lipid metabolism during symbiosis establishment, mediated by DGKs, are required for the mutualistic outcome of the Rhizopus-Burkholderia symbiosis. In addition, the neutral and phospholipid profiles of R. microsporus provide important insights into lipid metabolism in an understudied group of oleaginous Mucoromycotina. Lastly, our study revealed that the DGKs involved in the symbiosis form a previously uncharacterized clade of DGK domain proteins.

  9. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  10. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  11. Living microbial ecosystems within the active zone of catagenesis: Implications for feeding the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, B.; Schenk, H. J.; Zink, K.; Ondrak, R.; Dieckmann, V.; Kallmeyer, J.; Mangelsdorf, K.; di Primio, R.; Wilkes, H.; Parkes, R. J.; Fry, J.; Cragg, B.

    2006-06-01

    Earth's largest reactive carbon pool, marine sedimentary organic matter, becomes increasingly recalcitrant during burial, making it almost inaccessible as a substrate for microorganisms, and thereby limiting metabolic activity in the deep biosphere. Because elevated temperature acting over geological time leads to the massive thermal breakdown of the organic matter into volatiles, including petroleum, the question arises whether microorganisms can directly utilize these maturation products as a substrate. While migrated thermogenic fluids are known to sustain microbial consortia in shallow sediments, an in situ coupling of abiotic generation and microbial utilization has not been demonstrated. Here we show, using a combination of basin modelling, kinetic modelling, geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry, that microorganisms inhabit the active generation zone in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Three sites from ODP Leg 190 have been evaluated, namely 1173, 1174 and 1177, drilled in nearly undeformed Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary sequences seaward of the Nankai Trough itself. Paleotemperatures were reconstructed based on subsidence profiles, compaction modelling, present-day heat flow, downhole temperature measurements and organic maturity parameters. Today's heat flow distribution can be considered mainly conductive, and is extremely high in places, reaching 180 mW/m 2. The kinetic parameters describing total hydrocarbon generation, determined by laboratory pyrolysis experiments, were utilized by the model in order to predict the timing of generation in time and space. The model predicts that the onset of present day generation lies between 300 and 500 m below sea floor (5100-5300 m below mean sea level), depending on well location. In the case of Site 1174, 5-10% conversion has taken place by a present day temperature of ca. 85 °C. Predictions were largely validated by on-site hydrocarbon gas measurements. Viable organisms in the same depth range have been

  12. Qualitative properties of the minimal model of carbon circulation in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestunov, Aleksandr; Fedotov, Anatoliy; Medvedev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Substantial changes in the biosphere during recent decades have caused legitimate concern in the international community. The fact that feedbacks between the atmospheric CO2 concentration, global temperature, permafrost, ocean CO2 concentration and air humidity increases the risk of catastrophic phenomena on the planetary scale. The precautionary principle allows us to consider greenhouse effect using the mathematical models of the biosphere-climate system. Minimal models do not allow us to make a quantitative description of the "biosphere-climate" system dynamics, which is determined by the aggregate effect of the set of known climatic and biosphere processes. However, the study of such models makes it possible to understand the qualitative mechanisms of biosphere processes and to evaluate their possible consequences. The global minimal model of long-term dynamics of carbon in biosphere is considered basing on assumption that anthropogenous carbon emissions in atmosphere are absent [1]. Qualitative analysis of the model shows that there exists a set of model parameters (taken from the current estimation ranges), such that the system becomes unstable. It is also shown that external influences on the carbon circulation can lead either to degradation of the biosphere or to global temperature change [2]. This work is aimed at revealing the conditions under which the biosphere model can become unstable, which can result in catastrophic changes in the Earth's biogeocenoses. The minimal model of the biosphere-climate system describes an improbable, but, nevertheless, a possible worst-case scenario of the biosphere evolution takes into consideration only the most dangerous biosphere mechanisms and ignores some climate feedbacks (such as transpiration). This work demonstrates the possibility of implementing the trigger mode in the biosphere, which can lead to dramatic changes in the state of the biosphere even without additional burning of fossil fuels. This mode

  13. Hormone, metabolic peptide, and nutrient levels in the earliest phases of rheumatoid arthritis-contribution of free fatty acids to an increased cardiovascular risk during very early disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man Wai; Koopman, Frieda A; Visscher, Jan P M; de Hair, Maria J; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul Peter

    2017-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with changes in several hormones and metabolic peptides. Crosstalk between these factors and the immune system may be important for homeostasis during inflammation. Here, we studied the levels of hormones, metabolic peptides, and nutrients in individuals at risk for developing RA (at risk). In total, 18 hormones, metabolic peptides, and nutrients were measured in fasting serum samples from 45 autoantibody-positive individuals at risk, 22 RA patients, and 16 healthy subjects. Triglyceride (TG) levels were also measured in an independent validation cohort of 32 individuals at risk, 20 early arthritis patients, and 20 healthy controls. We found an elevated TG level in individuals at risk and significantly higher TG levels in RA patients compared to healthy controls. These results were confirmed in the validation cohort. Similarly, free fatty acid (FFA) levels showed an increase in individuals at risk and were significantly higher in RA patients compared to healthy controls. In RA patients, FFA levels were positively correlated with disease activity. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and norepinephrine levels were highly significantly increased in individuals at risk and RA patients compared to healthy controls. TG and FFA levels are increased in RA patients and positively correlated with disease activity parameters. The results presented here suggest a role for FFAs in the pathogenesis of RA. Furthermore, PP and norepinephrine may be a biomarker that could assist in the identification of individuals at risk.

  14. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index is not able to detect early metabolic alterations in young patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Stefano; Sanna, Stefania; Magnini, Roberta; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Fulghesu, Anna Maria

    2011-07-01

    To verify whether QUICKY is a suitable method for the identification of metabolic deterioration in normal weight patients affected by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Prospective clinical study. Seventy-nine PCOS normal weight adolescent subjects, 50 eumenorrheic, normal weight, non-hirsute controls matched for age and BMI. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY) and integrated secretory area under the curve of insulin values (I-AUC) during oral glucose tolerance test were calculated. Seventy-nine PCOS and 50 controls were studied. Normal insulin sensitivity was defined as upper control 95th percentile by QUICKY values <0.31, I-AUC at 180 min < 16,645. When applying the calculated I-AUC cut-off, 41 PCOS were classified as normoinsulinemic and 38 as hyperinsulinemic, whereas using the calculated QUICKY cut-off, only 19 PCOS could be classified as insulin resistant (IR). Fifteen out of the 60 non-IR PCOS presented hyperinsulinemia; fasting glucose and insulin levels and QUICKY were not sufficient to identify these subjects. Thus, QUICKY displayed a low sensitivity (44%) and specificity (91%) in the diagnosis of the metabolic disorder disclosed by I-AUC. CONCLUSIONS.: In young normal weight patients with PCOS the prevalence of early alterations of insulin metabolism are not detectable by QUICKY studies.

  15. A metabolic switch toward lipid use in glycolytic muscle is an early pathologic event in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Palamiuc, Lavinia; Schlagowski, Anna; Ngo, Shyuan T; Vernay, Aurelia; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Henriques, Alexandre; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence; Zoll, Joffrey; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; René, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common fatal motor neuron disease in adults. Numerous studies indicate that ALS is a systemic disease that affects whole body physiology and metabolic homeostasis. Using a mouse model of the disease (SOD1G86R), we investigated muscle physiology and motor behavior with respect to muscle metabolic capacity. We found that at 65 days of age, an age described as asymptomatic, SOD1G86R mice presented with improved endurance capacity associated with an early inhibition in the capacity for glycolytic muscle to use glucose as a source of energy and a switch in fuel preference toward lipids. Indeed, in glycolytic muscles we showed progressive induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression. Phosphofructokinase 1 was inhibited, and the expression of lipid handling molecules was increased. This mechanism represents a chronic pathologic alteration in muscle metabolism that is exacerbated with disease progression. Further, inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 activity with dichloroacetate delayed symptom onset while improving mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorating muscle denervation. In this study, we provide the first molecular basis for the particular sensitivity of glycolytic muscles to ALS pathology. PMID:25820275

  16. Rates and extent of microbial debromination in the deep subseafloor biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, R. D.; Solomon, E. A.; Morris, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent genomic and porewater geochemical data suggest that reductive dehalogenation of a wide range of halogenated organic compounds could represent an important energy source for deep subseafloor microbial communities. At continental slope sites worldwide, there is a remarkably linear relationship between porewater profiles of ammonium and bromide, indicating that the factors controlling the distribution and rates of dehalogenation have the potential to influence carbon and nitrogen cycling in the deep subsurface biosphere. Though this metabolic pathway could play an important role in the cycling of otherwise refractory pools of carbon and nitrogen in marine sediments and provide energy to microbial communities in the deep subsurface biosphere, the rates and extent of dehalogenation in marine sediments are poorly constrained. Here we report net reaction rate profiles of debromination activity in continental slope sediments, calculated from numerical modeling of porewater bromide profiles from several margins worldwide. The reaction rate profiles indicate three common zones of debromination activity in slope sediments: 1) low rates of debromination, and a potential bromine sink, in the upper sediment column correlating to the sulfate reduction zone, with net bromide removal rates from -3.6 x 10^-2 to -4.85 x 10^-1 μmol m^-2 yr^-1, 2) high rates of debromination from the sulfate-methane transition zone to ~40-100 mbsf, with net bromide release rates between 7.1 x 10^-2 to 3.9 x 10^-1 μmol m^-2 yr^-1, and 3) an inflection point at ~40-100 mbsf, below which net rates of debromination decrease by an order of magnitude and at several sites are indistinguishable from zero. These results indicate that dehalogenating activity is widely distributed in marine sediments, providing energy to fuel deep subseafloor microbial communities, with potentially important consequences for the global bromine and nitrogen cycles.

  17. Does Aspartic Acid Racemization Constrain the Depth Limit of the Subsurface Biosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, T C.; Magnabosco, C.; Aubrey, A. D.; Burton, A. S.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Grunsfeld, S.; Cao, B. H.; Hein, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of approximately 89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  18. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; Magnabosco, C; Aubrey, A D; Burton, A S; Dworkin, J P; Elsila, J E; Grunsfeld, S; Cao, B H; Hein, J E; Glavin, D P; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, T J; van Heerden, E; Opperman, D J; Bada, J L

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 °C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 °C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 °C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Phase-specific Geochemistry of Ni: a Tracer of Geosphere-Biosphere Co-evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciscato, E. R.; Vance, D.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Poulton, S.

    2016-12-01

    Metalloproteome analyses and culturing studies have suggested that trace metals, such as Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Zn, were selectively utilized by different organisms and specific metabolisms throughout the evolution of the biosphere. Methanogens have a particular requirement for Ni and culturing studies have shown that they fractionate Ni isotopes upon uptake. It is not clear, however, whether a resulting Ni isotopic signal can be preserved in the geological record. We have developed a new approach that enables us to analyze phase-specific authigenic trace metal enrichments, and their respective isotopic signatures, in (predominantly organic-rich) sediments from the geological record. An acid digestion step followed by high-pressure ashing allows us to separate an `organic matter + Pyrite' phase from an `HF-extractable' phase. We have applied this approach to investigate the distribution of Ni isotopes in a variety of modern sediments, including organic-rich sediments from upwelling margins and a hypersaline lagoonal setting where methanogenesis is likely to be an active process. Preliminary results on geological record samples show a δ60Ni for the `HF-extractable' phases that agrees with the average continental crust, whereas the `organic matter + Pyrite' phases are heavier and shifted in the direction of modern seawater. By combining this data with our δ60Ni dataset from modern sediments, we investigate the dynamics of Ni cycling in environments with different O2 and H2S availabilities both in the modern and throughout the past 3.2 billion years. Our phase-specific δ60Ni record is of instrumental importance in determining whether a biologically induced fractionation imparted by methanogens is indeed observable, and if it can be used as a biosignature for tracing the predominance of methanogenic pathways throughout the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere.

  20. Using observations to evaluate biosphere-atmosphere interactions in models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed H.; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions influence the hydrologic cycle by altering climate and weather patterns (Charney, 1975; Koster et al., 2006; Seneviratne et al., 2006), contributing up to 30% of precipitation and radiation variability in certain regions (Green et al., 2017). They have been shown to contribute to the persistence of drought in Europe (Seneviratne et al., 2006), as well as to increase rainfall in the Amazon (Spracklen et al., 2012). Thus, a true representation of these feedbacks in Earth System Models (ESMs) is crucial for accurate forecasting and planning. However, it has been difficult to validate the performance of ESMs since often-times surface and atmospheric flux data are scarce and/or difficult to observe. In this study, we use the results of a new global observational study (using remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence to represent the biosphere flux) (Green et al., 2017) to determine how well a suite of 13 ESMs capture biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. We perform a Conditional Multivariate Granger Causality analysis in the frequency domain with radiation, precipitation and temperature as atmospheric inputs and GPP as the biospheric input. Performing the analysis in the frequency domain allows for separation of feedbacks at different time-scales (subseasonal, seasonal or interannual). Our findings can be used to determine whether there is agreement between models, as well as, to pinpoint regions or time-scales of model bias or inaccuracy, which will provide insight on potential improvement. We demonstrate that in addition to the well-known problem of convective parameterization over land in models, the main issue in representing feedbacks between the land and the atmosphere is due to the misrepresentation of water stress. These results provide a direct quantitative assessment of feedbacks in models and how to improve them. References: Charney, J.G. Dynamics of deserts and drought in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological

  1. Kainate and metabolic perturbation mimicking spinal injury differentially contribute to early damage of locomotor networks in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Taccola, G; Margaryan, G; Mladinic, M; Nistri, A

    2008-08-13

    Acute spinal cord injury evolves rapidly to produce secondary damage even to initially spared areas. The result is loss of locomotion, rarely reversible in man. It is, therefore, important to understand the early pathophysiological processes which affect spinal locomotor networks. Regardless of their etiology, spinal lesions are believed to include combinatorial effects of excitotoxicity and severe stroke-like metabolic perturbations. To clarify the relative contribution by excitotoxicity and toxic metabolites to dysfunction of locomotor networks, spinal reflexes and intrinsic network rhythmicity, we used, as a model, the in vitro thoraco-lumbar spinal cord of the neonatal rat treated (1 h) with either kainate or a pathological medium (containing free radicals and hypoxic/aglycemic conditions), or their combination. After washout, electrophysiological responses were monitored for 24 h and cell damage analyzed histologically. Kainate suppressed fictive locomotion irreversibly, while it reversibly blocked neuronal excitability and intrinsic bursting induced by synaptic inhibition block. This result was associated with significant neuronal loss around the central canal. Combining kainate with the pathological medium evoked extensive, irreversible damage to the spinal cord. The pathological medium alone slowed down fictive locomotion and intrinsic bursting: these oscillatory patterns remained throughout without regaining their control properties. This phenomenon was associated with polysynaptic reflex depression and preferential damage to glial cells, while neurons were comparatively spared. Our model suggests distinct roles of excitotoxicity and metabolic dysfunction in the acute damage of locomotor networks, indicating that different strategies might be necessary to treat the various early components of acute spinal cord lesion.

  2. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. VISUALIZATION OF TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND METABOLISM OF BENZO[A]PYRENE IN EARLY EMBRYONIC MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are highly sensitive to exposure to persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). The factors that contribute to this are unknown, but may include the distribution of PBTs to sensitive tissues during critical stages of development. Multiphoton laser scannin...

  4. Relationships between biomarkers of cartilage, bone, synovial metabolism and knee pain provide insights into the origins of pain in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Muneaki; Watari, Taiji; Naito, Kiyohito; Kaneko, Haruka; Futami, Ippei; Yoshimura-Ishida, Kaori; Tomonaga, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Nagaoka, Isao; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Poole, Robin A; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2011-02-14

    We tested the hypothesis that there exist relationships between the onset of early stage radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis (OA), pain and changes in biomarkers of joint metabolism. Using Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grading early radiographic knee OA (K/L 2) was detected in 16 of 46 patients. These grades (K/L 1 is no OA and K/L 2 is early OA) were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of persistent knee pain. Sera (s) and urines (u) were analysed with biomarkers for cartilage collagen cleavage (sC2C and uCTX-II) and synthesis (sCPII), bone resorption (uNTx) and synovitis (hyaluronic acid: sHA). sCPII decreased and sC2C/sCPII, uCTX-II/sCPII and sHA increased with onset of OA (K/L 2 versus K/L 1) irrespective of joint pain. In contrast, sC2C and uCTX-II remained unchanged in early OA patients. Of the patients with K/L grades 1 and 2 sC2C, sCPII, sHA, uNTX and uCTX-II were all significantly increased in patients with knee pain independent of grade. Among the K/L grade 2 subjects, only uCTX-II and uCTX-II/sCPII were increased in those with knee pain. In grade 1 patients both sC2C and sCPII were increased in those with knee pain. No such grade specific changes were seen for the other biomarkers including sHA. These results suggest that changes in cartilage matrix turnover detected by molecular biomarkers may reflect early changes in cartilage structure that account directly or indirectly for knee pain. Also K/L grade 1 patients with knee pain exhibit biomarker features of early OA.

  5. Early effects of Lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets on intragastric pH in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hatsushi; Koike, Tomoyuki; Ohara, Shuichi; Horii, Toru; Kikuchi, Ryousuke; Kobayashi, Shigeyuki; Abe, Yasuhiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Imatani, Akira; Suzuki, Kaori; Hishinuma, Takanori; Goto, Junichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare rabeprazole (RPZ; 10 mg) with Lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets (LPZ; 30 mg OD) in terms of antisecretory activity and blood drug concentration after a single dose. METHODS: Eight H pylori-negative cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 extensive metabolizers were assigned to receive a single oral dose of RPZ 10 mg or LPZ 30 mg OD. Twelve hour intragastric pH monitoring was performed on the day of treatment. Blood samples were also collected after the administration of each drug. RESULTS: LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly earlier rise in blood drug concentration than RPZ 10 mg; consequently, LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly earlier rise in median pH in the third and fourth hours of the study. CONCLUSION: In H pylori-negative CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers, LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly faster inhibition of gastric acid secretion than RPZ 10 mg. PMID:18395905

  6. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  7. Interactions in the Geo-Biosphere: Processes of Carbonate Precipitation in Microbial Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, C.; Visscher, P. T.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial communities are situated at the interface between the biosphere, the lithosphere and the hydrosphere. These microbes are key players in the global carbon cycle, where they influence the balance between the organic and inorganic carbon reservoirs. Microbial populations can be organized in microbial mats, which can be defined as organosedimentary biofilms that are dominated by cyanobacteria, and exhibit tight coupling of element cycles. Complex interactions between mat microbes and their surrounding environment can result in the precipitation of carbonate minerals. This process refers as ‘organomineralization sensu lato' (Dupraz et al. in press), which differs from ‘biomineralization’ (e.g., in shells and bones) by lacking genetic control on the mineral product. Organomineralization can be: (1) active, when microbial metabolic reactions are responsible for the precipitation (“biologically-induced” mineralization) or (2) passive, when mineralization within a microbial organic matrix is environmentally driven (e.g., through degassing or desiccation) (“biologically-influenced” mineralization). Studying microbe-mineral interactions is essential to many emerging fields of the biogeoscience, such as the study of life in extreme environments (e.g, deep biosphere), the origin of life, the search for traces of extraterrestrial life or the seek of new carbon sink. This research approach combines sedimentology, biogeochemistry and microbiology. Two tightly coupled components that control carbonate organomineralization s.l.: (1) the alkalinity engine and (2) the extracellular organic matter (EOM), which is ultimately the location of mineral nucleation. Carbonate alkalinity can be altered both by microbial metabolism and environmental factors. In microbial mats, the net accumulation of carbonate minerals often reflect the balance between metabolic activities that consume/produce CO2 and/or organic acids. For example, photosynthesis and sulfate reduction

  8. Changes in the Phosphoproteome and Metabolome Link Early Signaling Events to Rearrangement of Photosynthesis and Central Metabolism in Salinity and Oxidative Stress Response in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanmei; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Salinity and oxidative stress are major factors affecting and limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The molecular and biochemical processes governing the plant response to abiotic stress have often been researched in a reductionist manner. Here, we report a systemic approach combining metabolic labeling and phosphoproteomics to capture early signaling events with quantitative metabolome analysis and enzyme activity assays to determine the effects of salt and oxidative stress on plant physiology. K+ and Na+ transporters showed coordinated changes in their phosphorylation pattern, indicating the importance of dynamic ion homeostasis for adaptation to salt stress. Unique phosphorylation sites were found for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SNF1 kinase homolog10 and 11, indicating their central roles in the stress-regulated responses. Seven Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinase2 kinases showed varying levels of phosphorylation at multiple serine/threonine residues in their kinase domain upon stress, showing temporally distinct modulation of the various isoforms. Salinity and oxidative stress also lead to changes in protein phosphorylation of proteins central to photosynthesis, in particular the kinase State Transition Protein7 required for state transition and light-harvesting II complex proteins. Furthermore, stress-induced changes of the phosphorylation of enzymes of central metabolism were observed. The phosphorylation patterns of these proteins were concurrent with changes in enzyme activity. This was reflected by altered levels of metabolites, such as the sugars sucrose and fructose, glycolysis intermediates, and amino acids. Together, our study provides evidence for a link between early signaling in the salt and oxidative stress response that regulates the state transition of photosynthesis and the rearrangement of primary metabolism. PMID:26471895

  9. Planteose as a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of Orobanche minor and its metabolism as a possible target for selective control.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Takatoshi; Joseph, Benesh; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Harada, Kazuo; Muranaka, Satoru; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae cause serious damage to worldwide agriculture. Germination of the parasites requires host-derived germination stimulants, such as strigolactones, as indicators of host roots within reach of the parasite's radicles. This unique germination process was focused on to identify metabolic pathways required for germination, and to design a selective control strategy. A metabolomic analysis of germinating seeds of clover broomrape, Orobanche minor, was conducted to identify its distinctive metabolites. Consequently, a galactosyl-sucrose trisaccharide, planteose (α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-d-glucopyranoside), was identified as a metabolite that decreased promptly after reception of the germination stimulant. To investigate the importance of planteose metabolism, the effects of several glycosidase inhibitors were examined, and nojirimycin bisulfite (NJ) was found to alter the sugar metabolism and to selectively inhibit the germination of O. minor. Planteose consumption was similar in NJ-treated seeds and non-treated germinating seeds; however, NJ-treated seeds showed lower consumption of sucrose, a possible intermediate of planteose metabolism, resulting in significantly less glucose and fructose. This inhibitory effect was recovered by adding glucose. These results suggest that planteose is a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of O. minor, and NJ inhibits germination by blocking the supply of essential glucose from planteose and sucrose. Additionally, NJ selectively inhibited radicle elongation of germinated seeds of Orobanchaceae plants (Striga hermonthica and Phtheirospermum japonicum). Thus, NJ will be a promising tool to develop specific herbicides to the parasites, especially broomrapes, and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this unique germination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental

  10. Planteose as a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of Orobanche minor and its metabolism as a possible target for selective control

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Takatoshi; Joseph, Benesh; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Harada, Kazuo; Muranaka, Satoru; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae cause serious damage to worldwide agriculture. Germination of the parasites requires host-derived germination stimulants, such as strigolactones, as indicators of host roots within reach of the parasite’s radicles. This unique germination process was focused on to identify metabolic pathways required for germination, and to design a selective control strategy. A metabolomic analysis of germinating seeds of clover broomrape, Orobanche minor, was conducted to identify its distinctive metabolites. Consequently, a galactosyl-sucrose trisaccharide, planteose (α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-d-glucopyranoside), was identified as a metabolite that decreased promptly after reception of the germination stimulant. To investigate the importance of planteose metabolism, the effects of several glycosidase inhibitors were examined, and nojirimycin bisulfite (NJ) was found to alter the sugar metabolism and to selectively inhibit the germination of O. minor. Planteose consumption was similar in NJ-treated seeds and non-treated germinating seeds; however, NJ-treated seeds showed lower consumption of sucrose, a possible intermediate of planteose metabolism, resulting in significantly less glucose and fructose. This inhibitory effect was recovered by adding glucose. These results suggest that planteose is a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of O. minor, and NJ inhibits germination by blocking the supply of essential glucose from planteose and sucrose. Additionally, NJ selectively inhibited radicle elongation of germinated seeds of Orobanchaceae plants (Striga hermonthica and Phtheirospermum japonicum). Thus, NJ will be a promising tool to develop specific herbicides to the parasites, especially broomrapes, and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this unique germination. PMID:25821071

  11. Plumes and Earth's Dynamic History : from Core to Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V. E.

    2002-12-01

    The last half century has been dominated by the general acceptance of plate tectonics. Although the plume concept emerged early in this story, its role has remained ambiguous. Because plumes are singularities, both in space and time, they tend to lie dangerously close to catastrophism, as opposed to the calm uniformitarian view of plate tectonics. Yet, it has become apparent that singular events and transient phenomena are of great importance, even if by definition they cover only a small fraction of geological time, in diverse observational and theoretical fields such as 1) magnetic reversals and the geodynamo, 2) tomography and mantle convection, 3) continental rifting and collision, and 4) evolution of the fluid envelopes (atmospheric and oceanic "climate"; evolution of species in the biosphere). I will emphasize recent work on different types of plumes and on the correlation between flood basalts and mass extinctions. The origin of mantle plumes remains a controversial topic. We suggest that three types of plumes exist, which originate at the three main discontinuities in the Earth's mantle (base of lithosphere, transition zone and core-mantle boundary). Most of the hotspots are short lived (~ 10Ma) and seem to come from the transition zone or above. Important concentrations occur above the Pacific and African superswells. Less than 10 hotspots have been long lived (~ 100Ma) and may have a very deep origin. In the last 50 Ma, these deep-seated plumes in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres have moved slowly, but motion was much faster prior to that. This change correlates with major episodes of true polar wander. The deeper ("primary") plumes are thought to trace global shifts in quadrupolar convection in the lower mantle. These are the plumes that were born as major flood basalts or oceanic plateaus (designated as large igneous provinces or LIPs). Most have an original volume on the order or in excess of 2.5 Mkm3. In most provinces, volcanism lasted on

  12. [Metabolic acidosis].

    PubMed

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fani, Filippo; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Cremaschi, Elena; Greco, Paolo; Parenti, Elisabetta; Morabito, Santo; Sabatino, Alice; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is frequently observed in clinical practice, especially among critically ill patients and/or in the course of renal failure. Complex mechanisms are involved, in most cases identifiable by medical history, pathophysiology-based diagnostic reasoning and measure of some key acid-base parameters that are easily available or calculable. On this basis the bedside differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis should be started from the identification of the two main subtypes of metabolic acidosis: the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and the normal anion gap (or hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, especially in its acute forms with elevated anion gap such as is the case of lactic acidosis, diabetic and acute intoxications, may significantly affect metabolic body homeostasis and patients hemodynamic status, setting the stage for true medical emergencies. The therapeutic approach should be first aimed at early correction of concurrent clinical problems (e.g. fluids and hemodynamic optimization in case of shock, mechanical ventilation in case of concomitant respiratory failure, hemodialysis for acute intoxications etc.), in parallel to the formulation of a diagnosis. In case of severe acidosis, the administration of alkalizing agents should be carefully evaluated, taking into account the risk of side effects, as well as the potential need of renal replacement therapy.

  13. Early-Life Exposure to Antibiotics, Alterations in the Intestinal Microbiome, and Risk of Metabolic Disease in Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Yallapragada, Sushmita G; Nash, Colleen B; Robinson, Daniel T

    2015-11-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms that colonize the human gastrointestinal tract. The microbiome evolves rapidly in early life with contributions from diet, genetics and immunomodulatory factors. Changes in composition of the microbiota due to antibiotics may lead to negative long-term effects including obesity and diabetes mellitus, as evidenced by both animal and large human studies. Inappropriate exposures to antibiotics occur frequently in early childhood. Therefore, an evidence-based system of antimicrobial use should be employed by all providers, especially those who care for pediatric patients. This article explores the natural evolution of the intestinal microbiome from the perinatal period into early childhood, the effect of antibiotics on the microbial ecology, and the implications for future health and disease. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Proteomics and metabolomics characterizing the pathophysiology of adaptive reactions to the metabolic challenges during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Lecchi, Cristina; Urh, Christiane; Sauerwein, Helga

    2018-04-30

    The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes. Proteomics and metabolomics have emerged as valuable techniques to characterize proteins and metabolite assets from tissue and biological fluids, such as milk, blood and urine. In this review we provide an overview on metabolic status and physiological changes during the transition period and the related production diseases in dairy cows, and summarize the state of art on proteomics and metabolomics of biological fluids and tissues involved in metabolic stress during the peripartum period. We also provide a current and prospective view of the application of the recent achievements generated by omics for biomarker discovery and their potential in diagnosis. For high-yielding dairy cows there are several "occupational diseases" that occur mainly during the metabolic challenges related to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Such diseases and their sequelae form a major concern for dairy production, and often lead to early culling of animals. Beside the economical perspective, metabolic stress may severely influence animal welfare. There is a multitude of studies about the metabolic backgrounds of such so called production diseases like ketosis, fatty liver, or hypocalcaemia, although the investigations aiming to assess the complexity of the pathophysiological reactions are largely focused on gene

  15. [The ways in which variations in space and atmospheric factors act upon the biosphere and humans].

    PubMed

    Chernogor, L F

    2010-01-01

    The system analysis is validated to be an efficient means for studying the channels through which variations in space and tropospheric weather affect the biosphere (humans). The basics of the system analysis paradigm are presented. The causes of variations in space and tropospheric weather are determined, and the interrelations between them are demonstrated. The ways in which these variations affect the biosphere (humans) are discussed. Aperiodic and quasi-periodic disturbances in the physical fields that influence the biosphere (humans) are intercompared.

  16. Metabolic Profile in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Offspring Adiposity at 4 Years of Age: The Rhea Pregnancy Cohort Crete, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Daraki, Vasiliki; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Papavasiliou, Stathis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Karahaliou, Marianna; Koinaki, Stella; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2015-01-01

    Context Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may increase the risk of childhood obesity but it is unknown whether other metabolic factors in early pregnancy such as lipid profile and hypertension are associated with offspring cardiometabolic traits. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether fasting lipid, glucose, and insulin levels during early pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy weight status, are associated with offspring adiposity measures, lipid levels and blood pressure at preschool age. Design and Methods The study included 618 mother-child pairs of the pregnancy cohort “Rhea” study in Crete, Greece. Pregnant women were recruited at the first prenatal visit (mean: 12weeks, SD: 0.7). A subset of 348 women provided fasting serum samples for glucose and lipid measurements. Outcomes measures were body mass index, abdominal circumference, sum of skinfold thickness, and blood pressure measurements at 4 years of age. A subsample of 525 children provided non-fasting blood samples for lipid measurements. Results Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with greater risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.81), central adiposity (RR: 1.97, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.49), and greater fat mass by 5.10mm (95%CI: 2.49, 7.71) at 4 years of age. These associations were more pronounced in girls. An increase of 40mg/dl in fasting serum cholesterol levels in early pregnancy was associated with greater skinfold thickness by 3.30mm (95%CI: 1.41, 5.20) at 4 years of age after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. An increase of 10mmHg in diastolic blood pressure in early pregnancy was associated with increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.45), and greater skinfold thickness by 1.71mm (95% CI: 0.57, 2.86) at 4 years of age. Conclusions Metabolic dysregulation in early pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity at preschool age. PMID:25970502

  17. Maternal N-Carbamylglutamate Supply during Early Pregnancy Enhanced Pregnancy Outcomes in Sows through Modulations of Targeted Genes and Metabolism Pathways.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shuang; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Ye, Qianhong; Ye, Changchuan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2018-06-13

    Reducing pregnancy loss is important for improving reproductive efficiency for both human and mammalian animals. Our previous study demonstrates that maternal N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supply during early pregnancy enhances embryonic survival in gilts. However, whether maternal NCG supply improves the pregnancy outcomes is still not known. Here we found maternal NCG supply during early pregnancy in sows significantly increased the numbers of total piglets born alive per litter ( P < 0.05) and significantly changed the levels of metabolites in amniotic fluid and serum involved in metabolism of energy, lipid, and glutathione and immunological regulation. The expression of endometrial progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) was significantly increased by NCG supplementation ( P < 0.05) as well as the expression of PGRMC1, endothelial nitric oxide synthesases (eNOS), and lamin A/C in fetuses and placentae ( P < 0.05). Among the NCG-associated amino acids, arginine and glutamine, markedly increased PGRMC1 and eNOS expression in porcine trophectoderm cells ( P < 0.05), whereas glutamate could stimulate the expression of vimentin and lamin A/C in porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells ( P < 0.05) and proline stimulated lamin A/C expression ( P < 0.05). Collectively, these data reveal the mechanisms of NCG in reducing early embryo loss. These findings have important implications that NCG has great potential to improve pregnancy outcomes in human and mammalian animals.

  18. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Oría, Reinaldo B.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Moore, Sean R.; Luna, Max A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the developmental origins of health and disease postulate that developing fetuses–and potentially young children—undergo adaptive epigenetic changes with longstanding effects on metabolism and other processes. Ongoing research explores whether these adaptations occur during early life following malnutrition. In the developing world there remains a high degree of nutritional stunting—linear growth failure due to inadequate calories that may be exacerbated by inflammation from ongoing infections. In areas with poor sanitation children experience vicious cycles of enteric infections and malnutrition, resulting in poor nutrient absorption from intestinal mucosa changes now termed “environmental enteropathy.” Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with increased CVD risk factors in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. The mechanisms for these associations remain poorly understood and may relate to epigenetic responses to poor nutrition, increased inflammation or both. Given increases in CVD in developing areas of the world, associations between childhood malnutrition, early life infections and increased CVD risk factors underscore further reasons to improve nutrition and infection-related outcomes for young children worldwide. PMID:23110643

  19. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein Exhibit Early Metabolic Deficits and a Pathologically Low Leptin State Associated with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Arcuate Neuropeptide Y Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Makoto; Wang, Gang; Racchumi, Gianfranco; Dyke, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is a prominent early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that often precedes the cognitive decline and clinical diagnosis. While the exact pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain is thought to lead to the neuronal dysfunction and death underlying the dementia. In this study, we examined whether transgenic mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of APP (Tg2576), recapitulating selected features of AD, have hypothalamic leptin signaling dysfunction leading to early body weight deficits. We found that 3-month-old Tg2576 mice, before amyloid plaque formation, exhibit decreased weight with markedly decreased adiposity, low plasma leptin levels, and increased energy expenditure without alterations in feeding behavior. The expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus to the low leptin state was abnormal at basal and fasting conditions. In addition, arcuate NPY neurons exhibited abnormal electrophysiological responses to leptin in Tg2576 hypothalamic slices or wild-type slices treated with Aβ. Finally, the metabolic deficits worsened as Tg2576 mice aged and amyloid burden increased in the brain. These results indicate that excess Aβ can potentially disrupt hypothalamic arcuate NPY neurons leading to weight loss and a pathologically low leptin state early in the disease process that progressively worsens as the amyloid burden increases. Collectively, these findings suggest that weight loss is an intrinsic pathological feature of Aβ accumulation and identify hypothalamic leptin signaling as a previously unrecognized pathogenic site of action for Aβ. PMID:24990930

  20. Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded Early Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic Events under Chilling Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded early rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events of direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded early rice in double rice cropping system.

  1. Distinguishing between the permeability relationships with absorption and metabolism to improve BCS and BDDCS predictions in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Larregieu, Caroline A; Benet, Leslie Z

    2014-04-07

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biopharmaceutics drug distribution classification system (BDDCS) are complementary classification systems that can improve, simplify, and accelerate drug discovery, development, and regulatory processes. Drug permeability has been widely accepted as a screening tool for determining intestinal absorption via the BCS during the drug development and regulatory approval processes. Currently, predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a known challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. The BDDCS, a modification of BCS that utilizes drug metabolism instead of intestinal permeability, predicts drug disposition and potential drug-drug interactions in the intestine, the liver, and most recently the brain. Although correlations between BCS and BDDCS have been observed with drug permeability rates, discrepancies have been noted in drug classifications between the two systems utilizing different permeability models, which are accepted as surrogate models for demonstrating human intestinal permeability by the FDA. Here, we recommend the most applicable permeability models for improving the prediction of BCS and BDDCS classifications. We demonstrate that the passive transcellular permeability rate, characterized by means of permeability models that are deficient in transporter expression and paracellular junctions (e.g., PAMPA and Caco-2), will most accurately predict BDDCS metabolism. These systems will inaccurately predict BCS classifications for drugs that particularly are substrates of highly expressed intestinal transporters. Moreover, in this latter case, a system more representative of complete human intestinal permeability is needed to accurately predict BCS absorption.

  2. Distinguishing between the Permeability Relationships with Absorption and Metabolism To Improve BCS and BDDCS Predictions in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biopharmaceutics drug distribution classification system (BDDCS) are complementary classification systems that can improve, simplify, and accelerate drug discovery, development, and regulatory processes. Drug permeability has been widely accepted as a screening tool for determining intestinal absorption via the BCS during the drug development and regulatory approval processes. Currently, predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a known challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. The BDDCS, a modification of BCS that utilizes drug metabolism instead of intestinal permeability, predicts drug disposition and potential drug–drug interactions in the intestine, the liver, and most recently the brain. Although correlations between BCS and BDDCS have been observed with drug permeability rates, discrepancies have been noted in drug classifications between the two systems utilizing different permeability models, which are accepted as surrogate models for demonstrating human intestinal permeability by the FDA. Here, we recommend the most applicable permeability models for improving the prediction of BCS and BDDCS classifications. We demonstrate that the passive transcellular permeability rate, characterized by means of permeability models that are deficient in transporter expression and paracellular junctions (e.g., PAMPA and Caco-2), will most accurately predict BDDCS metabolism. These systems will inaccurately predict BCS classifications for drugs that particularly are substrates of highly expressed intestinal transporters. Moreover, in this latter case, a system more representative of complete human intestinal permeability is needed to accurately predict BCS absorption. PMID:24628254

  3. Estimating the seasonal carbon source-sink geography of a natural, steady-state terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, Elgene O.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the seasonal dynamics of biospheric-carbon sources and sinks to be used as an input to global atmospheric CO2 studies and models is discussed. An ecological biosphere model is given and the advantages of the model are examined. Monthly maps of estimated biospheric carbon source and sink regions and estimates of total carbon fluxes are presented for an equilibrium terrestrial biosphere. The results are compared with those from other models. It is suggested that, despite maximum variations of atmospheric CO2 in boreal latitudes, the enormous contributions of tropical wet-dry regions to global atmospheric CO2 seasonality can not be ignored.

  4. Terrestrial Biosphere Dynamics in the Climate System: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J.; Whitlock, C.; Huntley, B.

    2002-12-01

    The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that climate change as large as is likely to occur in the next two centuries will drive change in the terrestrial biosphere that is both large and difficult to predict, or plan for. Many species, communities and ecosystems could experience rates of climate change, and "destination climates" that are unprecedented in their time on earth. The paleorecord also makes it clear that a wide range of possible climate system behavior, such as decades-long droughts, increases in large storm and flood frequency, and rapid sea level rise, all occurred repeatedly in the past, and for poorly understood reasons. These types of events, if they were to reoccur in the future, could have especially devastating impacts on biodiversity, both because their timing and spatial extent cannot be anticipated, and because the biota's natural defenses have been compromised by land-use, reductions in genetic flexibility, pollution, excess water utilization, invasive species, and other human influences. Vegetation disturbance (e.g., by disease, pests and fire) will undoubtedly be exacerbated by climate change (stress), but could also speed the rate at which terrestrial biosphere change takes place in the future. The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that major scientific challenges include an improved ability to model regional biospheric change, both past and future. This in turn will be a prerequisite to obtaining realistic estimates of future biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks, and thus to obtaining better assessments of future climate change. These steps will help generate the improved understanding of climate variability that is needed to manage global biodiversity. However, the most troubling message from the paleoenvironmental record is that unchecked anthropogenic climate change could make the Earth's 6th major mass extinction unavoidable.

  5. The biosphere as a driver of global atmospheric change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the biosphere on the evolution of atmospheric oxygen and ozone, and the consequences of that development for global atmospheric change, are discussed. Attention is given to the impact of oxygen and ozone on atmospheric photolysis rates, the effect of oxygen on the biogenic production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide, and the effects of the evolution of atmospheric oxygen on fires and biomass burning. The influence of the latter on atmospheric processes, particularly the production of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, is considered.

  6. Tracing the microbial biosphere into the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalicchio, Marcello; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Birgel, Daniel; Lozar, Francesca; Peckmann, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), one of the largest environmental crises in Earth history, occurred in the Mediterranean Basin about 6 Ma ago. The isolation of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean caused the transformation of the Mediterranean sea into a giant salina. The establishment of harsh conditions (hypersalinity and anoxia) in the water mass had a strong impact on the aquatic biosphere, resulting in the apparent disappearance of many marine biota. This aspect is however controversial, mostly because of the finding of fossils of biota that actually survived the onset of the MSC. To trace the response of life to this catastrophic event, we studied the microbial biosphere (both body fossils and molecular fossils) archived in the sediments straddling the MSC onset (shales, carbonates and sulphates) from marginal subbasins (Piedmont Basin, northern Italy, and Nijar Basin, southern Spain). Despite the significant reduction of calcareous plankton, the progressive rise of other microorganisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) is documented in the studied sediments at the MSC onset. These microorganisms include remains of euryhaline and stenohaline diatoms and filamentous microfossils interpreted as vacuolated sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. This fossil assemblage, which typifies both marginal (gypsum) and more distal (carbonates and shale) deposits, indicates conditions of high primary productivity in the surface waters, favoured by increased nutrient influx in the course of high riverine runoff. Molecular fossils allow tracing of the microbial biosphere into the geological past. The rise of algal compounds (e.g. dinosterol) in the basal MSC deposits (gypsum, carbonate and shales), accompanied by the simultaneous increase of terrigenous organic material (n-alkanes), agree with the eutrophication of the basin. In addition, the MSC deposits show an instant and significant increase of archaeal biomarkers, including the archaeal membrane lipids archaeol and extended

  7. What are the Outstanding Questions in Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katul, G.; Finnigan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Our answer to this question has three parts. At the highest level human population is now so large (and will grow to 10-12 million by 2050 before stabilizing and reversing) and our capacity to influence the biosphere is so profound that we must now treat human, biophysical and geophysical processes as a single interacting system: the Anthroposphere. The Anthroposphere is a complex adaptive system (CAS) in the sense that action of humans individually or in groups (as large as nations) are a response to an environment that includes not just the geosphere and biosphere but the sum of human interactions as well. These actions, in turn, will change this system that provides critical ecosystem services that we are just now realizing are finite and threatened. At present we lack the tools and understanding even to frame key questions about the Anthroposphere although the emerging discipline of Complex System Science is hinting at ways this might be done. At the next level we address the problems posed by cross-scale interactions central to the state and function of the geosphere and biosphere, where processes at the cellular level, (e.g. photosynthesis and respiration), have consequences on the global level and vice-versa through a sequence of non-linear upscale and downscale interactions. Currently there are large gaps in our understanding of this scale cascade that inhibit our ability to parameterize, model and predict phenomena such as the rapid shifts in climate that recent studies of the paleo record have revealed. In short, we need to quantify the risk that our current actions may cause abrupt climate changes that may then feed upon the Anthrosphere. Unless we can reduce the uncertainty with which we describe quantitatively the non-human parts of the Anthroposphere, the injection of models of human interaction, initially tentative, may reduce our predictive ability to unusable levels. Finally we can detail a set of key processes that are themselves critical to

  8. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  9. Geological Setting of Diamond Drilling for the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) is a collaborative international research project conducting systematic (bio)geochemical investigations to improve our understanding of the biosphere of the early Earth. The Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, which includes exceptionally well preserved 3.52 to 2.70 Ga sedimentary sequences, was selected for an innovative sampling program commencing in 2003. To avoid near-surface alteration and contamination effects, sampling was by diamond drilling to depths of between 150 and 300 m, and was located at sites where the target lithologies were least deformed and had lowest metamorphic grade (below 300°C). The first of five successful drilling sites (Jasper Deposit) targeted red, white and black chert in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member. This chert marks the top of a thick mafic-felsic volcanic cycle, the third of four such cycles formed by mantle plumes between 3.52 and 3.43 Ga. The geological setting was a volcanic plateau founded on 3.72 to 3.60 Ga sialic crust (isotopic evidence). The second hole (Salgash) was sited on the basal section of the fourth cycle, and sampled sulfidic (Cu-Zn-Fe), carbon-rich shale and sandstone units separated by flows of peridotite. The third hole (Eastern Creek) was sited on the margin of a moderately deep-water rift basin, the 2.95 to 2.91 Ga Mosquito Creek Basin. This is dominated by turbidites, but the sandstones and carbon-rich shales intersected at the drilling site were deposited in shallower water. The fourth and fifth holes, located 300 km apart, sampled 2.77 to 2.76 Ga continental formations of the Fortescue Group; both holes included black shales.

  10. High-pressure hydrogen respiration in hydrothermal vent samples from the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan-Smith, D.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Cultivation of organisms from the deep biosphere has met with many challenges, chief among them the ability to replicate this extreme environment in a laboratory setting. The maintenance of in situ pressure levels, carbon sources, and gas concentrations are important, intertwined factors which may all affect the growth of subsurface microorganisms. Hydrogen in particular is of great importance in hydrothermal systems, but in situ hydrogen concentrations are largely disregarded in attempts to culture from these sites. Using modified Hungate-type culture tubes (Bowles et al. 2011) within pressure-retaining vessels, which allow for the dissolution of higher concentrations of gas than is possible with other culturing methods, we have incubated hydrothermal chimney and hydrothermally-altered rock samples from the Lost City and Mid-Cayman Rise hydrothermal vent fields. Hydrogen concentrations up to 15 mmol/kg have been reported from Lost City (Kelley et al. 2005), but data are not yet available from the recently-discovered Mid-Cayman site, and the elevated concentration of 30 mmol/kg is being used in all incubations. We are using a variety of media types to enrich for various metabolic pathways including iron and sulfur reduction under anoxic or microaerophilic conditions. Incubations are being carried out at atmospheric (0.1 MPa), in situ (9, 23, or 50 MPa, depending on site), and elevated (50 MPa) pressure levels. Microbial cell concentrations, taxonomic diversity, and metabolic activities are being monitored during the course of these experiments. These experiments will provide insight into the relationships between microbial activities, pressure, and gas concentrations typical of deep biosphere environments. Results will inform further culturing studies from both fresh and archived samples. References cited: Bowles, M.W., Samarkin, V.A., Joye, S.B. 2011. Improved measurement of microbial activity in deep-sea sediments at in situ pressure and methane concentration

  11. Paternal poly (ADP-ribose) metabolism modulates retention of inheritable sperm histones and early embryonic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Motomasa; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L; Leu, N Adrian; Rao, Shilpa; Li, Fan; Gregory, Brian D; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Schultz, Richard M; Meyer, Ralph G

    2014-05-01

    To achieve the extreme nuclear condensation necessary for sperm function, most histones are replaced with protamines during spermiogenesis in mammals. Mature sperm retain only a small fraction of nucleosomes, which are, in part, enriched on gene regulatory sequences, and recent findings suggest that these retained histones provide epigenetic information that regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in embryo development after fertilization. We addressed this tantalizing hypothesis by analyzing two mouse models exhibiting abnormal histone positioning in mature sperm due to impaired poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism during spermiogenesis and identified altered sperm histone retention in specific gene loci genome-wide using MNase digestion-based enrichment of mononucleosomal DNA. We then set out to determine the extent to which expression of these genes was altered in embryos generated with these sperm. For control sperm, most genes showed some degree of histone association, unexpectedly suggesting that histone retention in sperm genes is not an all-or-none phenomenon and that a small number of histones may remain associated with genes throughout the genome. The amount of retained histones, however, was altered in many loci when PAR metabolism was impaired. To ascertain whether sperm histone association and embryonic gene expression are linked, the transcriptome of individual 2-cell embryos derived from such sperm was determined using microarrays and RNA sequencing. Strikingly, a moderate but statistically significant portion of the genes that were differentially expressed in these embryos also showed different histone retention in the corresponding gene loci in sperm of their fathers. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of a linkage between sperm histone retention and gene expression in the embryo.

  12. Paternal Poly (ADP-ribose) Metabolism Modulates Retention of Inheritable Sperm Histones and Early Embryonic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Leu, N. Adrian; Rao, Shilpa; Li, Fan; Gregory, Brian D.; Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Schultz, Richard M.; Meyer, Ralph G.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the extreme nuclear condensation necessary for sperm function, most histones are replaced with protamines during spermiogenesis in mammals. Mature sperm retain only a small fraction of nucleosomes, which are, in part, enriched on gene regulatory sequences, and recent findings suggest that these retained histones provide epigenetic information that regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in embryo development after fertilization. We addressed this tantalizing hypothesis by analyzing two mouse models exhibiting abnormal histone positioning in mature sperm due to impaired poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism during spermiogenesis and identified altered sperm histone retention in specific gene loci genome-wide using MNase digestion-based enrichment of mononucleosomal DNA. We then set out to determine the extent to which expression of these genes was altered in embryos generated with these sperm. For control sperm, most genes showed some degree of histone association, unexpectedly suggesting that histone retention in sperm genes is not an all-or-none phenomenon and that a small number of histones may remain associated with genes throughout the genome. The amount of retained histones, however, was altered in many loci when PAR metabolism was impaired. To ascertain whether sperm histone association and embryonic gene expression are linked, the transcriptome of individual 2-cell embryos derived from such sperm was determined using microarrays and RNA sequencing. Strikingly, a moderate but statistically significant portion of the genes that were differentially expressed in these embryos also showed different histone retention in the corresponding gene loci in sperm of their fathers. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of a linkage between sperm histone retention and gene expression in the embryo. PMID:24810616

  13. Increased plasma FGF21 level as an early biomarker for insulin resistance and metabolic disturbance in obese insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Tanajak, Pongpan; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2018-05-01

    Propose: To investigate the temporal relationship between plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels, insulin resistance, metabolic dysfunction and cardiac fibroblast growth factor 21 resistance in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats. In total, 36 male Wistar rats were fed with either a normal diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Blood was collected from the tail tip, and plasma was used to determine metabolic profiles and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels. Rats were sacrificed at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and the hearts were rapidly removed for the determination of cardiac fibroblast growth factor 21 signalling pathways. Body weight and plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels were increased after 4 weeks of consumption of a high-fat diet. At weeks 8 and 12, high-fat diet rats had significantly increased body weight and plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels, together with increased plasma insulin, HOMA index, area under the curve of glucose, plasma total cholesterol, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum malondialdehyde and cardiac malondialdehyde levels. However, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and cardiac fibroblast growth factor 21 signalling proteins (p-FGFR1 Tyr 154 , p-ERK1/2 Thr 202 /Tyr 204 and p-Akt Ser 473 ) were decreased, compared with normal diet rats. These findings suggest that plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 levels could be an early predictive biomarker prior to the development of insulin resistance, metabolic disturbance and cardiac fibroblast growth factor 21 resistance.

  14. An improved land biosphere module for use in the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.1) with application to the last glacial termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, Roland; Shaffer, Gary; Albarrán, Nelson; Rojas, Maisa; Lambert, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between the land biosphere and the atmosphere play an important role for the Earth's carbon cycle and thus should be considered in studies of global carbon cycling and climate. Simple approaches are a useful first step in this direction but may not be applicable for certain climatic conditions. To improve the ability of the reduced-complexity Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS) Earth system model DCESS to address cold climate conditions, we reformulated the model's land biosphere module by extending it to include three dynamically varying vegetation zones as well as a permafrost component. The vegetation zones are formulated by emulating the behaviour of a complex land biosphere model. We show that with the new module, the size and timing of carbon exchanges between atmosphere and land are represented more realistically in cooling and warming experiments. In particular, we use the new module to address carbon cycling and climate change across the last glacial transition. Within the constraints provided by various proxy data records, we tune the DCESS model to a Last Glacial Maximum state and then conduct transient sensitivity experiments across the transition under the application of explicit transition functions for high-latitude ocean exchange, atmospheric dust, and the land ice sheet extent. We compare simulated time evolutions of global mean temperature, pCO2, atmospheric and oceanic carbon isotopes as well as ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations with proxy data records. In this way we estimate the importance of different processes across the transition with emphasis on the role of land biosphere variations and show that carbon outgassing from permafrost and uptake of carbon by the land biosphere broadly compensate for each other during the temperature rise of the early last deglaciation.

  15. Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and early postnatal growth in sheep differentially reset the control of energy metabolism in the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sebert, S P; Dellschaft, N S; Chan, L L Y; Street, H; Henry, M; Francois, C; Sharma, V; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Roda, J; Keisler, D; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

    2011-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.

  16. The early life nutritional environment and early life stress as potential pathways towards the metabolic syndrome in mid-life? A lifecourse analysis using the 1958 British Birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Delpierre, C; Fantin, R; Barboza-Solis, C; Lepage, B; Darnaudéry, M; Kelly-Irving, M

    2016-08-18

    Lifecourse studies suggest that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be rooted in the early life environment. This study aims to examine the pathways linking early nutritional and psychosocial exposures and the presence of MetS in midlife. Data are from the National Child Development Study including individuals born during 1 week in 1958 in Great Britain and followed-up until now. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy of the early nutritional environment and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) as a proxy for early psychosocial stress. Socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions were extracted as potential confounders. Adult health behaviors, BMI, socioeconomic environment and psychological state were considered as mediating variables. Multivariate models were performed by including variables sequentially taking a lifecourse approach. 37.5 % of men and 19.8 % of women had MetS. Participants with an obese/overweight mother presented a higher risk of MetS than those whose mother had a normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Men exposed to two ACE or more, and women exposed to one ACE, were more at risk of MetS compared to unexposed individuals. After including confounders and mediators, mother's pre-pregnancy BMI was still associated with MetS in midlife but the association was weakened after including participant's adult BMI. ACE was no longer associated with MetS after including confounders in models. The early nutritional environment, represented by mother's pre-pregnancy BMI, was associated with the risk of MetS in midlife. An important mechanism involves a mother-to-child BMI transmission, independent of birth or perinatal conditions, socioeconomic characteristics and health behaviors over the lifecourse. However this mechanism is not sufficient for explaining the influence of mother's pre-pregnancy BMI which implies the

  17. Intrauterine growth-restricted Yucatan miniature pigs experience early catch-up growth, leading to greater adiposity and impaired lipid metabolism as young adults.

    PubMed

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Cheema, Sukhinder K; Bertolo, Robert F

    2017-12-01

    Early nutrition has critical influences on cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. The study objectives were to evaluate the impact of low birth weight on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism and endothelium function in Yucatan miniature pigs. Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets (n = 6; 3 days old, 0.73 ± 0.04 kg) were paired with normal-weight (NW) same-sex littermates (n = 6; 1.11 ± 0.05 kg) and fed milk replacer ad libitum for 4 weeks. Thereafter, all pigs were fed a standard diet ad libitum for 5 h/day with growth, intakes, and blood samples collected for 8 months. At 9 months old, pigs were surgically fitted with venous catheters and an oral fat tolerance test was performed. At 10 months old, pigs were killed and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilations of isolated coronary arteries were measured using wire-myographs. IUGR pigs demonstrated catch-up growth (P < 0.05) in body weight and abdominal circumference prior to sexual maturity (<7 months old) and had more (P < 0.05) subcutaneous fat at 10 months old compared with NW pigs. IUGR pigs had consistently higher fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations from 5 to 10 months old and higher liver triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations at 10 months old (P < 0.05). The fat tolerance test revealed delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance in IUGR pigs, but no differences in plaque formation or vascular reactivity. To conclude, IUGR and early postnatal catch-up growth are associated with increased overall body fat deposition and altered triglyceride metabolism in adult Yucatan miniature swine.

  18. Effect of sulphur deprivation on osmotic potential components and nitrogen metabolism in oilseed rape leaves: identification of a new early indicator.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Elise; Etienne, Philippe; Maillard, Anne; Zamarreño, Angel-Mari; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Arkoun, Mustapha; Jamois, Frank; Cruz, Florence; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Identification of early sulphur (S) deficiency indicators is important for species such as Brassica napus, an S-demanding crop in which yield and the nutritional quality of seeds are negatively affected by S deficiency. Because S is mostly stored as SO4 (2-) in leaf cell vacuoles and can be mobilized during S deficiency, this study investigated the impact of S deprivation on leaf osmotic potential in order to identify compensation processes. Plants were exposed for 28 days to S or to chlorine deprivation in order to differentiate osmotic and metabolic responses. While chlorine deprivation had no significant effects on growth, osmotic potential and nitrogen metabolism, Brassica napus revealed two response periods to S deprivation. The first one occurred during the first 13 days during which plant growth was maintained as a result of vacuolar SO4 (2-) mobilization. In the meantime, leaf osmotic potential of S-deprived plants remained similar to control plants despite a reduction in the SO4 (2-) osmotic contribution, which was fully compensated by an increase in NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) accumulation. The second response occurred after 13 days of S deprivation with a significant reduction in growth, leaf osmotic potential, NO3 (-) uptake and NO3 (-) reductase activity, whereas amino acids and NO3 (-) were accumulated. This kinetic analysis of S deprivation suggested that a ([Cl(-)]+[NO3 (-)]+[PO4 (3-)]):[SO4 (2-)] ratio could provide a relevant indicator of S deficiency, modified nearly as early as the over-expression of genes encoding SO4 (2-) tonoplastic or plasmalemmal transporters, with the added advantage that it can be easily quantified under field conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. M13. Identifying Youths at Risk for Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain and Metabolic Dysfunction in the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jerome; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Gabriel, Daniel; Bloch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antipsychotic-induced metabolic dysfunction is problematic in youths with psychosis. We used limited-access data from the NIH-funded Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS) study to identify risk factors for neuroleptic-associated metabolic dysfunction. Methods: TEOSS randomized 119 youths with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to 8 weeks of treatment with olanzapine, risperidone or molindone and monitored their response to medication as well as metabolic side effects throughout the trial. TEOSS demonstrated no differences in response rates by antipsychotic agent. In this secondary analysis we used stepwise linear regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to identify baseline predictors associated with changes in weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and total cholesterol at week 8 in TEOSS. Results: Randomized assignment to olanzapine (parameter estimate (PE) = 2.88, SE = 1.08, P = .01) and living at home (vs institutionalization) (PE = 2.62, SE = 1.08, P = .02) associated with increased weight gain. Randomized assignment to molindone (PE = −3.45, SE = 0.97, P = .0007) associated with less weight gain. Greater increase in fasting glucose levels associated with randomization to olanzapine (PE = 18.56, SE = 7.33, P = .01) and the absence of a family history of depression (PE = −6.40, SE = 2.82, P = .03). Greater increase in fasting insulin levels associated with randomization to olanzapine (PE = 17.05, SE = 6.39, P = .01), greater number of past psychiatric hospitalizations (PE = 11.81, SE = 2.54, P < .0001), not taking an antipsychotic prior to study entry (PE = −20.35, SE = 6.50, P = .003) and the absence of a family history of depression (PE=−5.33, SE = 2.46, P = .03). Randomization to olanzapine (PE = 26.78, SE = 6.02, P < .0001), congenital heart disease (PE = 45.61, SE = 13.29, P = .0009) and legal difficulties (arrests

  20. USA: Glacier National Park, Biosphere Reserve and GLORIA Site

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Lee, Cathy; Schaaf, Thomas; Simmonds, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The area now managed as Glacier National Park was first set aside as a Forest Reserve in 1897 and then designated as a national park in 1910, six years before a national park service was created to oversee the growing number of parks that the US Congress was establishing. Waterton National Park was created by Canada immediately north of the US–Canada border during the same period. In 1932, a joint lobbying effort by private citizens and groups convinced both the United States and Canada to establish the world’s first trans-boundary park to explicitly underscore and symbolize the neighbourly relationship between these two countries. This became the world’s first ‘peace’ park and was named Waterton–Glacier International Peace Park. The combined park is managed collaboratively on many issues but each national park is separately funded and operates under different national statutes and laws. It was, however, jointly named a Biosphere Reserve in 1976 and a World Heritage Site in 1995. There have been recent efforts to significantly increase the size of Waterton National Park by adding publicly owned forests on the western side of the continental divide in British Columbia, Canada. For the purposes of this chapter, I will emphasize the US portion of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and refer to it as the Glacier Mountain Biosphere Reserve (MBR).

  1. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  2. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  3. 'Rare biosphere' bacteria as key phenanthrene degraders in coastal seawaters.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Caroline; Séverin, Tatiana; Vétion, Gilles; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Fagervold, Sonja K; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2014-11-01

    By coupling DNA-SIP and pyrosequencing approaches, we identified Cycloclasticus sp. as a keystone degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere' in NW Mediterranean seawaters. We discovered novel PAH-degrading bacteria (Oceanibaculum sp., Sneathiella sp.) and we identified other groups already known to possess this function (Alteromonas sp., Paracoccus sp.). Together with Cycloclasticus sp., these groups contributed to potential in situ phenanthrene degradation at a rate >0.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), sufficient to account for a considerable part of PAH degradation. Further, we characterized the PAH-tolerant bacterial communities, which were much more diverse in the polluted site by comparison to unpolluted marine references. PAH-tolerant bacteria were also members of the rare biosphere, such as Glaciecola sp. Collectively, these data show the complex interactions between PAH-degraders and PAH-tolerant bacteria and provide new insights for the understanding of the functional ecology of marine bacteria in polluted waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    PubMed

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-08-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Beth N; Larowe, Douglas E; Biddle, Jennifer F; Colwell, Frederick S; Glazer, Brian T; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B; Lapham, Laura L; Mills, Heath J; Sylvan, Jason B; Wankel, Scott D; Wheat, C Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists-all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these "extreme" environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) "theme team" on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  6. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biospheric Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-10-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably has exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1-4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known space factors are usually the fluxes of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind) and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wave lengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  7. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1--4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known cosmic factors are usually streams of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind), and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wavelengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  8. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth N.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Glazer, Brian T.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B.; Lapham, Laura L.; Mills, Heath J.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Wankel, Scott D.; Wheat, C. Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists—all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these “extreme” environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) “theme team” on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:23874326

  9. Influence of the biosphere and circulation on atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, A.; Jiang, X.; La, J.; Olsen, E. T.; Licata, S. J.; Yung, Y. L.

    2017-12-01

    Using multiple satellite CO2 retrievals (e.g., AIRS, GOSAT, and OCO-2), we have investigated seasonal changes of CO2 as a function of latitudes and altitudes. The annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 is closely related to the exchange of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere, so we also examine solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). High SIF value means more CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, which will lead to lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The satellite data demonstrate a negative correlation between atmospheric CO2 and SIF. SIF can be influenced by precipitation and evaporation. We have found a positive correlation between SIF and the difference of precipitation and evaporation, suggesting there is more CO2 uptake by vegetation when more water is available. In addition to the annual cycle, large-scale circulation, such as South Atlantic Walker Circulation, can also modulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As seen from AIRS, GOSAT, and OCO-2 CO2 retrievals, there is less CO2 over the South Atlantic Ocean than over South America from December to March. Results in this study will help us better understand interactions between the biosphere, circulation, and atmospheric CO2.

  10. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  11. Early postoperative and late metabolic morbidity after pancreatic resections: An old and new challenge for surgeons - A review.

    PubMed

    Beger, Hans G; Mayer, Benjamin

    2018-02-16

    The metrics for measuring early postoperative morbidity after resection of pancreatic neoplastic tumors are overall morbidity, severe surgery-related morbidity, frequency of reoperation and reintervention, in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Thirty-day readmission after discharge is additionally an indispensable criterion to assess quality of surgery. The metrics for surgery-associated long-term results after pancreatic resections are survival times, new onset of diabetes (DM), impaired glucose tolerance, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, body mass index and GI motility dysfunctions. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) performed on pancreatic normo-glycemic patients for malignant and benign tumors, 4-30% develop postoperative new onset of diabetes. Long-term persistence of diabetes mellitus is observed after surgery for benign tumors in 14% and in 15.5% of patients after cancer resection. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after PD is observed in the early postoperative period in 23-80% of patients. Persistence of exocrine dysfunctions exists in 25% and 49% of patients. Following left-sided pancreatic resection, new onset DM is observed in 14% of cases; an exocrine insufficiency persisting in the long-term outcome is observed in 16-28% of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [EFFECT OF EARLY PROTEIN-CALORIE MALNUTRITION ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME IN YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Escaffi Fonseca, María José; Moreira Carrasco, Loreto; Rodríguez Osiac, Lorena; Pizarro Quevedo, Tito; Cavada Chacón, Gabriel; Villarroel del Pino, Luis; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Muzzo Benavides, Santiago; Mönckeberg Barros, Fernando; Rozowski Narkunska, Jaime; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    during recent years consistent studies have characterized the relationship between moderate and severe protein-calorie malnutrition and the appearance of non-communicable diseases in adulthood like metabolic syndrome (MS). to analyze the relationship between moderate and severe protein-calorie malnutrition during the first 1 000 days of life and the MS in a cohort of adults from Curicó, Chile. we studied 49 young adults who had suffered moderate to severe protein-calorie malnutrition during their first two years of life. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement and laboratory tests were performed, and the burden of MS attributes was determined. the prevalence of MS was 14.3% with no significant differences by gender, showing a direct and significant association between burden of MS and body mass index, waist / height index, blood pressure, plasma levels of glucose and triglyceride, and an inverse association with HDL. systolic blood pressure and plasma level of triglyceride represented the most important risk factors for SM in this cohort. We found no association between the presence of protein-calorie malnutrition and MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  14. Detection of early metabolic alterations in the ocular fundus of diabetic patients by time-resolved autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, D.; Klemm, M.; Quick, S.; Deutsch, L.; Jentsch, S.; Hammer, M.; Dawczynski, J.; Kloos, C. H.; Mueller, U. A.

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of time-resolved autofluorescence (FLIM) at the human ocular fundus of diabetic patients permit the detection of early pathologic alterations before signs of diabetic retinopathy are visible. The measurements were performed by the Jena Fluorescence Lifetime Laser Scanner Ophthalmoscope applying time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) in two spectral channels (K1: 490-560 nm, K2:560-700ps). The fluorescence was excited by 70 ps pulses (FWHM) at 448 nm. The decay of fluorescence intensity was triple-exponentially approximated. The frequency of amplitudes, lifetimes, and relative contributions was compared in fields of the same size and position in healthy subjects and in diabetic patients. The most sensitive parameter was the lifetime T2 in the short-wavelength channel, which corresponds to the neuronal retina. The changes in lifetime point to a loss of free NADH and an increased contribution of protein-bound NADH in the pre-stage of diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Resveratrol Intake During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Early Metabolic Effects of Maternal Nutrition Differently in Male and Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2018-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  16. Can increases in capillarization explain the early adaptations in metabolic regulation in human muscle to short-term training?

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Burnett, Margaret; Kollias, Helen; Ouyang, Jing; Smith, Ian; Tupling, Susan

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that increases in fibre capillary density would precede increases in oxidative potential following training onset, tissue was extracted from the vastus lateralis prior to (0 days) and following 3 and 6 consecutive days of submaximal cycle exercise (2 h·day(-1)). Participants were untrained males (age = 21.4 ± 0.58 years; peak oxygen consumption = 46.2 ± 1.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); mean ± standard error (SE)). Tissue was assessed for succinic dehydrogenase activity (SDH) by microphotometry and indices of capillarization based on histochemically assessed area and capillary counts (CC) in specific fibre types. Three days of training (n = 13) resulted in a generalized decrease (p < 0.05) in fibre area (-14.2% ± 3.0%; mean ± SE) and increase (p < 0.05) in CC/Area (20.4% ± 2.7%) and no change in either CC or SDH activity. Following 6 days of treatment (n = 6), increases (p < 0.05) in CC (18.2% ± 4.2%), CC/Area (28.9% ± 3.2%), and SDH activity (22.9% ± 6.0%) occurred that was not specific to major fibre type. No changes in either fibre area or fibre-type distribution were observed with additional training. We conclude that increases in angiogenic-based capillary density and oxidative potential occur coincidentally following training onset, while increases in capillary density, mediated by reductions in fibre area, represent an initial isolated response, the significance of which may be linked to the metabolic alterations that also result.

  17. Maternal high fat diet induces early cardiac hypertrophy and alters cardiac metabolism in Sprague Dawley rat offspring.

    PubMed

    De Jong, K A; Barrand, S; Wood-Bradley, R J; de Almeida, D L; Czeczor, J K; Lopaschuk, G D; Armitage, J A; McGee, S L

    2018-06-01

    Maternal high fat diets (mHFD) have been associated with an increased offspring cardiovascular risk. Recently we found that the class IIa HDAC-MEF2 pathway regulates gene programs controlling fatty acid oxidation in striated muscle. This same pathway controls hypertrophic responses in the heart. We hypothesized that mHFD is associated with activation of signal controlling class II a HDAC activity and activation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cardiac hypertrophy in offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal fat diet (12%) or high fat diet (43%) three weeks prior to mating, remaining on diets until study completion. Hearts of postnatal day 1 (PN1) and PN10 pups were collected. Bioenergetics and respiration analyses were performed in neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes (NVCM). In offspring exposed to mHFD, body weight was increased at PN10 accompanied by increased body fat percentage and blood glucose. Heart weight and heart weight to body weight ratio were increased at PN1 and PN10, and were associated with elevated signalling through the AMPK-class IIa HDAC-MEF2 axis. The expression of the MEF2-regulated hypertrophic markers ANP and BNP were increased as were expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However this was only accompanied by an increased protein expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes at PN10. NVCM isolated from these pups exhibited increased glycolysis and an impaired substrate flexibility. Combined, these results suggest that mHFD induces signalling and transcriptional events indicative of reprogrammed cardiac metabolism and of cardiac hypertrophy in Sprague Dawley rat offspring. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Teenage girls with type 1 diabetes have poorer metabolic control than boys and face more complications in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Ulf; Anderzén, Johan; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Steineck, Isabelle; Åkesson, Karin; Hanberger, Lena

    2016-07-01

    To compare metabolic control between males and females with type 1 diabetes during adolescence and as young adults, and relate it to microvascular complications. Data concerning 4000 adolescents with type 1 diabetes registered in the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry, and above the age of 18years in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry was used. When dividing HbA1c values in three groups; < 7.4% (57mmol/mol), 7.4-9.3% (57-78mmol/mol) and >9.3% (78mmol/mol), there was a higher proportion of females in the highest group during adolescence. In the group with the highest HbA1c values during adolescence and as adults, 51.7% were females, expected value 46.2%; in the group with low HbA1c values in both registries, 34.2% were females, p<0.001. As adults, more females had retinopathy, p<0.05. Females had higher mean HbA1c values at diagnosis, 11.2 vs. 10.9% (99 vs. 96mmol/mol), p<0.03, during adolescence, 8.5 vs. 8.2% (69 vs. 66mmol/mol) p<0.01, but not as young adults. Worse glycaemic control was found in adolescent females, and they had a higher frequency of microvascular complications. Improved paediatric diabetes care is of great importance for increasing the likelihood of lower mortality and morbidity later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early obesity leads to increases in hepatic arginase I and related systemic changes in nitric oxide and L-arginine metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kubo, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Funakubo, Narumi; Setiawan, Heri; Takemoto, Kei; Eguchi, Eri; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Ogino, Keiki

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for vascular endothelial cell dysfunction characterized by low-grade, chronic inflammation. Increased levels of arginase I and concomitant decreases in L-arginine bioavailability are known to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. In the present study, we focused on changes in the systemic expression of arginase I as well as L-arginine metabolism in the pre-disease state of early obesity prior to the onset of atherosclerosis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD; 10% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat) for 8 weeks. The mRNA expression of arginase I in the liver, adipose tissue, aorta, and muscle; protein expression of arginase I in the liver and plasma; and systemic levels of L-arginine bioavailability and NO 2 - were assessed. HFD-fed mice showed early obesity without severe disease symptoms. Arginase I mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed obese mice than in CD-fed mice. Arginase I levels were slightly increased, whereas L-arginine levels were significantly reduced, and these changes were followed by reductions in NO 2 - levels. Furthermore, hepatic arginase I levels positively correlated with plasma arginase I levels and negatively correlated with L-arginine bioavailability in plasma. These results suggested that increases in the expression of hepatic arginase I and reductions in plasma L-arginine and NO 2 - levels might lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pre-disease state of early obesity.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of two Beauveria bassiana strains grown on cuticle extracts of the silkworm uncovers their different metabolic response at early infection stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jie; Bai, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yuan; Xiang, Ting-Ting; Liu, Ren-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Bao-Ling; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2017-05-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus which not only widely distributes in the environment but also shows phenotypic diversity. However, the mechanism of pathogenic differences among natural B. bassiana strains has not been revealed at transcriptome-wide level. In the present study, in order to explore the mechanism, two B. bassiana strains with different pathogenicity were isolated from silkworms (Bombyx mori L.) and selected to analyze the gene expression of early stage by culturing on cuticle extracts of the silkworm and using RNA-sequencing technique. A total of 2108 up-regulated and 1115 down-regulated genes were identified in B. bassiana strain GXsk1011 (hyper-virulent strain) compared with B. bassiana strain GXtr1009 (hypo-virulent strain), respectively. The function categorization of differential expressed genes (DEGs) showed that most of them involved in metabolic process, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, catalytic activity, and some involved in nutrition uptake, adhesion and host defense were also noted. Based on our data, distinct pathogenicity among different strains of B. bassiana may largely attribute to unique gene expression pattern which differed at very early infection process. Most of the genes involved in conidia adhesion, cuticle degradation and fungal growth were up-regulated in hyper-virulent B. bassiana strain GXsk1011. Furthermore, in combination with fungal growth analysis, our research provided a clue that fungal growth may also play an important role during early infection process. The results will help to explain why different B. bassiana strains show distinct pathogenicity on the same host even under same condition. Moreover, the transcriptome data were also useful for screening potential virulence factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  2. Long-Term Evolution of the Sun and our Biosphere: Causes and Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    2000-05-01

    The course of early biological evolution felt the environmental consequences of changes in the solar output (discussed here), as well as long-term decreases in planetary heat flow and the flux of extraterrestrial impactors. A large, early UV flux fueled the photodissociation of atmospheric water vapor, sustaining a significant hydrogen flux to space. This flux caused Earth's crust to become oxidized, relative to its mantle. Accordingly, reduced gases and aqueous solutes that were erupted volcanically into the relatively more oxidized surface environment created sources of chemical redox energy for the origin and early evolution of life. Although the solar constant has increased some 30 percent over Earth's lifetime, oceans remained remarkably stable for more than 3.8 billion years. Thus a very effective climate regulation was probably achieved by decreasing over time the atmospheric inventories of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Such decreases probably had major consequences for the biosphere. Substantial early marine bicarbonate and carbon dioxide inventories sustained abundant abiotic precipitation of carbonates, with consequences for the stability and habitability of key aqueous environments. A long-term decline in carbon dioxide levels increased the bioenergetic requirements for carbon dioxide as well as other aspects of the physiology of photosynthetic microorganisms. The long-term trend of global mean surface temperature is still debated, as is the role of the sun's evolution in that trend. Future increases in the solar constant will drive atmospheric carbon dioxide levels down further, challenging plants to cope with ever-dwindling concentrations of carbon substrates. Climate regulation will be achieved by modulating an increasing abundance of high-albedo water vapor clouds. Future biological evolution defies precise predictions, however it is certain that the sun's continuing evolution will play a key role.

  3. Global linkages between teleconnection patterns and the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Kyla M.; Ault, Toby R.

    2018-07-01

    Interannual variability in the global carbon cycle is largely due to variations in carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems, yet linkages between climate variability and variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle are not well understood at the global scale. Using a 30-year satellite record of semi-monthly leaf area index (LAI), we show that four modes of climate variability - El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Atlantic Meridional Mode, and the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode - strongly impact interannual vegetation growth patterns, with 68% of the land surface impacted by at least one of these teleconnection patterns, yet the spatial distribution of these impacts is heterogeneous. Considering the patterns' impacts by biome, none has an exclusively positive or negative relationship with LAI. Our findings imply that future changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of teleconnection patterns will lead to diverse changes to the terrestrial biosphere and the global carbon cycle.

  4. The Modern Era of Research in Biosphere Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I. Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Diane Wickland, the Program Scientist for NASA's EOS InterDisciplinary Science (IDS), encouraged and nurtured the growth of the field of global ecology and eco-climatology. This talk reviews the developments in, and integration of, theory, satellite and field observations that enabled the global modeling of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Emphasis will be placed on the advances made during the EOS era in global datasets and global coupled carbon-climate models. The advances include functional classifications of the land surface using the NDVI, a global terrestrial carbon-energy-water model, and the greening of the CSU GCM. An equally important achievement of the EOS-IDS program is a new generation of multi-disciplinary scientists who are now leaders in the field.

  5. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    PubMed

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  6. Exploring the dark energy biosphere, 15 seconds at a time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, C.; Tossey, L.; Biddle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Science communication often suffers from numerous pitfalls including jargon, complexity, ageneral lack of (science) education of the audience, and short attention spans. With the Center for Dark EnergyBiosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), Delaware Sea Grant is expanding its collection of 15 Second Science videos, whichdeliver complex science topics, with visually stimulating footage and succinct audio. Featuring a diverse cast of scientistsand educators in front of the camera, we are expanded our reach into the public and classrooms. We're alsoexperimenting with smartphone-based virtual reality, for a more immersive experience into the deep! We will show youthe process for planning, producing, and posting our #15secondscience videos and VR segments, and how we areevaluating effectiveness.

  7. Infant body mass index peak and early childhood cardio-metabolic risk markers in a multi-ethnic Asian birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya Thway; Pang, Wei Wei; Lim, Wai Yee; Soh, Shu E; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Kramer, Michael S; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-01-01

    kg/m2 (–0.69, –0.20)]. Adjusting for maternal education, BMI, gestational weight gain, ethnicity, infant sex, gestational age, birthweight-for-gestational-age and breastfeeding duration, higher peak and aPPV were associated with greater BMI, SSF and FMI at 48 months. Age at peak was positively associated with BMI at 48 months [0.15 units (0.09, 0.22)], whereas peak magnitude was associated with SBP [0.17 units (0.05, 0.30)] and DBP at 48 months [0.10 units (0.01, 0.22)]. Older age and higher magnitude at peak were associated with increased risk of overweight at 48 months [Relative Risk (95% CI): 1.35 (1.12–1.62) for age; 1.89 (1.60–2.24) for magnitude]. The associations of BMI peak with BMI and SSF at 48 months were stronger in Malay and Indian children than in Chinese children. Conclusions: Ethnic-specific differences in BMI peak characteristics, and associations of BMI peak with early childhood cardio-metabolic markers, suggest an important impact of early BMI development on later metabolic outcomes in Asian populations. PMID:27649801

  8. Infant body mass index peak and early childhood cardio-metabolic risk markers in a multi-ethnic Asian birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya Thway; Pang, Wei Wei; Lim, Wai Yee; Soh, Shu E; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Kramer, Michael S; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-04-01

    .20)]. Adjusting for maternal education, BMI, gestational weight gain, ethnicity, infant sex, gestational age, birthweight-for-gestational-age and breastfeeding duration, higher peak and aPPV were associated with greater BMI, SSF and FMI at 48 months. Age at peak was positively associated with BMI at 48 months [0.15 units (0.09, 0.22)], whereas peak magnitude was associated with SBP [0.17 units (0.05, 0.30)] and DBP at 48 months [0.10 units (0.01, 0.22)]. Older age and higher magnitude at peak were associated with increased risk of overweight at 48 months [Relative Risk (95% CI): 1.35 (1.12-1.62) for age; 1.89 (1.60-2.24) for magnitude]. The associations of BMI peak with BMI and SSF at 48 months were stronger in Malay and Indian children than in Chinese children. : Ethnic-specific differences in BMI peak characteristics, and associations of BMI peak with early childhood cardio-metabolic markers, suggest an important impact of early BMI development on later metabolic outcomes in Asian populations. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  9. Network Analysis of Earth's Co-Evolving Geosphere and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Eleish, A.; Liu, C.; Morrison, S. M.; Meyer, M.; Consortium, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    A fundamental goal of Earth science is the deep understanding of Earth's dynamic, co-evolving geosphere and biosphere through deep time. Network analysis of geo- and bio- `big data' provides an interactive, quantitative, and predictive visualization framework to explore complex and otherwise hidden high-dimension features of diversity, distribution, and change in the evolution of Earth's geochemistry, mineralogy, paleobiology, and biochemistry [1]. Networks also facilitate quantitative comparison of different geological time periods, tectonic settings, and geographical regions, as well as different planets and moons, through network metrics, including density, centralization, diameter, and transitivity.We render networks by employing data related to geographical, paragenetic, environmental, or structural relationships among minerals, fossils, proteins, and microbial taxa. An important recent finding is that the topography of many networks reflects parameters not explicitly incorporated in constructing the network. For example, networks for minerals, fossils, and protein structures reveal embedded qualitative time axes, with additional network geometries possibly related to extinction and/or other punctuation events (see Figure). Other axes related to chemical activities and volatile fugacities, as well as pressure and/or depth of formation, may also emerge from network analysis. These patterns provide new insights into the way planets evolve, especially Earth's co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. 1. Morrison, S.M. et al. (2017) Network analysis of mineralogical systems. American Mineralogist 102, in press. Figure Caption: A network of Phanerozoic Era fossil animals from the past 540 million years includes blue, red, and black circles (nodes) representing family-level taxa and grey lines (links) between coexisting families. Age information was not used in the construction of this network; nevertheless an intrinsic timeline is embedded in the network topology. In

  10. A Simplified Biosphere Model for Global Climate Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-03-01

    The Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) as described in Sellers et al. is a bio-physically based model of land surface-atmosphere interaction. For some general circulation model (GCM) climate studies, further simplifications are desirable to have greater computation efficiency, and more important, to consolidate the parametric representation. Three major reductions in the complexity of SiB have been achieved in the present study.The diurnal variation of surface albedo is computed in SiB by means of a comprehensive yet complex calculation. Since the diurnal cycle is quite regular for each vegetation type, this calculation can be simplified considerably. The effect of root zone soil moisture on stomatal resistance is substantial, but the computation in SiB is complicated and expensive. We have developed approximations, which simulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, keeping the essence of the biophysical concepts used in SiB.The surface stress and the fluxes of heat and moisture between the top of the vegetation canopy and an atmospheric reference level have been parameterized in an off-line version of SiB based upon the studies by Businger et al. and Paulson. We have developed a linear relationship between Richardson number and aero-dynamic resistance. Finally, the second vegetation layer of the original model does not appear explicitly after simplification. Compared to the model of Sellers et al., we have reduced the number of input parameters from 44 to 21. A comparison of results using the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely. After simplification, the computational requirement of SiB was reduced by about 55%.

  11. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W.; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. Methods In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. Results A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001). However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Conclusions Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26121155

  12. Relationship between equol producer status and metabolic parameters in 743 Japanese women: equol producer status is associated with antiatherosclerotic conditions in women around menopause and early postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Yoshikata, Remi; Myint, Khin Z; Ohta, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    Equol, an active metabolite possessing estrogen-like activity, is produced by the action of intestinal flora on soy isoflavones. There is an increasing evidence regarding its efficacy in the relief of menopausal symptoms, suppression of decreased bone mineral density, and lipid profile improvement. Only those with equol-producing capacity, however, seem to benefit. Thus, we examined the relationship between equol producer status and parameters associated with lifestyle-related diseases in women from their 20s to 80s. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 743 women (21-89 y; average age: 52.5 ± 11.8 y) who have undergone health screening at Tokyo Midtown Medical Center and given consent to participate in the study. The relationship between equol producer status and metabolic parameters was assessed. In our study, 236 women (32%) were equol producers. Equol producers had significantly lower triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with nonproducers. Equol-producing women in their 50s showed significantly lower body fat level, visceral fat area, triglyceride levels, pulse wave velocity, uric acid levels, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. In addition, women in their 60s showed significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In multivariate logistic regression, for women in their 50s, equol production was significantly associated with lower arterial stiffness and uric acid levels, and a high ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid, whereas it was significantly associated with lower urinary N-telopeptides in their 60s. Equol producer status was associated with favorable metabolic parameters, in women in the early phase postmenopause, with the transitional periods noted with declining intrinsic estrogen levels.

  13. Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early-Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control.

    PubMed

    Bächle, Christina; Lange, Karin; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Castillo, Katty; Scheuing, Nicole; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the prevalence of and association between symptoms of eating disorders and depression in female and male emerging adults with early-onset, long-duration type 1 diabetes and investigated how these symptoms are associated with metabolic control. In a nationwide population-based survey, 211 type 1 diabetes patients aged 18-21 years completed standardized questionnaires, including the SCOFF questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for symptoms of depression and severity of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between eating disorder and depressive symptoms and their associations with HbA1c. A total of 30.2% of the women and 9.5% of the men were screening positive for eating disorders. The mean PHQ-9 score (standard deviation) was 5.3 (4.4) among women and 3.9 (3.6) among men. Screening positive for an eating disorder was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women (βwomen 3.8, p<0.001). However, neither eating disorder symptoms nor severity of depressive symptoms were associated with HbA1c among women, while HbA1c increased with the severity of depressive symptoms among men (βmen 0.14, p=0.006). Because of the high prevalence of eating disorder and depressive symptoms, their interrelationship, and their associations with metabolic control, particularly among men, regular mental health screening is recommended for young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  14. Evaluation of biochemical, endocrine, and metabolic biomarkers for the early diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome among non-obese Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Daghestani, Maha H

    2018-05-10

    To investigate the potential of selected biochemical, endocrine, and metabolic biomarkers for early diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among non-obese women. A prospective observational cross-sectional study was conducted at three medical centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, between July 15 and September 20, 2017. Eligible participants were non-obese women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria (n=44) and non-obese normo-ovulatory women without signs of PCOS (control group; n=44). Anthropometric variables related to metabolic profile were determined. Laboratory measures were assessed using fasting blood samples. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were increased among women with PCOS (both P˂0.001). When compared with the control group, patients in the PCOS group exhibited increases in cholesterol (13.8%), triglycerides (36.6%), low-density lipoprotein (73.2%), fasting glucose (9.2%), fasting insulin (49.4%), luteinizing-hormone/follicle-stimulating-hormone ratio (205.3%), 17β-estradiol (39.2%), testosterone (202.3%), and vascular endothelial growth factor (241.7%) (all P<0.001); and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (-25.3%), progesterone (-7.4%), and sex hormone-binding globulin (-54.0%) (all P<0.001). Vitamin D (P=0.095) and Kisspeptin (P=0.944) levels did not differ between the groups. Various parameters could potentially be used as biomarkers to assess risk of PCOS, even among symptom-free non-obese women. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at low temperature. Implications for sustaining a biosphere in Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Montoya, Lilia; Davis, Wanda; McKay, Chris

    Observational evidence from Earth-borne systems and space missions as well as theoretical arguments suggest that Jupiter's satellite Europa could be geologically active today and may possess an ocean of liquid water of about 100 km deep underneath the icy surface about 10 km thickness. The existence of an aqueous ocean is an important requirement for life, as we know it. However, a biosphere also depends of an adequate energy source to drive the most fundamental biological processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, etc. Methanogenesis associated with hydrothermal vents may potentially drive a biosphere in an European ocean. We report here on the production of a large variety of hydrocarbons in hydrothermal systems at low temperatures (150° C). The chemical composition of the hydrothermal vent gases was derived from a thermochemical model that assumes that Europa had a cometary (solar, less H) abundance at high temperatures characteristic of a vent. Specifically the following gas mixture was used: 45% CO2 , 45% CH4, and 10 % N2 . A 500 ml stainless steel reactor was filled with 200 ml triply distilled water and the gas mixture at 1 bar at 25° C. In some experiments 3 g of pyrite were added into the reaction vessel. The system was heated for 24 hrs in the temperature range from 100 to 375° C. At the completion of the experiment, the reaction was quenched to 25° C and the gas mixture was analyzed by GC-FTIR-MS techniques. In the absence of pyrite, methane is oxidized to carbon dioxide with the possible production of hydrogen. In contrast in the presence of pyrite, methane is converted into a suite of hydrocarbons from C2 to C7 containing all possible isomers. The production of these compounds was found at temperatures as low as 150° C. In order to get a better understanding of the chemical mechanism involved in the synthesis of hydrocarbons and explore the effect on the initial oxidation state of the carbon used, we performed additional experiments in

  16. Early detection of bone metabolism changes under different antiepileptic drugs (ED-BoM-AED)--a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina; Strzelczyk, Adam; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Hallmeyer-Elgner, Susanne; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Rosenow, Felix

    2013-10-01

    To determine early changes in bone turnover markers induced by treatment with oxcarbazepine or valproate. In this prospective study, 31 adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy were included who were started on therapy with either oxcarbazepine (OXC, n=16, mean age 45.6 years, 37.5% female) or valproate (VPA, n=15, mean age 42.2 years, 33.3% female). Clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline, after 2 weeks and 3 months. In addition, blood samples were drawn at each visit. Calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (AP), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC) and cathepsin K were determined. In OXC treated patients, OPG increased by 0.06 pmol/L (p=0.0004) after 2 weeks and remained elevated by 0.05 pmol/L (p=0.02) after 3 months. Between 2 weeks and 3 months of OXC treatment, OC increased by 1.98 ng/mL (p=0.02). During the first 3 months of OXC treatment, total serum AP increased by 11%±9% (p=0.02). Compared to baseline, serum calcium raised by 0.06 mmol/L (p=0.04) after 2 weeks and by 0.07 mmol/L (p=0.004) after 3 months of OXC treatment. In VPA treated patients, a late OPG increase by 0.07 pmol/L (p=0.007) occurred after 3 months. During the first 3 months of OXC treatment, total serum AP decreased by by 7%±15% (p=0.03). No changes in OC or calcium were seen. RANKL was below detection limit in 16 out of 31 patients (52%) and did not change significantly during treatment. Cathepsin K was below detection limit at baseline in 27 out of 31 patients (87%) and was therefore not further evaluated. Phosphate did not change during treatment. Increased bone turnover can be measured within few weeks of newly started treatment with OXC, while significant changes under VPA treatment occurred only after 3 months. Our data suggest distinct mechanisms of increased bone turnover in different anticonvulsants. These variable mechanisms may require individual prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere. © 2014 The Authors The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Impact of intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Takashi; Arai, Natsuko; Nagasaka, Tomoaki; Asano, Masaya; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Not only increasing body carbohydrate (CHO) stores before exercise but also suppressing CHO oxidation during exercise is important for improving endurance performance. We tested the hypothesis that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from exercise training (ET) for 2 d would suppress CHO oxidation during exercise by increasing whole body lipolysis and/or fat oxidation. In a randomized crossover design, on days 1 and 2, six male subjects performed cycle ET at 50% peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak)) for 60-90 min, and consumed a control diet (CON: 1,224 kcal, 55% carbohydrate, 30% fat) or the same diet supplemented with high fat (HF: 1,974 kcal, 34% carbohydrate, 56% fat) 1 h after ET, with the diet other than post-ET similar in both trials. On day 3, subjects performed cycle exercise at 65% VO(2 peak) until exhaustion. Exercise time to exhaustion was longer in the HF trial than in the CON trial (CON: 48.9 ± 6.7 vs. HF: 55.8 ± 7.7 min, p<0.05). In the HF trial, total fat oxidation until exhaustion was higher, accompanied by higher post-exercise plasma glycerol concentration, than in the CON trial (CON: 213 ± 54 vs. HF: 286 ± 63 kcal, p<0.05), whereas total carbohydrate oxidation until exhaustion was not different between trials. These results suggest that intensive high-fat ingestion in the early stage of recovery from ET for a few days until the day before exercise was an effective means of eliciting a CHO-sparing effect during exercise by enhancing fat metabolism.

  19. Abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy: In vitro, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy based observation in early phase of the disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Pal, Lily; Sinha, Neeraj

    2017-05-01

    /control individuals. Results clearly indicate alteration of lipid metabolism in patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease. Moreover, further evaluation is required to understand whether these changes are primary or secondary to muscular dystrophy. In future, these findings may prove an additional and improved approach for the diagnosis of different forms of muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Boulotte, Nadine M; Dalton, Steven J; Carroll, Andrew G; Harrison, Peter L; Putnam, Hollie M; Peplow, Lesa M; van Oppen, Madeleine JH

    2016-01-01

    Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals. PMID:27093048

  1. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Boulotte, Nadine M; Dalton, Steven J; Carroll, Andrew G; Harrison, Peter L; Putnam, Hollie M; Peplow, Lesa M; van Oppen, Madeleine Jh

    2016-11-01

    Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals.

  2. Occurrence of $sup 137$Cs in the biosphere evaluated with environmental and metabolic studies

    SciT

    Haesaenen, E.

    This work forms a part of the fall-out studies carried out in the Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. Its main emphasis has been on the $gamma$-spectrometric determination of the $sup 137$Cs-levels and changes herein in different environmental samples and in man after the second nuclear testing period in 1961--1962. Special attention has been paid to the aquatic foodchains of $sup 137$Cs, to the foodchain reindeer-lichen-man, and to the biological half-life of $sup 137$Cs in man and in certain fish species. (auth)

  3. Possible cometary bioorganic compounds as sources of planetary biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Takano, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Saito, T.

    Complex organi c compound s were discovered in the coma of Comet Halley [1], whi c h suggested that they w er e p ossibl e sources of the terr estria l biosp here. It has not been confirmed, however, that bioorganic compounds like amino acids were contained in comet ary nuclei. It has been hypothe sized that cometary organic compounds wer e formed in interstellar dust particles (ISDs) [2]. A great nu mber of experiments have been done s imulat i ng the condition o ISDf environments. Amino acids were reported to form in simulated ISD environments by proton irradiation [3] and by UV irradiation [4] of simulat ed ISD ice mantles. Here w e discuss nature of bioorganic compounds formed in simul a t e d ISD environments, and compare wit h those f ormed in simulated primitive planet ary atmospheres. A gas mixt ure of carbon monoxi d e, ammonia and water was irradiated wit h high - energy protons, gamma rays or UV light. All of hydrolysates o f the products gave a wide variety of a ino acids, t ogethe r with uracil a d cytosine. When amn mixture of methanol, ammonia and w at e r (1:1:2.8) was irradiated wit h gamma rays or UV light at 77K, 293K or 353K, am ino acids were also detect e d in each hydrolysates: The G-value ( energy yield) of glycine (the most abundant amino acids in the products) was ca. 0.01, which was independent from the temp eratur e or the phase (s olid, liquid or gas). These results s ugg est that amino acid precursors can be formed in ISD environments quite effe c t i vely even if the materials were frozen in low temperature. If comets can bring sufficient kinds and amount of bioorganic co mpou nds to planets, planetary biospheres can be generated, regardless of the comp osit ion of planet ary atmospheres. It will be quite interesting to find and analyze cometary organics left in planets and satellites such as the moon, as wel l as in cometary bodies. [1] J. Kissel and F. R. Kreuger, Natur e, 326, 755 (1987). [2] J. M. Greenberg and A. Li, Adv. Space

  4. Simulation of carbon isotope discrimination of the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suits, N. S.; Denning, A. S.; Berry, J. A.; Still, C. J.; Kaduk, J.; Miller, J. B.; Baker, I. T.

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a multistage model of carbon isotope discrimination during C3 photosynthesis and global maps of C3/C4 plant ratios to an ecophysiological model of the terrestrial biosphere (SiB2) in order to predict the carbon isotope ratios of terrestrial plant carbon globally at a 1° resolution. The model is driven by observed meteorology from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), constrained by satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and run for the years 1983-1993. Modeled mean annual C3 discrimination during this period is 19.2‰; total mean annual discrimination by the terrestrial biosphere (C3 and C4 plants) is 15.9‰. We test simulation results in three ways. First, we compare the modeled response of C3 discrimination to changes in physiological stress, including daily variations in vapor pressure deficit (vpd) and monthly variations in precipitation, to observed changes in discrimination inferred from Keeling plot intercepts. Second, we compare mean δ13C ratios from selected biomes (Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal) to the observed values from Keeling plots at these biomes. Third, we compare simulated zonal δ13C ratios in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 60°N) to values predicted from high-frequency variations in measured atmospheric CO2 and δ13C from terrestrially dominated sites within the NOAA-Globalview flask network. The modeled response to changes in vapor pressure deficit compares favorably to observations. Simulated discrimination in tropical forests of the Amazon basin is less sensitive to changes in monthly precipitation than is suggested by some observations. Mean model δ13C ratios for Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal biomes compare well with the few measurements available; however, there is more variability in observations than in the simulation, and modeled δ13C values for tropical forests are heavy relative to observations

  5. Interaction between Hydrosphere and Biosphere: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sivapalan, M.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated terrestrial ecosystems and the overlying atmosphere are dynamically linked though the continuous transfer of mass, energy and momentum. The hydrologic variability interacts with the vegetation at time scales ranging from hours to days to inter-annual and decadal. The existing distribution of ecosystems is a result of evolutionary selections in response to environmental constraints which are themselves modified as terrestrial systems evolve until reaching a dynamic equilibrium. However this balance is changing, often rapidly, in response to anthropogenic influences such as climate change, land use/land cover change, and urban and agricultural expansions. Evidence suggests that vegetation response is adaptive in that they alter their survival strategies in response to environmental change, for example, through development of deep rooting and using hydraulic redistribution to better utilize the available moisture in the deeper soil layers. Yet little is known on how this impacts the hydrologic cycle and its variability. Active and adaptive control of vegetation and atmospheric flow moves soil-moisture that is no longer constrained by watershed boundaries. How do the atmospheric and terrestrial moisture, and vegetation interact to produce the observed variability in the water cycle and how does/will this variability change in response to the anthropogenic influences? What are the ecological consequences of this change? These broad questions lie at the heart of understanding the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. Some specific questions to address are: · How does biosphere mediate the interaction between long time scale sub-surface hydrology and short time scale atmospheric hydrologic cycle? · How has this interaction given rise to the observed self-organized patterns of ecosystems and how do these ecosystems sustain the hydrologic regime needed for their own sustenance? · How are the dynamic regimes of ecohydrologic interactions affected by

  6. The biosphere: Problems and solutions; Proceedings of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere, Miami Beach, FL, April 23, 24, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The objective of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere was to provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research findings on the environmental effects of human activities. The topics discussed are related to biosphere reserves, environmental aspects of hydrocarbon fuels, radioactivity and nuclear waste, land management, acid rains, water quality, water resources, coastal resources management, the pollution of rivers, industrial waste, economic development and the environment, health hazards and solutions, endangered species, environmentally compatible systems, space pollution, and global considerations. Attention is given to questions regarding global security and sustainable development, environethics as a global strategy for environmental quality, a gestalt approach to the environment, potential indicators for monitoring biosphere reserves, a review of regional impacts associated with the development of U.S. synthetic fuel resources, water resources in the Soviet Union, and pollution-free pesticides.

  7. Using remote-sensing and the Simple Biosphere model (SiB4) to analyze the seasonality and productivity of the terrestrial biosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheeseman, M.; Denning, S.; Baker, I. T.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the variability and seasonality of carbon fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere is integral to understanding the mechanisms and drivers of the global carbon cycle. However, there are many regions across the globe where in situ observations are sparse, such as the Amazon rainforest and the African Sahel. The latest version of the Simple-Biosphere model (SiB4) predicts a suite of biophysical variables such as terrestrial carbon flux (GPP), solar induced fluorescence (SIF), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and leaf area index (LAI). By comparing modeled values to a suite of satellite and in situ observations we produce a robust analysis of the seasonality and productivity of the terrestrial biosphere in a variety of biome types across the globe.

  8. Fasting serum blood measures of bone and lipid metabolism in children with myelomeningocele for early detec