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Sample records for early cardiac involvement

  1. Early detection of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis with 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Schouver, Elie-Dan; Moceri, Pamela; Doyen, Denis; Tieulie, Nathalie; Queyrel, Viviane; Baudouy, Delphine; Cerboni, Pierre; Gibelin, Pierre; Leroy, Sylvie; Fuzibet, Jean-Gabriel; Ferrari, Emile

    2017-01-15

    Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is associated with high morbidity and sudden death. The absence of specific symptoms and lack of diagnostic gold standard technique is challenging. New imaging methods could improve the diagnosis of CS. The aim of our study was to assess the role of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and circumferential strain as estimated by 2D speckle-tracking imaging in patients with diagnosed sarcoidosis without cardiac involvement according to the current guidelines. We investigated the prevalence of LV strain impairment in this population and assessed its relationship with clinical outcomes, composite of mortality, heart failure, arrhythmia and/or secondarily development of CS and cardiac device implantation. We performed a prospective case-control longitudinal study including 35 patients with diagnosed sarcoidosis and normal cardiac function as assessed by standard transthoracic echocardiography and 35 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. All patients underwent a comprehensive echocardiographic study. Mean age of patients was 47.9±14.8years old (22 women). Compared with controls, global LV longitudinal strain (LV GLS) was reduced in sarcoidosis patients: (-17.2±3.1 vs -21.3±1.5%, p<0.0001). Circumferential LV strain was preserved in patients compared to controls (-19.9±-4.3% vs -21.3±1.5%, p=0.12). Impaired LV GLS was significantly associated with clinical outcomes (HR 1.56; [1.16-2.11], p<0.01) on univariate analysis. Speckle-tracking echocardiography revealed decreased longitudinal LV strain in sarcoidosis patients that was associated with outcomes. LV GLS may represent an early marker of myocardial involvement in sarcoidosis patients that needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological stress, rest perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance identifies very early cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis patients of recent onset.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Roberto; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Cipriani, Paola; Ruscitti, Piero; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Gennarelli, Antonio; Carubbi, Francesco; Splendiani, Alessandra; Berardicurti, Onorina; Di Benedetto, Paola; Ciccia, Francesco; Guggino, Giuliana; Radchenko, Ganna; Triolo, Giovanni; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate occult cardiac involvement in asymptomatic systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients by pharmacological stress, rest perfusion and delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), for a very early identification of patients at higher risk of cardiac-related mortality. Sixteen consecutive patients with definite SSc, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2013 classification criteria in less than 1 year from the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon, underwent pharmacological stress, rest perfusion and delayed enhancement CMR. At enrollment, no patient showed signs and/or symptoms suggestive for cardiac involvement. No patient showed traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Both the 12-lead electrocardiogram examination and echocardiographic evaluation did not show any alterations in our cohort. Stress perfusion defects of left ventricle were detected in six out of 16 (37.5%) patients and these defects did not match with the coronary flow distribution. The results showed the presence of two different patterns of stress perfusion defects: sub-endocardial and/or a midmyocardial. The presence of stress perfusion defects did not correlate with any clinical feature of enrolled patients. Myocardial stress perfusion defects may be detected early by pharmacological stress perfusion CMR, a reliable and sensitive technique for the noninvasive evaluation of SSc heart disease, in patients with SSc of recent onset. These defects seem to be independent from traditional risk factors and associated comorbidities, suggesting they are a specific hallmark of the disease. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. First experience of simultaneous PET/MRI for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carmela; Altiero, Michele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Nicolai, Emanuele; Giudice, Caterina Anna; Aiello, Marco; Diomiaiuti, Claudio Tommaso; Pisani, Antonio; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with severe multiorgan dysfunction and premature death. Early diagnosis and treatment strategies play a key role in patient outcome. We investigated the potential role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in the assessment of early cardiac involvement in AFD patients. Thirteen AFD patients without cardiac symptoms and with normal left ventricular function underwent simultaneous cardiac PET/MR imaging after administration of (18)F-FDG. Cardiac FDG uptake was quantified by measuring the standardized uptake value in 17 myocardial segments in each subject. The coefficient of variation (COV, i.e. the standard deviation divided by the average) of the uptake of the 17 segments was calculated as an index of heterogeneity in the heart. Six patients exhibited focal late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) indicating intramyocardial fibrosis, and four of these also had positive short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. All patients with LGE and positive STIR MR images showed focal FDG uptake in the corresponding myocardial segments indicating inflammation. Of the seven patients with negative LGE and STIR images, five showed homogeneous FDG cardiac uptake and two showed heterogeneous FDG uptake. The COV was significantly greater in patients with focal FDG uptake (0.25 ± 0.02) than in those without (0.14 ± 0.07, p < 0.01). PET/MR imaging is clinically feasible for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with AFD. Further studies evaluating the role of hybrid PET/MR imaging in management of the disease in larger patient populations are warranted.

  4. [Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    PubMed

    Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Masciocco, Gabriella; Ammirati, Enrico; Bonacina, Edgardo; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome, recently renamed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by disseminated necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular granulomas occurring among patients with asthma and tissue eosinophilia. EGPA is classified as a small and medium-sized vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Typical clinical features include asthma, sinusitis, transient pulmonary infiltrates and neuropathy. Blood eosinophils are often >1500/µl or more than 10% on the differential leukocyte count. Blood eosinophils should always be tested in unexplained cardiac disorders, and may normalize even after low doses of corticosteroids. ANCA are positive in 40-60% of cases, mainly anti-myeloperoxidase. Heart involvement occurs in approximately 15-60% of EGPA patients, especially those who are ANCA negative. Any cardiac structure can be involved, and patients present with myocarditis, heart failure, pericarditis, arrhythmia, coronary arteritis, valvulopathy, intracavitary cardiac thrombosis. Although cardiovascular involvement is usually an early manifestation, it can also occur later in the course of the disease. A significant proportion of patients with cardiac involvement is asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms and major ECG abnormalities, cardiac involvement may be detected in nearly 40% of the patients. All patients with EGPA should be studied not only with a detailed history of cardiac symptoms and ECG, but also with echocardiography; if abnormalities are detected, a cardiac magnetic resonance study should be performed. Coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy should be reserved to selected cases. Heart involvement carries a poor prognosis and causes 50% of the deaths of these patients. It is often insidious and underestimated. Optimal therapy is therefore important and based on high-dose corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive

  5. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  6. The usefulness of left atrial volume index and left ventricular mass index in determining subclinical cardiac involvement in patients with early-stage sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kasapkara, H A; Şentürk, A; Bilen, E; Duran Karaduman, B; Ayhan, H; Özen, M B; Durmaz, T; Keleş, T; Bozkurt, E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The present study has been designed to evaluate the importance of diastolic dysfunction with left atrial volume index (LAVi) and left ventricular mass index (LVMi) in determining subclinical cardiac involvement in subjects with stage I-II pulmonary sarcoidosis. A total of 54 patients under follow-up for sarcoidosis without cardiac involvement and 56 healthy subjects were included in the study. The echocardiographic assessment of the patients revealed no significant difference between the two groups regarding left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters, ejection fraction (LVEF) and annular velocity determined by tissue Doppler evaluation. The LVEF calculated was 61.8 ± 7.8 % in the sarcoidosis group versus 64.1 ± 2.7 % in the control group (p = 0.04). Left ventricular interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, and relative wall thickness were significantly higher in the sarcoidosis group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The sarcoidosis group had higher LVM and LVMi values compared to the control group (145 ± 18.1 and 79 ± 14 g/m(2), 135 ± 27.7 and 74 ± 14.2 g/m(2); p = 0.020 and p = 0.021, respectively). Left atrial end-systolic volume and LAVi were higher in the sarcoidosis group (28.7 ± 18.5; 15.6 ± 10.2) compared to the control group (16.6 ± 10.9; 8.9 ± 5.5) with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The present study indicates diastolic dysfunction and increased LVMi despite normal systolic function in patients with early-stage sarcoidosis without cardiac involvement. Also, the diastolic parameters were normal without showing any significant difference compared to the control group while there was a statistically significant increase in LAVi. This finding suggests that LAVi may be the earliest marker of diastolic dysfunction in patients with early-stage sarcoidosis without cardiac

  7. Early neuroprotection after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Dell'anna, Antonio M; Scolletta, Sabino; Donadello, Katia; Taccone, Fabio S

    2014-06-01

    Many efforts have been made in the last decades to improve outcome in patients who are successfully resuscitated from sudden cardiac arrest. Despite some advances, postanoxic encephalopathy remains the most common cause of death among those patients and several investigations have focused on early neuroprotection in this setting. Therapeutic hypothermia is the only strategy able to provide effective neuroprotection in clinical practice. Experimental studies showed that therapeutic hypothermia was even more effective when it was started immediately after the ischemic event. In human studies, the use of prehospital hypothermia was able to reduce the time to target temperature but did not result in higher survival rate or neurological recovery in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, when compared with standard in-hospital therapeutic hypothermia. Thus, intra-arrest hypothermia (i.e., initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation) may be a valid alternative to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in this setting; however, more clinical data are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit of such intervention on neurological outcome. Together with cooling, early hemodynamic optimization should be considered to improve cerebral perfusion in cardiac arrest patients and minimize any secondary brain injury. Nevertheless, only scarce data are available on the impact of early hemodynamic optimization on the development of organ dysfunction and neurological recovery in such patients. Some new protective strategies, including inhaled gases (i.e., xenon, argon, nitric oxide) and intravenous drugs (i.e., erythropoietin) are emerging in experimental studies as promising tools to improve neuroprotection, especially when combined with therapeutic hypothermia. Early cooling may contribute to enhance neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. Hemodynamic optimization is mandatory to avoid cerebral hypoperfusion in this setting. The combination of such

  8. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  9. Early Cardiac Arrest in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Trevor C.; McConville, John F.; Kress, John P.; VandenHoek, Terry L.; Hall, Jesse B.; Edelson, Dana P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death. Early deterioration and death commonly result from progressive sepsis, shock, respiratory failure, and cardiac complications. Recent data suggest that cardiac arrest may also be common, yet few previous studies have addressed this. Accordingly, we sought to characterize early cardiac arrest in patients who are hospitalized with coexisting pneumonia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a multicenter cardiac arrest database, with data from > 500 North American hospitals. We included in-hospital cardiac arrest events that occurred in community-dwelling adults with pneumonia within the first 72 h after hospital admission. We compared patient and event characteristics for patients with and without pneumonia. For patients with pneumonia, we also compared events according to event location. Results: We identified 4,453 episodes of early cardiac arrest in patients who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Among patients with preexisting pneumonia, only 36.5% were receiving mechanical ventilation and only 33.3% were receiving infusions of vasoactive drugs prior to cardiac arrest. Only 52.3% of patients on the ward were receiving ECG monitoring prior to cardiac arrest. Shockable rhythms were uncommon in all patients with pneumonia (ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, 14.8%). Patients on the ward were significantly older than patients in the ICU. Conclusions: In patients with preexisting pneumonia, cardiac arrest may occur in the absence of preceding shock or respiratory failure. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of abrupt cardiopulmonary collapse, and future studies should address this possibility. The mechanism may involve myocardial ischemia, a maladaptive response to hypoxia, sepsis-related cardiomyopathy, or other phenomena. PMID:22194592

  10. Cardiac Involvement in Sarcoidosis: Evolving Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Joseph P.; Hwang, Jennifer; Bradfield, Jason; Fishbein, Michael; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Tung, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Clinically evident sarcoidosis involving the heart has been noted in at least 2 to 7% of patients with sarcoidosis, but occult involvement is much higher (> 20%). Cardiac sarcoidosis is often not recognized antemortem, as sudden death may be the presenting feature. Cardiac involvement may occur at any point during the course of sarcoidosis and may occur in the absence of pulmonary or systemic involvement. Sarcoidosis can involve any part of the heart, with protean manifestations. Prognosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is related to extent and site(s) of involvement. Most deaths due to cardiac sarcoidosis are due to arrhythmias or conduction defects, but granulomatous infiltration of the myocardium may be lethal. The definitive diagnosis of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis is difficult. The yield of endomyocardial biopsies is low; treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis is often warranted even in the absence of histologic proof. Radionuclide scans are integral to the diagnosis. Currently, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans are the key imaging modalities to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. The prognosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is variable, but mortality rates of untreated cardiac sarcoidosis are high. Although randomized therapeutic trials have not been done, corticosteroids (alone or combined with additional immunosuppressive medications) remain the mainstay of treatment. Because of the potential for sudden cardiac death, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in any patient with cardiac sarcoidosis and serious ventricular arrhythmias or heart block, and should be considered for cardiomyopathy. Cardiac transplantation is a viable option for patients with end-stage cardiac sarcoidosis refractory to medical therapy. PMID:25007089

  11. Community involvement in out of hospital cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Ali; Raad, Mohamad; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; Bachir, Rana; El Sayed, Mazen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Developing countries including Lebanon report low survival rates and poor neurologic outcomes in affected victims. Community involvement through early recognition and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can improve OHCA survival. This study assesses knowledge and attitude of university students in Lebanon and identifies potential barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR. A cross-sectional survey was administered to university students. The questionnaire included questions regarding the following data elements: demographics, knowledge, and awareness about sudden cardiac arrest, CPR, automated external defibrillator (AED) use, prior CPR and AED training, ability to perform CPR or use AED, barriers to performing/learning CPR/AED, and preferred location for attending CPR/AED courses. Descriptive analysis followed by multivariate analysis was carried out to identify predictors and barriers to learning and performing CPR. A total of 948 students completed the survey. Participants’ mean age was 20.1 (±2.1) years with 53.1% women. Less than half of participants (42.9%) were able to identify all the presenting signs of cardiac arrest. Only 33.7% of participants felt able to perform CPR when witnessing a cardiac arrest. Fewer participants (20.3%) reported receiving previous CPR training. Several perceived barriers to learning and performing CPR were also reported. Significant predictors of willingness to perform CPR when faced with a cardiac arrest were: earning higher income, previous CPR training and feeling confident in one's ability to apply an AED, or perform CPR. Lacking enough expertise in performing CPR was a significant barrier to willingness to perform CPR. University students in Lebanon are familiar with the symptoms of cardiac arrest, however, they are not well trained in CPR and lack confidence to perform it. The attitude towards the importance of

  12. Light-chain cardiac amyloidosis: strategies to promote early diagnosis and cardiac response

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Martha; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterised by the aggregation of misfolded immunoglobulin light chain (LC), predominantly in the heart and kidneys, causing organ failure. If untreated, the median survival of patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis is 6 months from the onset of heart failure. Protracted time to establish a diagnosis, often lasting >1 year, is a frequent factor in poor treatment outcomes. Cardiologists, to whom patients are often referred, frequently miss the opportunity to diagnose cardiac AL amyloidosis. Nearly all typical cardiac support measures, with the exception of diuretics, are ineffective and may even worsen clinical symptoms, emphasising the need for accurate diagnosis. Patients with severe cardiac involvement face poor outcomes; heart transplantation is rarely an option because of multiorgan involvement, rapid clinical decline and challenges in predicting which patients will respond to treatment of the underlying plasma cell disorder. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with ‘source therapies’ that limit the production of amyloidogenic LC are associated with better survival and improvement in organ function after a median of 2.4 months following haematological complete response. However, organ recovery is often incomplete because these source therapies do not directly target deposited amyloid. Emerging amyloid-directed therapies may attenuate, and potentially reverse, organ dysfunction by clearing existing amyloid and inhibiting fibril formation of circulating aggregates. Improved recognition of AL amyloidosis by cardiologists allows for earlier treatment and improved outcomes. PMID:28456755

  13. [Role of cardiac magnetic resonance in cardiac involvement of Fabry disease].

    PubMed

    Serra, Viviana M; Barba, Miguel Angel; Torrá, Roser; Pérez De Isla, Leopoldo; López, Mónica; Calli, Andrea; Feltes, Gisela; Torras, Joan; Valverde, Victor; Zamorano, José L

    2010-09-04

    Fabry disease is a hereditary disorder. Clinical manifestations are multisystemic. The majority of the patients remain undiagnosed until late in life, when alterations could be irreversible. Early detection of cardiac symptoms is of major interest in Fabry's disease (FD) in order to gain access to enzyme replacement therapy. Echo-Doppler tissular imaging (TDI) has been used as a cardiologic early marker in FD. This study is intended to determine whether the cardiac magnetic resonance is as useful tool as TDI for the early detection of cardiac affectation in FD. Echocardiography, tissue Doppler and Cardio magnetic resonance was performed in 20 patients with confirmed Fabry Disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as septum and left ventricular posterior wall thickness ≥12 mm. An abnormal TDI velocity was defined as (Sa), (Ea) and/or (Aa) velocities <8 cm/s at either the septal or lateral corner. Late phase gadolinium-enhanced images sequences were obtained using magnetic resonance. Twenty patients included in the study were divided into three groups: 1. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy nor tissue Doppler impairment 2. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy and tissue Doppler impairment 3. Those with left ventricular hypertrophy and Tissue Doppler impairment. Late gadolinium enhancement was found in only one patient, who has already altered DTI and LVH. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is the only diagnostic tool able to provide early detection of cardiac affectation in patients with FD. Magnetic resonance provides information of the disease severity in patients with LVH, but can not be used as an early marker of cardiac disease in patients with FD. However MRI could be of great value for diagnostic stratification. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiac Vagal Regulation and Early Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 341 5 1/2-year-old children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study was the focus of a study on the relation between cardiac vagal regulation and peer status. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (suppression) to 3 cognitively and emotionally challenging tasks…

  15. Atypical patterns of cardiac involvement in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, J J; Elkholy, K; O'Brien, J; Kiernan, T

    2016-03-17

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our cardiology service with chest pain, exertional dyspnoea and palpitations on a background of known Fabry disease diagnosed with genetic testing in 1994. ECG showed sinus rhythm, shortened PR interval, widespread t wave inversion, q waves in the lateral leads and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Coronary angiogram showed only mild atheroma. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed anterolateral LVH and reduced left ventricular cavity size in keeping with Fabry cardiomyopathy. Cardiac MRI demonstrated asymmetric hypertrophy with evidence of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in the maximally hypertrophied segments from base to apex with late gadolinium enhancement in the anterior and anteroseptal walls. This was quite an atypical appearance for Fabry cardiomyopathy. This case highlights the heterogeneity of patterns of cardiac involvement that may be associated with this rare X-linked lysosomal disorder. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. [Cardiac involvement in Acute Chagas' Disease cases in the Amazon region].

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Ferreira, João Marcos; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Santana Filho, Franklin Simões de; Magalhães, Belisa Maria Lopes; Coelho, Leíla I A R C; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2010-06-01

    The cardiac involvement of five patients from the Amazon region with Acute Chagas' Disease (ACD) is described. Four of these patients presented probable oral transmission. All of them presented some degree of cardiac involvement, but there were no deaths.

  17. Evidence of cardiac involvement in the fetal inflammatory response syndrome: disruption of gene networks programming cardiac development in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Timothy; MacDonald, James W; Srinouanpranchanh, Sengkeo; Bammler, Theodor K; Merillat, Sean; Boldenow, Erica; Coleman, Michelle; Agnew, Kathy; Baldessari, Audrey; Stencel-Baerenwald, Jennifer E; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Green, Richard R; Gale, Michael J; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M

    2018-04-01

    Most early preterm births are associated with intraamniotic infection and inflammation, which can lead to systemic inflammation in the fetus. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome describes elevations in the fetal interleukin-6 level, which is a marker for inflammation and fetal organ injury. An understanding of the effects of inflammation on fetal cardiac development may lead to insight into the fetal origins of adult cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is associated with disruptions in gene networks that program fetal cardiac development. We obtained fetal cardiac tissue after necropsy from a well-described pregnant nonhuman primate model (pigtail macaque, Macaca nemestrina) of intrauterine infection (n=5) and controls (n=5). Cases with the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (fetal plasma interleukin-6 >11 pg/mL) were induced by either choriodecidual inoculation of a hypervirulent group B streptococcus strain (n=4) or intraamniotic inoculation of Escherichia coli (n=1). RNA and protein were extracted from fetal hearts and profiled by microarray and Luminex (Millipore, Billerica, MA) for cytokine analysis, respectively. Results were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Statistical and bioinformatics analyses included single gene analysis, gene set analysis, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), and Wilcoxon rank sum. Severe fetal inflammation developed in the context of intraamniotic infection and a disseminated bacterial infection in the fetus. Interleukin-6 and -8 in fetal cardiac tissues were elevated significantly in fetal inflammatory response syndrome cases vs controls (P<.05). A total of 609 probe sets were expressed differentially (>1.5-fold change, P<.05) in the fetal heart (analysis of variance). Altered expression of select genes was validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction that included

  18. Using Renyi entropy to detect early cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cornforth, David J; Tarvainen, Mika P; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to abnormal control of heart rate. CAN affects the correct operation of the heart and in turn leads to associated arrhythmias and heart attack. An open question is to what extent this condition is detectable by the measurement of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). An even more desirable option is to detect CAN in its early, preclinical stage, to improve treatment and outcomes. In previous work we have shown a difference in the Renyi spectrum between participants identified with well-defined CAN and controls. In this work we applied the multi-scale Renyi entropy for identification of early CAN in diabetes patients. Results suggest that Renyi entropy derived from a 20 minute, Lead-II ECG recording, forms a useful contribution to the detection of CAN even in the early stages of the disease. The positive α parameters (1 ≤ α ≤ 5) associated with the Renyi distribution indicated a significant difference (p < 0.00004) between controls and early CAN as well as definite CAN. This is a significant achievement given the simple nature of the information collected, and raises prospects of a simple screening test and improved outcomes of patients.

  19. Management of Cardiac Involvement in NeuroMuscular Diseases: Review

    PubMed Central

    Bouhouch, Rachida; Elhouari, Tarik; Oukerraj, Latifa; Fellat, Ibtissam; Zarzur, Jamila; Bennani, Rajaa; Arharbi, Mhamed

    2008-01-01

    Neuromuscular Diseases are a heterogeneous molecular, clinical and prognosis group. Progress has been achieved in the understanding and classification of these diseases. Cardiac involvement in neuromuscular diseases namely conduction disorders, ventricular dilatation and dilated cardiomyopathy with its impact on prognosis, is often dissociated from the peripheral myopathy. Therefore, close surveillance is mandatory in the affected patients. In this context, preventive therapy (beta-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) has been recently recommended in the most common Neuromuscular Diseases, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Myotonic Dystrophy. PMID:19337361

  20. Cardiac Med1 deletion promotes early lethality, cardiac remodeling, and transcriptional reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, Kathryn M.; Ponce, Jessica M.; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Hall, Duane D.

    2017-01-01

    The mediator complex, a multisubunit nuclear complex, plays an integral role in regulating gene expression by acting as a bridge between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Genetic deletion of mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in embryonic lethality, due in large part to impaired cardiac development. We first established that Med1 is dynamically expressed in cardiac development and disease, with marked upregulation of Med1 in both human and murine failing hearts. To determine if Med1 deficiency protects against cardiac stress, we generated two cardiac-specific Med1 knockout mouse models in which Med1 is conditionally deleted (Med1cKO mice) or inducibly deleted in adult mice (Med1cKO-MCM mice). In both models, cardiac deletion of Med1 resulted in early lethality accompanied by pronounced changes in cardiac function, including left ventricular dilation, decreased ejection fraction, and pathological structural remodeling. We next defined how Med1 deficiency alters the cardiac transcriptional profile using RNA-sequencing analysis. Med1cKO mice demonstrated significant dysregulation of genes related to cardiac metabolism, in particular genes that are coordinated by the transcription factors Pgc1α, Pparα, and Errα. Consistent with the roles of these transcription factors in regulation of mitochondrial genes, we observed significant alterations in mitochondrial size, mitochondrial gene expression, complex activity, and electron transport chain expression under Med1 deficiency. Taken together, these data identify Med1 as an important regulator of vital cardiac gene expression and maintenance of normal heart function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Disruption of transcriptional gene expression is a hallmark of dilated cardiomyopathy; however, its etiology is not well understood. Cardiac-specific deletion of the transcriptional coactivator mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in dilated cardiomyopathy, decreased cardiac function, and lethality. Med1 deletion disrupted cardiac

  1. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Cordelia C.; And Others

    Part of a volume which explores current issues in service delivery to infants and toddlers with handicapping conditions, this chapter discusses the nature of parent involvement in early childhood special education. Acceptance of the basic axiom of parent involvement needs to be accompanied by an understanding of individual differences in family…

  2. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakyemez, Sevcan

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  3. Early patterning and specification of cardiac progenitors in gastrulating mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Devine, W Patrick; Wythe, Joshua D; George, Matthew; Koshiba-Takeuchi, Kazuko; Bruneau, Benoit G

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian heart development requires precise allocation of cardiac progenitors. The existence of a multipotent progenitor for all anatomic and cellular components of the heart has been predicted but its identity and contribution to the two cardiac progenitor ‘fields’ has remained undefined. Here we show, using clonal genetic fate mapping, that Mesp1+ cells in gastrulating mesoderm are rapidly specified into committed cardiac precursors fated for distinct anatomic regions of the heart. We identify Smarcd3 as a marker of early specified cardiac precursors and identify within these precursors a compartment boundary at the future junction of the left and right ventricles that arises prior to morphogenesis. Our studies define the timing and hierarchy of cardiac progenitor specification and demonstrate that the cellular and anatomical fate of mesoderm-derived cardiac cells is specified very early. These findings will be important to understand the basis of congenital heart defects and to derive cardiac regeneration strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03848.001 PMID:25296024

  4. Early Cardiac Involvement Affects Left Ventricular Longitudinal Function in Females Carrying α-Galactosidase A Mutation: Role of Hybrid Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Letizia; Imbriaco, Massimo; Nappi, Carmela; Nicolai, Emanuele; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Diomiaiuti, Tommaso Claudio; Riccio, Eleonora; Duro, Giovanni; Pisani, Antonio; Trimarco, Bruno; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may differentiate mature fibrosis or scar from fibrosis associated to active inflammation in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease, even in nonhypertrophic stage. This study was designed to compare the results of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance cardiac imaging with those of speckle-tracking echocardiography in heterozygous Anderson-Fabry disease females. Twenty-four heterozygous females carrying α-galactosidase A mutation and without left ventricular hypertrophy underwent cardiac positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance using 18 F-FDG for glucose uptake and 2-dimensional strain echocardiography. 18 F-FDG myocardial uptake was quantified by measuring the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardized uptake value using a 17-segment model. Focal 18 F-FDG uptake with COV >0.17 was detected in 13 patients, including 2 patients with late gadolinium enhancement at magnetic resonance. COV was 0.30±0.14 in patients with focal 18 F-FDG uptake and 0.12±0.03 in those without ( P <0.001). Strain echocardiography revealed worse global longitudinal systolic strain in patients with COV >0.17 compared with those with COV ≤0.17 (-18.5±2.7% versus -22.2±1.8%; P =0.024). For predicting COV >0.17, a global longitudinal strain >-19.8% had 77% sensitivity and 91% specificity and a value >2 dysfunctional segments 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In females carrying α-galactosidase A mutation, focal 18 F-FDG uptake represents an early sign of disease-related myocardial damage and is associated with impaired left ventricular longitudinal function. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammation plays an important role in glycosphingolipids storage disorders. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Cardiac involvement in genotype-positive Fabry disease patients assessed by cardiovascular MR.

    PubMed

    Kozor, Rebecca; Grieve, Stuart M; Tchan, Michel C; Callaghan, Fraser; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Denaro, Charles; Moon, James C; Figtree, Gemma A

    2016-02-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has the potential to provide early detection of cardiac involvement in Fabry disease. We aimed to gain further insight into this by assessing a cohort of Fabry patients using CMR. Fifty genotype-positive Fabry subjects (age 45±2 years; 50% male) referred for CMR and 39 matched controls (age 40±2 years; 59% male) were recruited. Patients had a mean Mainz severity score index of 15±2 (range 0-46), reflecting an overall mild degree of disease severity. Compared with controls, Fabry subjects had a 34% greater left ventricular mass (LVM) index (82±5 vs 61±2 g/m(2), p=0.001) and had a significantly greater papillary muscle contribution to total LVM (13±1 vs 6±0.5%, p<0.001), even in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 15 Fabry subjects (9/21 males and 6/23 females). The most common site for LGE was the basal inferolateral wall (93%, 14/15). There was a positive association between LVM index and LGE. Despite this, there were two males and three females with no LVH that displayed LGE. Of Fabry subjects who were not on enzyme replacement therapy at enrolment (n=28), six were reclassified as having cardiac involvement (four LVH-negative/LGE-positive, one LVH-positive/LGE-positive and one LVH-positive/LGE-negative). CMR was able to detect cardiac involvement in 48% of this Fabry cohort, despite the overall mild disease phenotype of the cohort. Of those not on ERT, 21% were reclassified as having cardiac involvement allowing improved risk stratification and targeting of therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Right ventricular involvement in cardiac sarcoidosis demonstrated with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Smedema, Jan-Peter; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Ainslie, Gillian; Ector, Joris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Crijns, Harry J G M

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is reported in up to 30% of patients. Left ventricular involvement demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been well validated. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement in patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. We prospectively evaluated 87 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis with contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for right ventricular involvement. Pulmonary artery pressures were non-invasively evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Patient characteristics were compared between the groups with and without right ventricular involvement, and right ventricular enhancement was correlated with pulmonary hypertension, ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was demonstrated in 30 patients (34%). Fourteen patients (16%) had right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement, with sole right ventricular enhancement in only two patients. The pattern of right ventricular enhancement consisted of right ventricular outflow tract enhancement in 1 patient, free wall enhancement in 8 patients, ventricular insertion point enhancement in 10 patients, and enhancement of the right side of the interventricular septum in 11 patients. Pulmonary arterial hypertension correlated with the presence of right ventricular enhancement (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement correlated with systolic ventricular dysfunction (P < 0.001), hypertrophy (P = 0.001), and dilation (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement was present in 16% of patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 48% of patients with left ventricular enhancement. The presence of right ventricular enhancement correlated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  7. Right ventricular involvement in cardiac sarcoidosis demonstrated with cardiac magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    van Geuns, Robert‐Jan; Ainslie, Gillian; Ector, Joris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Crijns, Harry J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is reported in up to 30% of patients. Left ventricular involvement demonstrated by contrast‐enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been well validated. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement in patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Methods and results We prospectively evaluated 87 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis with contrast‐enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for right ventricular involvement. Pulmonary artery pressures were non‐invasively evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Patient characteristics were compared between the groups with and without right ventricular involvement, and right ventricular enhancement was correlated with pulmonary hypertension, ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was demonstrated in 30 patients (34%). Fourteen patients (16%) had right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement, with sole right ventricular enhancement in only two patients. The pattern of right ventricular enhancement consisted of right ventricular outflow tract enhancement in 1 patient, free wall enhancement in 8 patients, ventricular insertion point enhancement in 10 patients, and enhancement of the right side of the interventricular septum in 11 patients. Pulmonary arterial hypertension correlated with the presence of right ventricular enhancement (P < 0.001). Right ventricular enhancement correlated with systolic ventricular dysfunction (P < 0.001), hypertrophy (P = 0.001), and dilation (P < 0.001). Conclusions Right ventricular enhancement was present in 16% of patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 48% of patients with left ventricular enhancement. The presence of right ventricular enhancement correlated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation. PMID:29154434

  8. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  9. Cardiac involvement in ANCA (+) and ANCA (-) Churg-Strauss syndrome evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Karabela, Georgia; Gialafos, Elias; Stavropoulos, Efthymios; Spiliotis, George; Katsifis, Gikas; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2013-10-01

    The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) pattern of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) includes myopericarditis, diffuse subendocardial vasculitis or myocardial infarction with or without cardiac symptoms and is usually associated with lack of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). To correlate the CMR pattern with ANCA in CSS, compare it with healthy controls and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and re-evaluate 2 yrs after the first CMR. 28 consecutive CSS, aged 42±7 yrs, were referred for CMR and 2 yrs re-evaluation. The CMR included left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), T2-weighted (T2-W), early (EGE) and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) imaging. Their results were compared with 28 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) under remission and 28 controls with normal myocardial perfusion, assessed by scintigraphy. CMR revealed acute cardiac lesions in all ANCA (-) CSS with active disease and acute cardiac symptoms and only in one asymptomatic ANCA (+) CSS, with active disease. Diffuse subendocardial fibrosis (DSF) or past myocarditis was identified in both ANCA(+) and ANCA (-) CSS, but with higher incidence and fibrosis amount in ANCA (-) CSS (p<0.05). In comparison to SLE, both ANCA (+) and ANCA (-) CSS had higher incidence of DSF, lower incidence of myocarditis and no evidence of myocardial infarction, due to coronary artery disease (p<0.05). In 2 yrs CMR follow up, 1/3 of CSS with DSF presented LV function deterioration and one died, although immunosuppressive treatment was given early after CSS diagnosis. Cardiac involvement either as DSF or myocarditis, can be detected in both ANCA (+) and ANCA (-) CSS, although more clinically overt in ANCA (-). DSF carries an ominous prognosis for LV function. CMR, due to its capability to detect disease severity, before cardiac dysfunction takes place, is an excellent tool for CSS risk stratification and treatment individualization.

  10. [Sudden cardiac death out of the hospital and early defibrillation].

    PubMed

    Marín-Huerta, E; Peinado, R; Asso, A; Loma, A; Villacastín, J P; Muñiz, J; Brugada, J

    2000-06-01

    Since most sudden cardiac death victims show neither symptoms before the event nor other signs or risk factors that would have identified them as a high risk population before their cardiac arrest, emergency out-of-hospital medical services must be improved in order to obtain a higher survival in these patients. Early defibrillation is an essential part of the chain of survival that also includes the early identification of the victim, activation of the emergency medical system, immediate arrival of trained personnel who can perform basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early initiation of advanced cardiac life support that would raise the survival rate for sudden cardiac arrest victims. Many studies have demonstrated the enormous importance of early defibrillation in patients with a cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. The most important predictor of survival in these individuals is the time that elapses until electric defibrillation, the longer the time to defbrillation the lower the number of patients who are eventually discharged. Multiple studies have demonstrated that automatic external defibrillation will reduce the time elapsed to defibrillation and thus improve survival. For these reason, public access defibrillation to allow the use of automatic external defibrillators by minimally trained members of the lay public, has received increasing interest on the part of a groving number of companies, cities or countries. The automatic external defibrillaton, as performed by a lay person is being investigated. The liberalization of its application, if is demonstrated to be effective, will need to be accompanied by legal measures to endorse it and appropriate health education, probably during secondary education.

  11. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  12. Gross motor development is delayed following early cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Long, Suzanne H; Harris, Susan R; Eldridge, Beverley J; Galea, Mary P

    2012-10-01

    To describe the gross motor development of infants who had undergone cardiac surgery in the neonatal or early infant period. Gross motor performance was assessed when infants were 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. This scale is a discriminative gross motor outcome measure that may be used to assess infants from birth to independent walking. Infants were videotaped during the assessment and were later evaluated by a senior paediatric physiotherapist who was blinded to each infant's medical history, including previous clinical assessments. Demographic, diagnostic, surgical, critical care, and medical variables were considered with respect to gross motor outcomes. A total of 50 infants who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgery at less than or up to 8 weeks of age, between July 2006 and January 2008, were recruited to this study and were assessed at 4 months of age. Approximately, 92%, 84%, and 94% of study participants returned for assessment at 8, 12, and 16 months of age, respectively. Study participants had delayed gross motor development across all study time points; 62% of study participants did not have typical gross motor development during the first year of life. Hospital length of stay was associated with gross motor outcome across infancy. Active gross motor surveillance of all infants undergoing early cardiac surgery is recommended. Further studies of larger congenital heart disease samples are required, as are longitudinal studies that determine the significance of these findings at school age and beyond.

  13. Predictors of early and late stroke following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Richard; Healey, Jeff S.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Wang, Julie; Danter, Matthew R.; Tu, Jack V.; Novick, Richard; Fremes, Stephen; Teoh, Kevin; Khera, Vikas; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Much is known about the short-term risks of stroke following cardiac surgery. We examined the rate and predictors of long-term stroke in a cohort of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Methods: We obtained linked data for patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the province of Ontario between 1996 and 2006. We analyzed the incidence of stroke and death up to 2 years postoperatively. Results: Of 108 711 patients, 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–1.9%) had a stroke perioperatively, and 3.6% (95% CI 3.5%–3.7%) had a stroke within the ensuing 2 years. The strongest predictors of both early and late stroke were advanced age (≥ 65 year; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for all stroke 1.9, 95% CI 1.8–2.0), a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.3), peripheral vascular disease (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5–1.7), combined coronary bypass grafting and valve surgery (adjusted HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–1.8) and valve surgery alone (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.5). Preoperative need for dialysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.6–2.8) and new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) were predictors of only early stroke. A CHADS2 score of 2 or higher was associated with an increased risk of stroke or death compared with a score of 0 or 1 (19.9% v. 9.3% among patients with a history of atrial fibrillation, 16.8% v. 7.8% among those with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation and 14.8% v. 5.8% among those without this condition). Interpretation: Patients who had cardiac surgery were at highest risk of stroke in the early postoperative period and had continued risk over the ensuing 2 years, with similar risk factors over these periods. New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation was a predictor of only early stroke. The CHADS2 score predicted stroke risk among patients with and without atrial fibrillation. PMID:25047983

  14. Management of cardiac involvement in muscular dystrophies: paediatric versus adult forms.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Alberto; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Papa, Andrea Antonio; Petillo, Roberta; Orsini, Chiara; Scutifero, Marianna; Nigro, Gerardo; Politano, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders characterized by muscle degeneration and consequent substitution by fat and fibrous tissue. Cardiac involvement is an almost constant feature in a great part of these diseases, as both primary myocardial involvement and secondary involvement due to respiratory insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension or reduced mobility. Primary myocardial involvement usually begins more precociously compared to the secondary involvement. In fact the first signs of cardiomyopathy can be observed in the first decade of life in muscular dystrophies with childhood onset and later in adult form of muscular dystrophies as myotonic dystrophy type 1. At least an annual cardiac follow-up is recommended in these patients including clinical and instrumental examination (ECG, 24h Holter monitoring, ECHO), to detect cardiac involvement. A more frequent monitoring may be required according to the type of cardiomyopathy and the patient's needs. In this short review practical guide-lines are shown for physicians routinely involved in the management of these patients.

  15. HSP27 Alleviates Cardiac Aging in Mice via a Mechanism Involving Antioxidation and Mitophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shenglan; Wang, Yana; Zhang, Xiaojin; Kong, Qiuyue; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aging-induced cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of cardiac aging. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) protects cardiac function against ischemia or chemical challenge. We hypothesized that HSP27 attenuates cardiac aging. Transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific expression of the HSP27 gene and wild-type (WT) littermates were employed in the experiments. Echocardiography revealed a significant decline in the cardiac function of old WT mice compared with young WT mice. In striking contrast, the aging-induced impairment of cardiac function was attenuated in old Tg mice compared with old WT mice. Levels of cardiac aging markers were lower in old Tg mouse hearts than in old WT mouse hearts. Less interstitial fibrosis and lower contents of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins were detected in old Tg hearts than in old WT hearts. Furthermore, old Tg hearts demonstrated lower accumulation of LC3-II and p62 than old WT hearts. Levels of Atg13, Vps34, and Rab7 were also higher in old Tg hearts than in old WT hearts. Additionally, old Tg hearts had higher levels of PINK1 and Parkin than old WT hearts, suggesting that mitophagy was activated in old Tg hearts. Taken together, HSP27 alleviated cardiac aging and this action involved antioxidation and mitophagy activation.

  16. Evaluation of early cardiac dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with or without anticardiolipin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Barutcu, A; Aksu, F; Ozcelik, F; Barutcu, C A E; Umit, G E; Pamuk, O N; Altun, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction, an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in terms of cardiac effects. This study involved 80 patients: a study group (n = 50) and control group (n = 30). They were categorized into four subgroups: anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (+) (n = 14) and aCL (-) (n = 36); systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 6 (n = 15) and SLEDAI < 6 (n = 35); disease period ≥ 5 years (n = 21) and disease period < 5 years (n = 29); major organ involvement (+) (n = 19), major organ involvement (-) (n = 31). The ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') for the study group was found to be higher than the control (p < 0.01). Systolic septal motion velocity (Ssm) was lower in the study group compared with the control (p < 0.01). Left atrium (LA) dimension was greater in the study group than the control (p < 0.01). Ssm was found to be lower in the aCL (+) patients compared with the control and aCL (-) groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). LA dimension was greater in the aCL (+) and (-) groups compared with the control, (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively) and aCL groups compared with each other (p < 0.05). The E/E' ratio for the aCL (+) and (-) groups was found to be greater than the control (p < 0.05). In the study, both the Ssm and the late diastolic septal velocity (sA') was found to be lower in the SLEDAI ≥ 6 group compared with SLEDAI<6 group, (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). LA dimension was statistically greater in the SLEDAI ≥ 6 group compared with the SLEDAI <6 group (p < 0.001). E' and early diastolic septal velocity (sE') were statistically lower in the disease period >5 years group compared with the disease period <5 years group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Carrying out regular scans with TTE

  17. Brain Mechanisms Involved in Early Visual Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Bernard Z.

    This document presents an analysis of the early attending responses and orienting reactions of infants which can be observed at birth and shortly thereafter. Focus is on one specific orienting reaction, the early direction and maintenance of one's eyes and head toward certain stimuli instead of others. The physical properties of stimuli that…

  18. [Systemic sclerosis: Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins in severe cardiac involvement?

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, C; Riviere, S; Cohen, A; Gatfosse, M; Ederhy, S; Fain, O; Mekinian, A

    2018-07-01

    The heart involvement in systemic sclerosis is frequent and can touch various sites. The prognosis in the presence of heart disease is poor, but few data are available about its management. We report the case of 48 years old woman with systemic sclerosis which presented severe heart involvement. She has severe heart failure, supraventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic pericarditis, which required surgical intervention and immunosuppressive drugs (steroids with rituximab). Despite this treatment, she has persistent severe heart impaired function and intravenous immunoglobulins have been initiated. She experienced progressively the improvement of dyspnea, of heart systolic ejection fraction and decrease of Rodnan scale. Our case illustrates a severe heart involvement in systemic sclerosis which have been improved by intravenous immunoglobulins. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Senescence as a novel mechanism involved in β-adrenergic receptor mediated cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhu, Baoling; Sun, Yan; Shi, Dandan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian; Xue, Lixiang

    2017-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy used to be elucidated by biomechanical, stretch-sensitive or neurohumoral mechanisms. However, a series of hints have indicated that hypertrophy process simulates senescence program. However, further evidence need to be pursued. To verify this hypothesis and examine whether cardiac senescence is a novel mechanism of hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, 2-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to isoproterenol infusion (0.25mg/kg/day) for 7 days by subcutaneous injection). Key characteristics of senescence (senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, lipofuscin, expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors) were examined in cardiac hypertrophy model. Senescence-like phenotype, such as increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, accumulation of lipofuscin and high levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (e.g. p16, p19, p21 and p53) was found along the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac-specific transcription factor GATA4 increased in isoproterenol-treated cardiomyocytes as well. We further found that myocardial hypertrophy could be inhibited by resveratrol, an anti-aging compound, in a dose-dependent manner. Our results showed for the first time that cardiac senescence is involved in the process of pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol. PMID:28783759

  20. Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from a sample of juveniles to examine how racial differences in early police contact, and important social environments—family, school, and neighborhoods—affect later contact and arrests, controlling for self-reported delinquency. We find that early (in middle school) contact with police is an important predictor of later (high school) arrests. Also we found that, in addition to being male and living in a low-income family, children who have parents who have a history of arrest, who have experienced school disciplinary actions, who have delinquent peers, and who are in networks with deviant adults are more likely to have problems with law enforcement. These factors help to explain racial differences in police contacts and arrests. PMID:20190860

  1. Early Transthoracic Echocardiography after Cardiac Surgery Predicts Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lacalzada, Juan; Jiménez, Juan José; Iribarren, José Luis; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Martín-Cabeza, Marta; Izquierdo, María Manuela; Marí-López, Belén; García-González, Martín Jesús; Jorge-Pérez, Pablo; Barragán, Antonio; Laynez, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is frequent after cardiac surgery. We aimed to establish a predictive model of POAF based on postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. This study included 147 patients (aged 67 ± 11 years; 109 men) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement. TTE and Doppler tissue imaging were performed on intensive care unit arrival after surgery. All patients were continuously monitored during hospitalization. The end point was the appearance of POAF. POAF appeared in 37 patients (25.2%). These patients were older (69 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 12 years; P < 0.001) and had increased long axis of the left atrium (LA) dimension (5.4 ± 1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 cm, P = 0.02), lower early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (e') (6.9 ± 2.1 vs. 8 ± 1.8 cm/sec; P < 0.01), and higher early diastolic pulsed Doppler mitral ratio (E)/e' (E/e') (17.4 ± 6.8 vs. 13.8 ± 6; P = 0.01). Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction grade (DFG) of 2 or 3 relative to grade 0 was significant: odds ratio (OR) 22.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.52-57.2; P < 0.001, and OR: 23.6, 95% CI: 3.57-60.1; P = 0.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of POAF were age (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18; P < 0.05), long-axis LA dimension (OR: 6.24, 95% CI: 1.97-8.23; P = 0.0017), DFG-2 (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.57-15.81; P < 0.001), and DFG-3 (OR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.11-25.37; P < 0.001). Apart from age, the simple determination by postoperative TTE of long-axis LA dimension and DFG after cardiac surgery proved to be powerful independent predictors of POAF and may be useful for risk stratification of these patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Parent Involvement in Early Intervention: What Role Does Setting Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Block, Stephen R.; Robinson, Cordelia C.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared levels of parent involvement in early intervention services for children under three which were delivered in community settings (children's homes and child care programs) and specialized settings (early intervention centers and provider offices) in the USA. Respondents reported the highest levels of parental involvement in the…

  3. Early Prognostication Markers in Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Karapetkova, Maria; Koenig, Matthew A.; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Established prognostication markers, such as clinical findings, electroencephalography (EEG), and biochemical markers, used by clinicians to predict neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) are altered under therapeutic hypothermia (TH) conditions and their validity remains uncertain. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for evidence on the current standards for neurologic outcome prediction for out-of-hospital CA patients treated with TH and the validity of a wide range of prognostication markers. Relevant studies that suggested one or several established biomarkers, and multimodal approaches for prognostication were included and reviewed. Results While the prognostic accuracy of various tests has been questioned after TH, pupillary light reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) are still strongly associated with negative outcome for early prognostication. Increasingly, EEG background activity has also been identified as a valid predictor for outcome after 72 hours after CA and a preferred prognostic method in clinical settings. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and CT, can identify functional and structural brain injury, but are not readily available at the patient’s bedside because of limited availability and high costs. Conclusions A multimodal algorithm composed of neurological examination, EEG-based quantitative testing, and SSEP, in conjunction with newer MRI sequences, if available, holds promise for accurate prognostication in CA patients treated with TH. In order to avoid premature withdrawal of care, prognostication should be performed later than 72 hours after CA. PMID:26228521

  4. Early prognostication markers in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Karapetkova, M; Koenig, M A; Jia, X

    2016-03-01

    Established prognostication markers, such as clinical findings, electroencephalography (EEG) and biochemical markers, used by clinicians to predict neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) are altered under therapeutic hypothermia (TH) conditions and their validity remains uncertain. MEDLINE and Embase were searched for evidence on the current standards for neurological outcome prediction for out-of-hospital CA patients treated with TH and the validity of a wide range of prognostication markers. Relevant studies that suggested one or several established biomarkers and multimodal approaches for prognostication are included and reviewed. Whilst the prognostic accuracy of various tests after TH has been questioned, pupillary light reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials are still strongly associated with negative outcome for early prognostication. Increasingly, EEG background activity has also been identified as a valid predictor for outcome after 72 h after CA and a preferred prognostic method in clinical settings. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, can identify functional and structural brain injury but are not readily available at the patient's bedside because of limited availability and high costs. A multimodal algorithm composed of neurological examination, EEG-based quantitative testing and somatosensory evoked potentials, in conjunction with newer magnetic resonance imaging sequences, if available, holds promise for accurate prognostication in CA patients treated with TH. In order to avoid premature withdrawal of care, prognostication should be performed more than 72 h after CA. © 2015 EAN.

  5. Early aspirin use and the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miae; Bergmark, Brian A; Zelniker, Thomas A; Mehra, Mandeep R; Stewart, Garrick C; Page, Deborah S; Woodcome, Erica L; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Gabardi, Steven; Givertz, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated. Propensity scores for aspirin treatment were estimated using boosting models and applied by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Despite a preponderance of risk factors for CAV among patients receiving aspirin (male sex, ischemic heart disease as the etiology of heart failure, and smoking), aspirin therapy was associated with a lower rate of moderate or severe CAV at 5 years. Event-free survival was 95.9% for patients exposed to aspirin compared with 79.6% for patients without aspirin exposure (log-rank p = 0.005). IPTW-weighted Cox regression revealed a powerful inverse association between aspirin use and moderate to severe CAV (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59), which was directionally consistent for CAV of any severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.08). This propensity score-based comparative observational analysis suggests that early aspirin exposure may be associated with a reduced risk of development of moderate to severe CAV. These findings warrant prospective validation in controlled investigations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Parental Involvement in Early Years Education in China: Development and Validation of the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and validated an instrument, the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS), that can be widely used in both local and international contexts to assess Chinese parental involvement in early childhood education. The study was carried out in two stages: (1) focus group interviews were conducted with 41 teachers and 35…

  7. Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis involving implantable cardiac devices.

    PubMed

    Athan, Eugene; Chu, Vivian H; Tattevin, Pierre; Selton-Suty, Christine; Jones, Phillip; Naber, Christoph; Miró, José M; Ninot, Salvador; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Spelman, Denis; Hoen, Bruno; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Cecchi, Enrico; Thuny, Franck; Hannan, Margaret M; Pappas, Paul; Henry, Margaret; Fowler, Vance G; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Wang, Andrew

    2012-04-25

    Infection of implantable cardiac devices is an emerging disease with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE) with attention to its health care association and to evaluate the association between device removal during index hospitalization and outcome. Prospective cohort study using data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), conducted June 2000 through August 2006 in 61 centers in 28 countries. Patients were hospitalized adults with definite endocarditis as defined by modified Duke endocarditis criteria. In-hospital and 1-year mortality. CDIE was diagnosed in 177 (6.4% [95% CI, 5.5%-7.4%]) of a total cohort of 2760 patients with definite infective endocarditis. The clinical profile of CDIE included advanced patient age (median, 71.2 years [interquartile range, 59.8-77.6]); causation by staphylococci (62 [35.0% {95% CI, 28.0%-42.5%}] Staphylococcus aureus and 56 [31.6% {95% CI, 24.9%-39.0%}] coagulase-negative staphylococci); and a high prevalence of health care-associated infection (81 [45.8% {95% CI, 38.3%-53.4%}]). There was coexisting valve involvement in 66 (37.3% [95% CI, 30.2%-44.9%]) patients, predominantly tricuspid valve infection (43/177 [24.3%]), with associated higher mortality. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 14.7% (26/177 [95% CI, 9.8%-20.8%]) and 23.2% (41/177 [95% CI, 17.2%-30.1%]), respectively. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed a survival benefit at 1 year for device removal during the initial hospitalization (28/141 patients [19.9%] who underwent device removal during the index hospitalization had died at 1 year, vs 13/34 [38.2%] who did not undergo device removal; hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.22-0.82]). Among patients with CDIE, the rate of concomitant valve infection is high, as is mortality, particularly if there is valve involvement. Early device

  8. Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2004-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.

  9. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciT

    Poręba, Rafał, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlationsmore » analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear

  10. Accuracy of blood culture for early diagnosis of mediastinitis in febrile patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    San Juan, R; Aguado, J M; López, M J; Lumbreras, C; Enriquez, F; Sanz, F; Chaves, F; López-Medrano, F; Lizasoain, M; Rufilanchas, J J

    2005-03-01

    Postsurgical mediastinitis (PSM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery procedures. Although prompt diagnosis is crucial in these patients, neither clinical data nor imaging techniques have shown enough sensitivity or specificity for early diagnosis of PSM. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of blood cultures as a diagnostic test for the early detection of PSM in patients who become febrile after cardiac surgery procedures. During a 4-year period (1999-2002), patients who developed fever (>37.8 degrees C) in the first 60 days after a cardiac surgery procedure were evaluated. Blood cultures were drawn from these patients. PSM was defined as deep infection involving retrosternal tissue and/or the sternal bone directly observed by the surgeon and confirmed microbiologically. Three criteria for positivity of blood cultures were applied: bacteremia, staphylococcal bacteremia, or Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. For purposes of the analysis, a positive blood culture in patients with PSM was considered a true-positive test and a negative blood culture a false-negative test. Otherwise, in febrile patients without PSM in the postsurgery period, a positive blood culture was considered a false-positive test and a negative blood culture a true-negative test. Blood cultures were drawn from 266 febrile patients in the postsurgery period. PSM occurred in 38 patients (26 cases due to S. aureus, 8 to Staphylococcus epidermidis, 3 to gram-negative enteric bacteria, and one to Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Within the 60-day postsurgical period, blood culture as a diagnostic test was most accurate in patients with S. aureus bacteremia, providing 68% sensitivity, 98% specificity, a positive predictive value of 87%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. If the analysis was limited to the period during which patients are at maximum risk for PSM (day 7-20), the values in patients with S. aureus bacteremia were as follows

  11. Management of Cardiac Involvement Associated With Neuromuscular Diseases: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Brian; Mahle, William T; Auerbach, Scott; Clemens, Paula; Domenighetti, Andrea A; Jefferies, John L; Judge, Daniel P; Lal, Ashwin K; Markham, Larry W; Parks, W James; Tsuda, Takeshi; Wang, Paul J; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2017-09-26

    For many neuromuscular diseases (NMDs), cardiac disease represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of cardiac disease in NMDs is made challenging by the broad clinical heterogeneity that exists among many NMDs and by limited knowledge about disease-specific cardiovascular pathogenesis and course-modifying interventions. The overlay of compromise in peripheral muscle function and other organ systems, such as the lungs, also makes the simple application of endorsed adult or pediatric heart failure guidelines to the NMD population problematic. In this statement, we provide background on several NMDs in which there is cardiac involvement, highlighting unique features of NMD-associated myocardial disease that require clinicians to tailor their approach to prevention and treatment of heart failure. Undoubtedly, further investigations are required to best inform future guidelines on NMD-specific cardiovascular health risks, treatments, and outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    André, Lucas; Gouzi, Fares; Thireau, Jérôme; Meyer, Gregory; Boissiere, Julien; Delage, Martine; Abdellaoui, Aldja; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacampagne, Alain; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Hayot, Maurice; Richard, Sylvain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality. We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the possible involvement of related oxidative stress. Wistar rats exposed chronically (4 weeks) to sustained urban CO pollution presented more arrhythmic events than controls during recovery after cardiac challenge with isoprenaline in vivo. Sudden death occurred in 22% of CO-exposed rats versus 0% for controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation, was increased in left ventricular tissue of CO-exposed rats. Cardiomyocytes isolated from CO-exposed rats showed higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (measured with MitoSox Red dye), higher diastolic Ca(2+) resulting from SR calcium leak and an higher occurrence of irregular Ca(2+) transients (measured with Indo-1) in comparison to control cells after a high pacing sequence. Acute treatment with a ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine, 20 mmol/L, 1 h) prevented this sequence of alterations and decreased the number of arrhythmic cells following high pacing. Chronic CO exposure promotes oxidative stress that alters Ca(2+) homeostasis (through RYR2 and SERCA defects) and thereby mediates the triggering of ventricular arrhythmia after cardiac stress that can lead to sudden death.

  13. Ventilatory gas exchange and early response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Olson, Lyle J; Shen, Win K; Cha, Yong-Mei; Johnson, Bruce D

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an accepted intervention for chronic heart failure (HF), although approximately 30% of patients are non-responders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise respiratory gas exchange obtained before CRT implantation predicts early response to CRT. Before CRT implantation, patients were assigned to either a mild-moderate group (Mod G, n = 33, age 67 ± 10 years) or a moderate-severe group (Sev G, n = 31, age 67 ± 10 years), based on abnormalities in exercise gas exchange. Severity of impaired gas exchange was based on a score from the measures of VE/VCO(2) slope, resting PETCO(2) and change of PETCO(2) from resting to peak. All measurements were performed before and 3 to 4 months after CRT implantation. Although Mod G did not have improved gas exchange (p > 0.05), Sev G improved significantly (p < 0.05) post-CRT. In addition, Mod G did not show improved right ventricular systolic pressure (RSVP; pre vs post: 37 ± 14 vs 36 ± 11 mm Hg, p > 0.05), yet Sev G showed significantly improved RVSP, by 23% (50 ± 14 vs 42 ± 12 mm Hg, p < 0.05). Both groups had improved left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.05), New York Heart Association class (p < 0.05) and quality of life (p < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between groups (p > 0.05). No significant changes were observed in brain natriuretic peptide in either group post-CRT. Based on pre-CRT implantation ventilatory gas exchange, subjects with the most impaired values appeared to have more improvement post-CRT, possibly associated with a decrease in RVSP. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy on cardiac function and rhythm in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Padala, Santosh K; Peaslee, Samuel; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Steckman, David A; Judson, Marc A

    2017-01-15

    There is limited data on the effect of corticosteroid therapy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). We sought to examine the impact of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy, within a month of CS diagnosis, on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), and atrioventricular (AV) block. We retrospectively identified 30 CS patients from a large university sarcoidosis clinic. The effect of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy on LVEF was assessed by serial echocardiography, and on VAs and AV block was assessed by Holter monitoring and/or device interrogations. The median time from diagnosis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis to CS was 40months. 90% (27/30) of the CS patients received corticosteroid therapy and 85% percent (23/27) had early initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Fourteen patients (47%) had reduced EF<50%. 9/14 patients who had early initiation of corticosteroid therapy had improvement in mean EF (25% to 46%, P<0.001); 5/14 patients who had a delay in initiation or who did not receive corticosteroids had no improvement in mean EF (41% to 37%, P=0.47). Fourteen patients (47%) had VAs and 5 patients (17%) had advanced AV block. Early initiation of corticosteroid therapy resulted in no VA recurrences in 8/11 patients (72%), and complete recovery of AV conduction in 2/3 patients (67%). Patients with VAs (n=3) or advanced AV block (n=2) who failed to receive early corticosteroid therapy did not show improvement. There is often a delay in manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis for several years from the diagnosis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis. Prompt initiation of corticosteroid therapy in CS patients may improve outcomes whereas delayed initiation of corticosteroids or failure to use corticosteroids may be associated with worse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early rheumatoid disease. II. Patterns of joint involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A; Benn, R T; Corbett, M; Wood, P H

    1976-01-01

    Data from the first research clinic visit (Fleming and others, 1976) have been subjected to factor analysis to identify early patterns of joint involvement. Nine patterns emerged. Two patterns, if present early, were found to have prognostic significance. An eventually more severe disease was associated with a pattern of large joint involvement (shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee) and a pattern based on metatarsophalangeal joints I and III. PMID:970995

  16. Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James A.; And Others

    Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on…

  17. The Value of Early Literacy and Parental Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheri Ann

    Because early literacy development occurs through social processes, parents need to be involved in the beginning stages of their children's reading. This thesis details the need for early literacy experiences and provides evidence that reading success begins at home. The thesis distinguishes illiteracy and aliteracy, defines literacy, discusses…

  18. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status.

    PubMed

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2017-07-01

    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  20. Diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Veeravahu, M

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis has always posed problems because of its rarity and the difficulty of excluding coincidental liver disease caused by a multitude of pathogens. Case reports deal predominantly with jaundiced homosexual men in whom syphilis is discovered later, and the prospective studies of patients with early syphilis disclose only mild biochemical abnormalities in liver function test results. There is no single characteristic feature attributable to early syphilitic hepatitis. Even liver histologic findings are variable. At least in those patients who have jaundice, there is a likelihood of coincidental viral hepatitis. Therefore, the evidence to implicate Treponema pallidum as a liver pathogen in early syphilis is not convincing.

  1. Bradycardia as an early warning sign for cardiac arrest during routine laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jonathan; Hibbert, Peter; Runciman, William B; Coventry, Brendon J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical patterns of occurrence, management and outcomes surrounding cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery using the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) database to guide possible prevention and treatment. The AIMS database includes incident reports from participating clinicians from secondary and tertiary healthcare centres across Australia and New Zealand. The AIMS database holds over 11 000 peri- and intraoperative incidents. The primary outcome was to characterize the pattern of events surrounding cardiac arrest. The secondary outcome was to identify successful management strategies in the possible prevention and treatment of cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery. Fourteen cases of cardiac arrest during laparoscopic surgery were identified. The majority of cases occurred in 'fit and healthy' patients during elective gynaecological and general surgical procedures. Twelve cases of cardiac arrest were directly associated with pneumoperitoneum with bradycardia preceding cardiac arrest in 75% of these. Management included deflation of pneumoperitoneum, atropine administration and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with circulatory restoration in all cases. The results imply vagal mechanisms associated with peritoneal distension as the predominant contributor to bradycardia and subsequent cardiac arrest during laparoscopy. Bradycardia during gas insufflation is not necessarily a benign event and appears to be a critical early warning sign for possible impending and unexpected cardiac arrest. Immediate deflation of pneumoperitoneum and atropine administration are effective measures that may alleviate bradycardia and possibly avert progression to cardiac arrest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  2. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity Due to Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-06-01

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Does early paternal involvement predict offspring developmental diagnoses?

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-12-01

    A long line of research has illustrated that fathers play an important role in the development of their children. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of paternal involvement at the earliest stages of life on developmental diagnoses in childhood. The present study extends this line of research by exploring the possibility that paternal involvement prenatally, postnatally, and at the time of birth may influence offspring risk for various diagnoses in childhood. A quasi-experimental, propensity score matching design was used to create treatment and control groups to assess the relationship between paternal involvement at each stage of development and developmental diagnoses. Approximately 6000 children, and a subsample of fathers, who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Activity, attention and learning, speech or language, and other diagnoses in early childhood, and overall number of diagnoses at 4years of age. We find no consistent evidence that low paternal involvement prenatally or postnatally increases the risk of various developmental diagnoses by age 4. However, children whose fathers were absent at the time of their birth were at significantly greater risk of incurring various developmental diagnoses, as well as a significantly greater number of developmental diagnoses. The findings expand our understanding of exactly how early paternal influence begins and the specific dimensions of early father behaviors that are related to the risk of various developmental diagnoses. Ultimately, these results have important implications concerning father involvement during the earliest stages of the life course. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Propionibacterium acnes populations involved in deep pathological samples and their dynamics along the cardiac surgical pathway.

    PubMed

    Romano-Bertrand, S; Beretta, M; Jean-Pierre, H; Frapier, J-M; Calvet, B; Parer, S; Jumas-Bilak, E

    2015-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes belongs to the normal skin microbiota, but it is also responsible for acne vulgaris and causes serious infections such as endocarditis and surgical site infections (SSI). The P. acnes population is structured into phylogenetic groups, with phylotype I being associated with acne. Herein, we explore the link between phylotypes and clinical origins in a collection of P. acnes isolated from different body sites, involved in deep infections or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), with particular emphasis on strains from cardiac SSI. Cardiac SSI have been further studied in terms of P. acnes population dynamics during the care pathway. The recA and tly genes phylotypes were compared to hemolytic behavior, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and clinical origins. An original approach of recA polymerase chain reaction temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) was developed and applied for the direct identification of P. acnes phylotypes in surgical samples, in order to assess their temporal dynamics during the surgical course. Our results underlined the preferential involvement of IA-2/IB and II phylogroups in HAI and SSI. Unlike IA and II, type IA-2/IB presented a gradual increase with the depth of sampling in the peroperative phase of cardiac surgery. Phylotypes IA and IA-2/IB were both predominant in scar tissues and on postoperative skin, suggesting a specific predisposition to recolonize skin. Particular association of the phylotype IA-2/IB with SSI and its propensity to colonize wounds in cardiac surgery was observed. We assumed that the follow-up of P. acnes phylotypes during pathological processes could give new clues for P. acnes pathogenicity.

  5. Bispectral index to predict neurological outcome early after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Stammet, Pascal; Collignon, Olivier; Werer, Christophe; Sertznig, Claude; Devaux, Yvan

    2014-12-01

    To address the value of continuous monitoring of bispectral index (BIS) to predict neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. In this prospective observational study in adult comatose patients treated by therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest we measured bispectral index (BIS) during the first 24 hours of intensive care unit stay. A blinded neurological outcome assessment by cerebral performance category (CPC) was done 6 months after cardiac arrest. Forty-six patients (48%) had a good neurological outcome at 6-month, as defined by a cerebral performance category (CPC) 1-2, and 50 patients (52%) had a poor neurological outcome (CPC 3-5). Over the 24h of monitoring, mean BIS values over time were higher in the good outcome group (38 ± 9) compared to the poor outcome group (17 ± 12) (p<0.001). Analysis of BIS recorded every 30 minutes provided an optimal prediction after 12.5h, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89, a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 86% using a cut-off value of 23. With a specificity fixed at 100% (sensitivity 26%) the cut-off BIS value was 2.4 over the first 271 minutes. In multivariable analyses including clinical characteristics, mean BIS value over the first 12.5h was a predictor of neurological outcome (p = 6E-6) and provided a continuous net reclassification index of 1.28% (p = 4E-10) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.31 (p=1E-10). Mean BIS value calculated over the first 12.5h after ICU admission potentially predicts 6-months neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac Expression of ms1/STARS, a Novel Gene Involved in Cardiac Development and Disease, Is Regulated by GATA4

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Peterson, Richard E.; He, Aibin; Motterle, Anna; Samani, Nilesh J.; Menick, Donald R.; Pu, William T.; Liang, Qiangrong

    2012-01-01

    Ms1/STARS is a novel muscle-specific actin-binding protein that specifically modulates the myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-serum response factor (SRF) regulatory axis within striated muscle. This ms1/STARS-dependent regulatory axis is of central importance within the cardiac gene regulatory network and has been implicated in cardiac development and postnatal cardiac function/homeostasis. The dysregulation of ms1/STARS is associated with and causative of pathological cardiac phenotypes, including cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. In order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms governing ms1/STARS expression in the heart, we have coupled a comparative genomic in silico analysis with reporter, gain-of-function, and loss-of-function approaches. Through this integrated analysis, we have identified three evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs), α, SINA, and DINA, that act as cis-regulatory modules and confer differential cardiac cell-specific activity. Two of these ECRs, α and DINA, displayed distinct regulatory sensitivity to the core cardiac transcription factor GATA4. Overall, our results demonstrate that within embryonic, neonatal, and adult hearts, GATA4 represses ms1/STARS expression with the pathologically associated depletion of GATA4 (type 1/type 2 diabetic models), resulting in ms1/STARS upregulation. This GATA4-dependent repression of ms1/STARS expression has major implications for MRTF-SRF signaling in the context of cardiac development and disease. PMID:22431517

  7. A Cardiac Early Warning System with Multi Channel SCG and ECG Monitoring for Mobile Health

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Thakkar, Hiren Kumar; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2017-01-01

    Use of information and communication technology such as smart phone, smart watch, smart glass and portable health monitoring devices for healthcare services has made Mobile Health (mHealth) an emerging research area. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is considered as a leading cause of death world wide and an increasing number of people die prematurely due to CHD. Under such circumstances, there is a growing demand for a reliable cardiac monitoring system to catch the intermittent abnormalities and detect critical cardiac behaviors which lead to sudden death. Use of mobile devices to collect Electrocardiography (ECG), Seismocardiography (SCG) data and efficient analysis of those data can monitor a patient’s cardiac activities for early warning. This paper presents a novel cardiac data acquisition method and combined analysis of Electrocardiography (ECG) and multi channel Seismocardiography (SCG) data. An early warning system is implemented to monitor the cardiac activities of a person and accuracy assessment of the early warning system is conducted for the ECG data only. The assessment shows 88% accuracy and effectiveness of our proposed analysis, which implies the viability and applicability of the proposed early warning system. PMID:28353681

  8. A Cardiac Early Warning System with Multi Channel SCG and ECG Monitoring for Mobile Health.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Thakkar, Hiren Kumar; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2017-03-29

    Use of information and communication technology such as smart phone, smart watch, smart glass and portable health monitoring devices for healthcare services has made Mobile Health (mHealth) an emerging research area. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is considered as a leading cause of death world wide and an increasing number of people die prematurely due to CHD. Under such circumstances, there is a growing demand for a reliable cardiac monitoring system to catch the intermittent abnormalities and detect critical cardiac behaviors which lead to sudden death. Use of mobile devices to collect Electrocardiography (ECG), Seismocardiography (SCG) data and efficient analysis of those data can monitor a patient's cardiac activities for early warning. This paper presents a novel cardiac data acquisition method and combined analysis of Electrocardiography (ECG) and multi channel Seismocardiography (SCG) data. An early warning system is implemented to monitor the cardiac activities of a person and accuracy assessment of the early warning system is conducted for the ECG data only. The assessment shows 88% accuracy and effectiveness of our proposed analysis, which implies the viability and applicability of the proposed early warning system.

  9. Right Cardiac Chambers Involvement by a Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor: An Imaging-pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Felipe Barjud Pereira; Albieri, Lilian; Bento Dos Santos, Glaucia Aparecida; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The cardiac chamber's involvement with neoplastic embolism has been rarely reported; it is mostly associated with gastric, breast, lung, liver, and prostate cancers, and usually affects the pulmonary arteries. This paper reports a case of a 31-year-old man with a malignant testicular germ cell tumor who presented with multiple episodes of pulmonary thromboembolism and died of sudden respiratory failure 1 year after the initial diagnosis. Death was attributed to massive pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction associated with a neoplastic thrombus that extended from the gonadal veins to pulmonary arteries. A postmortem computerized tomographic angiography and autopsy confirmed this finding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does job satisfaction predict early return to work after coronary angioplasty or cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Fiabane, Elena; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Calsamiglia, Giuseppe; Candura, Stefano M; Giorgi, Ines; Scafa, Fabrizio; Rugulies, Reiner

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have analyzed the relationship between job satisfaction and return to work (RTW) in cardiac patients. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether job satisfaction predicted early RTW in patients sick listed after cardiac invasive procedures. A 6-month prospective study was carried out in a sample of 83 patients in working age who had recently been treated with angioplasty or cardiac surgery. Job satisfaction was measured using the scale from the Occupational Stress Indicator during cardiac rehabilitation. Time to RTW was assessed at the 6-month occupational physician examination. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the association between job satisfaction at baseline and early RTW at follow-up, adjusted for socio-demographic, medical (type of cardiac intervention, ejection fraction) and psychological (depression, locus of control, illness perception) factors. Participants with high job satisfaction were more likely to return early to work, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.92 (95 % CI, 1.69-20.73) in the most-adjusted model, compared to participants with low job satisfaction. Satisfaction with organizational processes was the job satisfaction component most strongly associated with early RTW (OR, 4.30; 95 % CI, 1.21-15.03). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that investigated whether job satisfaction predicts time to RTW after cardiac interventions. The results suggested that when patients are satisfied with their job and positively perceived their work environment, they will be more likely to early RTW, independently of socio-demographic, medical and psychological factors.

  11. Early-Onset LMNA-Associated Muscular Dystrophy with Later Involvement of Contracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younggun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Young Chul

    2017-10-01

    The early diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy is important for preventing sudden arrest related to cardiac conduction block. However, diagnosing early-onset Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) with later involvement of contracture and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B is often delayed due to heterogeneous clinical presentations. We aimed to determine the clinical features that contribute to a delayed diagnosis. We reviewed four patients who were recently diagnosed with LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy by targeted exome sequencing and who were initially diagnosed with nonspecific or other types of muscular dystrophy. Certain clinical features such as delayed contracture involvement and calf hypertrophy were found to contribute to a delayed diagnosis. Muscle biopsies were not informative for the diagnosis in these patients. Genetic testing of single or multiple genes is useful for confirming a diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy. Even EDMD patients could experience the later involvement of contracture, so clinicians should consider early genetic testing for patients with undiagnosed muscular dystrophy or laminopathy. Copyright © 2017 Korean Neurological Association

  12. Stability of Early EEG Background Patterns After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Abend, Nicholas S; Xiao, Rui; Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Topjian, Alexis A

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to determine whether EEG background characteristics remain stable across discrete time periods during the acute period after resuscitation from pediatric cardiac arrest. Children resuscitated from cardiac arrest underwent continuous conventional EEG monitoring. The EEG was scored in 12-hour epochs for up to 72 hours after return of circulation by an electroencephalographer using a Background Category with 4 levels (normal, slow-disorganized, discontinuous/burst-suppression, or attenuated-featureless) or 2 levels (normal/slow-disorganized or discontinuous/burst-suppression/attenuated-featureless). Survival analyses and mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression models evaluated whether the EEG remained stable across epochs. EEG monitoring was performed in 89 consecutive children. When EEG was assessed as the 4-level Background Category, 30% of subjects changed category over time. Based on initial Background Category, one quarter of the subjects changed EEG category by 24 hours if the initial EEG was attenuated-featureless, by 36 hours if the initial EEG was discontinuous or burst-suppression, by 48 hours if the initial EEG was slow-disorganized, and never if the initial EEG was normal. However, regression modeling for the 4-level Background Category indicated that the EEG did not change over time (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 0.96-1.17, P = 0.26). Similarly, when EEG was assessed as the 2-level Background Category, 8% of subjects changed EEG category over time. However, regression modeling for the 2-level category indicated that the EEG did not change over time (odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.91-1.13, P = 0.75). The EEG Background Category changes over time whether analyzed as 4 levels (30% of subjects) or 2 levels (8% of subjects), although regression analyses indicated that no significant changes occurred over time for the full cohort. These data indicate that the Background Category is often stable during the acute 72 hours

  13. Early bronchopulmonary involvement in Crohn disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Valletta, Enrico; Bertini, Marina; Sette, Luciano; Braggion, Cesare; Pradal, Ugo; Zannoni, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary manifestations of Crohn disease have been rarely described in children, including both subclinical pulmonary involvement and severe lung disease. Case presentation A 6.5-year-old girl is described with early recurrent bronchopulmonary symptoms both at presentation and in the quiescent phase of Crohn disease. Pulmonary function tests (lung volumes and flows, bronchial reactivity and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity) were normal. Bronchoalveolar cytology showed increased (30%) lymphocyte counts and bronchial biopsy revealed thickening of basal membrane and active chronic inflammation. Conclusions Clinical and histological findings in our young patient suggest involvement of both distal and central airways in an early phase of lung disease. The pathogenesis of Crohn disease-associated lung disorders is discussed with reference to the available literature. A low threshold for pulmonary evaluation seems to be advisable in all children with CD. PMID:11734067

  14. Early-\\x90stage Electrical Breakdown involving Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold; Moore, Chris; Schultz, Peter; Bussman, Ezra; Scrymgeour, David; Hopkins, Matt

    The early stage of electrical breakdown from a surface is assumed to involve field emission. In real-world applications, the electrical field is often assumed to be increased by geometrical effects. In addition to these enhancement effects, contamination by adsorbates can lead to reductions in the effective work functions. To develop a physics-based understanding beyond the use of these empirical effects, the field emission currents at early times are being computed and measured. The calculations involve a solution of the Boltzmann equation, and the measurements involve a scanning tunneling microscope. Early results from this collaborative theoretical-experimental project will be described in this presentation. The presentation will focus on results for an ideal system with an absence of geometrical effects. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. THE INVOLVEMENT OF HUMAN MONOGENIC CARDIOMYOPATHY GENES IN EXPERIMENTAL POLYGENIC CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Priscilla R; Marques, Francine Z; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Lewandowski, Paul; Delbridge, Lea M D; Charchar, Fadi J; Harrap, Stephen B

    2018-05-18

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy thickens heart muscles reducing functionality and increasing risk of cardiac disease and morbidity. Genetic factors are involved, but their contribution is poorly understood. We used the hypertrophic heart rat (HHR), a unique normotensive polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure to investigate the role of genes associated with monogenic human cardiomyopathy. We selected 42 genes involved in monogenic human cardiomyopathies to study: 1) DNA variants, by sequencing the whole-genome of 13-week old HHR and age-matched normal heart rat (NHR), its genetic control strain; 2) mRNA expression, by targeted RNA-sequencing in left ventricles of HHR and NHR at five ages (2-days old, 4-, 13-, 33- and 50-weeks old) compared to human idiopathic dilated data; and 3) microRNA expression, with rat microRNA microarrays in left ventricles of 2-days old HHR and age-matched NHR. We also investigated experimentally validated microRNA-mRNA interactions. Whole-genome sequencing revealed unique variants mostly located in non-coding regions of HHR and NHR. We found 29 genes differentially expressed in at least one age. Genes encoding desmoglein 2 (Dsg2) and transthyretin (Ttr) were significantly differentially expressed at all ages in the HHR, but only Ttr was also differentially expressed in human idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Lastly, only two microRNAs differentially expressed in the HHR were present in our comparison of validated microRNA-mRNA interactions. These two microRNAs interact with five of the genes studied. Our study shows that genes involved in monogenic forms of human cardiomyopathies may also influence polygenic forms of the disease.

  16. Cardiac resident macrophages are involved in hypoxia-induced postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hua-Gang; Zhu, Yun; Jiang, Yun-Han; Luo, Gui-Ping; Tang, Fu-Qin; Jian, Zhao; Xiao, Ying-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation, the most promising approach to reverse myocardial attrition, has been gaining importance as a therapy for cardiovascular disease. Hypoxia and macrophages were previously independently reported to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation in mice. However, whether hypoxia promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation in humans, and the association between hypoxia and macrophages in cardiomyocyte proliferation, have not to the best of our knowledge been previously investigated. The present study investigated the cardiomyocyte proliferation in 22 acyanotic and 29 cyanotic patients. Cardiomyocyte proliferation in a hypoxic mouse model (15% O2) was subsequently performed and the macrophage subsets were analyzed. A C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) inhibitor was used to increase the number of resident macrophages in order to investigate the effect of macrophages on cardiomyocyte proliferation. The results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte proliferation in the cyanotic infant group was significantly increased compared with the acyanotic infant group and the hypoxia-treated C57BL/6J neonates confirmed the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, hypoxia did not induce the proliferation of isolated cardiomyocytes. Notably, hypoxia treatment increased the number of cardiac resident macrophages in neonate hearts. Furthermore, increasing the number of resident macrophages significantly enhanced cardiomyocyte proliferation. In conclusion, postnatal hypoxia promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation in humans and animals, and cardiac resident macrophages may be involved in this process. Therefore, this novel mechanism may provide a promising strategy for cardiovascular disease treatment. PMID:28393210

  17. Comparative evaluation of 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG for detecting cardiac and extra-cardiac thoracic involvement in patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Norikane, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yuka; Maeda, Yukito; Noma, Takahisa; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-29

    18 F-FDG PET has been used in sarcoidosis for diagnosis and determination of the extent of the disease. However, assessing inflammatory lesions in cardiac sarcoidosis using 18 F-FDG can be challenging because it accumulates physiologically in normal myocardium. Another radiotracer, 3'-deoxy-3'- 18 F-fluorothymidine ( 18 F-FLT), has been investigated as a promising PET tracer for evaluating tumor proliferative activity. In contrast to 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FLT uptake in the normal myocardium is low. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the uptake of 18 F-FLT and 18 F-FDG in the evaluation of cardiac and extra-cardiac thoracic involvement in patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis. Data for 20 patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis were examined. 18 F-FLT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT studies had been performed at 1 h after each radiotracer injection. The patients had fasted for at least 18 h before 18 F-FDG PET/CT but were given no special dietary instructions regarding the period before 18 F-FLT PET/CT. Uptake of 18 F-FLT and 18 F-FDG was examined visually and semiquantitatively using maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Two patients had cardiac sarcoidosis, 7 had extra-cardiac thoracic sarcoidosis, and 11 had both cardiac and extra-cardiac thoracic sarcoidosis. On visual analysis for diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis, 4/20 18 F-FDG scans were rated as inconclusive because the 18 F-FDG pattern was diffuse, whereas no FLT scans were rated as inconclusive. The sensitivity of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for detection of cardiac sarcoidosis was 85%; specificity, 100%; and accuracy, 90%. The corresponding values for 18 F-FLT PET/CT were 92, 100, and 95%, respectively. Using semiquantitative analysis of cardiac sarcoidosis, the mean 18 F-FDG SUVmax was significantly higher than the mean 18 F-FLT SUVmax (P < 0.005). Both 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FLT PET/CT studies detected all 24 extra-cardiac lesions. Using semiquantitative analysis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis, the mean 18

  18. Maternal high fat diet induces early cardiac hypertrophy and alters cardiac metabolism in Sprague Dawley rat offspring.

    PubMed

    De Jong, K A; Barrand, S; Wood-Bradley, R J; de Almeida, D L; Czeczor, J K; Lopaschuk, G D; Armitage, J A; McGee, S L

    2018-06-01

    Maternal high fat diets (mHFD) have been associated with an increased offspring cardiovascular risk. Recently we found that the class IIa HDAC-MEF2 pathway regulates gene programs controlling fatty acid oxidation in striated muscle. This same pathway controls hypertrophic responses in the heart. We hypothesized that mHFD is associated with activation of signal controlling class II a HDAC activity and activation of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cardiac hypertrophy in offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal fat diet (12%) or high fat diet (43%) three weeks prior to mating, remaining on diets until study completion. Hearts of postnatal day 1 (PN1) and PN10 pups were collected. Bioenergetics and respiration analyses were performed in neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes (NVCM). In offspring exposed to mHFD, body weight was increased at PN10 accompanied by increased body fat percentage and blood glucose. Heart weight and heart weight to body weight ratio were increased at PN1 and PN10, and were associated with elevated signalling through the AMPK-class IIa HDAC-MEF2 axis. The expression of the MEF2-regulated hypertrophic markers ANP and BNP were increased as were expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However this was only accompanied by an increased protein expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes at PN10. NVCM isolated from these pups exhibited increased glycolysis and an impaired substrate flexibility. Combined, these results suggest that mHFD induces signalling and transcriptional events indicative of reprogrammed cardiac metabolism and of cardiac hypertrophy in Sprague Dawley rat offspring. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing patient involvement in choosing treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Street, R L; Voigt, B; Geyer, C; Manning, T; Swanson, G P

    1995-12-01

    This investigation examined factors affecting patient involvement in consultations to decide local treatment for early breast cancer and the effectiveness of two methods of preconsultation education aimed at increasing patient participation in these discussions. Sixty patients with Stage I or II breast cancer (1) were pretested on their knowledge about breast cancer treatment and optimism for the future, (2) were randomly assigned to one of two methods for preconsultation education: interactive multimedia program or brochure, (3) completed knowledge and optimism measures, (4) consulted with a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and general surgeon, and (5) completed self-report measures assessing their involvement in the consultations and control over decision-making. The consultations were audiorecorded and analyzed to identify behavioral indicators of patient involvement (question-asking, opinion-giving, and expressing concern) and physician utterances encouraging patient participation. College-educated patients younger than 65 years of age were more active participants in these consultations than were older, less educated patients. In addition, patients showed more involvement when they interacted with physicians who encouraged and facilitated patient participation. The method of education did not affect patient involvement although patients tended to learn more about breast cancer treatment after using the multimedia program than after reading the brochure. Although patients vary in their expressiveness, physicians may be able to increase patient participation in deciding treatment by using patient-centered behavior. Also, preconsultation education appears to be an effective clinical strategy for helping patients gain an accurate understanding of their treatment options before meeting with physicians.

  20. Early Renal Involvement in a Girl with Classic Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Perretta, Fernando; Antongiovanni, Norberto; Jaurretche, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the deficiency or absence of the enzyme alpha galactosidase A; this defect leads to the systemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and its metabolites. Organic involvement in men is well known, but in women it is controversial, mainly due to the random X-chromosome inactivation in each of their cells (Lyon hypothesis). This would explain why women (heterozygotes) present a wide variability in the severity of their phenotype. The manifestations are multisystemic and begin in early childhood, reaching a severe compromise in adulthood. Typical acroparesthesia in hands and feet, gastrointestinal symptoms, angiokeratomas, dyshidrosis, hearing loss, arrhythmias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accidents, and renal failure can be observed. Nephropathy is one of the major complications of Fabry disease. Glomerular and vascular changes are present before progression to overt proteinuria and decreased glomerular filtration rate, even in pediatric patients. A case of incipient renal involvement in a girl with classic Fabry disease is reported.

  1. Robot-Assisted Training Early After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Schoenrath, Felix; Markendorf, Susanne; Brauchlin, Andreas E; Seifert, Burkhardt; Wilhelm, Markus J; Czerny, Martin; Riener, Robert; Falk, Volkmar; Schmied, Christian M

    2015-07-01

    To assess feasibility and safety of a robot-assisted gait therapy with the Lokomat® system in patients early after open heart surgery. Within days after open heart surgery 10 patients were subjected to postoperative Lokomat® training (Intervention group, IG) whereas 20 patients served as controls undergoing standard postoperative physiotherapy (Control group, CG). All patients underwent six-minute walk test and evaluation of the muscular strength of the lower limbs by measuring quadriceps peak force. The primary safety end-point was freedom from any device-related wound healing disturbance. Patients underwent clinical follow-up after one month. Both training methods resulted in an improvement of walking distance (IG [median, interquartile range, p-value]: +119 m, 70-201 m, p = 0.005; CG: 105 m, 57-152.5m, p < 0.001) and quadriceps peak force (IG left: +5 N, 3.8 7 N, p = 0.005; IG right: +3.5 N, 1.5-8.8 N, p = 0.011; CG left: +5.5 N, 4-9 N, p < 0.001; CG right: +6 N, 4.3-9.8 N, p < 0.001) in all participants. Results with robot-assisted training were comparable to early postoperative standard in hospital training (median changes in walking distance in percent, p = 0.81; median changes in quadriceps peak force in percent, left: p = 0.97, right p = 0.61). No deep sternal wound infection or any adverse event occurred in the robot-assisted training group. Robot-assisted gait therapy with the Lokomat® system is feasible and safe in patients early after median sternotomy. Results with robot-assisted training were comparable to standard in hospital training. An adapted and combined aerobic and resistance training intervention with augmented feedback may result in benefits in walking distance and lower limb muscle strength (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 02146196). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Disproportionate cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Adults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development. Methods Cardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes. Results At birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001). Conclusion Preterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health. PMID:28399117

  3. Disproportionate cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm.

    PubMed

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundAdults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development.MethodsCardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes.ResultsAt birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001).ConclusionPreterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health.

  4. Interference of postoperative pain on women's daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Leegaard, Marit; Rustøen, Tone; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2010-06-01

    Women report more postoperative pain and problems performing domestic activities than men in the first month of recovery after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to describe how women rate and describe pain interference with daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery. A qualitative study was conducted in 2004-2005 with ten women recruited from a large Norwegian university hospital before discharge from their first elective cardiac surgery. Various aspects of the women's postoperative experiences were collected with qualitative interviews in the women's homes 8-14 days after discharge: a self-developed pain diary measuring pain intensity, types and amount of pain medication taken every day after returning home from hospital; and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form immediately before the interview. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify recurring themes from the interviews. Data from the questionnaires provided more nuances to the experiences of pain, pain management, and interference of postoperative pain. Postoperative pain interfered most with sleep, general activity, and the ability to perform housework during the first 2 weeks after discharge. Despite being advised at the hospital to take pain medication regularly, few women consumed the maximum amount of analgesics. Early hospital discharge after open cardiac surgery implies increased patient participation in pain management. Women undergoing this surgery need more information in hospital on why postoperative pain management beyond simple pain relief is important. (c) 2010 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RhoA/ROCK may involve in cardiac hypertrophy induced by experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Na, Wang; Peng, Guan; Jianping, Zhang; Yanzhong, Chang; Shengjiang, Guan; Li, Chu

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the role of the RhoA/Rho-kinase (RhoA/ROCK)-signaling pathway in cardiovascular dysfunction associated with hyperthyroidism was examined with the use of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were treated with l-thyroxine (T(4)) alone, T(4) + low-dose fasudil (2 mg/kg/day) or T(4) + high-dose fasudil (10 mg/kg/day) and compared with control animals. Rats in the T(4) group showed an increase in the ratio of heart weight to body weight, which was ameliorated by fasudil at both low and high doses. Morphometric and hemodynamic parameters were also evaluated and confirmed that fasudil attenuated the cardiac hypertrophy induced by T(4). The extent of phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit was quantified by Western blotting to evaluate the activity of Rho-kinase in the heart tissue. Both Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed enhancement of Rho-kinase and activator protein 1 activity and reduction of c-FLIP(L) expression in the T(4) group, and this response was inhibited by fasudil in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fasudil inhibited apoptosis induced by T(4) as evidenced by the detection of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and the expressions of bax and bcl-2. These results suggested that the RhoA/ROCK pathway is involved in the cardiac hypertrophy induced by experimental hyperthyroidism. The antagonism of this pathway may thus be useful as an alternative target in the treatment of hyperthyroid heart disease.

  6. Enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase beta improves cardiac involvement in Fabry's disease.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, L; Pisani, A; Sabbatini, M; Petretta, M; Andreucci, M V; Procaccini, D; Lo Surdo, N; Federico, S; Cianciaruso, B

    2004-08-01

    Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase that results in an accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids throughout the body, including the cardiovascular system. Fabry cardiomyopathy, characterized by progressive severe concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, is very frequent and is the most important cause of death in affected patients. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) allows a specific treatment for this disease, however, there are very few data on the effectiveness of therapy on cardiac involvement. Nine patients with Fabry cardiac disease were studied on basal condition and after 6 and 12 months of treatment with algasidase beta (Fabrazyme). A complete clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all patients. Interpretable Doppler recordings of transmitral flow and pulmonary flow velocity curves were also acquired. At baseline, the patients with Fabry's disease had increased LV septum and posterior wall thickness, normal LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction, normal Doppler parameters of mitral inflow but a duration of pulmonary vein flow velocity wave exceeding that of the mitral wave at atrial systole. ERT did not affect heart rate and arterial pressure. LV internal diameters did not change, there was a slight but not significant decrease in the LV posterior wall thickening and a progressive decrease in the interventricular septum thickening (p < 0.025) and in LV mass (p < 0.001) The difference in duration between pulmonary vein flow velocity wave and mitral wave at atrial systole significantly decreased (p < 0.001). These results suggest that ERT in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy is able to reduce the LV mass and ameliorate the LV stiffness. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Munksgaard

  7. Exposure of the developing heart to diabetic environment and early cardiac assessment: A review.

    PubMed

    Asoglu, Mehmet R; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Turan, Ozhan M; Turan, Sifa

    2018-02-01

    Hyperglycemia during organogenesis is associated with an increased risk of congenital cardiac defects (CHDs). The pathophysiology leading to CHDs is not completely uncovered. However, elevated oxidative stress is considered to be the primary trigger that causes CHDs in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Maternal diabetes has been found to increase the risk for all types of CHDs. Diabetes may also impact the fetal cardiac performance at all gestational ages. Early detection of CHDs has certain advantages, such as making early decision about termination of pregnancy, enabling early genetic testing, and early reassurance if scan is normal. Combined transabdominal and transvaginal approach at 13-14 weeks of gestation is a reasonable strategy to assess fetal heart in diabetic women. Diagnostic accuracy of early fetal echocardiography has reached to above a reasonable cutoff when it is done in the late first trimester or early second trimester in the hands of expert sonographers. However, the literature is less certain to provide a firm conclusion about functional heart assessment in fetuses of diabetic mothers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Critical potential of early cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis with cardio-embolic strokes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Ohshima, Yutaro; Nagatomo, Yuji; Seki, Atsushi; Takamisawa, Itaru; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Naito, Kazuhiro; Kin, Hajime; Umemura, Jun; Takayama, Morimasa; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2017-01-15

    Early cardiac surgery may have a trade-off between stabilized hemodynamics with controlled infection and a risk of peri-operative death in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated with cardio-embolic strokes. We retrospectively studied clinical characteristics and outcomes in 68 consecutive patients with IE (mean age, 58±3years, 62% male) who admitted in our institute during June 2013 and August 2015. Cardio-embolic strokes were noted in 37% of patients (n=25) with IE and overall in-hospital mortality was 4 times higher in IE with cardio-embolic strokes than IE with an absence of strokes (n=43) (20% vs. 4.7%, p=0.045). Bacteremia of Staphylococcus aureus (p=0.021) and a complication of cardio-embolic strokes (p=0.031) were independently associated with in-hospital death in those with IE. However, in-hospital mortality was quite low in 19 with early cardiac surgery compared with 6 with conventional treatment in those with cardio-embolic strokes (11% vs. 50%, p=0.035). Multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that lack of early cardiac surgery (p=0.014), a complication of cerebral hemorrhage (p=0.002), and a presence of refractory heart failure (p=0.047) were independently associated with in-hospital death in those with IE complicated with cardio-embolic strokes. Early cardiac surgery may provide clinical advantages overcoming peri-operative risks in those with IE complicated with cardio-embolic strokes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Contemporary Cardiac Surgical Practice and Experience With a Protocol for Early Identification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiumei; Hill, Peter C; Taylor-PaneK, Sharon L; Corso, Paul J; Lindsay, Joseph

    2016-01-15

    This analysis was designed to (1) examine the impact of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) on contemporary cardiac surgical practice and (2) describe the results of a protocol designed for early identification of the presence of the immune mechanisms involved. Consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery were screened postoperatively for thrombocytopenia. Patients with thrombocytopenia were tested for antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies by ELISA and clinical evidence of thrombosis sought. Demographics, co-morbidities, operative details, and outcomes were abstracted from the departmental registry. Of 14,415 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery, 1,849 patients (13%) had thrombocytopenia. Of them, 277 patients (15%) had PF4/heparin antibodies and 76 patients (4%) had both antibodies and clinical thrombosis. Antibodies were more frequent: (1) in women (p = 0.01), (2) in patients with an increased body mass index (p <0.01), and (3) in patients with clinical heart failure before surgery (p <0.01). Thirty-day mortality was greatest among the 76 patients with the triad of thrombocytopenia, antibodies, and clinical thrombosis (30%). Of the 1,849 patients with thrombocytopenia, the presence of PF4/heparin antibodies was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio 2.09, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.49; p <0.001). HIT remains an infrequent but very serious complication of heparin therapy in contemporary cardiac surgical practice. The possibility that the presence of HIT antibodies in patients with thrombocytopenia independently increases operative mortality deserves further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning From Experience: Improving Early Tracheal Extubation Success After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter D; Staudt, Anna M; Sebastian, Roby; Corridore, Marco; Tumin, Dmitry; Simsic, Janet; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    The many advantages of early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in young infants and children are now widely recognized. Benefits include avoiding the morbidity associated with prolonged intubation and the consequences of sedation and positive pressure ventilation in the setting of altered cardiopulmonary physiology. Our practice of tracheal extubation of young infants in the operating room following cardiac surgery has evolved and new challenges in the arena of postoperative sedation and pain management have appeared. Review our institutional outcomes associated with early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery. Inclusion criteria included all children less than 1 year old who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between October 1, 2010, and October 24, 2013. A total of 416 patients less than 1 year old were included. Of the 416 patients, 234 underwent tracheal extubation in the operating room (56%) with 25 requiring reintubation (10.7%), either immediately or following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU. Of the 25 patients extubated in the operating room who required reintubation, 22 failed within 24 hours of cardiothoracic ICU admission; 10 failures were directly related to narcotic doses that resulted in respiratory depression. As a result of this review, we have instituted changes in our cardiothoracic ICU postoperative care plans. We have developed a neonatal delirium score, and have adopted the "Kangaroo Care" approach that was first popularized in neonatal ICUs. This provision allows for the early parental holding of infants following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU and allows for appropriately selected parents to sleep in the same beds alongside their postoperative children.

  11. Establishing Early Functional Perfusion and Structure in Tissue Engineered Cardiac Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Patnaik, Sourav S.; Brazile, Bryn; Butler, J. Ryan; Claude, Andrew; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Jianjun; Hong, Yi; Liao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes massive heart muscle death and remains a leading cause of death in the world. Cardiac tissue engineering aims to replace the infarcted tissues with functional engineered heart muscles or revitalize the infarcted heart by delivering cells, bioactive factors, and/or biomaterials. One major challenge of cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration is the establishment of functional perfusion and structure to achieve timely angiogenesis and effective vascularization, which are essential to the survival of thick implants and the integration of repaired tissue with host heart. In this paper, we review four major approaches to promoting angiogenesis and vascularization in cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration: delivery of pro-angiogenic factors/molecules, direct cell implantation/cell sheet grafting, fabrication of prevascularized cardiac constructs, and the use of bioreactors to promote angiogenesis and vascularization. We further provide a detailed review and discussion on the early perfusion design in nature-derived biomaterials, synthetic biodegradable polymers, tissue-derived acellular scaffolds/whole hearts, and hydrogel derived from extracellular matrix. A better understanding of the current approaches and their advantages, limitations, and hurdles could be useful for developing better materials for future clinical applications. PMID:27480586

  12. Establishing Early Functional Perfusion and Structure in Tissue Engineered Cardiac Constructs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Patnaik, Sourav S; Brazile, Bryn; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Jianjun; Hong, Yi; Liao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes massive heart muscle death and remains a leading cause of death in the world. Cardiac tissue engineering aims to replace the infarcted tissues with functional engineered heart muscles or revitalize the infarcted heart by delivering cells, bioactive factors, and/or biomaterials. One major challenge of cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration is the establishment of functional perfusion and structure to achieve timely angiogenesis and effective vascularization, which are essential to the survival of thick implants and the integration of repaired tissue with host heart. In this paper, we review four major approaches to promoting angiogenesis and vascularization in cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration: delivery of pro-angiogenic factors/molecules, direct cell implantation/cell sheet grafting, fabrication of prevascularized cardiac constructs, and the use of bioreactors to promote angiogenesis and vascularization. We further provide a detailed review and discussion on the early perfusion design in nature-derived biomaterials, synthetic biodegradable polymers, tissue-derived acellular scaffolds/whole hearts, and hydrogel derived from extracellular matrix. A better understanding of the current approaches and their advantages, limitations, and hurdles could be useful for developing better materials for future clinical applications.

  13. Early rise in postoperative creatinine for identification of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Karkouti, Keyvan; Rao, Vivek; Chan, Christopher T; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially serious complication of cardiac surgery. Treatment strategies are unlikely to prove efficacious unless patients are identified and treated soon after the onset of injury. In this observational study, we determined and validated the ability of an early rise in postoperative serum creatinine to identify patients who suffer AKI during cardiac surgery. The relationship between an early rise in creatinine (immediate postoperative / preoperative creatinine) and AKI (> 50% increase in creatinine by postoperative calendar days 1or 2) was determined by logistic regression modelling. Existing databases were used for model development (n = 4,820; one institution) and validation (n = 6,553; 12 institutions). Acute kidney injury occurred in 9.1% (n = 437) and 9.8% (n = 645) of patients in the development and validation sets, respectively. An early rise in creatinine was related to AKI (P < 0.001), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.80) in the development set and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.79) in the validation set. Using a threshold ratio of > 1.30 (n = 127), the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for AKI in the development set were 20% (95% CI, 16 to 24), 99% (95% CI, 99 to 99), 68% (95% CI, 59 to 76), and 93% (95% CI, 92 to 93), respectively. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, an early rise in postoperative creatinine is a useful marker for the early identification of AKI patients. This could allow inclusion of such patients in clinical trials of promising therapeutic strategies that need to be initiated soon after the onset of injury.

  14. Risk-adjusted outcome prediction with initial post-cardiac arrest illness severity: implications for cardiac arrest survivors being considered for early invasive strategy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joshua C; Rittenberger, Jon C; Toma, Catalin; Callaway, Clifton W

    2014-09-01

    Early CATH is recommended for cardiac arrest survivors with STEMI or suspicion for coronary ischemia. Comatose patients are at risk of death from neurologic injury irrespective of CATH, but post-procedural mortality data do not distinguish between causes of death. Pittsburgh Post Cardiac Arrest Category (PCAC) is a validated, early post-cardiac arrest illness severity score based on initial cardiopulmonary dysfunction and neurologic examination. We evaluated the association between early coronary angiography (CATH) and patient outcome after adjusting for initial post-cardiac arrest illness severity. Retrospective study of a prospective cardiac arrest database at a single site. We included 1011 adult survivors of non-traumatic in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from 2005 to 2012, then stratified by PCAC and immediate CATH. Logistic regression tested the association between immediate CATH and patient outcomes, adjusting for PCAC. Overall, 273 (27%) received immediate CATH. Patients with immediate CATH had higher proportions of good outcome in all but the most severe stratum of illness severity (11% vs. 6%; p=0.11). The primary mode of death was neurologic for all but the least severe stratum. Adjusting for PCAC, immediate CATH was associated with favorable discharge disposition (OR 1.92; 95%CI 1.20, 3.07; p=0.006) and modified Rankin scale (OR 1.95; 95%CI 1.12, 3.38; p=0.02). The benefit of CATH is less clear in the most severe stratum of illness, in which the high risk of mortality is primarily from neurologic causes. PCAC is a risk-stratification tool that provides pre-procedural risk-adjusted outcome prediction for post-cardiac arrest patients being evaluated for immediate CATH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence and early outcomes associated with pre-transplant antivimentin antibodies in the cardiac transplantation population.

    PubMed

    Young, Raymond K; Dale, Bethany; Russell, Stuart D; Zachary, Andrea A; Tedford, Ryan J

    2015-08-01

    In cardiac transplant recipients, the development of antibodies to the endothelial intermediate filament protein vimentin (antivimentin antibodies, AVA) has been associated with rejection and poor outcomes. However, the incidence of these antibodies prior to transplantation and their association with early rejection has not been investigated. Pre-transplant serum was analyzed from 50 patients who underwent de novo cardiac transplant at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2004 to 2012. Demographic, one-yr rejection, and survival data were obtained from the transplant database. The incidence of pre-transplant AVA was 34%. AVA-positive patients were younger (p = 0.03), and there was an a trend toward incidence in females (p = 0.08). Demographic data were similar among both groups. AVA positivity did not predict rejection in the first year post-transplant. There was no difference in rejection-free graft survival (53 vs. 52%, p = 0.85) at one yr. Similarly, there was no difference in graft survival at one yr (82 vs. 88%, p = 0.56) or graft survival at a median follow-up of 23 and 26 months, respectively (76 vs. 85%, p = 0.41). AVA is common in the cardiac pre-transplant population with a higher incidence in the young. The presence of detectable AVA did not correlate with early post-transplant rejection or graft survival. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    SciT

    Morton, M.J., E-mail: michael.morton@astrazeneca.com; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity inmore » the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.« less

  17. Early and extensive spinal white matter involvement in neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Shotaro; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Yonekawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hiwatashi, Akio; Matsushita, Takuya; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Yamasaki, Ryo; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Iwaki, Toru; Murai, Hiroyuki; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    protein loss may emerge. Spinal white matter involvement may also appear in early NMO, similar to cerebral white matter lesions. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Rho-Kinase Inhibition During Early Cardiac Development Causes Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ellawindy, Alia; Satoh, Kimio; Sunamura, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Kota; Minami, Tatsuro; Ikeda, Shohei; Tanaka, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toru; Enkhjargal, Budbazar; Miyata, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yuhto; Handoh, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Kenta; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Nakayama, Keiko; Miura, Masahito; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by fibrofatty changes of the right ventricle, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Though ARVC is currently regarded as a disease of the desmosome, desmosomal gene mutations have been identified only in half of ARVC patients, suggesting the involvement of other associated mechanisms. Rho-kinase signaling is involved in the regulation of intracellular transport and organizes cytoskeletal filaments, which supports desmosomal protein complex at the myocardial cell-cell junctions. Here, we explored whether inhibition of Rho-kinase signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of ARVC. Using 2 novel mouse models with SM22α- or αMHC-restricted overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase, we show that mice with Rho-kinase inhibition in the developing heart (SM22α-restricted) spontaneously develop cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, myocardial fibrofatty changes, and ventricular arrhythmias, resulting in premature sudden death, phenotypes fulfilling the criteria of ARVC in humans. Rho-kinase inhibition in the developing heart results in the development of ARVC phenotypes in dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice through 3 mechanisms: (1) reduction of cardiac cell proliferation and ventricular wall thickness, (2) stimulation of the expression of the proadipogenic noncanonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5b, and the major adipogenic transcription factor, PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ), and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and (3) development of desmosomal abnormalities. These mechanisms lead to the development of cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, myocardial fibrofatty changes, and ventricular arrhythmias, ultimately resulting in sudden premature death in this ARVC mouse model. This study demonstrates a novel crucial role of Rho-kinase inhibition during cardiac development in the pathogenesis of ARVC in mice. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Cardiac Trauma.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Sucheta; Tyroch, Alan H; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac trauma is a leading cause of death in the United States and occurs mostly due to motor vehicle accidents. Blunt cardiac trauma and penetrating chest injuries are most common, and both can lead to aortic injuries. Timely diagnosis and early management are the key to improve mortality. Cardiac computed tomography and cardiac ultrasound are the 2 most important diagnostic modalities. Mortality related to cardiac trauma remains high despite improvement in diagnosis and management.

  20. Evaluating cardiac risk: exposure response analysis in early clinical drug development.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Julie; Paglialunga, Sabina; Morimoto, Bruce H; Lester, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of a drug's cardiac liability has undergone considerable metamorphosis by regulators since International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirement for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use E14 guideline was introduced in 2005. Drug developers now have a choice in how proarrhythmia risk can be evaluated; the options include a dedicated thorough QT (TQT) study or exposure response (ER) modeling of intensive electrocardiogram (ECG) captured in early clinical development. The alternative approach of ER modeling was incorporated into a guidance document in 2015 as a primary analysis tool which could be utilized in early phase dose escalation studies as an option to perform a dedicated TQT trial. This review will describe the current state of ER modeling of intensive ECG data collected during early clinical drug development; the requirements with regard to the use of a positive control; and address the challenges and opportunities of this alternative approach to assessing QT liability.

  1. Importance of Early Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis in Patients with Complete Atrioventricular Block.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Toyoji; Inomata, Takayuki; Minami, Yoshiyasu; Yazaki, Mayu; Fujita, Teppei; Iida, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuki; Nabeta, Takeru; Ishii, Shunsuke; Naruke, Takashi; Maekawa, Emi; Koitabashi, Toshimi; Ako, Junya

    2018-05-23

    Our aim is to clarify the factors for early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) in patients with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and its impact on cardiac function after corticosteroid therapy.A total of 15 CS patients with CAVB who underwent corticosteroid therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time from the first CAVB onset to the diagnosis of CS. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the early diagnosis group (within 1 year; group E, n = 10) and the late diagnosis group (over 1 year; group L, n = 5).The history of extracardiac sarcoidosis (60 versus 0%, P = 0.0440) and abnormal findings on echocardiography (70 versus 0%, P = 0.0256) at the CAVB onset were significantly more frequent in group E than in group L. The change of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels was significantly better in group E than in group L (0.8 ± 2.8 versus -32.4 ± 3.9%, P < 0.0001; -11.1 ± 16.0 versus 161.8 ± 35.8 pg/mL, P = 0.0013, respectively). After corticosteroid therapy, the LVEF and BNP levels were also significantly better in group E than in group L (53.3 ± 10.7 versus 37.0 ± 9.3%, P = 0.0128; 63.0 ± 46.4 versus 458.8 ± 352.0 pg/mL, P = 0.0027).The diagnosis may be delayed in CS patients with CAVB without history of extracardiac sarcoidosis. Abnormal findings on echocardiography contributed to the early diagnosis of CS. Therefore, the diagnosis of CS may be missed or delayed in patients without them. Time delay from the CAVB onset to the CS diagnosis may exacerbate the cardiac function.

  2. Mechanisms involved in cardiac sensitization by volatile anesthetics: general applicability to halogenated hydrocarbons?

    PubMed

    Himmel, Herbert M

    2008-01-01

    An increased sensitivity of the heart to catecholamines or cardiac sensitization is a recognized risk during acute human exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons used as solvents, foam-blowing or fire-extinguishing agents, refrigerants, and aerosol propellants. Although cardiac sensitization to such "industrial" halocarbons can result in serious arrhythmia and death, research into its mechanistic basis has been limited, whereas the literature on volatile anesthetics (e.g., halothane, chloroform) is comparably extensive. A review of the literature on halocarbons and related volatile anesthetics was conducted. The available experimental evidence suggests that volatile anesthetics at physiologically relevant concentrations interact predominantly with the main repolarizing cardiac potassium channels hERG and I(Ks), as well as with calcium and sodium channels at slightly higher concentrations. On the level of the heart, inhibition of these ion channels is prone to alter both action potential shape (triangulation) and electrical impulse conduction, which may facilitate arrhythmogenesis by volatile anesthetics per se and is potentiated by catecholamines. Action potential triangulation by regionally heterogeneous inhibition of calcium and potassium channels will facilitate catecholamine-induced afterdepolarizations, triggered activity, and enhanced automaticity. Inhibition of cardiac sodium channels will reduce conduction velocity and alter refractory period; this is potentiated by catecholamines and promotes reentry arrhythmias. Other cardiac and/or neuronal mechanisms might also contribute to arrhythmogenesis. The few scattered in vitro data available for halocarbons (e.g., FC-12, halon 1301, trichloroethylene) suggest inhibition of cardiac sodium (conduction), calcium and potassium channels (triangulation), extraneuronal catecholamine reuptake, and various neuronal ion channels. Therefore, it is hypothesized that halocarbons promote cardiac sensitization by similar

  3. The Involvement of Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns in the Development of Immunoparalysis in Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Kim; Kox, Matthijs; Gerretsen, Jelle; Peters, Esther; Scheffer, Gert Jan; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W

    2015-11-01

    After cardiac arrest, patients are highly vulnerable toward infections, possibly due to a suppressed state of the immune system called "immunoparalysis." We investigated if immunoparalysis develops following cardiac arrest and whether the release of danger-associated molecular patterns could be involved. Observational study. ICU of a university medical center. Fourteen post-cardiac arrest patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia for 24 hours and 11 control subjects. Plasma cytokines showed highest levels within 24 hours after cardiac arrest and decreased during the next 2 days. By contrast, ex vivo production of cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated leukocytes was severely impaired compared with control subjects, with most profound effects observed at day 0, and only partially recovering afterward. Compared with incubation at 37°C, incubation at 32°C resulted in higher interleukin-6 and lower interleukin-10 production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated leukocytes of control subjects, but not of patients. Plasma nuclear DNA, used as a marker for general danger-associated molecular pattern release, and the specific danger-associated molecular patterns (EN-RAGE and heat shock protein 70) were substantially higher in patients at days 0 and 1 compared with control subjects. Furthermore, plasma heat shock protein 70 levels were negatively correlated with ex vivo production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10. Extracellular newly identified receptor for advanced glycation end products-binding protein levels only showed a significant negative correlation with ex vivo production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α and a borderline significant inverse correlation with interleukin-10. No significant correlations were observed between plasma nuclear DNA levels and ex vivo cytokine production. None. Release of danger-associated molecular

  4. Mother Involvement as an Influence on Father Involvement with Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pleck, Joseph H.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    This study hypothesized that father involvement is influenced by mothers' level of involvement as well as by marital conflict, mothers' work hours, and fathers' status as biological or step father. The analysis also tested hypotheses about mother involvement as a potential mediator of the effects of marital conflict and maternal work hours on father involvement, and hypotheses about factors influencing mother involvement. Children aged 10-14 from the NLSY79 who resided with their biological or step father and with their mother reported on each parent's involvement with them. As hypothesized, father involvement was predicted by mother involvement, and the reciprocal influence was not significant. Father involvement was associated with low marital conflict and being a biological father. Mothers' involvement partially mediated the effects of marital conflict on father involvement. If the mediating role of maternal involvement is not taken into account, the effect of marital conflict on father involvement is overestimated. PMID:21776195

  5. Is a sedentary lifestyle an independent predictor for hospital and early mortality after elective cardiac surgery?

    PubMed

    Noyez, L; Biemans, I; Verkroost, M; van Swieten, H

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluates whether a sedentary lifestyle is an independent predictor for increased mortality after elective cardiac surgery. Three thousand one hundred fifty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery between January 2007 and June 2012 completed preoperatively the Corpus Christi Heart Project questionnaire concerning physical activity (PA). Based on this questionnaire, 1815 patients were classified as active and 1335 patients were classified as sedentary. The endpoints of the study were hospital mortality and early mortality. The study population had a mean age of 69.7 ± 10.1 (19-95) years and a mean logistic EuroSCORE risk of 5.1 ± 5.6 (0.88-73.8). Sedentary patients were significantly older (p = 0.001), obese (p = 0.001), had a higher EuroSCORE risk (p = 0.001), and a higher percentage of complications. Hospital mortality (1.1 % versus 0.4 % (p = 0.014)) and early mortality (1.5 % versus 0.6 % (p = 0.006)) were significantly higher in the sedentary group compared with the active group. However, a sedentary lifestyle was not identified as an independent predictor for hospital mortality (p = 0.61) or early mortality (p = 0.70). Sedentary patients were older, obese and had a higher EuroSCORE risk. They had significantly more postoperative complications, higher hospital mortality and early mortality. Despite these results, sedentary behaviour could not be identified as an independent predictor for hospital or early mortality.

  6. Phospholamban, a predicted candidate for early cardiac problem detection using signal processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Hejase de Trad, C

    2005-01-01

    Heart failure has been identified as a serious international problem, in particular for aging groups, posing both an increasing number of patients on waiting lists in countries susceptible with Medicare systems and increasing financial burdens. It may be imperative to develop a marker that can identify such problems at an early stage. It is believed that certain proteins have crucial roles in early detection of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer in United Arab Emirates. This might be accomplished by recognition of unusual features in protein candidates. Phospholamban (PLB) is a 52 amino acid phosphoprotein which regulates the calcium pump of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). During muscle contraction, PLB inhibits the Ca++ pump. During muscle relaxation, it can be phosphorylated, removing the inhibition and allowing Ca++ to be pumped back into SR. With the calcium pump disrupted, the heart muscle is probably weakened, resulting in congestive heart failure. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is considered as a better predictor of heart attack in elderly people. It could serve as an early warning sign since its level increases early in the inflammatory process. Also, it has been established that myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) plays a vital role in the development of cardiovascular problems like atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty inflammation. In this paper, the resonance recognition method (RRM) has been employed to determine the characteristic frequencies of the above-mentioned proteins. It has been found that phospholamban and IL-6 share the same characteristic frequency, 0.3320 plusmn 0.0002 suggesting their common probable contribution to heart failure. Myocyte enhancer factor 2A does not share the same characteristic frequency. Hence, phospholamban is suggested as a highly probable early marker for cardiac problem detection.

  7. Early transcriptional changes in cardiac mitochondria during chronic doxorubicin exposure and mitigation by dexrazoxane in mice

    SciT

    Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L.; Han, Tao

    Identification of early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity could help initiate means to ameliorate the cardiotoxic actions of clinically useful drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX). Since DOX has been shown to target mitochondria, transcriptional levels of mitochondria-related genes were evaluated to identify early candidate biomarkers in hearts of male B6C3F{sub 1} mice given a weekly intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg DOX or saline (SAL) for 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 weeks (6, 9, 12, 18, or 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively). Also, a group of mice was pretreated (intraperitoneally) with the cardio-protectant, dexrazoxane (DXZ; 60 mg/kg) 30 min before eachmore » weekly dose of DOX or SAL. At necropsy a week after the last dose, increased plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were detected at 18 and 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, whereas myocardial alterations were observed only at the 24 mg/kg dose. Of 1019 genes interrogated, 185, 109, 140, 184, and 451 genes were differentially expressed at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively, compared to concurrent SAL-treated controls. Of these, expression of 61 genes associated with energy metabolism and apoptosis was significantly altered before and after occurrence of myocardial injury, suggesting these as early genomics markers of cardiotoxicity. Much of these DOX-induced transcriptional changes were attenuated by pretreatment of mice with DXZ. Also, DXZ treatment significantly reduced plasma cTnT concentration and completely ameliorated cardiac alterations induced by 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX. This information on early transcriptional changes during DOX treatment may be useful in designing cardioprotective strategies targeting mitochondria. - Highlights: • Altered mitochondria-related gene expression before heart injury by doxorubicin • Dexrazoxane mitigated doxorubicin-induced early expression changes in mitochondria. • Dexrazoxane completely ameliorated doxorubicin-induced pathology in mouse

  8. Deficiency of aldose reductase exacerbates early pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and autophagy in mice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Shahid P; Zhang, Deqing; Singh, Mahavir; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Xie, Zhengzhi; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Zhao, Jingjing; Schmidtke, Virginia K; Brittian, Kenneth R; Merchant, Michael L; Conklin, Daniel J; Jones, Steven P; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2018-05-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein in the heart. These aldehydes are metabolized via several pathways, of which aldose reductase (AR) represents a broad-specificity route for their elimination. We tested the hypothesis that by preventing aldehyde removal, AR deficiency accentuates the pathological effects of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). We found that the levels of AR in the heart were increased in mice subjected to TAC for 2 weeks. In comparison with wild-type (WT), AR-null mice showed lower ejection fraction, which was exacerbated 2 weeks after TAC. Levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain were higher in AR-null than in WT TAC hearts. Deficiency of AR decreased urinary levels of the acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid. Deletion of AR did not affect the levels of the other aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme - aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in the heart, or its urinary product - (N-Acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-l-cystiene). AR-null hearts subjected to TAC showed increased accumulation of HNE- and acrolein-modified proteins, as well as increased AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy. Superfusion with HNE led to a greater increase in p62, LC3II formation, and GFP-LC3-II punctae formation in AR-null than WT cardiac myocytes. Pharmacological inactivation of JNK decreased HNE-induced autophagy in AR-null cardiac myocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that during hypertrophy the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes promotes pathological remodeling via excessive autophagy, and that metabolic detoxification of these aldehydes by AR may be essential for maintaining cardiac function during early stages of pressure overload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

  10. The early identification of psychosis: Can lessons be learnt from Cardiac Stress Testing?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swapnil; Ranganathan, Mohini; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are amongst the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. There is an urgent need to develop methods to identify individuals at risk with greater precision and as early as possible. At present, a prerequisite for a diagnosis of schizophrenia is the occurrence of a psychotic episode. Therefore, attempting to detect schizophrenia on the basis of psychosis is analogous to diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction (MI). The introduction of cardiac stress testing (CST) has revolutionized the detection of CAD and the prevention and management of angina and MI. In this paper we attempt to apply lessons learnt from cardiac stress testing to the early detection of psychosis by proposing the development of an analogous psychosis stress test. We discuss in detail the various parameters of a proposed psychosis stress test including the choice of a suitable psychological or psychopharmacological “stressor”, target population, outcome measures, safety of the approach and the necessary evolution of test to become clinically informative. The history of evolution of CST may guide the development of a similar approach for the detection and management of psychotic disorders. The initial development of a test to unmask latent risk for schizophrenia will require the selection of a suitable and safe stimulus and the development of outcome measures as a prelude to testing in populations with a range of risk to determine predictive value. The use of cardiac stress testing in coronary artery disease offers the intriguing possibility that a similar approach may be applied to the detection and management of schizophrenia. PMID:26566609

  11. Creating a Biomarker Panel for Early Detection of Chemotherapy Related Cardiac Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Klug, Rebecca; Tirona, Maria; Thompson, Ellen; Visweshwar, Haresh; Puri, Nitin; Shapiro, Joseph; Sodhi, Komal

    2017-03-01

    Cardiotoxicity is an important issue for breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-trastuzumab therapy in the adjuvant setting. Studies show that 3-36% of patients receiving anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab experience chemotherapy related cardiac dysfunction (CRCD) and approximately 17% of patients must stop chemotherapy due to the consequences of CRCD. There is currently no standardized, clinically verified way to detect CRCD early, but common practices include serial echocardiography and troponin measurements, which can be timely, costly, and not always available in areas where health care resources are scarce. Furthermore, detection of CRCD, before there is any echocardiographic evidence of dysfunction or clinical symptoms present, would allow maximal benefit of chemotherapy and minimize cardiac complications. Creating a panel of serum biomarkers would allow for more specificity and sensitivity in the early detection of CRCD, which would be easy to implement and cost effective in places with limited health care. Based on a review of the literature, we propose creating a biomarker panel consisting of topoisomerase 2β, serum troponin T/I, myeloperoxidase, NT-proBNP, miR-208b, miR-34a, and miR-150 in breast cancer patients receiving anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab to detect CRCD before any signs of overt cardiotoxicity are apparent.

  12. Combining High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and Cardiac Troponin T in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Noreen; Wildi, Karin; Twerenbold, Raphael; Pickering, John W; Than, Martin; Cullen, Louise; Greenslade, Jaimi; Parsonage, William; Nestelberger, Thomas; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Badertscher, Patrick; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Bekers, Otto; Schöni, Aline; Keller, Dagmar I; Sabti, Zaid; Puelacher, Christian; Cupa, Janosch; Schumacher, Lukas; Kozhuharov, Nikola; Grimm, Karin; Shrestha, Samyut; Flores, Dayana; Freese, Michael; Stelzig, Claudia; Strebel, Ivo; Miró, Òscar; Rentsch, Katharina; Morawiec, Beata; Kawecki, Damian; Kloos, Wanda; Lohrmann, Jens; Richards, A Mark; Troughton, Richard; Pemberton, Christopher; Osswald, Stefan; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Mingels, Alma M; Reichlin, Tobias; Meex, Steven J R; Mueller, Christian

    2018-04-24

    Background -Combining two signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of AMI. Methods -The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected AMI. The optimal rule out and rule in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule out was compared with the ESC 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. Results -Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the ESC 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6-24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34-41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value (NPV) 100% (95%CI: 99.5-100%); product: NPV 100% (95%CI: 99.5-100%) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% (95%CI: 99.0-99.9%); product: NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 98.8-99.8%). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule out (40-43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% (95%CI: 99.2-100%); NPV

  13. Early extubation after cardiac surgery: emotional status in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Silbert, B S; Santamaria, J D; Kelly, W J; O'brien, J L; Blyth, C M; Wong, M Y; Allen, N B

    2001-08-01

    To compare the emotional state during the first 3 days after coronary artery surgery of patients who had undergone early versus conventional extubation. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. University hospital, single center. Eligible patients (n = 100) presenting for elective coronary artery surgery, randomized to an early extubation group or a conventional extubation group. Emotional status was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), the Self Assessment Manikin (SAM), and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R). Tests were administered preoperatively and on the 1st and 3rd days postoperatively. Of patients in the conventional extubation group, 30% showed moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (HAD score >10) on day 3 postoperatively compared with 8% of patients in the early extubation group (p = 0.02). There was a clinically insignificant increase in MAACL-R depression score on the 1st postoperative day within both groups but no other differences within or between groups in SAM or MAACL-R scores. Early extubation results in fewer patients displaying depressive symptoms on the 3rd postoperative day but appears to have little effect on other measurements of emotional status. Anesthetic management during coronary artery bypass graft surgery may play an important role in the overall well-being of the patient by decreasing the incidence of postoperative depression. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  14. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  15. Factors that Impact West Virginia Head Start Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausell, Arlene Midget

    2010-01-01

    The research problem is: Many parents are not involved in their children's early literacy education. Some Head Start parents experience issues that keep them from teaching their children early literacy skills. The research questions were: What are the factors for parental involvement in the support of early literacy skill development for their…

  16. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  17. Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ Signaling Is Involved in Valsartan Inhibition of Cardiac Hypertrophy in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jian; Qin, Xiaotong; Zhu, Jianhua; Sheng, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the expression, activity and alternative splicing of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) are dysregulated in the cardiac remodeling process. Recently, we found a further signaling pathway, by which dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) regulates the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ via the alternative splicing factor (ASF), i.e., Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling was involved in valsartan inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats. Rats were subjected to two kidney-one clip (2K1C) surgery and then treated with valsartan (30 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Hypertrophic parameter analysis was then performed. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of Dyrk1A and ASF and RT-PCR was used to analyze the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ in the left ventricular (LV) sample. Valsartan attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in 2K1C rats but without impairment of cardiac systolic function. Increased protein expression of Dyrk1A and decreased protein expression of ASF were observed in the LV sample of 2K1C rats. Treatment of 2K1C rats with valsartan reversed the changes in Dyrk1A and ASF expression in the LV sample. Valsartan adjusted the 2K1C-induced imbalance in alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ by upregulating the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδC and downregulating the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδA and CaMKIIδB. Valsartan inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats was mediated, at least partly, by Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Impact of Early Vasopressor Administration on Neurological Outcomes after Prolonged Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Michael W; Tyson, Clark

    2017-06-01

    neurological outcomes (OR=7.61; P<.01) as were patients receiving field hypothermia (OR=2.13; P<.01). Patient gender, non-Caucasian race, layperson CPR, and ETI were not independent predictors of favorable neurological outcome. In this evaluation, time to vasopressor administration was significantly associated with favorable neurological outcome. Among adult, witnessed, non-traumatic arrests, the odds of hospital discharge with CPC 1 or 2 declined by 10% for every one-minute delay between PSAP call-receipt and vasopressor administration. These retrospective observations support the notion of a time-dependent function of vasopressor effectiveness on favorable neurological outcome. Large, prospective studies are needed to verify this relationship. Hubble MW , Tyson C . Impact of early vasopressor administration on neurological outcomes after prolonged out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017; 32(3):297-304.

  19. Gendered Perceptions of Father Involvement in Early Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph; Reitzes, Donald C.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes 256 letters written by middle-class fathers and mothers to nationally known educator Angelo Patri to illustrate the degree to which perceptions of father involvement in the 1920s-30s varied according to gender. Suggests the difference in father involvement during the 20th century is not as sharp as some suppose. (Author/JPS)

  20. Analyzing Parental Involvement Dimensions in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulmus, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    The importance of parental involvement in children's academic and social development has been widely accepted. For children's later school success, the first years are crucial. Majority of the research focuses on enhancing and supporting parental involvement in educational settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze dimensions of parental…

  1. New Parents’ Psychological Adjustment and Trajectories of Early Parental Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rongfang; Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Trajectories of parental involvement time (engagement and child care) across 3, 6, and 9 months postpartum and associations with parents’ own and their partners’ psychological adjustment (dysphoria, anxiety, and empathic personal distress) were examined using a sample of dual-earner couples experiencing first-time parenthood (N = 182 couples). Using time diary measures that captured intensive parenting moments, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that patterns of associations between psychological adjustment and parental involvement time depended on the parenting domain, aspect of psychological adjustment, and parent gender. Psychological adjustment difficulties tended to bias the 2-parent system toward a gendered pattern of “mother step in” and “father step out,” as father involvement tended to decrease, and mother involvement either remained unchanged or increased, in response to their own and their partners’ psychological adjustment difficulties. In contrast, few significant effects were found in models using parental involvement to predict psychological adjustment. PMID:27397935

  2. Understanding Early Decisions to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Therapy in Cardiac Arrest Survivors. A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dale, Craig M; Sinuff, Tasnim; Morrison, Laurie J; Golan, Eyal; Scales, Damon C

    2016-07-01

    Early withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy contributes to the majority of deaths following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), despite current recommendations for delayed neurological prognostication (≥72 h) after treatment with targeted temperature management. Little is known about clinicians' experiences of early withdrawal of life support decisions in patients with OHCA. To explore clinicians' experiences and perceptions of early withdrawal of life support decisions and barriers to guideline-concordant neurological prognostication in comatose survivors of OHCA treated with targeted temperature management. We conducted qualitative interviews with intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses following withdrawal of life support in comatose patients with OHCA treated with targeted temperature management. The study was carried out across 18 academic and community hospitals participating in a multicenter, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to improve quality-of-care processes for patients after OHCA in Ontario, Canada. We used a focused thematic analysis to capture barriers to guideline-concordant neurological prognostication and used these barriers to identify potentially modifiable issues. The core thematic finding was a high emotional burden of ICU family-team communication in which strong feelings inhibited information transfer and delayed decision making following OHCA. Four subthemes describing sources of communication strain were identified: (1) requests from family members to provide early outcome predictions, (2) incomplete family comprehension of critical care, (3) family requests for early withdrawal of life support based on their understanding of patients' preferences and values, and (4) family-team communication gaps related to prognostic uncertainty. Participants worried that gaps in timely and clear prognostic information contributed to surrogates' perceptions of a poor outcome and to inappropriately early decisions to

  3. Hispanic Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Linda M.

    To determine effective strategies for connecting Hispanic parents and their children's early childhood programs, educators need to develop a greater understanding of the features of the Hispanic culture that influence parents' childrearing practices and orientation toward formal education. Educators should be aware of Hispanics' diversity in terms…

  4. Predicting early adolescent gang involvement from middle school adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations in 6th grade were used to predict multiple measures of gang involvement by 8th grade. The multiple measures of gang involvement included self-, peer, teacher, and counselor reports. Unexpectedly, self-report measures of gang involvement did not correlate highly with peer and school staff reports. The results, however, were similar for other and self-report measures of gang involvement. Mean level analyses revealed statistically reliable differences in 8th-grade gang involvement as a function of the youth gender and ethnicity. Structural equation prediction models revealed that peer nominations of rejection, acceptance, academic failure, and antisocial behavior were predictive of gang involvement for most youth. These findings suggest that the youth level of problem behavior and the school ecology (e.g., peer rejection, school failure) require attention in the design of interventions to prevent the formation of gangs among high-risk young adolescents.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Low Decibel Infrasound on the Cardiac Fibroblasts and the Involved Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wei; Deng, Qin-Qin; Chen, Bao-Ying; Lu, Zhen-Xing; Li, Qing; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Chang, Pan; Yu, Jun; Pei, Zhao-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Infrasound is a mechanical vibration wave with frequency between 0.0001 and 20 Hz. It has been established that infrasound of 120 dB or stronger is dangerous to humans. However, the biological effects of low decibel infrasound are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: The cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from Sprague–Dawley rats. The cultured cells were assigned into the following four groups: control group, angiotensin II (Ang II) group, infrasound group, and Ang II+infrasound group. The cell proliferation and collagen synthesis rates were evaluated by means of [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-proline incorporation, respectively. The levels of TGF-β were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, RNAi approaches were used for the analysis of the biological functions of miR-29a, and the phosphorylation status of Smad3 was detected using western blotting analysis. Results: The results showed that low decibel infrasound significantly alleviated Ang II-induced enhancement of cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Discussion: Compared with the control, Ang II markedly decreased the expression of miR-29a levels and increased the secretion of TGF-β and phosphorylation of Smad3, which was partly reversed by the treatment with low decibel infrasound. Importantly, knockdown of miR-29a diminished the effects of infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, low decibel infrasound inhibits Ang II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts via miR-29a targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. PMID:28615545

  6. Inhibitory effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts and the involved mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei; Deng, Qin-Qin; Chen, Bao-Ying; Lu, Zhen-Xing; Li, Qing; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Chang, Pan; Yu, Jun; Pei, Zhao-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Infrasound is a mechanical vibration wave with frequency between 0.0001 and 20 Hz. It has been established that infrasound of 120 dB or stronger is dangerous to humans. However, the biological effects of low decibel infrasound are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. The cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from Sprague-Dawley rats. The cultured cells were assigned into the following four groups: control group, angiotensin II (Ang II) group, infrasound group, and Ang II+infrasound group. The cell proliferation and collagen synthesis rates were evaluated by means of [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-proline incorporation, respectively. The levels of TGF-β were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, RNAi approaches were used for the analysis of the biological functions of miR-29a, and the phosphorylation status of Smad3 was detected using western blotting analysis. The results showed that low decibel infrasound significantly alleviated Ang II-induced enhancement of cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Compared with the control, Ang II markedly decreased the expression of miR-29a levels and increased the secretion of TGF-β and phosphorylation of Smad3, which was partly reversed by the treatment with low decibel infrasound. Importantly, knockdown of miR-29a diminished the effects of infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, low decibel infrasound inhibits Ang II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts via miR-29a targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling.

  7. Association Between Early Postoperative Acetaminophen Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Driest, Sara L; Jooste, Edmund H; Shi, Yaping; Choi, Leena; Darghosian, Leon; Hill, Kevin D; Smith, Andrew H; Kannankeril, Prince J; Roden, Dan M; Ware, Lorraine B

    2018-05-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication for pediatric cardiac surgery patients associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Current strategies focus on risk reduction and early identification because there are no known preventive or therapeutic agents. Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass lyse erythrocytes, releasing free hemoglobin and contributing to oxidative injury. Acetaminophen may prevent AKI by reducing the oxidation state of free hemoglobin. To test the hypothesis that early postoperative acetaminophen exposure is associated with reduced risk of AKI in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this retrospective cohort study, the setting was 2 tertiary referral children's hospitals. The primary and validation cohorts included children older than 28 days admitted for cardiac surgery between July 1, 2008, and June 1, 2016. Exclusion criteria were postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inadequate serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status. Acetaminophen exposure in the first 48 postoperative hours. Acute kidney injury based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria (increase by ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline or at least 1.5-fold more than the baseline [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4]) in the first postoperative week. The primary cohort (n = 666) had a median age of 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.9-44.7) months, and 341 (51.2%) had AKI. In unadjusted analyses, those with AKI had lower median acetaminophen doses than those without AKI (47 [IQR, 16-88] vs 78 [IQR, 43-104] mg/kg, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, red blood cell distribution width, postoperative hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, acetaminophen exposure was protective against postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] per each

  8. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    PubMed

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption.

  9. Myosin light chain 2-based selection of human iPSC-derived early ventricular cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bizy, Alexandra; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Hu, Bin; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Willis, B Cicero; Zarzoso, Manuel; Ramirez, Rafael J; Sener, Michelle F; Mundada, Lakshmi V; Klos, Matthew; Devaney, Eric J; Vikstrom, Karen L; Herron, Todd J; Jalife, José

    2013-11-01

    Applications of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived-cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs) would be strengthened by the ability to generate specific cardiac myocyte (CM) lineages. However, purification of lineage-specific hiPSC-CMs is limited by the lack of cell marking techniques. Here, we have developed an iPSC-CM marking system using recombinant adenoviral reporter constructs with atrial- or ventricular-specific myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters. MLC-2a and MLC-2v selected hiPSC-CMs were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and their biochemical and electrophysiological phenotypes analyzed. We demonstrate that the phenotype of both populations remained stable in culture and they expressed the expected sarcomeric proteins, gap junction proteins and chamber-specific transcription factors. Compared to MLC-2a cells, MLC-2v selected CMs had larger action potential amplitudes and durations. In addition, by immunofluorescence, we showed that MLC-2 isoform expression can be used to enrich hiPSC-CM consistent with early atrial and ventricular myocyte lineages. However, only the ventricular myosin light chain-2 promoter was able to purify a highly homogeneous population of iPSC-CMs. Using this approach, it is now possible to develop ventricular-specific disease models using iPSC-CMs while atrial-specific iPSC-CM cultures may require additional chamber-specific markers. © 2013.

  10. Myosin light chain 2-based selection of human iPSC-derived early ventricular cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bizy, Alexandra; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Hu, Bin; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Willis, B. Cicero; Zarzoso, Manuel; Ramirez, Rafael J.; Sener, Michelle F.; Mundada, Lakshmi V.; Klos, Matthew; Devaney, Eric J.; Vikstrom, Karen L.; Herron, Todd J.; Jalife, José

    2014-01-01

    Applications of human induced pluripotent stemcell derived-cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs) would be strengthened by the ability to generate specific cardiac myocyte (CM) lineages. However, purification of lineage-specific hiPSC-CMs is limited by the lack of cell marking techniques. Here, we have developed an iPSC-CM marking system using recombinant adenoviral reporter constructs with atrial- or ventricular-specific myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters. MLC-2a and MLC-2v selected hiPSC-CMs were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and their biochemical and electrophysiological phenotypes analyzed. We demonstrate that the phenotype of both populations remained stable in culture and they expressed the expected sarcomeric proteins, gap junction proteins and chamber-specific transcription factors. Compared to MLC-2a cells, MLC-2v selected CMs had larger action potential amplitudes and durations. In addition, by immunofluorescence, we showed that MLC-2 isoform expression can be used to enrich hiPSC-CM consistent with early atrial and ventricularmyocyte lineages. However, only the ventricular myosin light chain-2 promoter was able to purify a highly homogeneous population of iPSC-CMs. Using this approach, it is now possible to develop ventricular-specific disease models using iPSC-CMs while atrial-specific iPSC-CM cultures may require additional chamber-specific markers. PMID:24095945

  11. Early Adolescents' Participation in Bullying: Is ToM Involved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caravita, Simona C. S.; Di Blasio, Paola; Salmivalli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) skills in three forms of involvement in bullying: ringleader bullying, defending the victim(s), and victimization. Individual (affective empathy) and interpersonal variables (social preference and perceived popularity) were assumed to moderate the associations between ToM and the ways…

  12. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  13. Involving Parents in Early Childhood Research as Reliable Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Susan; Curtis, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings in relation to one aspect of the "I Go to School" research project carried out in South Australia which tracked children attending integrated pre-school/childcare centres as they made their transition to school. Eight centres participated in the study involving 347 children. In order to measure some of the…

  14. An early, novel illness severity score to predict outcome after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Rittenberger, Jon C; Tisherman, Samuel A; Holm, Margo B; Guyette, Francis X; Callaway, Clifton W

    2011-11-01

    Illness severity scores are commonly employed in critically ill patients to predict outcome. To date, prior scores for post-cardiac arrest patients rely on some event-related data. We developed an early, novel post-arrest illness severity score to predict survival, good outcome and development of multiple organ failure (MOF) after cardiac arrest. Retrospective review of data from adults treated after in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a single tertiary care facility between 1/1/2005 and 12/31/2009. In addition to clinical data, initial illness severity was measured using serial organ function assessment (SOFA) scores and full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) scores at hospital or intensive care unit arrival. Outcomes were hospital mortality, good outcome (discharge to home or rehabilitation) and development of multiple organ failure (MOF). Single-variable logistic regression followed by Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) was used to determine predictors of outcome. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent association between predictors and each outcome. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to evaluate goodness of fit. The n-fold method was used to cross-validate each CHAID analysis and the difference between the misclassification risk estimates was used to determine model fit. Complete data from 457/495 (92%) subjects identified distinct categories of illness severity using combined FOUR motor and brainstem subscales, and combined SOFA cardiovascular and respiratory subscales: I. Awake; II. Moderate coma without cardiorespiratory failure; III. Moderate coma with cardiorespiratory failure; and IV. Severe coma. Survival was independently associated with category (I: OR 58.65; 95% CI 27.78, 123.82; II: OR 14.60; 95% CI 7.34, 29.02; III: OR 10.58; 95% CI 4.86, 23.00). Category was also similarly associated with good outcome and development of MOF. The proportion of subjects in each category changed

  15. Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Anticancer Drug-induced Cardiotoxicity: From Cardiac Imaging to "Omics" Technologies.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure due to antineoplastic therapy remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in oncological patients. These patients often have no prior manifestation of disease. There is therefore a need for accurate identification of individuals at risk of such events before the appearance of clinical manifestations. The present article aims to provide an overview of cardiac imaging as well as new "-omics" technologies, especially with regard to genomics and proteomics as promising tools for the early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity and individual responses to antineoplastic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Effects of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest and Ischemic Postconditioning during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Cardiac and Brain Mitochondrial Function in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Timothy R; Bartos, Jason A; Tsangaris, Adamantios; Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Olson, Matthew D; Riess, Matthias L; Bienengraeber, Martin; Aufderheide, Tom P; Neumar, Robert W; Rees, Jennifer N; McKnite, Scott H; Dikalova, Anna E; Dikalov, Sergey I; Douglas, Hunter F; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2017-07-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) is a prevalent medical crisis resulting in severe injury to the heart and brain and an overall survival of less than 10%. Mitochondrial dysfunction is predicted to be a key determinant of poor outcomes following prolonged CA. However, the onset and severity of mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not fully understood. Ischemic postconditioning (IPC), controlled pauses during the initiation of CPR, has been shown to improve cardiac function and neurologically favorable outcomes after 15min of CA. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction develops during prolonged CA and can be rescued with IPC during CPR (IPC-CPR). A total of 63 swine were randomized to no ischemia (Naïve), 19min of ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA without CPR (Untreated VF), or 15min of CA with 4min of reperfusion with either standard CPR (S-CPR) or IPC-CPR. Mitochondria were isolated from the heart and brain to quantify respiration, rate of ATP synthesis, and calcium retention capacity (CRC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified from fresh frozen heart and brain tissue. Compared to Naïve, Untreated VF induced cardiac and brain ROS overproduction concurrent with decreased mitochondrial respiratory coupling and CRC, as well as decreased cardiac ATP synthesis. Compared to Untreated VF, S-CPR attenuated brain ROS overproduction but had no other effect on mitochondrial function in the heart or brain. Compared to Untreated VF, IPC-CPR improved cardiac mitochondrial respiratory coupling and rate of ATP synthesis, and decreased ROS overproduction in the heart and brain. Fifteen minutes of VF CA results in diminished mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, CRC, and increased ROS production in the heart and brain. IPC-CPR attenuates cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by prolonged VF CA after only 4min of reperfusion, suggesting that IPC-CPR is an effective intervention to reduce cardiac

  17. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Müller, Patrick; Schiedat, Fabian; Schlömicher, Markus; Strauch, Justus; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Mügge, Andreas; Köhrle, Josef; Rijntjes, Eddy; Lehmphul, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hyperthyroidism predisposes to atrial fibrillation, previous trials have suggested decreased triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations to be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Therapy with thyroid hormones (TH), however, did not reduce the risk of POAF. This study reevaluates the relation between thyroid hormone status, atrial electromechanical function and POAF. Methods Thirty-nine patients with sinus rhythm and no history of atrial fibrillation or thyroid disease undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (T4) and T3, reverse (r)T3, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) were measured preoperatively, complemented by evaluation of echocardiographic and electrophysiological parameters of cardiac function. Holter-ECG and telemetry were used to screen for POAF for 10 days following cardiac surgery. Results Seven of 17 patients who developed POAF demonstrated nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS; defined as low T3 and/or low T4 syndrome), compared to 2 of 22 (p < 0.05) patients who maintained sinus rhythm. In patients with POAF, serum FT3 concentrations were significantly decreased, but still within their reference ranges. 3,5-T2 concentrations directly correlated with rT3 concentrations and inversely correlated with FT3 concentrations. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with NTIS and in subjects who eventually developed POAF. In multivariable logistic regression FT3, 3,5-T2, total atrial conduction time, left atrial volume index and Fas ligand were independent predictors of POAF. Conclusion This study confirms reduced FT3 concentrations in patients with POAF and is the first to report on elevated 3,5-T2 concentrations in cardiac NTIS. The pathogenesis of NTIS therefore seems to involve more differentiated allostatic mechanisms. PMID:26279999

  18. Substance P induces adverse myocardial remodelling via a mechanism involving cardiac mast cells.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Giselle C; Li, Jianping; Law, Brittany A; Janicki, Joseph S; Supowit, Scott C; Levick, Scott P

    2011-12-01

    Substance P and neurokinin A (NKA) are sensory nerve neuropeptides encoded by the TAC1 gene. Substance P is a mast cell secretagogue and mast cells are known to play a role in adverse myocardial remodelling. Therefore, we wondered whether substance P and/or NKA modulates myocardial remodelling via a mast cell-mediated mechanism. Volume overload was induced by aortocaval fistula in TAC1(-/-) mice and their respective wild types. Left ventricular internal diameter of wild-type (WT) fistulas increased by 31.9%; this was prevented in TAC1(-/-) mice (4.2%). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was significantly increased in WT fistula mice and was prevented in TAC1(-/-) mice. Myocardial collagen volume fraction was decreased in WT fistula mice; this collagen degradation was not observed in the TAC1(-/-) group. There were no significant differences between any groups in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or cell death. Cardiac mast cells were isolated from rat hearts and stimulated with substance P or NKA. We found that these cells degranulated only to substance P, via the neurokinin-1 receptor. To determine the effect of substance P on mast cells in vivo, volume overload was created in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with the NK-1 receptor antagonist L732138 (5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 3 days. L732138 prevented: (i) increases in cardiac mast cell density; (ii) increased myocardial TNF-α; and (iii) collagen degradation. Our studies suggest that substance P may be important in mediating adverse myocardial remodelling secondary to volume overload by activating cardiac mast cells, leading to increased TNF-α and MMP activation with subsequent degradation of the extracellular matrix.

  19. Substance P induces adverse myocardial remodelling via a mechanism involving cardiac mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez, Giselle C.; Li, Jianping; Law, Brittany A.; Janicki, Joseph S.; Supowit, Scott C.; Levick, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Substance P and neurokinin A (NKA) are sensory nerve neuropeptides encoded by the TAC1 gene. Substance P is a mast cell secretagogue and mast cells are known to play a role in adverse myocardial remodelling. Therefore, we wondered whether substance P and/or NKA modulates myocardial remodelling via a mast cell-mediated mechanism. Methods and results Volume overload was induced by aortocaval fistula in TAC1−/− mice and their respective wild types. Left ventricular internal diameter of wild-type (WT) fistulas increased by 31.9%; this was prevented in TAC1−/− mice (4.2%). Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was significantly increased in WT fistula mice and was prevented in TAC1−/− mice. Myocardial collagen volume fraction was decreased in WT fistula mice; this collagen degradation was not observed in the TAC1−/− group. There were no significant differences between any groups in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α or cell death. Cardiac mast cells were isolated from rat hearts and stimulated with substance P or NKA. We found that these cells degranulated only to substance P, via the neurokinin-1 receptor. To determine the effect of substance P on mast cells in vivo, volume overload was created in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with the NK-1 receptor antagonist L732138 (5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 3 days. L732138 prevented: (i) increases in cardiac mast cell density; (ii) increased myocardial TNF-α; and (iii) collagen degradation. Conclusions Our studies suggest that substance P may be important in mediating adverse myocardial remodelling secondary to volume overload by activating cardiac mast cells, leading to increased TNF-α and MMP activation with subsequent degradation of the extracellular matrix. PMID:21908647

  20. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P < .001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combination of 2-hour absolute and relative change (hs-cTnT 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.97-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs towards Parent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaçam, Nur; Olgan, Refika

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs held by pre-service early childhood teachers and their self-reported skills in implementing parent involvement strategies. Another aim was to examine the impact made on parent involvement self-efficacy beliefs by taking a course on parent involvement and by self-reported…

  2. Exercise training improves cardiac function in infarcted rabbits: involvement of autophagic function and fatty acid utilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Yi; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Bai-Chin; Lin, Hung-Ju; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Hui-Chun; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2010-04-01

    To explore whether exercise can improve cardiac function in a post-myocardial infarction (MI) rabbit model and to determine contributing factors in the left ventricle (LV). Adult male New Zealand White rabbits (2.5-3 kg) underwent MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. For 8 weeks after surgery, sham-operated, and post-MI rabbits were housed under sedentary conditions or assigned to a 4-week treadmill exercise protocol at a speed of 1.0 km/h for 30 min 5 days per week, then sacrificed. The non-infarcted region of the LV was harvested for further analysis. MI decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation in the LV. Exercise improved the cardiac function of MI rabbits. Left ventricular LC3II/LC3I (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) in the MI group was 2.1-fold higher than that of the sham group, exercise significantly decreased LC3II/LC3I in the MI group. MI down-regulated the expression of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP), and exercise up-regulated h-FABP. In addition, LVEF had a significantly positive correlation with h-FABP and a negative correlation with LC3II/LC3I. Exercise induced change in autophagic function and fatty acid utilization may contribute to the improvement in ventricular function in the infarcted heart.

  3. Shifting Attention within Memory Representations Involves Early Visual Areas

    PubMed Central

    Munneke, Jaap; Belopolsky, Artem V.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that spatial attention modulates early visual cortex retinotopically, resulting in enhanced processing of external perceptual representations. However, it is not clear whether the same visual areas are modulated when attention is focused on, and shifted within a working memory representation. In the current fMRI study participants were asked to memorize an array containing four stimuli. After a delay, participants were presented with a verbal cue instructing them to actively maintain the location of one of the stimuli in working memory. Additionally, on a number of trials a second verbal cue instructed participants to switch attention to the location of another stimulus within the memorized representation. Results of the study showed that changes in the BOLD pattern closely followed the locus of attention within the working memory representation. A decrease in BOLD-activity (V1–V3) was observed at ROIs coding a memory location when participants switched away from this location, whereas an increase was observed when participants switched towards this location. Continuous increased activity was obtained at the memorized location when participants did not switch. This study shows that shifting attention within memory representations activates the earliest parts of visual cortex (including V1) in a retinotopic fashion. We conclude that even in the absence of visual stimulation, early visual areas support shifting of attention within memorized representations, similar to when attention is shifted in the outside world. The relationship between visual working memory and visual mental imagery is discussed in light of the current findings. PMID:22558165

  4. Is endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-derived nitric oxide involved in cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation-related damage?

    PubMed

    Rus, A; Peinado, M A; Blanco, S; Del Moral, M L

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to act both as a destructive and a protective agent in the pathogenesis of the injuries that occur during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). It has been suggested that this dual role of NO depends directly on the isoform of NO synthase (NOS) involved. In this work, we investigate the role that NO derived from endothelial NOS (eNOS) plays in cardiac H/R-induced injury. Wistar rats were submitted to H/R (hypoxia for 30 min; reoxygenation of 0 h, 12 h and 5 days), with or without prior treatment using the selective eNOS inhibitor L-NIO (20 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and protein nitration, as well as NO production (NOx), were analysed. The results showed that L-NIO administration lowered NOx levels in all the experimental groups. However, no change was found in the lipid peroxidation level, the percentage of apoptotic cells or nitrated protein expression, implying that eNOS-derived NO may not be involved in the injuries occurring during H/R in the heart. We conclude that LNIO would not be useful in alleviating the adverse effects of cardiac H/R.

  5. Aerobic exercise training promotes physiological cardiac remodeling involving a set of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago; Baraúna, Valério G.; Negrão, Carlos E.; Phillips, M. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an important physiological compensatory mechanism in response to chronic increase in hemodynamic overload. There are two different forms of LV hypertrophy, one physiological and another pathological. Aerobic exercise induces beneficial physiological LV remodeling. The molecular/cellular mechanisms for this effect are not totally known, and here we review various mechanisms including the role of microRNA (miRNA). Studies in the heart, have identified antihypertrophic miRNA-1, -133, -26, -9, -98, -29, -378, and -145 and prohypertrophic miRNA-143, -103, -130a, -146a, -21, -210, -221, -222, -27a/b, -199a/b, -208, -195, -499, -34a/b/c, -497, -23a, and -15a/b. Four miRNAs are recognized as cardiac-specific: miRNA-1, -133a/b, -208a/b, and -499 and called myomiRs. In our studies we have shown that miRNAs respond to swimming aerobic exercise by 1) decreasing cardiac fibrosis through miRNA-29 increasing and inhibiting collagen, 2) increasing angiogenesis through miRNA-126 by inhibiting negative regulators of the VEGF pathway, and 3) modulating the renin-angiotensin system through the miRNAs-27a/b and -143. Exercise training also increases cardiomyocyte growth and survival by swimming-regulated miRNA-1, -21, -27a/b, -29a/c, -30e, -99b, -100, -124, -126, -133a/b, -143, -144, -145, -208a, and -222 and running-regulated miRNA-1, -26, -27a, -133, -143, -150, and -222, which influence genes associated with the heart remodeling and angiogenesis. We conclude that there is a potential role of these miRNAs in promoting cardioprotective effects on physiological growth. PMID:26071549

  6. Involvement of microRNA-133 and -29 in cardiac disturbances in diabetic ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Parisa; Alihemmati, Alireza; Nasirzadeh, Mohammadreza; Yousefi, Hadi; Habibi, Mohammadrasoul; Ahmadiasl, Nasser

    2016-11-01

    Menopause and diabetes obviously increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in type 2 diabetes on the histology and expression of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1 and Bcl-2 genes and Bcl-2 protein and caspase 3 activity in the hearts of female rats. Forty Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, sham, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized with type 2 diabetes (OVX.D). After the 8-week experiment, the histological evaluation of the heart tissue was performed using H&E staining and PAS analysis, and cardiac expression of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1, and Bcl-2 were evaluated using real-time PCR, and Bcl-2 protein and caspase 3 activity were evaluated using Western blot and ELISA. Ovariectomy significantly decreased miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1, and BCL-2 expression and Bcl-2 protein and increased caspase 3 activity in the heart compared to sham animals group (P<0.05). Type 2 diabetes in ovariectomized rats markedly decreased expression of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1, BCL-2 genes, and Bcl-2 protein, and increased caspase 3 activity and reduced collagen and fibroblast tissue and glycogen granule deposition in relation to OVX group (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that type 2 diabetes and menopause synergically could enhance the cardiac fibrosis through dysregulation of miRNA-29, miRNA-133, IGF-1, and Bcl-2 genes expression and Bcl-2 protein and upregulation of caspase 3 activity.

  7. Novel urinary biomarkers and the early detection of acute kidney injury after open cardiac surgeries.

    PubMed

    Elmedany, Said M; Naga, Salah S; Elsharkawy, Rania; Mahrous, Rabab S; Elnaggar, Ahmed I

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery, recently, several biomarkers have been used to facilitate early detection of AKI, including Neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney-injury-molecule-1 (KIM-1).This study was carried out to study the efficacy of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL separately and in combination in relation to early detection and assessment of severity of AKI after cardiac surgeries. This prospective study was carried out on 45 adult patients, of both sexes, Cleveland score(CCS) (0-5) and scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in Alexandria Main University Hospital, after approval of the ethical committee and having an informed written consent from every patient. Patients were screened for renal function tests before surgery and every day for 3 day after surgery. Freshly urine samples were taken from all patients and centrifuged for microscopic examination of the sediment: preoperative, 2, 12, 24, and 48 hr after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and for measurement of NGAL and KIM-1; after induction, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr after CPB. The primary end point was the incidence of AKI defined by the AKIN criteria of serum creatinine. 11 patients developed AKI. Patients with AKI had a higher AKIN stages and CCS. CPB time and cross clamp time were significantly higher in the AKI group with a mean of (90.5±16.2) and (60.9±8.1) minutes respectively. Serum creatinine started to be significantly higher in AKI group from the second postoperative day with a mean value of 1.56±0.28 mg/dl compared to a mean value of 0.85±0.14 mg/dl in non-AKI group. Urine sediment score(USS) 1 and 2 were higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group 2 hrs after CPB and till the end of the 2nd day with area under the curve (AUC) average of (0.865). Urinary NGAL significantly rise in AKI patients 2 and 6 hr after CPB with corresponding AUC of (0.710 and 0.700) but uKIM-1 was higher in the AKI group 12 and 24

  8. Metabotyping Patients’ Journeys Reveals Early Predisposition to Lung Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Maltesen, Raluca Georgiana; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Pedersen, Shona; Hanifa, Munsoor Ali; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity that can be related to the disease progression, which is commonly observed two-three days postoperatively. More than 700 blood samples were collected from 50 patients at nine time points pre-, intra-, and postoperatively. Dramatic metabolite shifts were observed during and immediately after the intervention. Prolonged surgical stress was linked to an augmented anaerobic environment. Time series analysis showed shifts in purine-, nicotinic acid-, tyrosine-, hyaluronic acid-, ketone-, fatty acid, and lipid metabolism. A characteristic ‘metabolic biosignature’ was identified correlating with the risk of developing postoperative complications two days before the first clinical signs of lung injury. Hence, this study demonstrates the link between intra- and postoperative time-dependent metabolite changes and later postoperative outcome. In addition, the results indicate that metabotyping patients’ journeys early, during or just after the end of surgery, may have potential impact in hospitals for the early diagnosis of postoperative lung injury, and for the monitoring of therapeutics targeting disease progression. PMID:28074924

  9. Early Absent Pupillary Light Reflexes After Cardiac Arrest in Patients Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Laxmi P; Sen, Ayan; Stanko, Carlene M; Rawal, Bhupendra; Heckman, Michael G; Hoyne, Jonathan B; Dimberg, Elliot L; Freeman, Michelle L; Ng, Lauren K; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Freeman, William D

    2016-08-01

    Loss of pupillary light reactivity is one recognized indicator of poor prognosis after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, drug overdose, low cardiac output, and/or resuscitation drugs can lead to impaired pupillary light reflex. To investigate pupillary light reflex status before therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in relation to neurological outcome, we retrospectively reviewed the data of a prospectively implemented TH protocol in patients with cardiac arrest (CA) at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida (January 2006-January 2012), and Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona (August 2010-March 2014). During this period, all CA patients who underwent hypothermia were included. These patients were selected from an institutional database and hypothermia data set. The Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) at time of discharge was our primary outcome measure. A CPC of 1 to 2 was defined as good outcome and a CPC from 3 to 5 was defined as poor outcome. We identified 99 patients who had CA treated with TH. Twenty-nine patients (29%) had pupils that were nonreactive to light on admission examination before TH, eight of whom later had return of pupil reactivity by day 3. Two of these 29 patients (6.9%) had good outcome, compared to 24 of 70 patients (34.3%) with pupils that were reactive to light (p = 0.005). Both of these patients had CA after illicit drug overdose. Early nonreactive pupils occurred in almost a third of patients after CPR and before TH in our patient population. Recovery of pupillary light reactivity is possible, and in a small minority of those cases (particularly when CA is preceded by the use of illicit drugs), a good outcome can be achieved.

  10. Early Access to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for Patients Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest Due to a Shockable Rhythm: The Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium Twin Cities Unified Protocol.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santiago; Drexel, Todd; Bekwelem, Wobo; Raveendran, Ganesh; Caldwell, Emily; Hodgson, Lucinda; Wang, Qi; Adabag, Selcuk; Mahoney, Brian; Frascone, Ralph; Helmer, Gregory; Lick, Charles; Conterato, Marc; Baran, Kenneth; Bart, Bradley; Bachour, Fouad; Roh, Steven; Panetta, Carmelo; Stark, Randall; Haugland, Mark; Mooney, Michael; Wesley, Keith; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-01-07

    In 2013 the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium developed an organized approach for the management of patients resuscitated from shockable rhythms to gain early access to the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) in the metro area of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Eleven hospitals with 24/7 percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities agreed to provide early (within 6 hours of arrival at the Emergency Department) access to the CCL with the intention to perform coronary revascularization for outpatients who were successfully resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia arrest. Other inclusion criteria were age >18 and <76 and presumed cardiac etiology. Patients with other rhythms, known do not resuscitate/do not intubate, noncardiac etiology, significant bleeding, and terminal disease were excluded. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurological outcome. Patients (315 out of 331) who were resuscitated from VT/VF and transferred alive to the Emergency Department had complete medical records. Of those, 231 (73.3%) were taken to the CCL per the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol while 84 (26.6%) were not taken to the CCL (protocol deviations). Overall, 197 (63%) patients survived to hospital discharge with good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category of 1 or 2). Of the patients who followed the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol, 121 (52%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 15 (7%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft. In this group, 151 (65%) survived with good neurological outcome, whereas in the group that did not follow the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol, 46 (55%) survived with good neurological outcome (adjusted odds ratio: 1.99; [1.07-3.72], P=0.03). Early access to the CCL after cardiac arrest due to a shockable rhythm in a selected group of patients is feasible in a large metropolitan area in the United States and is associated with a 65% survival

  11. The Relationship Between Cardiac Conduction Times, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Inflammation in Patients with Early Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Turk, Samina A; Heslinga, Sjoerd C; Dekker, Jill; Britsemmer, Linda; van der Lugt, Véronique; Lems, Willem F; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of conduction disorders in patients with early arthritis and the relationship with inflammation and traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a 2-fold higher risk of sudden cardiac death, possibly owing to conduction disorders. This increased risk might already be present at the clinical onset of arthritis. Therefore, we assessed electrocardiography, blood pressure, 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), lipid profile, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in 480 patients with early arthritis at baseline and after 1 year. The prevalence of conduction disorders was 12.5%. Conduction times at baseline were not associated with DAS28, ESR, or CRP levels and did not change during antirheumatic treatment. Baseline and the improvement in DAS28 (European League Against Rheumatism response), ESR, and CRP were significantly associated with heart rate, lipid profile, and blood pressure. Elevated total cholesterol and blood pressure were associated with an increased QRS time. The change in heart rate differed 7.3 bpm between patients with the least versus largest DAS improvement. The prevalence of conduction disorders in patients with early arthritis was 12.5%, which is similar to the general population and was not associated with changes in inflammation markers. However, a high cholesterol was associated with a prolonged QRS time. Therefore, the emphasis of CV risk management in arthritis should not be only on treatment of disease activity but also on traditional CV risk factors. The relationship between the improvement in disease activity and heart rate is remarkable because this could imply a 10-year CV mortality risk difference of 24%.

  12. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Supporting Parental Involvement in Children's Early Learning: Lessons from Community Childcare Centres in Dublin's Docklands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Michelle; Kerrins, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Recently in Ireland attention has been placed on the importance of parental involvement in early childhood care and education settings as seen in the Síolta Quality Standards and Aistear Curriculum Framework. Yet there is little Irish empirical evidence on parental involvement in childcare settings; on the involvement models being used, or on the…

  14. The degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during active standing is associated with the quality of life in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Porta, Alberto; Andrade, Carolina Pieroni; Forti, Meire; Marchi, Andrea; Furlan, Raffaello; Barbic, Franca; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Silva, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a rheumatologic disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and other symptoms. Baroreflex dysfunction has been observed in women with FMS. However, it is unknown whether the limited involvement of the baroreflex control during an orthostatic stimulus has some impact on the quality of life of the FMS patient. Therefore, the aim of the study is evaluate the relationship between the quality of life of the FMS patient and indexes of the cardiovascular autonomic control as estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). We enrolled 35 women with FMS (age: 48.8±8.9 years; body mass index: 29.3±4.3 Kg/m2). The electrocardiogram, non-invasive finger blood pressure and respiratory activity were continuously recorded during 15 minutes at rest in supine position (REST) and in orthostatic position during active standing (STAND). Traditional cardiovascular autonomic control markers were assessed along with a Granger causality index assessing the strength of the causal relation from SAP to HP (CRSAP→HP) and measuring the degree of involvement of the cardiac baroreflex. The impact of FMS on quality of life was quantified by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and visual analog score for pain (VAS pain). No significant linear association was found between FIQ scores and the traditional cardiovascular indexes both at REST and during STAND (p>0.05). However, a negative relationship between CRSAP→HP during STAND and FIQ score was found (r = -0.56, p<0.01). Similar results were found with VAS pain. In conclusion, the lower the degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during STAND in women with FMS, the higher the impact of FMS on the quality of life, thus suggesting that Granger causality analysis might be clinically helpful in assessing the state of the FMS patient.

  15. The degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during active standing is associated with the quality of life in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Alberto; Andrade, Carolina Pieroni; Forti, Meire; Marchi, Andrea; Furlan, Raffaello; Barbic, Franca; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Silva, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a rheumatologic disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and other symptoms. Baroreflex dysfunction has been observed in women with FMS. However, it is unknown whether the limited involvement of the baroreflex control during an orthostatic stimulus has some impact on the quality of life of the FMS patient. Therefore, the aim of the study is evaluate the relationship between the quality of life of the FMS patient and indexes of the cardiovascular autonomic control as estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). We enrolled 35 women with FMS (age: 48.8±8.9 years; body mass index: 29.3±4.3 Kg/m2). The electrocardiogram, non-invasive finger blood pressure and respiratory activity were continuously recorded during 15 minutes at rest in supine position (REST) and in orthostatic position during active standing (STAND). Traditional cardiovascular autonomic control markers were assessed along with a Granger causality index assessing the strength of the causal relation from SAP to HP (CRSAP→HP) and measuring the degree of involvement of the cardiac baroreflex. The impact of FMS on quality of life was quantified by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and visual analog score for pain (VAS pain). No significant linear association was found between FIQ scores and the traditional cardiovascular indexes both at REST and during STAND (p>0.05). However, a negative relationship between CRSAP→HP during STAND and FIQ score was found (r = -0.56, p<0.01). Similar results were found with VAS pain. In conclusion, the lower the degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during STAND in women with FMS, the higher the impact of FMS on the quality of life, thus suggesting that Granger causality analysis might be clinically helpful in assessing the state of the FMS patient. PMID:28614420

  16. Cardiac troponin-I on diagnosis predicts early death and refractoriness in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Experience of the French Thrombotic Microangiopathies Reference Center.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Y; Boelle, P-Y; Baudin, B; Ederhy, S; Gras, J; Galicier, L; Azoulay, E; Provôt, F; Maury, E; Pène, F; Mira, J-P; Wynckel, A; Presne, C; Poullin, P; Halimi, J-M; Delmas, Y; Kanouni, T; Seguin, A; Mousson, C; Servais, A; Bordessoule, D; Perez, P; Hamidou, M; Cohen, A; Veyradier, A; Coppo, P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac involvement is a major cause of mortality in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). However, diagnosis remains underestimated and delayed, owing to subclinical injuries. Cardiac troponin-I measurement (cTnI) on admission could improve the early diagnosis of cardiac involvement and have prognostic value. To assess the predictive value of cTnI in patients with TTP for death or refractoriness. The study involved a prospective cohort of adult TTP patients with acquired severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency (< 10%) and included in the registry of the French Reference Center for Thrombotic Microangiopathies. Centralized cTnI measurements were performed on frozen serum on admission. Between January 2003 and December 2011, 133 patients with TTP (mean age, 48 ± 17 years) had available cTnI measurements on admission. Thirty-two patients (24%) had clinical and/or electrocardiogram features. Nineteen (14.3%) had cardiac symptoms, mainly congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction. Electrocardiogram changes, mainly repolarization disorders, were present in 13 cases. An increased cTnI level (> 0.1 μg L(-1) ) was present in 78 patients (59%), of whom 46 (59%) had no clinical cardiac involvement. The main outcomes were death (25%) and refractoriness (17%). Age (P = 0.02) and cTnI level (P = 0.002) showed the greatest impact on survival. A cTnI level of > 0.25 μg L(-1) was the only independent factor in predicting death (odds ratio [OR] 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.22; P = 0.024) and/or refractoriness (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.3; P = 0.01). A CTnI level of > 0.25 μg L(-1) at presentation in patients with TTP appears to be an independent factor associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of death or refractoriness. Therefore, cTnI level should be considered as a prognostic indicator in patients diagnosed with TTP. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Proteomics analysis identified peroxiredoxin 2 involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Kentaro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Suzuki, Yuka; Inoue, Chisa; Ichihara, Gaku; Kurimoto, Syota; Oikawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases, the aim of the present study was to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of myocardial proteins involved in early-phase cardiac impairment, using proteomics analysis. Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry, we compared differences in the expression of proteins in the whole left ventricles between control hamsters, dilated cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2), and hypertrophy cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio14.6) at 6 weeks of age (n = 6, each group). Proteomic analysis identified 10 protein spots with significant alterations, with 7 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated proteins in the left ventricles of both TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters, compared with control hamsters. Of the total alterations, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) showed significant upregulation in the left ventricles of TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters. Our data suggest that PRDX2, a redox regulating molecule, is involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

  18. Comparison of Short- and Long-Term Cardiac Mortality in Early Versus Late Stent Thrombosis (from Pooled PROTECT Trials).

    PubMed

    Secemsky, Eric A; Matteau, Alexis; Yeh, Robert W; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Camenzind, Edoardo; Wijns, William; McFadden, Eugene; Mauri, Laura

    2015-06-15

    Studies have indicated varying mortality risks with timing of stent thrombosis (ST), but few have been adequately powered with prospective late follow-up. PROTECT randomized 8,709 subjects to either Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting or Cypher sirolimus-eluting stents. PROTECT Continued Access enrolled 1,018 patients treated with Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stents. Subjects completed at least 4 and 3 years of follow-up, respectively. ARC-defined definite and probable ST events were stratified by time from index procedure: early (≤30 days), late (>30 and ≤360 days), and very late (>360 days). Rates of death and myocardial infarction were analyzed by ST timing. Median follow-up was 4.1 years. There were 184 ST events (1.9%): 61 early, 27 late, and 96 very late. Patient and procedural characteristics were similar between timing groups. There was no difference in dual-antiplatelet therapy use at discharge (97%) or 1 year (84%). Cardiac death in patients with ST at 4 years occurred in 32.1% compared with 2.5% in patients without ST (p <0.001). Combined rates of cardiac death and myocardial infarction did not differ according to ST timing, yet early ST was more commonly associated with cardiac death at 4 years than later ST (50.8% for early vs 18.5% for late vs 24.0% for very late; p <0.001). The relation between ST timing and outcomes did not differ between stent types. In conclusion, in prospective data, cardiac death was more common after early ST than later ST. Although ST remains infrequent, continued efforts to determine how to reduce ST, particularly within the first 30 days, are warranted. (The PROTECT trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00476957.). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A case with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis-related hypothyroidism causing multisystem involvement in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, Erdal; Savaş-Erdeve, Şenay; Keskin, Melikşah; Doğan, Vehbi; Çetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    The most common reason of acquired hypothyroidism is autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis. Autoimmune thyroiditis can be atrophic or goitrogenic. Atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (ATT) related acquired hypothyroidism causes interruption of growth, obesity, and bone age retardation in early ages while goitrogenic thyroiditis has a higher incidence rate and mostly presents with diffuse goiter. We discuss the effects of hypothyroidism on various systems through a case found to have pericardial effusion during the echocardiography performed after cardiac murmur was detected and later diagnosed with ATT related hypothyroidism.

  20. Early Functional Connectome Integrity and 1-Year Recovery in Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Sair, Haris I; Hannawi, Yousef; Li, Shanshan; Kornbluth, Joshua; Demertzi, Athena; Di Perri, Carol; Chabanne, Russell; Jean, Betty; Benali, Habib; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pekar, James; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Galanaud, Damien; Velly, Lionel; Puybasset, Louis; Laureys, Steven; Caffo, Brian; Stevens, Robert D

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess whether early brain functional connectivity is associated with functional recovery 1 year after cardiac arrest (CA). Materials and Methods Enrolled in this prospective multicenter cohort were 46 patients who were comatose after CA. Principal outcome was cerebral performance category at 12 months, with favorable outcome (FO) defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. All participants underwent multiparametric structural and functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging less than 4 weeks after CA. Within- and between-network connectivity was measured in dorsal attention network (DAN), default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) by using seed-based analysis of resting-state functional MR imaging data. Structural changes identified with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences were analyzed by using validated morphologic scales. The association between connectivity measures, structural changes, and the principal outcome was explored with multivariable modeling. Results Patients underwent MR imaging a mean 12.6 days ± 5.6 (standard deviation) after CA. At 12 months, 11 patients had an FO. Patients with FO had higher within-DMN connectivity and greater anticorrelation between SN and DMN and between SN and ECN compared with patients with unfavorable outcome, an effect that was maintained after multivariable adjustment. Anticorrelation of SN-DMN predicted outcomes with higher accuracy than fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weighted imaging scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, respectively, 0.88, 0.74, and 0.71). Conclusion MR imaging-based measures of cerebral functional network connectivity obtained in the acute phase of CA were independently associated with FO at 1 year, warranting validation as early markers of long-term recovery potential in patients with anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. © RSNA, 2017.

  1. Early performance of a miniaturized leadless cardiac pacemaker: the Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philippe; Duray, Gabor Z; Steinwender, Clemens; Soejima, Kyoko; Omar, Razali; Mont, Lluís; Boersma, Lucas V A; Knops, Reinoud E; Chinitz, Larry; Zhang, Shu; Narasimhan, Calambur; Hummel, John; Lloyd, Michael; Simmers, Timothy Alexander; Voigt, Andrew; Laager, Verla; Stromberg, Kurt; Bonner, Matthew D; Sheldon, Todd J; Reynolds, Dwight

    2015-10-01

    Permanent cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment for symptomatic bradycardia, but complications associated with conventional transvenous pacing systems are commonly related to the pacing lead and pocket. We describe the early performance of a novel self-contained miniaturized pacemaker. Patients having Class I or II indication for VVI pacing underwent implantation of a Micra transcatheter pacing system, from the femoral vein and fixated in the right ventricle using four protractible nitinol tines. Prespecified objectives were >85% freedom from unanticipated serious adverse device events (safety) and <2 V 3-month mean pacing capture threshold at 0.24 ms pulse width (efficacy). Patients were implanted (n = 140) from 23 centres in 11 countries (61% male, age 77.0 ± 10.2 years) for atrioventricular block (66%) or sinus node dysfunction (29%) indications. During mean follow-up of 1.9 ± 1.8 months, the safety endpoint was met with no unanticipated serious adverse device events. Thirty adverse events related to the system or procedure occurred, mostly due to transient dysrhythmias or femoral access complications. One pericardial effusion without tamponade occurred after 18 device deployments. In 60 patients followed to 3 months, mean pacing threshold was 0.51 ± 0.22 V, and no threshold was ≥2 V, meeting the efficacy endpoint (P < 0.001). Average R-wave was 16.1 ± 5.2 mV and impedance was 650.7 ± 130 ohms. Early assessment shows the transcatheter pacemaker can safely and effectively be applied. Long-term safety and benefit of the pacemaker will further be evaluated in the trial. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02004873. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Cardiac action potential repolarization revisited: early repolarization shows all-or-none behaviour.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Saiz, Javier; Noble, Denis; Giles, Wayne

    2017-11-01

    In healthy mammalian hearts the action potential (AP) waveform initiates and modulates each contraction, or heartbeat. As a result, AP height and duration are key physiological variables. In addition, rate-dependent changes in ventricular AP duration (APD), and variations in APD at a fixed heart rate are both reliable biomarkers of electrophysiological stability. Present guidelines for the likelihood that candidate drugs will increase arrhythmias rely on small changes in APD and Q-T intervals as criteria for safety pharmacology decisions. However, both of these measurements correspond to the final repolarization of the AP. Emerging clinical evidence draws attention to the early repolarization phase of the action potential (and the J-wave of the ECG) as an additional important biomarker for arrhythmogenesis. Here we provide a mechanistic background to this early repolarization syndrome by summarizing the evidence that both the initial depolarization and repolarization phases of the cardiac action potential can exhibit distinct time- and voltage-dependent thresholds, and also demonstrating that both can show regenerative all-or-none behaviour. An important consequence of this is that not all of the dynamics of action potential repolarization in human ventricle can be captured by data from single myocytes when these results are expressed as 'repolarization reserve'. For example, the complex pattern of cell-to-cell current flow that is responsible for AP conduction (propagation) within the mammalian myocardium can change APD and the Q-T interval of the electrocardiogram alter APD stability, and modulate responsiveness to pharmacological agents (such as Class III anti-arrhythmic drugs). © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  3. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  4. Can Parents' Involvement in Children's Education Offset the Effects of Early Insensitivity on Academic Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…

  5. Early Intervention: Parental Involvement, Child Agency and Participation in Creative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alice; Rix, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention activities for very young disabled children are frequently linked to developmental targets and goals. A key challenge for parents and practitioners involved in early intervention programmes is to encourage their child to play and develop creatively through enjoyable, everyday childhood experiences. This paper reports on a…

  6. The Influence of an Early Childhood Program on Parental Involvement: Perceptions of Former Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…

  7. Cardiac involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome associated with Sneddon syndrome: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Ana; Paiva, Luís; Morgadinho, Ana; Trigo, Emília; Botelho, Ana; Costa, Marco; Leitão-Marques, António

    2014-02-01

    Sneddon syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by the association of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and livedo reticularis. The authors report a case of stroke and myocardial infarction in a 39-year-old man with Sneddon syndrome and antiphospholipid syndrome who subsequently met some criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus, highlighting the complexity of cardiovascular involvement in systemic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Presence of Sleep Spindles on Electroencephalography Is Associated With Good Outcome After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Ducharme-Crevier, Laurence; Press, Craig A; Kurz, Jonathan E; Mills, Michele G; Goldstein, Joshua L; Wainwright, Mark S

    2017-05-01

    The role of sleep architecture as a biomarker for prognostication after resuscitation from cardiac arrest in children hospitalized in an ICU remains poorly defined. We sought to investigate the association between features of normal sleep architecture in children after cardiac arrest and a favorable neurologic outcome at 6 months. Retrospective review of medical records and continuous electroencephalography monitoring. Cardiac and PICU of a tertiary children's hospital. All patients from 6 months to 18 years old resuscitated from cardiac arrest who underwent continuous electroencephalography monitoring in the first 24 hours after in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from January 2010 to June 2015. None. Thirty-four patients underwent continuous electroencephalography monitoring after cardiac arrest. The median age was 6.1 years (interquartile range, 1.5-12.5 yr), 20 patients were male (59%). Most cases (n = 23, 68%) suffered from in-hospital cardiac arrest. Electroencephalography monitoring was initiated a median of 9.3 hours (5.8-14.9 hr) after return of spontaneous circulation, for a median duration of 14.3 hours (6.0-16.0 hr) within the first 24-hour period after the cardiac arrest. Five patients had normal spindles, five had abnormal spindles, and 24 patients did not have any sleep architecture. The presence of spindles was associated with a favorable neurologic outcome at 6-month postcardiac arrest (p = 0.001). Continuous electroencephalography monitoring can be used in children to assess spindles in the ICU. The presence of spindles on continuous electroencephalography monitoring in the first 24 hours after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with a favorable neurologic outcome. Assessment of sleep architecture on continuous electroencephalography after cardiac arrest could improve outcome prediction.

  9. Fucoidan promotes early step of cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells and long-term maintenance of beating areas.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Sofiane; Letourneur, Didier; Aid-Launais, Rachida; Di Stefano, Antonio; Vainchenker, William; Norol, Françoise; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Somatic stem cells require specific niches and three-dimensional scaffolds provide ways to mimic this microenvironment. Here, we studied a scaffold based on Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide known to influence morphogen gradients during embryonic development, to support human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiation toward the cardiac lineage. A macroporous (pore 200 μm) Fucoidan scaffold was selected to support hESCs attachment and proliferation. Using a protocol based on the cardiogenic morphogen bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ) followed by tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), an effector of cardiopoietic priming, we examined the cardiac differentiation in the scaffold compared to culture dishes and embryoid bodies (EBs). At day 8, Fucoidan scaffolds supported a significantly higher expression of the 3 genes encoding for transcription factors marking the early step of embryonic cardiac differentiation NKX2.5 (p<0.05), MEF2C (p<0.01), and GATA4 (p<0.01), confirmed by flow cytometry analysis for MEF2C and NKX2.5. The ability of Fucoidan scaffolds to locally concentrate and slowly release TGFβ and TNFα was confirmed by Luminex technology. We also found that Fucoidan scaffolds supported the late stage of embryonic cardiac differentiation marked by a significantly higher atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression (p<0.001), although only rare beating areas were observed. We postulated that absence of mechanical stress in the soft hydrogel impaired sarcomere formation, as confirmed by molecular analysis of the cardiac muscle myosin MYH6 and immunohistological staining of sarcomeric α-actinin. Nevertheless, Fucoidan scaffolds contributed to the development of thin filaments connecting beating areas through promotion of smooth muscle cells, thus enabling maintenance of beating areas for up to 6 months. In conclusion, Fucoidan scaffolds appear as a very promising biomaterial to control cardiac differentiation from hESCs that

  10. Early postoperative statin therapy is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Frederic T.; Pretorius, Mias; Siew, Edward D.; Yu, Chang; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that perioperative statin use reduces acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from an ongoing clinical trial Setting Quaternary-care university hospital Participants Three hundred twenty-four elective adult cardiac surgery patients Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We assessed the association of preoperative statin use, early postoperative statin use, and acute statin withdrawal with the incidence of AKI. Early postoperative statin use was defined as statin treatment within the first postoperative day. Statin withdrawal was defined as discontinuation of preoperative statin treatment prior to surgery until at least postoperative day 2. Logistic regression and propensity score modeling were used to control for AKI risk factors. Sixty-eight of 324 patients (21.0%) developed AKI. AKI patients stayed in the hospital longer (P=0.03) and were more likely to develop pneumonia (P=0.002) or die (P=0.001). Higher body mass index (P=0.003), higher central venous pressure (P=0.03), and statin withdrawal (27.4 vs. 14.7%, P=0.046) were associated with a higher incidence of AKI, while early postoperative statin use was protective (12.5 vs. 23.8%, P=0.03). Preoperative statin use did not affect risk of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression, age (P=0.03), male gender (P=0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), and early postoperative statin use (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, P=0.006) independently predicted AKI. Propensity score-adjusted risk assessment confirmed the association between early postoperative statin use and reduced AKI (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P=0.005). Conclusions Early postoperative statin use is associated with a lower incidence of AKI among both chronic statin users and statin-naïve cardiac surgery patients. PMID:20599398

  11. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  12. Early Father Involvement Moderates Biobehavioral Susceptibility to Mental Health Problems in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kraemer, Helena C.; Kupfer, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study how early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts interactively predict mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Method: Fathers' involvement in infant care and maternal symptoms of depression were prospectively ascertained in a community-based study of child health and development in…

  13. Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Drogan, Robin R.; Janney, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers analyzed studies published from 1990 to 2012 to determine early childhood practitioner involvement in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based behavioral intervention plans (BIP) for children with challenging behavior, age 6 and younger. Coding of 30 studies included practitioner involvement in FBA and BIP processes,…

  14. The beneficial effects of long-term enzyme replacement therapy on cardiac involvement in Japanese Fabry patients.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenichi; Ito, Keiichi; Date, Taro; Anan, Ikuko; Inoue, Yasunori; Morimoto, Satoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Makoto; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahisa; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2018-06-01

    Fabry disease is a hereditary disorder that occurs due to the reduction or absence of alpha-galactosidase A activity, which leads to cardiac involvement including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) provides better patient outcomes by preventing serious complications. However, there have been very few studies on the long-term effects of ERT on the cardiac manifestations in Japanese Fabry patients. We retrospectively analyzed the data from the medical records of 42 Fabry patients (male, n = 17; female, n = 25) who were followed at Jikei University Hospital, and in whom the long-term effects of ERT could be evaluated (median follow-up period: male, 11 years; female, 8 years). The slope of the left ventricular mass (LVM) increase was 3.02 ± 3.41 g/m 2 /year in males and 1.69 ± 2.73 g/m 2 /year in females. In a subgroup analysis, the slopes of males with and without LVH did not differ to a statistically significant extent; however, the slope in female patients without LVH was significantly smaller than that of female patients with LVH. We then compared our data to the natural historical data that have previously been reported. In comparison to the previously reported data, we found a significant reduction in the LVM changes (g/height 2.7 /year) of patients who received long-term ERT (male, 4.07 ± 1.03 to 1.25 ± 1.39; female, 2.31 ± 0.81 to 0.78 ± 1.23). Long-term ERT effectively prevents LVH in Fabry patients. This effect was also observed in the patients with LVH prior to the initiation of ERT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MicroRNA-320 is Involved in the Regulation of Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Targeting Hsp20

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Xiaohong; Sartor, Maureen A.; Jones, Keith; Qian, Jiang; Nicolaou, Persoulla; Pritchard, Tracy J.; Fan, Guo-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies have identified critical roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of cardiomyocyte death. However, the signature of miRNA expression and possible roles of miRNA in the ischemic heart have been less well-studied. Methods and Results Here we performed miRNA arrays to detect the expression pattern of miRNAs in murine hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in vivo and ex vivo. Surprisingly, we found that only miR-320 expression was significantly decreased in the hearts upon I/R in vivo and ex vivo. This was further confirmed by Taqman RT-PCR. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were employed in cultured adult rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the functional roles of miR-320. Overexpression of miR-320 enhanced cardiomyocyte death and apoptosis, while knock-down was cytoprotective, upon simulated I/R. Furthermore, transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of miR-320 revealed an increased extent of apoptosis and infarction size in the hearts upon I/R in vivo and ex vivo, relative to the WT controls. Conversely, in vivo treatment with antagomir-320 reduced the infarction size, relative to the administration of mutant antagomir-320 and saline controls. Using Target-Scan software and proteomic analysis, we identified Hsp20, a known cardioprotective protein, as an important candidate target for miR-320. This was validated experimentally by utilizing a luciferase/GFP reporter activity assay and examining the expression of Hsp20 upon miR-320 overexpression and knockdown in cardiomyocytes. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that miR-320 is involved in the regulation of I/R-induced cardiac injury and dysfunction via antithetical regulation of Hsp20. Thus, miR-320 may constitute a new therapeutic target for ischemic heart diseases. PMID:19380620

  16. Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021

  17. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    SciT

    Lin, C.C.; Hui, Michelle N.Y.; Cheng, S.H. E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-07-15

    Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of carbaryl, specifically its effects on the heart, in early developing zebrafish embryos. LC50 and EC50 values for carbaryl at 28 h post-fertilization were 44.66 {mu}g/ml and 7.52 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and 10 {mu}g/ml carbaryl was used in subsequent experiments. After confirming acetylcholinesterase inhibition by carbaryl using an enzymatic method, we observed red blood cell accumulation, delayed hatching and pericardial edema, but not heart malformation as described inmore » some previous reports. Our chronic exposure data also demonstrated carbaryl-induced bradycardia, which is a common effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors due to the accumulation of acetylcholine, in embryos from 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) to 5 dpf. The distance between the sinus venosus, the point where blood enters the atrium, and the bulbus arteriosus, the point where blood leaves the ventricle, indicated normal looping of the heart tube. Immunostaining of myosin heavy chains with the ventricle-specific antibody MF20 and the atrium-specific antibody S46 showed normal development of heart chambers. At the same time, acute exposure resulted in carbaryl-induced bradycardia. Heart rate dropped significantly after a 10-min exposure to 100 {mu}g/ml carbaryl but recovered when carbaryl was removed. The novel observation of carbaryl-induced bradycardia in 1- and 2-dpf embryos suggested that carbaryl affected cardiac function possibly through an alternative mechanism other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition such as inhibition of calcium ion channels, since acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish are not functional until 3 dpf. However, the exact nature of this mechanism is currently unknown, and thus further studies are required.« less

  18. Bedside heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP): Is an early predictive marker of cardiac syncope.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Ozturk, Derya; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Altinbilek, Ertugrul; Kavalci, Cemil; Durdu, Tamer; Hakbilir, Oktay; Turhan, Turan; Ongar, Murat

    2015-11-01

    To determine the value of bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein in diagnosis of cardiac syncope in patients presenting with syncope or presyncope. The prospective study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between September 1, 2010, and January 1, 2011, and comprised patients aged over 18 years who presented with syncope or presyncope. Patients presenting to emergency department within 4 hours of syncope or presyncope underwent a bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein test measurement. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 100 patients evaluated, 22(22%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope. Of them, 13(59.1%) patients had a positive and 9(40.9%) had a negative heart-type fatty acid binding protein result. Consequently, the test result was 12.64 times more positive in patients with cardiac syncope compared to those without. Bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein, particularly at early phase of myocardial injury, reduces diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainity of cardiac origin in syncope patients.

  19. The Longitudinal Process of Early Parent Involvement on Student Achievement: A Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M.; Warner-Richter, Mallory N.; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the process whereby early parent involvement in preschool effects student achievement from kindergarten through 6th grade. Participants were 1,539 low-income, mainly African American children and their mothers, in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Program children (N = 989) received one or two years of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program – a preschool intervention that strongly promoted parents' development of parent involvement skills within the school and at home. Children from similar backgrounds who did not attend the CPC, but participated in available local resources (e.g. day care), were obtained as a comparison group (N = 550). Path analysis revealed an interactive process between parent involvement, academic achievement, and children's motivation. Early parent involvement directly influenced kindergarten achievement, which in turn influenced first grade student motivation. Highly motivated children then encouraged parents to continue involvement. The cyclic nature of this process across elementary school was observed. The model accounted for 61% of the variance in 6th grade achievement. Findings suggest that early parent involvement promoted in the CPC program, sets the stage for subsequent parent involvement, student motivation, and academic achievement throughout early and middle childhood. PMID:27867317

  20. Early Withdrawal Decision-Making in Patients with Coma After Cardiac Arrest: A Qualitative Study of Intensive Care Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Ong, Charlene J; Dhand, Amar; Diringer, Michael N

    2016-10-01

    Neurologists are often asked to define prognosis in comatose patients. However, comatose patients following cardiac arrest are usually cared for by cardiologists or intensivists, and it is their approach that will influence decisions regarding withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions (WLSI). We observed that factors leading to these decisions vary across specialties and considered whether they could result in self-fulfilling prophecies and early WLSI. We conducted a hypothesis-generating qualitative study to identify factors used by non-neurologists to define prognosis in these patients and construct an explanatory model for how early WLSI might occur. This was a single-center qualitative study of intensivists caring for cardiac arrest patients with hypoxic-ischemic coma. Thirty attending physicians (n = 16) and fellows (n = 14) from cardiac (n = 8), medical (n = 6), surgical (n = 10), and neuro (n = 6) intensive care units underwent semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. We found three components of early WLSI among non-neurointensivists: (1) development of fixed negative opinions; (2) early framing of poor clinical pictures to families; and (3) shortened windows for judging recovery potential. In contrast to neurointensivists, non-neurointensivists' negative opinions were frequently driven by patients' lack of consciousness and cardiopulmonary resuscitation circumstances. Both groups were influenced by age and comorbidities. The results demonstrate that factors influencing prognostication differ across specialties. Some differ from those recommended by published guidelines and may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies and early WLSI. Better understanding of this framework would facilitate educational interventions to mitigate this phenomenon and its implications on patient care.

  1. Early cardiac changes in a rat model of prediabetes: brain natriuretic peptide overexpression seems to be the best marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as structural and functional changes in the myocardium due to metabolic and cellular abnormalities induced by diabetes mellitus (DM). The impact of prediabetic conditions on the cardiac tissue remains to be elucidated. The goal of this study was to elucidate whether cardiac dysfunction is already present in a state of prediabetes, in the presence of insulin resistance, and to unravel the underlying mechanisms, in a rat model without obesity and hypertension as confounding factors. Methods Two groups of 16-week-old Wistar rats were tested during a 9 week protocol: high sucrose (HSu) diet group (n = 7) – rats receiving 35% of sucrose in drinking water vs the vehicle control group (n = 7). The animal model was characterized in terms of body weight (BW) and the glycemic, insulinemic and lipidic profiles. The following parameters were assessed to evaluate possible early cardiac alterations and underlying mechanisms: blood pressure, heart rate, heart and left ventricle (LV) trophism indexes, as well as the serum and tissue protein and/or the mRNA expression of markers for fibrosis, hypertrophy, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Results The HSu-treated rats presented normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), accompanied by hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (P < 0.01), confirming this rat model as prediabetic. Furthermore, although hypertriglyceridemia (P < 0.05) was observed, obesity and hypertension were absent. Regarding the impact of the HSu diet on the cardiac tissue, our results indicated that 9 weeks of treatment might be associated with initial cardiac changes, as suggested by the increased LV weight/BW ratio (P < 0.01) and a remarkable brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA overexpression (P < 0.01), together with a marked trend for an upregulation of other important mediators of

  2. [Organization and methodology of early rehabilitation of the patients with cardioembolic stroke complicated by cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Isaeva, T V

    2013-01-01

    The present work was focused on the safety and effectiveness of the combined rehabilitative treatment in the case of pre-acute and acute cardioembolic stroke in 45 patients with varying degree of cardiac decompensation. The study showed that the use of "passive" remediation, such as the postural treatment, breathing exercises, selective massage, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is safe and can be recommended to the patients with stroke and cardiac decompensation of different severity (II and III FC of chronic cardiac insufficiency). The introduction of such active measures as verticalization into the program of comprehensive rehabilitation may cause decompensation of cardiac insufficiency. The rehabilitation strategy used in the present study improved performance and exercise tolerance in the majority of the patients. Moreover, it resulted in the significant reduction of the severity of stroke, improved the motor function, and increased functional independence of the patients.

  3. Early audit of renal complications in a new cardiac surgery service in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bolsin, Stephen N; Stow, Peter; Bucknell, Sarah

    2004-09-01

    To assess the incidence of renal failure in a cardiac surgery service commencing in Australia. Prospective data collection and retrospective database analysis. A tertiary referral, university teaching hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. The first 502 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in this institution from commencement of the service. The overall rate of renal failure was low in comparison to other studies at 0.2% (95% CI 0.04-1.3%). The rate of postoperative renal dysfunction was also low at 4.2% (95% CI 2.7-6.5%). The safety of the new service with respect to this complication of cardiac surgery was good when compared with published data. However the lack of uniform definitions of renal failure following cardiac surgery make comparisons between studies difficult. Uniform reporting of this complication would facilitate comparisons between units and quality assurance activities in this field.

  4. Early embryonic sensitivity to cyclophosphamide in cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Gui-An; Guan, Li

    2011-09-01

    hESCs (human embryonic stem cells) can differentiate into tissue derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and mimic the development of the embryo in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an hESC-based assay for the detection of toxicity to cardiac differentiation in embryonic development. First of all, we developed the protocol of cardiac induction from hESCs according to our previous work and distinguished cardiac precursor cells and late mature cardiomyocytes from differentiated cells, demonstrated by the Q-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR), immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis. In order to test whether CPA (cyclophosphamide) induces developmental and cellular toxicity in the human embryo, we exposed the differentiating cells from hESCs to CPA (a well-known proteratogen) at different stages. We have found that a high concentration of CPA could inhibit cardiac differentiation of hESCs. Two separate exposure intervals were used to determine the effects of CPA on cardiac precursor cells and late mature cardiomyocytes respectively. The cardiac precursor cells were sensitive to CPA in non-cytotoxic concentrations for the expression of the cardiac-specific mRNA markers Nkx2.5 (NK2 transcription factor related, locus 5), GATA-4 (GATA binding protein 4 transcription factor) and TNNT2 (troponin T type 2). Non-cytotoxic CPA concentrations did not affect the mRNA markers' expression in late mature cardiomyocytes, indicating that cardiac precursors were more sensitive to CPA than late cardiomyocytes in cardiogenesis. We set up the in vitro developmental toxicity test model so as to reduce the number of test animals and expenses without compromising the safety of consumers and patients. Furthermore, such in vitro methods may be possibly suited to test a large number of chemicals than the classical employed in vivo tests.

  5. Early 4-week cardiac rehabilitation exercise training in elderly patients after heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Barbara; Hofmann, Peter; von Duvillard, Serge P; Brandt, Dieter; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Pokan, Rochus; Wonisch, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects on exercise performance of supplementing a standard cardiac rehabilitation program with additional exercise programming compared to the standard cardiac rehabilitation program alone in elderly patients after heart surgery. In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 60 patients (32 men and 28 women, mean age 73.1 +/- 4.7 years) completed cardiac rehabilitation (initiated 12.2 +/- 4.9 days postsurgery). Subjects were assigned to either a control group (CG, standard cardiac rehabilitation program [n = 19]), or an intervention group (IG, additional walking [n = 19], or cycle ergometry training [n = 22]). A symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise test and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed before and after 4 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation. The MacNew questionnaire was used to assess quality of life (QOL). At baseline, no significant differences for peak oxygen uptake ((.)VO2), maximal power output, or the 6MWT were detected between IG and CG. Global QOL was significantly higher in IG. After 4 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation, patients significantly improved in absolute values of the cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6MWT, and QOL scores. Significant differences between groups were found for peak (.)VO2 (IG: 18.2 +/- 3.1 mL x kg x min vs. CG: 16.5 +/- 2.2 mL x kg x min, P < .05); maximal power output (IG: 72.2 +/- 16 W vs. CG: 60.7 +/- 15 W, P < .05); 6MWT (IG: 454.8 +/- 76.3 m vs. CG: 400.5 +/- 75.5 m, P < .05); and QOL global (IG: 6.5 +/- 0.5 vs. CG: 6.3 +/- 0.6, P < .05). The supplementation of additional walking or cycle exercise training to standard cardiac rehabilitation programming compared to standard cardiac rehabilitation alone in elderly patients after heart surgery leads to significantly better exercise tolerance.

  6. INCIDENCE AND EARLY OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PRE-TRANSPLANT ANTI-VIMENTIN ANTIBODIES IN THE CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Young, Raymond K.; Dale, Bethany; Russell, Stuart D.; Zachary, Andrea A.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In cardiac transplant recipients, the development of antibodies to the endothelial intermediate filament protein vimentin (anti-vimentin antibodies, AVA) has been associated with rejection and poor outcomes. However, the incidence of these antibodies prior to transplantation and their association with early rejection has not been investigated. Methods Pre-transplant serum was analyzed from 50 patients who underwent de novo cardiac transplant at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2004-2012. Demographic, one year rejection, and survival data were obtained from the transplant database. Results The incidence of pre-transplant AVA was 34%. AVA positive patients were younger (p=0.03) and there was an increased incidence in females (p=0.08). Demographic data were similar among both groups. AVA positivity did not predict rejection in the 1st year post-transplant. There was no difference in rejection-free graft survival (53 vs. 52%, p=0.85) at 1 year. Similarly there was no difference in graft survival at 1 year (82 vs. 88%, p=0.56) or graft survival at a median follow up of 23 and 26 months, respectively (76 vs. 85%, p=0.41). Conclusions AVA is common in the cardiac pre-transplant population with a higher incidence in the young. The presence of detectable AVA did not correlate with early post-transplant rejection or graft survival. PMID:25982351

  7. Early prediction of coma recovery after cardiac arrest with blinded pupillometry.

    PubMed

    Solari, Daria; Rossetti, Andrea O; Carteron, Laurent; Miroz, John-Paul; Novy, Jan; Eckert, Philippe; Oddo, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Prognostication studies on comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients are limited by lack of blinding, potentially causing overestimation of outcome predictors and self-fulfilling prophecy. Using a blinded approach, we analyzed the value of quantitative automated pupillometry to predict neurological recovery after CA. We examined a prospective cohort of 103 comatose adult patients who were unconscious 48 hours after CA and underwent repeated measurements of quantitative pupillary light reflex (PLR) using the Neurolight-Algiscan device. Clinical examination, electroencephalography (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), and serum neuron-specific enolase were performed in parallel, as part of standard multimodal assessment. Automated pupillometry results were blinded to clinicians involved in patient care. Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) at 1 year was the outcome endpoint. Survivors (n = 50 patients; 32 CPC 1, 16 CPC 2, 2 CPC 3) had higher quantitative PLR (median = 20 [range = 13-41] vs 11 [0-55] %, p < 0.0001) and constriction velocity (1.46 [0.85-4.63] vs 0.94 [0.16-4.97] mm/s, p < 0.0001) than nonsurvivors. At 48 hours, a quantitative PLR < 13% had 100% specificity and positive predictive value to predict poor recovery (0% false-positive rate), and provided equal performance to that of EEG and SSEP. Reduced quantitative PLR correlated with higher serum neuron-specific enolase (Spearman r = -0.52, p < 0.0001). Reduced quantitative PLR correlates with postanoxic brain injury and, when compared to standard multimodal assessment, is highly accurate in predicting long-term prognosis after CA. This is the first prognostication study to show the value of automated pupillometry using a blinded approach to minimize self-fulfilling prophecy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:804-810. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  8. 12 CFR 408.4 - Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Early involvement in foreign activities for... Implementing Procedures § 408.4 Early involvement in foreign activities for which Eximbank financing may be requested. (a) Section 1501.2(d) of the NEPA Regulations requires agencies to provide for early involvement...

  9. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  10. Agenesis of the ductus venosus-A case with favorable outcome after early signs of cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sigrun R; Heilmann, Antje; Häusler, Hans J; Kamin, Gabriele; Nitzsche, Katharina I

    2013-01-01

    Absence of the ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare vascular anomaly. Its prognosis depends on the pathway of the umbilical flow to the systemic venous circulation, and the presence or absence of associated structural or chromosomal anomalies, sometimes resulting in hydrops fetalis. In cases with isolated ADV in the absence of associated anomalies, survival rates are as high as 85%, depending on the shunt situation. Here, we report a patient with ADV and extrahepatic umbilical vein drainage with favorable outcome after intrauterine reversal of early signs of cardiac failure. Diagnosis was made after the appearance of moderate cardiomegaly in the 25th gestational week. Thus, in the case of cardiomegaly with or without further signs of cardiac failure, ultrasound imaging of the venous duct should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Involvement of Dynein and Spectrin with Early Melanosome Transport and Melanosomal Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Hidenori; Valencia, Julio C.; Le Pape, Elodie; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Nakamura, Masayuki; Rouzaud, François; Hoashi, Toshihiko; Kawa, Yoko; Mizoguchi, Masako; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2007-01-01

    Melanosomes are unique membrane-bound organelles specialized for the synthesis and distribution of melanin. Mechanisms involved in the trafficking of proteins to melanosomes and in the transport of mature pigmented melanosomes to the dendrites of melanocytic cells are being characterized but details about those processes during early stages of melanosome maturation are not well understood. Early melanosomes must remain in the perinuclear area until critical components are assembled. In this study, we characterized the processing of two distinct melanosomal proteins, TYR and Pmel17, to elucidate protein processing in early or late steps of the secretory pathway, respectively, and to determine mechanisms underlying the subcellular localization and transport of early melanosomes. We used immunological, biochemical and molecular approaches to demonstrate that the movement of early melanosomes in the perinuclear area depends primarily on microtubules but not on actin filaments. In contrast, the trafficking of TYR and Pmel17 depends on cytoplasmic dynein and its interaction with the spectrin/ankyrin system which is involved with the sorting of cargo from the plasma membrane. These results provide important clues towards understanding the processes involved with early events in melanosome formation and transport. PMID:17687388

  12. Early evaluation of cardiac injury by two-dimensional echocardiography in patients suffering blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Beggs, C W; Helling, T S; Evans, L L; Hays, L V; Kennedy, F R; Crouse, L J

    1987-05-01

    The availability of two-dimensional echocardiography as a clinical tool has led to an interest in its applicability, usefulness, and reliability in the evaluation of blunt cardiac trauma. Forty patients who sustained objective evidence of blunt chest trauma were evaluated at our institution using serial ECGs, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzyme determinations, and two-dimensional echocardiography. Twenty patients (50%) manifested evidence of cardiac injury as demonstrated by abnormal ECGs, elevated CPK isoenzymes, or abnormal echocardiograms. Nine (23%) patients had abnormal echocardiograms with findings of pericardial effusions in four, chamber enlargement in three, and echodense areas of the right ventricle in two. There was no correlation with ECG changes or the presence of CPK isoenzymes. Based on these observations we believe echocardiography can be used as a noninvasive modality to complement other clinical tools in the detection of blunt cardiac injury.

  13. The involvement of protein kinase C-ε in isoflurane induced preconditioning of human embryonic stem cell--derived Nkx2.5(+) cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Song, In-Ae; Oh, Ah-Young; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Young-Min; Jeon, Young-Tae; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2016-02-20

    Anesthetic preconditioning can improve survival of cardiac progenitor cells exposed to oxidative stress. We investigated the role of protein kinase C and isoform protein kinase C-ε in isoflurane-induced preconditioning of cardiac progenitor cells exposed to oxidative stress. Cardiac progenitor cells were obtained from undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. Immunostaining with anti-Nkx2.5 was used to confirm the differentiated cardiac progenitor cells. Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 and FeSO4. For anesthetic preconditioning, cardiac progenitor cells were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mM of isoflurane. PMA and chelerythrine were used for protein kinase C activation and inhibition, while εψRACK and εV1-2 were used for protein kinase C -ε activation and inhibition, respectively. Isoflurane-preconditioning decreased the death rate of Cardiac progenitor cells exposed to oxidative stress (death rates isoflurane 0.5 mM 12.7 ± 9.3%, 1.0 mM 12.0 ± 7.7% vs. control 31.4 ± 10.2%). Inhibitors of both protein kinase C and protein kinase C -ε abolished the preconditioning effect of isoflurane 0.5 mM (death rates 27.6 ± 13.5% and 25.9 ± 8.7% respectively), and activators of both protein kinase C and protein kinase C - ε had protective effects from oxidative stress (death rates 16.0 ± 3.2% and 10.6 ± 3.8% respectively). Both PKC and PKC-ε are involved in isoflurane-induced preconditioning of human embryonic stem cells -derived Nkx2.5(+) Cardiac progenitor cells under oxidative stress.

  14. Aldosterone Target NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin) Is Involved in Cardiac Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction Through NFκB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Buonafine, Mathieu; Boukhalfa, Ines; Ibarrola, Jaime; Fernández-Celis, Amaya; Kolkhof, Peter; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas; Mulder, Paul; López-Andrés, Natalia; Ouvrard-Pascaud, Antoine; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have beneficial effects in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after MI. We herein investigated the role of the MR target NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in post-MI cardiac damages. Both higher baseline NGAL and a greater increase in serum NGAL levels during follow-up were significantly associated with lower 6-month LV ejection fraction recovery in a cohort of 119 post-MI patients, as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. NGAL protein levels increased in the LV at 7 days post-MI in wild-type mice with MI. This effect was prevented by treatment with the nonsteroidal MR antagonist finerenone (1 mg/kg per day). NGAL knockout mice with MI had lower LV interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, better LV contractility and compliance, and greater stroke volume and cardiac output than wild-type mice with MI at 3 months post-MI. Aldosterone (10 -8 mol/L) increased NGAL expression in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts. Cells treated with aldosterone or NGAL (500 ng/mL) showed increased production of collagen type I. The effects of aldosterone were abolished by finerenone (10 -6 mol/L) or NGAL knockdown. This NGAL-mediated activity relied on NFκB (nuclear factor-κB) activation, confirmed by the use of the NFκB-specific inhibitor BAY11-7082, which prevented the effect of both aldosterone and NGAL on collagen type I production. In conclusion, NGAL, a downstream MR activation target, is a key mediator of post-MI cardiac damage. NGAL may be a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular pathological situations in which MR is involved. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Acute cardiac support with intravenous milrinone promotes recovery from early brain injury in a murine model of severe subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2017-04-01

    Early brain injury/ischaemia (EBI) is a serious complication early after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) that contributes to development of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI). This study aimed to determine the role of inotropic cardiac support using milrinone (MIL) on restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion attributable to EBI and improving outcomes after experimental SAH. Forty-three male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham), SAH induced by endovascular perforation plus postconditioning with 2% isoflurane (Control), or SAH plus isoflurane combined with MIL with and without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (HIF-I) pretreatment. Cardiac output (CO) during intravenous MIL infusion (0.25-0.75 μg/kg/min) between 1.5 and 2.5 hours after SAH induction was monitored with Doppler echocardiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-continuous arterial spin labelling was used for quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. Neurobehavioral function was assessed daily by neurological score and open field test. DCI was analyzed 3 days later by determining infarction on MRI. Mild reduction of cardiac output (CO) and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) depression were notable early after SAH. MIL increased CO in a dose-dependent manner (P<.001), which was accompanied by improved hypoperfusion, incidence of DCI and functional recovery than Control (P<.05). The neuroprotective effects afforded by MIL or Control were attenuated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) inhibition (P<.05). These results suggest that MIL improves acute hypoperfusion by its inotropic effect, leading to neurobehavioral improvement in mice after severe SAH, in which HIF may be acting as a critical mediator. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Does Religious Involvement Protect against Early Drinking? A Behavior Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent involvement in religious organizations has been hypothesized to protect against early age at first drink. However, the correlation between adolescent religiosity and later age at first drink may be confounded by environmental or genetic differences between families. This study tests whether, after controlling for shared…

  17. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Early Parent Involvement and Parent Expectation in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Peterson, Aubrey; Davison, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Building on social-cognitive theory and the expectancy-value theory, this study indicated that early parent expectations for children’s post-secondary educational attainment have a stronger effect on 8th-grade achievement than home-based parental involvement. With a nationally representative sample of kindergarten students and their parents in the…

  19. Community and Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Development: The South African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric; And Others

    Noting that disadvantaged communities in South Africa can be empowered by involving parents and communities in the development of preschool education programs, this report presents the achievements of South Africa's Early Childhood Education and Care (educare) programs. Educare aims to develop the young child's potential to be a meaningful part of…

  20. Measuring Father Involvement in the Early Head Start Evaluation: A Multidimensional Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Boller, Kimberly

    Early Head Start (EHS) is a comprehensive, two-generation program that includes intensive services that begin before the child is born and concentrate on enhancing the child's development and supporting the family during the critical first 3 years of a child's life. This paper discusses approaches to measuring father involvement in their…

  1. Giving Fathers a Voice: Towards Father Involvement in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely recognised that fathers can play a key role in the development and well-being of young children. In many cases, however, fathers still have limited involvement in the early years education of their children and their voices are as yet unheard. This study examined the beliefs and practices of Jordanian fathers of kindergarten…

  2. Parental Involvement in Finnish Day Care--What Do Early Childhood Educators Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakyemez-Paul, Sevcan; Pihlaja, Paivi; Silvennoinen, Heikki

    2018-01-01

    Research conducted in recent decades shows that parental involvement (PI) plays a significant role in the academic achievement and the healthy development of children. Gaining a better understanding of early childhood educators' views and the reasons for insufficient practices is important for improving PI. This mixed-method research investigates…

  3. Effectiveness of the critical congenital heart disease screening program for early diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Almawazini, Abdulmajid M; Hanafi, Hamdi K; Madkhali, Hasan A; Majrashi, Noura B

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) screening program for early diagnosis of cardiac anomalies in newborn infants.  Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Pediatric and Neonatology Department, King Fahad Hospital at  Albaha, Saudi Arabia, between February 2016 and February 2017. Results: We screened 2961 (95.4%) of 3103 patients in a nursery unit; 142 (4.6%) patients were not screened. The test was positive in 114 (3.9%) patients and negative in 2847 (96.1%). There were 94 (3.2%) false positives and 20 (0.7%) true positives. Critical cardiac defects were diagnosed in 7 (0.2%) patients of all screened infants, and severe pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed in 13 (0.4%) patients. True negative results were found in 2841(96%) patients, and no cardiac defect was diagnosed, whereas false negative results were seen in 6 (0.2%) patients diagnosed with ventricular septal defect. The sensitivity was 77%, and the specificity was very high at 97%, with a positive predictive value of 18%, and a negative predictive value of 99.8% (95% confidence interval 13.78-19.18, p=0.0001). Conclusion: Pulse oximetry was found to be easy, safe, sensitive, and highly specific for diagnosis of CCHD.

  4. Early surgical managment of penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment.

    PubMed

    Michels, R G

    1976-09-01

    Pars plana vitrectomy technic can be used in the early management of certain penetrating ocular injuries involving the posterior segment, including selected intraocular foreign bodies. This study reports the results of ten consecutive cases of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment treated by a combination of vitrectomy (including lensectomy when necessary) and foreign-body extraction with forceps. The foreign body was successfully removed in nine of ten eyes, and nine of ten eyes were salvaged. This favorable experience using early vitreous surgery suggests that the vitrectomy technic can be used in other penetrating injuries involving the posterior segment that are not associated with intraocular foreign bodies. Possible indications for early vitrectomy are presented, including cases with a poor prognosis when managed by conventional methods.

  5. Identification of cellular targets involved in cardiac failure caused by PKI in oncology: an approach combining pharmacovigilance and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Patras de Campaigno, Emilie; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Laurent, Guy; Montastruc, Francois; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Despas, Fabien

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the risk of cardiac failure (CF) associated with 15 anticancer protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) through a case/noncase analysis and to identify which PK(s) and pathways are involved in PKI-induced CF. In order to evaluate the risk of CF, adjusted reporting odds ratios (aRORs) were calculated for the 15 anticancer PKIs in the World Health Organization safety report database (VigiBase®). We realised a literature review to identify 21 protein kinases (PKs) that were possibly involved in CF caused by PKIs. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between aRORs and affinity data of the 15 PKIs for the 21 PKs were calculated to identify the cellular target most likely to be involved in PKI-induced CF. A total of 141 601 individual case safety reports (ICSRs) were extracted from VigiBase® for the following PKIs: afatinib, axitinib, bosutinib, crizotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, ruxolitinib, sorafenib, sunitinib and vandetanib. Among them, 2594 ICSRs concerned CF. The disproportionality analysis revealed that, for dasatinib, imatinib, bosutinib, sunitinib and nilotinib, disproportionality for CF was significantly higher than for other PKIs, with aRORs of 2.52 [95% CI 2.26, 2.82], 1.79 (95% CI 1.57, 2.03), 1.73 (95% CI 1.18, 2.54), 1.67 (95% CI 1.51, 1.84) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.18, 1.61), respectively. Significant values for correlation coefficients between the product of dissociation constant (pKd) and aROR were observed for two non-receptor protein kinases: ABL1 (non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms) and ABL2 protein kinases, with values of r = 0.83 (P = 0.0001), r = 0.75 (P = 0.0014) and r = 0.78 (P = 0.0006), respectively. We observed a higher disproportionality for CF with dasatinib, imatinib, bosutinib, sunitinib and nilotinib than with other PKIs. In addition, the study highlighted the role of ABL tyrosine kinases in CF caused by anticancer PKIs. © 2017 The British

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Paternal Involvement in Early Adolescents’ Type 1 Diabetes Management Over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Jennifer M.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Delamater, Alan; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Drotar, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document trajectories of paternal involvement in diabetes management and examine bidirectional associations with diabetes outcomes across early adolescence. Methods 3-year prospective assessment of paternal involvement, diabetes self-management, and glycemic control among 136 youth (age 9–12 at baseline) and their mothers and fathers. Results Unconditional growth curves demonstrated decreasing amount (maternal report: F(1,128) = 14.79; paternal report: F(1,111) = 12.95, ps < 0.01) and level of contribution (maternal report: F(1,131) = 23.6, p < .01) of paternal involvement. Controlling for covariates, lower youth self-management predicted an increasing slope in fathers’ self-reported amount of involvement (b = −0.15 to −0.22, p < .05), and higher levels of fathers’ self-reported level of contribution predicted a decreasing slope in youths’ self-reported self-management (b = −0.01, p < .05). Conclusions Like mothers, fathers’ involvement declines modestly during early adolescence. Different aspects of paternal involvement influence or are influenced by youths’ self-management. Communication about ways to enhance fathers’ involvement before this transition may help prevent or reduce declining diabetes management and control common in adolescence. PMID:24013966

  7. Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Guan, Jian; Plovie, Eva; Seldin, David C; Connors, Lawreen H; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H; MacRae, Calum A; Liao, Ronglih

    2013-07-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. Grandmother Involvement as a Protective Factor for Early Childhood Social Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite high rates of grandmother involvement with young grandchildren, very little research has examined the associations between non-residential grandmother involvement and grandchild social adjustment. The present study draws 127 families enrolled in the Family Transitions Project to consider the degree to which mother-reported maternal grandmother involvement buffers 3- and 4-year old grandchildren from economic, parenting, and child temperamental risks for reduced social competence and elevated externalizing behaviors. Findings indicate that higher levels of mother-reported grandmother involvement reduced the negative association between observed grandchild negative emotional reactivity and social competence. Further, high levels of mother-reported grandmother involvement protected grandchildren from the positive association between observed harsh mother parenting and grandchild externalizing behaviors. These findings underscore the relevance of moving beyond the nuclear family to understand factors linked to social adjustment during early childhood. PMID:20954774

  9. Identification and Expression of the CCAP Receptor in the Chagas’ Disease Vector, Rhodnius prolixus, and Its Involvement in Cardiac Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dohee; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Lange, Angela B.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is the vector of Chagas’ disease, by virtue of transmitting the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. There is no cure for Chagas’ disease and therefore controlling R. prolixus is currently the only method of prevention. Understanding the physiology of the disease vector is an important step in developing control measures. Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) is an important neuropeptide in insects because it has multiple physiological roles such as controlling heart rate and modulating ecdysis behaviour. In this study, we have cloned the cDNA sequence of the CCAP receptor (RhoprCCAPR) from 5th instar R. prolixus and found it to be a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). The spatial expression pattern in 5th instars reveals that the RhoprCCAPR transcript levels are high in the central nervous system, hindgut and female reproductive systems, and lower in the salivary glands, male reproductive tissues and a pool of tissues including the dorsal vessel, trachea, and fat body. Interestingly, the RhoprCCAPR expression is increased prior to ecdysis and decreased post-ecdysis. A functional receptor expression assay confirms that the RhoprCCAPR is activated by CCAP (EC50 = 12 nM) but not by adipokinetic hormone, corazonin or an extended FMRFamide. The involvement of CCAP in controlling heartbeat frequency was studied in vivo and in vitro by utilizing RNA interference. In vivo, the basal heartbeat frequency is decreased by 31% in bugs treated with dsCCAPR. Knocking down the receptor in dsCCAPR-treated bugs also resulted in loss of function of applied CCAP in vitro. This is the first report of a GPCR knock-down in R. prolixus and the first report showing that a reduction in CCAPR transcript levels leads to a reduction in cardiac output in any insect. PMID:23874803

  10. Ginseng gintonin activates the human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel: involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shin, Ho-Chul; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Ha, Tal Soo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cho, Hana; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca(2+)]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) (I(Ks)) channel is a cardiac K(+) channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating I(Ks) channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human I(Ks) channel activity by expressing human I(Ks) channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the I(Ks) channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 μg/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the I(Ks) channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the I(Ks) channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca(2+)]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on I(Ks) channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K(+) channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of I(Ks) channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca(2+)]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit.

  11. Analysis of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex during early heart development and BAF250a repression cardiac gene transcription during P19 cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Archer, Trevor K.

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory networks of differentiation programs and the molecular mechanisms of lineage-specific gene regulation in mammalian embryos remain only partially defined. We document differential expression and temporal switching of BRG1-associated factor (BAF) subunits, core pluripotency factors and cardiac-specific genes during post-implantation development and subsequent early organogenesis. Using affinity purification of BRG1 ATPase coupled to mass spectrometry, we characterized the cardiac-enriched remodeling complexes present in E8.5 mouse embryos. The relative abundance and combinatorial assembly of the BAF subunits provides functional specificity to Switch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) complexes resulting in a unique gene expression profile in the developing heart. Remarkably, the specific depletion of the BAF250a subunit demonstrated differential effects on cardiac-specific gene expression and resulted in arrhythmic contracting cardiomyocytes in vitro. Indeed, the BAF250a physically interacts and functionally cooperates with Nucleosome Remodeling and Histone Deacetylase (NURD) complex subunits to repressively regulate chromatin structure of the cardiac genes by switching open and poised chromatin marks associated with active and repressed gene expression. Finally, BAF250a expression modulates BRG1 occupancy at the loci of cardiac genes regulatory regions in P19 cell differentiation. These findings reveal specialized and novel cardiac-enriched SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes, which are required for heart formation and critical for cardiac gene expression regulation at the early stages of heart development. PMID:24335282

  12. Comparison of Quantitative Characteristics of Early Post-resuscitation EEG Between Asphyxial and Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bihua; Chen, Gang; Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yongqin

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis has shown promising results in studying brain injury and functional recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). However, whether the quantitative characteristics of EEG, as potential indicators of neurological prognosis, are influenced by CA causes is unknown. The purpose of this study was designed to compare the quantitative characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG between asphyxial CA (ACA) and ventricular fibrillation CA (VFCA) in rats. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were randomized into either ACA or VFCA group. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5-min untreated CA. Characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG were compared, and the relationships between quantitative EEG features and neurological outcomes were investigated. Compared with VFCA, serum level of S100B, neurological deficit score and brain histopathologic damage score were dramatically higher in the ACA group. Quantitative measures of EEG, including onset time of EEG burst, time to normal trace, burst suppression ratio, and information quantity, were significantly lower for CA caused by asphyxia and correlated with the 96-h neurological outcome and survival. Characteristics of earlier post-resuscitation EEG differed between cardiac and respiratory causes. Quantitative measures of EEG not only predicted neurological outcome and survival, but also have the potential to stratify CA with different causes.

  13. Cardiac catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization; CAD - cardiac catheterization; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization; Heart valve - cardiac catheterization; Heart failure - ...

  14. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p < 0.001) at 3-4 months of age, whereas maternal parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p < 0.001). Maternal parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p < 0.001). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that paternal involvement reduced maternal parenting stress (

  15. Early Head CT Findings Are Associated With Outcomes After Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Starling, Rebecca M; Shekdar, Karuna; Licht, Dan; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Topjian, Alexis A

    2015-07-01

    Head CT after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is often obtained to evaluate intracranial pathology. Among children admitted to the PICU following pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, we hypothesized that loss of gray-white matter differentiation and basilar cistern and sulcal effacement are associated with mortality and unfavorable neurologic outcome. Retrospective, cohort study. Single, tertiary-care center PICU. Seventy-eight patients less than 18 years old who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to PICU admission and had a head CT within 24 hours of return of spontaneous circulation were evaluated from July 2005 through May 2012. None. Median time to head CT from return of spontaneous circulation was 3.3 hours (1.0, 6.0). Median patient age was 2.3 years (0.4, 9.5). Thirty-nine patients (50%) survived, of whom 29 (74%) had favorable neurologic outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have 1) loss of gray-white matter differentiation (Hounsfield unit ratios, 0.96 [0.88, 1.07] vs 1.1 [1.07, 1.2]; p < 0.001), 2) basilar cistern effacement (93% vs 7%; p = 0.001; positive predictive value, 94%; negative predictive value, 59%), and 3) sulcal effacement (100% vs 0%; p ≤ 0.001; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 68%). All patients with poor gray-white matter differentiation or sulcal effacement had unfavorable neurologic outcomes. Only one patient with basilar cistern effacement had favorable outcome. Loss of gray-white matter differentiation and basilar cistern effacement and sulcal effacement are associated with poor outcome after pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Select patients may have favorable outcomes despite these findings.

  16. Early Head CT Findings Are Associated With Outcomes After Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Rebecca M.; Shekdar, Karuna; Licht, Dan; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Berg, Robert A.; Topjian, Alexis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Head CT after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is often obtained to evaluate intracranial pathology. Among children admitted to the PICU following pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, we hypothesized that loss of gray-white matter differentiation and basilar cistern and sulcal effacement are associated with mortality and unfavorable neurologic outcome. Design Retrospective, cohort study. Setting Single, tertiary-care center PICU. Patients Seventy-eight patients less than 18 years old who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to PICU admission and had a head CT within 24 hours of return of spontaneous circulation were evaluated from July 2005 through May 2012. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Median time to head CT from return of spontaneous circulation was 3.3 hours (1.0, 6.0). Median patient age was 2.3 years (0.4, 9.5). Thirty-nine patients (50%) survived, of whom 29 (74%) had favorable neurologic outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have 1) loss of gray-white matter differentiation (Hounsfield unit ratios, 0.96 [0.88, 1.07] vs 1.1 [1.07, 1.2]; p < 0.001), 2) basilar cistern effacement (93% vs 7%; p = 0.001; positive predictive value, 94%; negative predictive value, 59%), and 3) sulcal effacement (100% vs 0%; p ≤ 0.001; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 68%). All patients with poor gray-white matter differentiation or sulcal effacement had unfavorable neurologic outcomes. Only one patient with basilar cistern effacement had favorable outcome. Conclusions Loss of gray-white matter differentiation and basilar cistern effacement and sulcal effacement are associated with poor outcome after pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Select patients may have favorable outcomes despite these findings. PMID:25844694

  17. Multimodality Imaging in Cardiac Sarcoidosis: Is There a Winner?

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Irving E.; Garcia, Mario J.; Taub, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause that can affect the heart. Cardiac sarcoidosis may be present in as many as 25% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis, and it is frequently underdiagnosed. The early and accurate diagnosis of myocardial involvement is challenging. Advanced imaging techniques play important roles in the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. PMID:25784137

  18. Performance of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II: a meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 145,592 cardiac surgery procedures.

    PubMed

    Guida, Pietro; Mastro, Florinda; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Whitlock, Richard; Paparella, Domenico

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE) II performance for prediction of operative mortality after cardiac surgery has not been performed. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies based on the predictive accuracy of the euroSCORE II. We searched the Embase and PubMed databases for all English-only articles reporting performance characteristics of the euroSCORE II. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the observed/expected mortality ratio, and observed-expected mortality difference with their 95% confidence intervals were analyzed. Twenty-two articles were selected, including 145,592 procedures. Operative mortality occurred in 4293 (2.95%), whereas the expected events according to euroSCORE II were 4802 (3.30%). Meta-analysis of these studies provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.792 (95% confidence interval, 0.773-0.811), an estimated observed/expected ratio of 1.019 (95% confidence interval, 0.899-1.139), and observed-expected difference of 0.125 (95% confidence interval, -0.269 to 0.519). Statistical heterogeneity was detected among retrospective studies including less recent procedures. Subgroups analysis confirmed the robustness of combined estimates for isolated valve procedures and those combined with revascularization surgery. A significant overestimation of the euroSCORE II with an observed/expected ratio of 0.829 (95% confidence interval, 0.677-0.982) was observed in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and a slight underestimation of predictions in high-risk patients (observed/expected ratio 1.253 and observed-expected difference 1.859). Despite the heterogeneity, the results from this meta-analysis show a good overall performance of the euroSCORE II in terms of discrimination and accuracy of model predictions for operative mortality. Validation of the euroSCORE II in prospective populations needs to be further studied for a continuous

  19. Early father involvement moderates biobehavioral susceptibility to mental health problems in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J; Alkon, Abbey; Goldsmith, H Hill; Kraemer, Helena C; Kupfer, David J

    2006-12-01

    To study how early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts interactively predict mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Fathers' involvement in infant care and maternal symptoms of depression were prospectively ascertained in a community-based study of child health and development in Madison and Milwaukee, WI. In a subsample of 120 children, behavioral, autonomic, and adrenocortical reactivity to standardized challenges were measured as indicators of biobehavioral sensitivity to social context during a 4-hour home assessment in 1998, when the children were 7 years of age. Mental health symptoms were evaluated at age 9 years using parent, child, and teacher reports. Early father involvement and children's biobehavioral sensitivity to context significantly and interactively predicted symptom severity. Among children experiencing low father involvement in infancy, behavioral, autonomic, and adrenocortical reactivity became risk factors for later mental health symptoms. The highest symptom severity scores were found for children with high autonomic reactivity that, as infants, had experienced low father involvement and mothers with symptoms of depression. Among children experiencing minimal paternal caretaking in infancy, heightened biobehavioral sensitivity to social contexts may be an important predisposing factor for the emergence of mental health symptoms in middle childhood. Such predispositions may be exacerbated by the presence of maternal depression.

  20. Early glottic cancer involving the anterior commissure treated by transoral laser cordectomy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Caroline; Cornu, Nicolas; Hans, Stéphane; Sadoughi, Babak; Badoual, Cécile; Brasnu, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Anterior commissure involvement is considered to be a risk factor for poorer outcomes after transoral laser cordectomy (TLC) for early glottic cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes and relevance of the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification in a large series of patients with early glottic cancer involving the anterior commissure treated by TLC. The clinical and surgical parameters, as well as follow-up results, of the patients treated consecutively for early-stage glottic squamous cell carcinoma involving the anterior commissure (Tis, T1a, T1b, and T2) by transoral CO2 laser cordectomy in an urban academic medical center from January 2001 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The main outcomes measures were: 5-year disease free survival (DFS), ultimate local control with laser alone, laryngeal preservation, overall-survival (OS) rates, and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates (Kaplan-Meier). Ninety-six patients treated from January 2001 to March 2013 were included. The 5-year DFS and ultimate local control with laser alone rates were 61.7% and 74.4%, respectively. The laryngeal preservation rate was 93.4%; and the OS and DSS rates were 79.2% and 91.5%, respectively. Postoperative T classification (pT) status was not found to be a significant predictor of recurrences, but was predictive of more severe recurrences requiring other treatments than laser. TLC is an effective treatment for early stage glottic cancer involving the anterior commissure. The TNM classification is a relevant prognosis factor for severe recurrences. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1817-1822, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Comparisons between Paternal and Maternal Involvement with Sons: Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Louise J.; Palmer, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study compared father-son and mother-son involvement in two-parent families from early to middle childhood. Ninety-four families were recruited for a three-year follow-up study that began when the children were four years old. At each time point, in comparison to mothers, fathers were less accessible to their son on weekdays, and spent more…

  2. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of genes involved in prostaglandin action in equine endometrium during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Atli, Mehmet O; Kurar, Ercan; Kayis, Seyit A; Aslan, Selim; Semacan, Ahmet; Celik, Sefa; Guzeloglu, Aydin

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PTG), Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 (PTGS1) and PTGS2, PGF synthase (PTGFS), and PGE synthase (PTGES), PGF receptor (PTGFR), PGE receptors (PTGER2 and PTGER4), prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1) and hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase-15 (HPGD). Endometrial biopsies were obtained from mares on day of ovulation (d0, n=4), late diestrus (LD, n=4), early luteolysis (EL, n=4) and after luteolysis (AL, n=4) during the cycle. Stages of the cycle were confirmed by plasma progesterone concentrations measured daily and ultrasound examinations. Biopsies were also taken on days 14 (P14; n=4), 15 (P15, n=4), 18 (P18, n=4) and 22 (P22; n=4) of pregnancy. Relative mRNA expressions were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. A mixed model was fitted on the normalized data and least significant difference test (α=0.05) was employed. Expression of PTGS1 mRNA was low throughout the estrous cycle and early days of pregnancy, but upregulated on P18 and P22. PTGS2 expression was increased on EL, but it was suppressed by pregnancy on P15, P18, and P22. PTGFS expression was upregulated in both cyclic and pregnant mares compared to d0 and its level was the highest on LD. PTGFR expression was transiently increased on LD and EL and was suppressed during early pregnancy. Both PTGES and PTGER2 expressions were increased on LD, EL, and early pregnancy, but were decreased after the luteolysis in cyclic mares as they remained high on P18 and P22. PTGER4 expression did not change throughout the cycle and early pregnancy. Levels of HPGD and SLCO2A1 were significantly increased only on P22. In conclusion, PTGS2 expression increases around the time of luteolysis and concurrent upregulation of PTGFS and PTGES indicates that equine endometrium has increased capability of PTG production around the time of luteolysis. However, pregnancy reduces PTGS2 expression, but maintains the high levels of PTGES during early

  4. Recent violence and legal involvement among young adults with early psychosis enrolled in Coordinated Specialty Care.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Stephanie A; Marino, Leslie A; Pope, Leah G; Compton, Michael T; Lee, Rufina J; Rosenfeld, Barry; Rotter, Merrill; Nossel, Ilana; Dixon, Lisa

    2018-05-09

    Individuals with serious mental illnesses have a small increased risk of engaging in violence or legal involvement compared to the general population. This seems to be particularly true for young adults experiencing early stages of psychosis. This study analysed the prevalence of and risk factors for reports of violence and legal involvement in a sample of young adults receiving Coordinated Specialty Care for early non-affective psychosis. A total of 373 young adults (ages 16-30) within 2 years of the onset of non-affective psychosis were enrolled in 10 Coordinated Specialty Care sites in New York State from October 2013 to August 2016. Baseline violent ideation or behaviour and legal involvement was described and predictors identified. Approximately one-quarter of individuals had either recent violent ideation or behaviour at baseline (n = 90, 24.6%); nearly one-tenth of the sample reported recent legal involvement (n = 33, 9.0%). Individuals with violent ideation or behaviour had lower levels of education and were less likely to be working. Those with recent legal involvement were more likely to be male and more likely to have substance use (alcohol, cannabis and other drugs). The overall rate of recent violent ideation or behaviour is similar to other studies; up to one-third of individuals experiencing a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) report violence. Recent legal involvement was strongly associated with substance use. This study presents insight into violence and legal involvement among individuals with FEP and indicates the need for further research. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Estimated glomerular filtration rate is an early biomarker of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Candela-Toha, Ángel; Pardo, María Carmen; Pérez, Teresa; Muriel, Alfonso; Zamora, Javier

    2018-04-20

    and objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is still based on serum creatinine and diuresis. However, increases in creatinine are typically delayed 48h or longer after injury. Our aim was to determine the utility of routine postoperative renal function blood tests, to predict AKI one or 2days in advance in a cohort of cardiac surgery patients. Using a prospective database, we selected a sample of patients who had undergone major cardiac surgery between January 2002 and December 2013. The ability of the parameters to predict AKI was based on Acute Kidney Injury Network serum creatinine criteria. A cohort of 3,962 cases was divided into 2groups of similar size, one being exploratory and the other a validation sample. The exploratory group was used to show primary objectives and the validation group to confirm results. The ability to predict AKI of several kidney function parameters measured in routine postoperative blood tests, was measured with time-dependent ROC curves. The primary endpoint was time from measurement to AKI diagnosis. AKI developed in 610 (30.8%) and 623 (31.4%) patients in the exploratory and validation samples, respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed the best AKI prediction capacity, with values for the AUC ROC curves between 0.700 and 0.946. We obtained different cut-off values for estimated glomerular filtration rate depending on the degree of AKI severity and on the time elapsed between surgery and parameter measurement. Results were confirmed in the validation sample. Postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed good ability to predict AKI following cardiac surgery one or 2days in advance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Early ≤ 3 Mets (Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks) of Physical Activity on Patient's Outcome after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Asif Ali; Khalid, Zara; Farheen, Hania; Siddiqi, Furqan Ahmed; Amjad, Imran

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effect of <3 Mets (Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks) of physical activity on zero postoperative days for improving hemodynamic and respiratory parameters of patients after cardiac surgeries. Randomized control trial. BARMWTHospital, Rawalpindi, from March to August 2015. Arandomized controlled trial was conducted on 174 CABG and valvular heart disease patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. After selection of sample via non-probability purposive sampling, they were randomly allocated into interventional group (n=87) and control group (n=87). Treatment protocol for experimental group was ≤3 Mets of physical activity, i.e. chest physiotherapy, sitting over edge of bed, standing and sitting on chair at bedside, on zero postoperative day but the control group was treated with conventional treatment on first postoperative day. Pre- and post-treatment assessment was done in control and interventional groups on both zero and first postoperative days. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 21. The patients' mean age was 51.86 ±13.76 years. Male to female ratio was 132:42. Statistically significant differences in respiratory rate and SpO2 (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) were found between both groups. Among ABG's, PCO2 and pH showed significant differences with p values of 0.039 and <0.001, respectively. No significant differences were observed between both groups regarding electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, p-values of 0.361, 0.575 and 0.120 respectively) and creatinine (p=0.783). Marked improvement in oxygen saturation, dyspnea and a fall in systolic BPwas seen in interventional group. There was also observed to be a reduction in the length of ICU stay among interventional group patients as frequency with percentage of total stay was compared to control group. Early physical activity (≤3 METS) post-cardiac surgeries prevent respiratory complications through improvement in dyspnea, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation.

  7. Evidence for immune cell involvement in decidual spiral arteriole remodeling in early human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samantha D; Dunk, Caroline E; Aplin, John D; Harris, Lynda K; Jones, Rebecca L

    2009-05-01

    Decidual artery remodeling is essential for a healthy pregnancy. This process involves loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelium, which are replaced by endovascular trophoblasts (vEVTs) embedded in fibrinoid. Remodeling is impaired during pre-eclampsia, a disease of pregnancy that results in maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Early vascular changes occur in the absence of vEVTs, suggesting that another cell type is involved; evidence from animal models indicates that decidual leukocytes play a role. We hypothesized that leukocytes participate in remodeling through the triggering of apoptosis or extracellular matrix degradation. Decidua basalis samples (8 to 12 weeks gestation) were examined by immunohistochemistry to elucidate associations between leukocytes, vEVTs, and key remodeling events. Trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling were identified. Based on a combination of morphological attributes, vessel profiles were classified into a putative temporal series of four stages. In early stages of remodeling, vascular smooth muscle cells showed dramatic disruption and disorganization before vEVT presence. Leukocytes (identified as uterine natural killer cells and macrophages) were apparent infiltrating vascular smooth muscle cells layers and were matrix metalloproteinase-7 and -9 immunopositive. A proportion of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling positive, suggesting remodeling involves apoptosis. We thus confirm that vascular remodeling occurs in distinct trophoblast-independent and -dependent stages and provide the first evidence of decidual leukocyte involvement in trophoblast-independent stages.

  8. Transesophageal Echocardiography, 3-Dimensional and Speckle Tracking Together as Sensitive Markers for Early Outcome in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Puri, Goverdhan Dutt; Bahl, Ajay

    2017-10-01

    Speckle tracking, when combined with 3-dimensional (3D) left ventricular ejection fraction, might prove to be a more sensitive marker for postoperative ventricular dysfunction. This study investigated early outcomes in a cohort of patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing cardiac surgery. Prospective, blinded, observational study. University hospital; single institution. The study comprised 73 adult patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Routine transesophageal echocardiography before and after bypass. Global longitudinal strain using speckle tracking and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction were computed using transesophageal echocardiography. Mean prebypass global longitudinal strain and 3D left ventricle ejection fraction were significantly lower in patients with postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome compared with patients who did not develop low cardiac output (global longitudinal strain -7.5% v -10.7% and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction 29% v 39%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The cut-off value of global longitudinal strain predicting postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome was -6%, with 95% sensitivity and 68% specificity; and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction was 19% with 98% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Preoperative left ventricular global longitudinal strain (-6%) and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction (19%) together could act as predictor of postoperative low-cardiac-output states with high sensitivity (99.9%) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-E-T-622: Planning Technique for Passively-Scattered Involved-Node Proton Therapy of Mediastinal Lymphoma with Consideration of Cardiac Motion

    SciT

    Flampouri, S; Li, Z; Hoppe, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment planning method for passively-scattered involved-node proton therapy of mediastinal lymphoma robust to breathing and cardiac motions. Methods: Beam-specific planning treatment volumes (bsPTV) are calculated for each proton field to incorporate pertinent uncertainties. Geometric margins are added laterally to each beam while margins for range uncertainty due to setup errors, breathing, and calibration curve uncertainties are added along each beam. The calculation of breathing motion and deformation effects on proton range includes all 4DCT phases. The anisotropic water equivalent margins are translated to distances on average 4DCT. Treatment plans are designed so each beam adequately coversmore » the corresponding bsPTV. For targets close to the heart, cardiac motion effects on dosemaps are estimated by using a library of anonymous ECG-gated cardiac CTs (cCT). The cCT, originally contrast-enhanced, are partially overridden to allow meaningful proton dose calculations. Targets similar to the treatment targets are drawn on one or more cCT sets matching the anatomy of the patient. Plans based on the average cCT are calculated on individual phases, then deformed to the average and accumulated. When clinically significant dose discrepancies occur between planned and accumulated doses, the patient plan is modified to reduce the cardiac motion effects. Results: We found that bsPTVs as planning targets create dose distributions similar to the conventional proton planning distributions, while they are a valuable tool for visualization of the uncertainties. For large targets with variability in motion and depth, integral dose was reduced because of the anisotropic margins. In most cases, heart motion has a clinically insignificant effect on target coverage. Conclusion: A treatment planning method was developed and used for proton therapy of mediastinal lymphoma. The technique incorporates bsPTVs compensating for all common sources of

  10. The Longitudinal Association Between Early Childhood Obesity and Fathers' Involvement in Caregiving and Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N; Chan, Kitty S

    2017-10-01

    Fathers have increased their involvement in child caregiving; however, their changing role in childhood obesity is understudied. This study assessed the longitudinal association between changes in obesity among children aged 2 to 4 years and changes in fathers' involvement with raising children. Longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were used to conduct child fixed-effects linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between changes in childhood obesity-related outcomes (sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen time, BMI z score, overweight/obesity, obesity) and fathers' involvement with raising children (caregiving and influencing child-related decisions). Fixed-effects models control for all time-invariant characteristics. Analyses were controlled for time-varying confounders, including child age, maternal and paternal employment, and family poverty status. Children whose fathers increased their frequency of taking children outside and involvement with physical childcare experienced a decrease in their odds of obesity from age 2 to age 4. Obesity-related outcomes were not associated with fathers' decision-making influence. Increases in fathers' involvement with some aspects of caregiving may be associated with lower odds of childhood obesity. Encouraging fathers to increase their involvement with raising children and including fathers in childhood obesity prevention efforts may help reduce obesity risk among young children. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  12. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  13. Early central diabetes insipidus: An ominous sign in post-cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Chae, Minjung Kathy; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Tae Rim; Yoon, Hee; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) after cardiac arrest is not well described. Thus, we aim to study the occurrences, outcomes, and risk factors of CDI of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We retrospectively analyzed post-OHCA patients treated at a single center. Central diabetes insipidus was retrospectively defined by diagnostic criteria. One-month cerebral performance category (CPC) scores were collected for outcomes. Of the 169 patients evaluated, 36 patients (21.3%) were diagnosed with CDI. All CDI patients had a poor neurologic outcome of either CPC 4 (13.9%) or CPC 5 (86.1%), and CDI was strongly associated with mortality. Age (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), respiratory arrest (OR, 6.62; 95% CI, 1.23-35.44), asphyxia (OR, 9.26; 95% CI, 2.17-34.61), and gray to white matter ratio on brain computed tomogram (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95) were associated with the development of CDI. The onset of CDI was earlier (P < .001) and the maximum 24-hour urine output was larger (P = .03) in patients with worst outcomes. All patients diagnosed with CDI had poor neurologic outcomes, and occurrence of CDI was associated with mortality. Central diabetes insipidus patients with death or brain death had earlier occurrence of CDI and more maximum urine output. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear cardiac

    SciT

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  15. Anesthesia preparation time is not affected by the experience level of the resident involved during his/her first month of adult cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Broussard, David M; Couch, Michael C

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to answer the question of whether the experience level of the resident on his/her first month of adult cardiothoracic anesthesiology has an impact on operating room efficiency in a large academic medical center. Traditionally, the resident's 1st month of cardiac anesthesia had been reserved for the clinical anesthesia (CA)-2 year of training. This study analyzed the impact on operating room efficiency of moving the 1st month of cardiac anesthesia into the CA-1 year. The authors hypothesized that there would be no difference in anesthesia preparation times (defined as the interval between "in-room" and "anesthesia-ready" times) between CA-1 and CA-2 residents on their 1st month of cardiac anesthesia. This study was retrospective and used an electronic anesthesia information management system database. This study was conducted on care provided at a single 450-bed academic medical center. This study included 12 residents in their 1st month of cardiac anesthesia. The anesthesia preparation time (defined as the interval between "in-room" and "anesthesia-ready" times) was measured for cases involving residents on their first month of cardiac anesthesia. Anesthesia preparation times for 6 CA-1 resident months and 6 CA-2 resident months (100 adult cardiac procedures in total) were analyzed (49 for the CA-1 residents and 51 for the CA-2s). There were no differences in preparation time between CA-1 and CA-2 residents as a group (p = 0.8169). The CA-1 residents had an unadjusted mean (±standard error) of 51.1 ± 3.18 minutes, whereas the CA-2 residents' unadjusted mean was 50.2 ± 2.41 minutes. Adjusting for case mix (valves v coronary artery bypass graft surgery), the CA-1 mean was 49.1 ± 5.22 minutes, whereas the CA-2 mean was 49.1 ± 4.54 minutes. These findings suggest that operating room efficiency as measured by the anesthesia preparation time may not be affected by the level of the resident on his/her 1st month of adult cardiac anesthesia

  16. Relation of Cardiac Complications in the Early Phase of Community-Acquired Pneumonia to Long-Term Mortality and Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Roberto; Calvieri, Camilla; Falcone, Marco; Bucci, Tommaso; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Scarpellini, Maria G; Barillà, Francesco; Taliani, Gloria; Violi, Francesco

    2015-08-15

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by cardiac events in the early phase of the disease. Aim of this study was to assess if these intrahospital cardiac complications may account for overall mortality and cardiovascular events occurring during a long-term follow-up. Three hundred one consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I, with community-acquired pneumonia were prospectively recruited and followed up for a median of 17.4 months. Primary end point was the occurrence of death for any cause, and secondary end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke). During the intrahospital stay, 55 patients (18%) experienced a cardiac complication. Of these, 32 had an MI (29 non-ST-elevation MI and 3 ST-elevation MI) and 30 had a new episode of atrial fibrillation (7 nonmutually exclusive events). During the follow-up, 89 patients died (51% of patients with an intrahospital cardiac complication and 26% of patients without, p <0.001) and 73 experienced a cardiovascular event (47% of patients with and 19% of patients without an intrahospital cardiac complication, p <0.001). A Cox regression analysis showed that intrahospital cardiac complications, age, and Pneumonia Severity Index were significantly associated with overall mortality, whereas intrahospital cardiac complications, age, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly associated with cardiovascular events during the follow-up. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that intrahospital cardiac complications in the early phase of pneumonia are associated with an enhanced risk of death and cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac abnormalities in Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Fiorini, Ana C; Scorza, Carla A; Finsterer, Josef

    2018-07-01

    Though there is increasing evidence for primary cardiac disease in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinsonism (PS), this evidence is hardly included in the general management of these patients. Literature review. PD is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown that PD is accompanied by high rates of premature death compared with the general population. In general, death in PD/PS is usually caused by determinant factors such as pneumonia, cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular disease. There is a significant body of literature demonstrating involvement of the heart in PD/PS. Cardiac involvement in PD/PS includes cardiac autonomic dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, conduction defects, and sudden cardiac death (SCD), and sudden unexpected death in Parkinson's disease (SUDPAR). Cardiac abnormalities found in PD/PS are manifold but the most prominent is cardiac autonomic dysfunction. The frequency of coronary heart disease in PD is a matter of debate. Only rarely reported in PD/PS are cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death, and SUDPAR. It is particularly recommended that PD/PS patients are more intensively investigated cardiologically as soon as the diagnosis is established. Early recognition of cardiac involvement is important for preventing SCD and SUDPAR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does a reduced glucose intake prevent hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery? a randomized controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia in children after cardiac surgery can be treated with intensive insulin therapy, but hypoglycemia is a potential serious side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing glucose intake below standard intakes to prevent hyperglycemia, on blood glucose concentrations, glucose kinetics and protein catabolism in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Subjects received a 4-hour low glucose (LG; 2.5 mg/kg per minute) and a 4-hour standard glucose (SG; 5.0 mg/kg per minute) infusion in a randomized blinded crossover setting. Simultaneously, an 8-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was conducted to determine glucose and leucine kinetics. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (IQR); comparison was made by paired samples t test. Results Eleven subjects (age 5.1 (20.2) months) were studied 9.5 ± 1.9 hours post-cardiac surgery. Blood glucose concentrations were lower during LG than SG (LG 7.3 ± 0.7 vs. SG 9.3 ± 1.8 mmol/L; P < 0.01), although the glycemic target (4.0-6.0 mmol/L) was not achieved. No hypoglycemic events occurred. Endogenous glucose production was higher during LG than SG (LG 2.9 ± 0.8 vs. SG 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/kg per minute; P = 0.02), due to increased glycogenolysis (LG 1.0 ± 0.6 vs. SG 0.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg per minute; P < 0.05). Leucine balance, indicating protein balance, was negative but not affected by glucose intake (LG -54.8 ± 14.6 vs. SG -58.8 ± 16.7 μmol/kg per hour; P = 0.57). Conclusions Currently recommended glucose intakes aggravated hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery with CPB. Reduced glucose intake decreased blood glucose concentrations without causing hypoglycemia or affecting protein catabolism, but increased glycogenolysis. Trial registration Dutch trial register NTR2079. PMID:23031354

  19. Early High-Dose Erythropoietin Therapy After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Alain; Deye, Nicolas; Vivien, Benoît; Richard, Olivier; Pichon, Nicolas; Bourg, Angèle; Huet, Loïc; Buleon, Clément; Frey, Jérôme; Asfar, Pierre; Legriel, Stéphane; Narcisse, Sophie; Mathonnet, Armelle; Cravoisy, Aurélie; Dequin, Pierre-François; Wiel, Eric; Razazi, Keyvan; Daubin, Cédric; Kimmoun, Antoine; Lamhaut, Lionel; Marx, Jean-Sébastien; de la Garanderie, Didier Payen; Ecollan, Patrick; Combes, Alain; Spaulding, Christian; Barat, Florence; Ben Boutieb, Myriam; Coste, Joël; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Pène, Frédéric; Mira, Jean-Paul; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Carli, Pierre

    2016-07-05

    Preliminary data suggested a clinical benefit in treating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with a high dose of erythropoietin (Epo) analogs. The authors aimed to evaluate the efficacy of epoetin alfa treatment on the outcome of OHCA patients in a phase 3 trial. The authors performed a multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Patients still comatose after a witnessed OHCA of presumed cardiac origin were eligible. In the intervention group, patients received 5 intravenous injections spaced 12 h apart during the first 48 h (40,000 units each, resulting in a maximal dose of 200,000 total units), started as soon as possible after resuscitation. In the control group, patients received standard care without Epo. The main endpoint was the proportion of patients in each group reaching level 1 on the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale (survival with no or minor neurological sequelae) at day 60. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality rate, distribution of patients in CPC levels at different time points, and side effects. In total, 476 patients were included in the primary analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. At day 60, 32.4% of patients (76 of 234) in the intervention group reached a CPC 1 level, as compared with 32.1% of patients (78 of 242) in the control group (odds ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.48). The mortality rate and proportion of patients in each CPC level did not differ at any time points. Serious adverse events were more frequent in Epo-treated patients as compared with controls (22.6% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.03), particularly thrombotic complications (12.4% vs. 5.8%; p = 0.01). In patients resuscitated from an OHCA of presumed cardiac cause, early administration of erythropoietin plus standard therapy did not confer a benefit, and was associated with a higher complication rate. (High Dose of Erythropoietin Analogue After Cardiac Arrest [Epo-ACR-02]; NCT00999583). Copyright

  20. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriate by FSA to determine the impact of the proposed action on the human environment; (3) Consult with... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local... Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) The NEPA...

  1. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appropriate by FSA to determine the impact of the proposed action on the human environment; (3) Consult with... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local... Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) The NEPA...

  2. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private...

  3. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private...

  4. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private...

  5. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private...

  6. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private...

  7. Association between oxidative stress index and post-CPR early mortality in cardiac arrest patients: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Hasan; Türkdoğan, Kenan Ahmet; Zorlu, Ali; Aydın, Hüseyin; Kurt, Recep; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of lifesaving actions that improve the chance of survival following cardiac arrest (CA). Many clinical and laboratory parameters, such as the presence of asystole, out-of-hospital CPR, and duration of cardiac arrest, are associated with failed CPR in patients with CA. Asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, along with the absence of contractions of the myocardium and absence of cardiac output. Oxidative stress index (OSI), which is the ratio of total oxidative status to total antioxidant status, increases by ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether OSI levels in patients with CA could predict early mortality after CPR. This study has a prospective observational cohort design. Five patients with a history of cancer, four patients who developed hemolysis in their blood, six patients who were transferred to our hospital from other hospitals, and six patients in whom blood samples for OSI could not be stored properly were excluded. Finally, a total of 90 in-hospital or out-of-hospital CA patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated prospectively. The patients were classified according to the CPR response into a successful group (n=46) and a failed group (n=44). Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey's HSD or independent samples t-test and the Kruskal-Wallis tests or Mann- Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively. Also, we used chi-square test, Spearman's correlation test, univariate and multible logistic regression analyses, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. OSI was 3.0±4.0, 5.6±4.3, and 8.7±3.8 in the control group, the successful CPR group, and the failed CPR group, respectively (p<0.001 for the 2 comparisons). OSI on admission, ischemia-modified albumin, presence of asystole, mean duration of cardiac arrest, out-of-hospital CPR, pH, and

  8. Early spinal cord and brainstem involvement in infantile Leigh syndrome possibly caused by a novel variant.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Jeffrey R; Prada, Carlos E; Hopkin, Robert J; Hallinan, Barbara E

    2013-12-01

    Leigh syndrome, due to a dysfunction of mitochondrial energy metabolism, is a genetically heterogeneous and progressive neurologic disorder that usually occurs in infancy and childhood. Its clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings can be variable, especially early in the course of the disease. This report presents a patient with infantile Leigh syndrome who had atypical radiologic findings on serial neuroimaging studies with early and severe involvement of the cervical spinal cord and brainstem and injury to the thalami and basal ganglia occurring only late in the clinical course. Postmortem microscopic examination supported this timing of injury within the central nervous system. In addition, mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing showed a novel homoplasmic variant that could be responsible for this unique lethal form of Leigh syndrome.

  9. Automated assessment of early hypoxic brain edema in non-enhanced CT predicts outcome in patients after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Uta; Sporns, Peter Bernhard; Lebiedz, Pia; Niederstadt, Thomas; Zoubi, Tarek; Schmidt, Rene; Knecht, Stefan; Heindel, Walter; Kemmling, André

    2016-07-01

    Early prediction of potential neurological recovery in patients after cardiac arrest is challenging. Recent studies suggest that the densitrometic gray-white matter ratio (GWR) determined from cranial computed tomography (CT) scans may be a reliable predictor of poor outcome. We evaluated an automated, rater independent method to determine GWR in CT as an early objective imaging predictor of clinical outcome. We analyzed imaging data of 84 patients after cardiac arrest that underwent noncontrast CT within 24h after arrest. To determine GWR in CT we applied two methods using a recently published automated probabilistic gray-white matter segmentation algorithm (GWR_aut) and conventional manual measurements within gray-white regions of interest (GWR_man). Neurological outcome was graded by the cerebral performance category (CPC). As part of standard routine CPC was assessed by the treating physician in the intensive care unit at admission and at discharge to normal ward. The performance of GWR measures (automated and manual) to predict the binary clinical endpoints of poor (CPC3-5) and good outcome (CPC1-2) was assessed by ROC analysis with increasing discrimination thresholds. Results of GWR_aut were compared to GWR_man of two raters. Of 84 patients, 55 (65%) showed a poor outcome. ROC curve analysis revealed reliable outcome prediction of GWR_aut (AUC 0.860) and GWR_man (AUC 0.707 and 0.699, respectively). Predictive power of GWR_aut was higher than GWR_man by each rater (p=0.019 and p=0.021, respectively) at an optimal cut-off of 1.084 to predict poor outcome (optimal criterion with 92.7% sensitivity, 72.4% specificity). Interrater reliability of GWR_man by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was moderate (0.551). Automated quantification of GWR in CT may be used as an objective observer-independent imaging marker for outcome in patients after cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) in patients with cardiac arrest with initial shockable rhythm in hospital: propensity score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W; Kurth, Tobias; Chase, Maureen; Berg, Katherine M; Cocchi, Michael N; Callaway, Clifton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether patients who experience cardiac arrest in hospital receive epinephrine (adrenaline) within the two minutes after the first defibrillation (contrary to American Heart Association guidelines) and to evaluate the association between early administration of epinephrine and outcomes in this population. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Analysis of data from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, which includes data from more than 300 hospitals in the United States. Participants Adults in hospital who experienced cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, including patients who had a first defibrillation within two minutes of the cardiac arrest and who remained in a shockable rhythm after defibrillation. Intervention Epinephrine given within two minutes after the first defibrillation. Main outcome measures Survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with a good functional outcome. A propensity score was calculated for the receipt of epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, based on multiple characteristics of patients, events, and hospitals. Patients who received epinephrine at either zero, one, or two minutes after the first defibrillation were then matched on the propensity score with patients who were “at risk” of receiving epinephrine within the same minute but who did not receive it. Results 2978patients were matched on the propensity score, and the groups were well balanced. 1510 (51%) patients received epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, which is contrary to current American Heart Association guidelines. Epinephrine given within the first two minutes after the first defibrillation was associated with decreased odds of survival in the propensity score matched analysis (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.82; P<0.001). Early epinephrine

  11. Early administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) in patients with cardiac arrest with initial shockable rhythm in hospital: propensity score matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars W; Kurth, Tobias; Chase, Maureen; Berg, Katherine M; Cocchi, Michael N; Callaway, Clifton; Donnino, Michael W

    2016-04-06

    To evaluate whether patients who experience cardiac arrest in hospital receive epinephrine (adrenaline) within the two minutes after the first defibrillation (contrary to American Heart Association guidelines) and to evaluate the association between early administration of epinephrine and outcomes in this population. Prospective observational cohort study. Analysis of data from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, which includes data from more than 300 hospitals in the United States. Adults in hospital who experienced cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, including patients who had a first defibrillation within two minutes of the cardiac arrest and who remained in a shockable rhythm after defibrillation. Epinephrine given within two minutes after the first defibrillation. Survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with a good functional outcome. A propensity score was calculated for the receipt of epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, based on multiple characteristics of patients, events, and hospitals. Patients who received epinephrine at either zero, one, or two minutes after the first defibrillation were then matched on the propensity score with patients who were "at risk" of receiving epinephrine within the same minute but who did not receive it. 2978 patients were matched on the propensity score, and the groups were well balanced. 1510 (51%) patients received epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, which is contrary to current American Heart Association guidelines. Epinephrine given within the first two minutes after the first defibrillation was associated with decreased odds of survival in the propensity score matched analysis (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.82; P<0.001). Early epinephrine administration was also associated with a decreased odds of return of spontaneous circulation

  12. Cardiac dysfunction and ferritin as early markers of severity in pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tonial, Cristian T; Garcia, Pedro Celiny R; Schweitzer, Louise Cardoso; Costa, Caroline A D; Bruno, Francisco; Fiori, Humberto H; Einloft, Paulo R; Garcia, Ricardo Branco; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    The aim of this study was to verify the association of echocardiogram, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count with unfavorable outcomes in pediatric sepsis. A prospective cohort study was carried out from March to December 2014, with pediatric critical care patients aged between 28 days and 18 years. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation for more than 48h, and vasoactive drugs. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, and leukocyte count were collected on the first day (D0), 24h (D1), and 72h (D3) after recruitment. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography to determine the ejection fraction of the left ventricle on D1 and D3. The outcomes measured were length of hospital stay and in the pediatric intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation duration, free hours of VM, duration of use of inotropic agents, maximum inotropic score, and mortality. Twenty patients completed the study. Patients with elevated ferritin levels on D0 had also fewer ventilator-free hours (p=0.046) and higher maximum inotropic score (p=0.009). Patients with cardiac dysfunction by echocardiogram on D1 had longer hospital stay (p=0.047), pediatric intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), duration of mechanical ventilation (p=0.011), maximum inotropic score (p=0.001), and fewer ventilator-free hours (p=0.020). Cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography and serum ferritin value was significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes in pediatric patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetes, cardiac disorders and asthma as risk factors for severe organ involvement among adult dengue patients: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Hsu, Jung Pu; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C

    2017-01-03

    Progression to severe organ involvement due to dengue infection has been associated with severe dengue disease, intensive care treatment, and mortality. However, there is a lack of understanding of the impact of pre-existing comorbidities and other risk factors of severe organ involvement among dengue adults. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to characterize and identify risk factors that predispose dengue adults at risk of progression with severe organ involvement. This study involved 174 dengue patients who had progressed with severe organ involvement and 865 dengue patients without severe organ involvement, matched by the year of presentation of the cases, who were admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital between year 2005 and 2008. Age group of 60 years or older, diabetes, cardiac disorders, asthma, and having two or more pre-existing comorbidities were independent risk factors of severe organ involvement. Abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, and hematocrit rise and rapid platelet count drop at presentation were significantly associated with severe organ involvement. These risk factors, when validated in a larger study, will be useful for triage by clinicians for prompt monitoring and clinical management at first presentation, to minimize the risk of severe organ involvement and hence, disease severity.

  14. Association of US State Implementation of Newborn Screening Policies for Critical Congenital Heart Disease With Early Infant Cardiac Deaths.

    PubMed

    Abouk, Rahi; Grosse, Scott D; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Oster, Matthew E

    2017-12-05

    In 2011, critical congenital heart disease was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborns, but whether state implementation of screening policies has been associated with infant death rates is unknown. To assess whether there was an association between implementation of state newborn screening policies for critical congenital heart disease and infant death rates. Observational study with group-level analyses. A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted using the National Center for Health Statistics' period linked birth/infant death data set files for 2007-2013 for 26 546 503 US births through June 30, 2013, aggregated by month and state of birth. State policies were classified as mandatory or nonmandatory (including voluntary policies and mandates that were not yet implemented). As of June 1, 2013, 8 states had implemented mandatory screening policies, 5 states had voluntary screening policies, and 9 states had adopted but not yet implemented mandates. Numbers of early infant deaths (between 24 hours and 6 months of age) coded for critical congenital heart disease or other/unspecified congenital cardiac causes for each state-month birth cohort. Between 2007 and 2013, there were 2734 deaths due to critical congenital heart disease and 3967 deaths due to other/unspecified causes. Critical congenital heart disease death rates in states with mandatory screening policies were 8.0 (95% CI, 5.4-10.6) per 100 000 births (n = 37) in 2007 and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.9-9.9) per 100 000 births (n = 13) in 2013 (for births by the end of July); for other/unspecified cardiac causes, death rates were 11.7 (95% CI, 8.6-14.8) per 100 000 births in 2007 (n = 54) and 10.3 (95% CI, 5.9-14.8) per 100 000 births (n = 21) in 2013. Early infant deaths from critical congenital heart disease through December 31, 2013, decreased by 33.4% (95% CI, 10.6%-50.3%), with an absolute decline of 3.9 (95% CI, 3.6-4.1) deaths per 100 000 births after

  15. Children’s Early Child Care and their Mothers’ Later Involvement with Schools

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children’s care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers’ school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children’s social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children’s schools when children had prior histories of high quality non-parental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children’s academic skills and home environments. PMID:22313134

  16. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  17. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Frequency of and Prognostic Significance of Cardiac Involvement at Presentation in Hereditary Transthyretin-Derived Amyloidosis and the Value of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Sebastiaan H C; Tromp, Jasper; Nienhuis, Hans L A; van der Meer, Peter; van den Berg, Maarten P; Blokzijl, Hans; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hazenberg, Bouke P C

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of cardiac involvement in hereditary transthyretin-derived (ATTRm) amyloidosis at the time of diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic and clinical value of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The University Medical Center Groningen is the national center of expertise for amyloidosis. All consecutive patients between 1994 and 2016 with ATTRm amyloidosis were followed prospectively. Baseline was set at the time of the first positive biopsy. All patients underwent a standard cardiac and neurologic work-up. Cardiac involvement was defined by otherwise unexplained left and/or right ventricular wall hypertrophy on cardiac ultrasound and/or advanced conduction disturbances. Seventy-seven patients had ATTRm amyloidosis and were included in the study. The TTR V30M mutation was present in 30 patients (39%). In both the V30M and the non-V30M groups, the neurologic presentation dominated (77% vs 51%), whereas cardiac presentation was infrequent (7% vs 15%). Clinical work-up showed that cardiac involvement was present at baseline in 51% of all patients irrespective of genotype and was associated with increased overall mortality (hazard ratio 5.95, 95% confidence interval 2.12 to 16.7), independent from clinical confounders. At a cutoff level of 125 ng/L, NT-proBNP had a sensitivity of 92% for establishing cardiac involvement. In conclusion, irrespective of the frequent noncardiac presentation of ATTRm amyloidosis, cardiac involvement is already present at diagnosis in half of the patients and is associated with increased mortality. NT-proBNP is a useful marker to determine cardiac involvement in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Delinquency, parental involvement, early adult criminality, and sex: Evidence of moderated mediation.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2013-08-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether parental involvement, measured in late adolescence, mediates the relationship between delinquency in mid-adolescence and crime in early adulthood. This study's second purpose was to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by sex, such that late adolescent parental involvement mediates the delinquency-crime relationship in females but not in males. A secondary analysis of data provided by 579 (272 males, 307 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child (NLSYC) was conducted in an effort to evaluate the possibility of moderated mediation in the relationship between delinquency at age 16, parental involvement at age 18, and criminality at age 24. Moderated mediation analysis, path analysis, and causal mediation analysis revealed the presence of a conditional indirect relationship between delinquency, parental involvement, and adult crime moderated by sex. These results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage and gendered pathways to crime. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p = 0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r = −0.46, p = 0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  1. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G A; Visser, Leo H

    2014-01-01

    Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p = 0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  2. A girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with microdeletion involving CDKL5.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Osaka, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that aberrations of CDKL5 in female patients cause early-onset intractable seizures, severe developmental delay or regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. We report on a Japanese girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, developmental regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. The patient showed generalized tonic seizures, and later, massive myoclonus induced by phone and light stimuli. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural brain anomalies but cerebral atrophy. Electroencephalogram showed frontal dominant diffuse poly spikes and waves. Through copy number analysis by genomic microarray, we found a microdeletion at Xp22.13. A de novo 137-kb deletion, involving exons 5-21 of CDKL5, RS1, and part of PPEF1 gene, was confirmed by quantitative PCR and breakpoint specific PCR analyses. Our report suggests that the clinical features associated with CDKL5 deletions could be implicated in Japanese patients, and that genetic testing of CDKL5, including both sequencing and deletion analyses, should be considered in girls with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and RTT-like features. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. AMP-Dependent Kinase and Autophagic Flux are Involved in Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2-Offered Protection against Cardiac Toxicity of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) alleviates ethanol toxicity although the precise mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on ethanol-induced myocardial damage with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type FVB and transgenic mice overexpressing ALDH2 were challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days and cardiac mechanical function was assessed using the echocardiographic and IonOptix systems. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate essential autophagy markers, Akt and AMPK and their downstream signaling mTOR. Ethanol challenge altered cardiac geometry and function evidenced by enlarged ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, decreased cell shortening and intracellular Ca2+ rise, prolonged relengthening and intracellular Ca2+ decay, as well as reduced SERCA Ca2+ uptake, the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2. Ethanol challenge facilitated myocardial autophagy as evidenced by enhanced expression of Beclin, ATG7 and LC3B II, as well as mTOR dephosphorylation, which was alleviated by ALDH2. Ethanol challenge-induced cardiac defect and apoptosis were reversed by the ALDH-2 agonist Alda-1, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C whereas the autophagy inducer rapamycin and the AMPK activator AICAR mimicked or exacerbated ethanol-induced cell injury. Ethanol promoted or suppressed phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, respectively, in FVB but not ALDH2 murine hearts. Moreover, AICAR nullified Alda-1-induced protection against ethanol-triggered autophagic and functional changes. Ethanol increased GFP-LC3 puncta in H9c2 cells, the effect of which was ablated by Alda-1 and 3-MA. Lysosomal inhibition using bafilomycin A1, E64D and pepstatin A obliterated Alda-1- but not ethanol-induced responses in GFP-LC3 puncta. Our results suggested that ALDH2 protects against ethanol toxicity through altered Akt and AMPK signaling and regulation of autophagic flux. PMID:21871561

  4. The effect of early education on patient anxiety while waiting for elective cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Karen; Morrow, Lydia; Smith, Kelly; Kiczula, Michele; Arthur, Heather M

    2003-07-01

    A supply-demand mismatch with respect to cardiac catheterization (CATH) often results in patients experiencing waiting times that vary from a few weeks to several months. Long delays can impose both physical and psychological distress for patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a psychoeducational nursing intervention at the beginning of the waiting period on patient anxiety during the waiting time for elective CATH. This was a 2-group randomized controlled trial. Intervention patients received a nurse-delivered, detailed information/education session within 2 weeks of being placed on the waiting list for elective CATH. Control group patients received usual care. The mean waiting time for CATH was 13.4+/-7.2 weeks, which did not differ between groups (P=0.509). Anxiety increased in both groups over the waiting time (P=0.028). Health-related quality of life deteriorated over the waiting time in both groups (P<0.05). On a visual analogue scale, there was a significant difference (P=0.002) between the intervention (4.0+/-2.7) and control (5.2+/-3.0) groups in self-reported anxiety 2 weeks prior to CATH. The waiting period prior to elective CATH has a negative impact on patients' perceived anxiety and quality of life and a simple intervention, provided at the beginning of the waiting period, may positively affect the experience of waiting.

  5. Early prediction of cardiac resynchronization therapy response by non-invasive electrocardiogram markers.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Pérez-Roselló, Víctor; Donoso, Víctor; Osca, Joaquín; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Fernández, Carmen; Galbis, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for those patients with severe heart failure. Regrettably, there are about one third of CRT "non-responders", i.e. patients who have undergone this form of device therapy but do not respond to it, which adversely affects the utility and cost-effectiveness of CRT. In this paper, we assess the ability of a novel surface ECG marker to predict CRT response. We performed a retrospective exploratory study of the ECG previous to CRT implantation in 43 consecutive patients with ischemic (17) or non-ischemic (26) cardiomyopathy. We extracted the QRST complexes (consisting of the QRS complex, the S-T segment, and the T wave) and obtained a measure of their energy by means of spectral analysis. This ECG marker showed statistically significant lower values for non-responder patients and, joint with the duration of QRS complexes (the current gold-standard to predict CRT response), the following performances: 86% accuracy, 88% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. In this manner, the proposed ECG marker may help clinicians to predict positive response to CRT in a non-invasive way, in order to minimize unsuccessful procedures.

  6. [Effect of early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics on the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-hua; Chen, Yuan-han; Liang, Xin-ling; Li, Rui-zhao; Li, Zhi-lian; Jiang, Fen; Shi, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influence of early postoperative use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) or diuretics on acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in elderly patients. Data from elderly patients (age≥60 years old) who underwent cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in Guangdong General Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010 were analyzed in this retrospective research. The primary endpoint was AKI as diagnosed according to the serum creatinine criteria of RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage renal disease). The baseline serum creatinine was defined as the latest serum creatinine level before cardiac surgery. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to obtain the independent risk factors for AKI. Among 618 elderly patients, 76 (12.3%) patients received ACEI/ARB during early postoperative period, 491 (79.4%) patients were given diuretics during early postoperative period, and postoperative AKI occurred in 394 (63.8%) patients. The incidence of AKI was 46.1% in patients who received early postoperative ACEI/ARB, and 66.2% in patients who did not (P<0.001). Patients who received diuretics postoperatively were less likely to suffer from AKI compared with patients who did not (57.0% vs. 89.8%, P<0.001). After adjustment of other potential factors of postoperative AKI, logistic regression analysis showed that early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB [odds ratio (OR)=0.131, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.033-0.517, P=0.004], and early postoperative use of diuretics (OR=0.149, 95%CI 0.076-0.291, P<0.001) independently predicted the occurrence of AKI. Early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics is associated with a lower incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in elderly patients.

  7. Interobserver agreement on the echocardiographic parameters that estimate right ventricular systolic function in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Temois, S G; Santos-Martínez, L E; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Gutiérrez-Delgado, L G; Baranda-Tovar, F M

    2016-11-01

    To know the variability of transthoracic echocardiographic parameters that assess right ventricular systolic function by analyzing interobserver agreement in the early postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery. To assess the feasibility of these echocardiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study, double-blind pilot study was carried out from May 2011 to February 2013. Cardiovascular postoperative critical care at the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", Mexico City, Mexico. Consecutive, non-probabilistic sampling. Fifty-six patients were studied in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. The first echocardiographic parameters were obtained between 6-8hours after cardiac surgery, followed by blinded second measurements. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging (VSPAT), diameters and right ventricular outflow area, tract fractional shortening. The agreement was analyzed by the Bland-Altman method, and its magnitude was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval). Both observers evaluated TAPSE and VSPAT in 48 patients (92%). The average TAPSE was 11.68±4.53mm (range 4-27mm). Right ventricular systolic dysfunction was observed in 41 cases (85%) and normal TAPSE in 7 patients (15%). The average difference and its limits according to TAPSE were -0.917±2.95 (-6.821, 4.988), with a magnitude of 0.725 (0.552, 0.837); the tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity on tissue Doppler imaging was -0.001±0.015 (-0.031, 0.030), and its magnitude 0.825 (0.708, 0.898), respectively. VSPAT and TAPSE were estimated by both observers in 92% of the patients, these parameters exhibiting the lowest interobserver variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. skNAC, a Smyd1-interacting transcription factor, is involved in cardiac development and skeletal muscle growth and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Chong Yon; Pierce, Stephanie A; von Drehle, Morgan; Ivey, Kathryn N; Morgan, Jayson A; Blau, Helen M; Srivastava, Deepak

    2010-11-30

    Cardiac and skeletal muscle development and maintenance require complex interactions between DNA-binding proteins and chromatin remodeling factors. We previously reported that Smyd1, a muscle-restricted histone methyltransferase, is essential for cardiogenesis and functions with a network of cardiac regulatory proteins. Here we show that the muscle-specific transcription factor skNAC is the major binding partner for Smyd1 in the developing heart. Targeted deletion of skNAC in mice resulted in partial embryonic lethality by embryonic day 12.5, with ventricular hypoplasia and decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation that were similar but less severe than in Smyd1 mutants. Expression of Irx4, a ventricle-specific transcription factor down-regulated in hearts lacking Smyd1, also depended on the presence of skNAC. Viable skNAC(-/-) adult mice had reduced postnatal skeletal muscle growth and impaired regenerative capacity after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Satellite cells isolated from skNAC(-/-) mice had impaired survival compared with wild-type littermate satellite cells. Our results indicate that skNAC plays a critical role in ventricular cardiomyocyte expansion and regulates postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration in mice.

  9. When Business Gets Involved: A Case Study of Business Community Involvement in Minnesota's Early Childhood Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The report details Minnesota's early childhood education (ECE) activities from 2003 to the present, with a particular focus on the role of the business community. Although the report illustrates how fact-based information, partnered with dedicated and well-connected people and organized task forces, creates change, there remain components of…

  10. When Business Gets Involved: A Case Study of Business Community Involvement In Illinois' Early Childhood Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    As the first state to offer universal preschool to three-year-olds, Illinois' experience with early childhood education (ECE) policy reform efforts offers lessons about how such change takes shape. This report details Illinois' ECE activities from 1992 to the present, with a particular focus on the business role in ECE policy. Lessons learned…

  11. [Evaluation on stability of internal controls in human cardiac muscle by real-time RT-PCR during early postmortem interval].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Ma, Kai-Jun; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Hui-Jun; Shen, Yi-Wen; Chen, Long

    2012-04-01

    To explore the stability of internal controls in human cardiac muscle by real-time RT-PCR during early postmortem interval (PMI) in order to find the most stable marker. Ten individuals with similar environmental conditions (the average store temperature: 25 degrees C) and different PMI ranging from 4.3 to 22.3 h were selected. Total RNA was extracted from each sample and six commonly internal controls were used including beta-actin, GAPDH, B2M, U6, 18S rRNA and HSA-miR-1, and the expression was detected in cardiac muscle by real-time RT-PCR. The expression stability of internal controls was evaluated using genormPLUS software during early PMI. The internal control with the most stability was selected. The relationship between the most stable marker and its expression level affected by some other parameters such as age, gender and cause of death was also analyzed. The U6 showed the most stable expression during early PMI in cardiac muscle, and its expression level was not affected by those parameters including age, gender and cause of death (P > 0.05). U6 may be a valuable internal control for the study of relationship between PMI determination and degradation of nucleic acid in human cardiac muscle by real-time RT-PCR.

  12. Involvement of the Vacuoles of the Endodermis in the Early Process of Shoot Gravitropism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Miyo Terao; Kato, Takehide; Nagafusa, Kiyoshi; Saito, Chieko; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao

    2002-01-01

    The endodermal cells of the shoot are thought to be the gravity-sensing cells in Arabidopsis. The amyloplasts in the endodermis that sediment in the direction of gravity may act as statoliths. Endodermis-specific expression of SGR2 and ZIG using the SCR promoter could complement the abnormal shoot gravitropism of the sgr2 and zig mutants, respectively. The abnormalities in amyloplast sedimentation observed in both mutants recovered simultaneously. These results indicate that both genes in the endodermal cell layer are crucial for shoot gravitropism. ZIG encodes AtVTI11, which is a SNARE involved in vesicle transport to the vacuole. The fusion protein of SGR2 and green fluorescent protein localized to the vacuole and small organelles. These observations indicate that ZIG and SGR2 are involved in the formation and function of the vacuole, a notion supported by the results of subcellular analysis of the sgr2 and zig mutants with electron microscopy. These results strongly suggest that the vacuole participates in the early events of gravitropism and that SGR2 and ZIG functions are involved. PMID:11826298

  13. Unraveling the early molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in response to phenanthrene exposure.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Anne-Sophie; Taconnat, Ludivine; Barbas, Evangelos; Rigaill, Guillem; Catrice, Olivier; Bernard, Delphine; Benamar, Abdelilah; Macherel, David; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Berthomé, Richard

    2016-10-21

    Higher plants have to cope with increasing concentrations of pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Given their capacity to concentrate and metabolize various compounds including pollutants, plants can be used to treat environmental problems - a process called phytoremediation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stabilization, the extraction, the accumulation and partial or complete degradation of pollutants by plants remain poorly understood. Here, we determined the molecular events involved in the early plant response to phenanthrene, used as a model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A transcriptomic and a metabolic analysis strongly suggest that energy availability is the crucial limiting factor leading to high and rapid transcriptional reprogramming that can ultimately lead to death. We show that the accumulation of phenanthrene in leaves inhibits electron transfer and photosynthesis within a few minutes, probably disrupting energy transformation. This kinetic analysis improved the resolution of the transcriptome in the initial plant response to phenanthrene, identifying genes that are involved in primary processes set up to sense and detoxify this pollutant but also in molecular mechanisms used by the plant to cope with such harmful stress. The identification of first events involved in plant response to phenanthrene is a key step in the selection of candidates for further functional characterization, with the prospect of engineering efficient ecological detoxification systems for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Learning Outcomes and Parental Involvement during Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Hu, Shanshan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the relationship between learning outcomes of children and educational involvement of parents during a unique period of early childhood education and early elementary education based on 100 independent effect sizes from 46 studies. Learning outcomes are academic achievement, and frameworks of parental involvement…

  15. Cerebral oximetry during infant cardiac surgery: evaluation and relationship to early postoperative outcome.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A; Newburger, Jane W; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J; Bacha, Emile A; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C

    2009-04-01

    We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% vs 35%. Before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO(2) values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow, and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO(2) values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO(2) and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with > or =5 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), there was no correlation between the rSO(2) (91% +/- 6%) or hematocrit (29.2% +/- 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO(2) during arrest. Intraoperative rSO(2) varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of DHCA.

  16. Early Post-Operative Outcomes and Blood Product Utilization in Adult Cardiac Surgery- The Post Aprotinin Era

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia; Toole, J. Matthew; Kratz, John M.; Uber, Walter E.; Wheat, Margaret J.; Stroud, Martha R.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aprotinin was a commonly utilized pharmacological agent for homeostasis in cardiac surgery but was discontinued resulting in the extensive use of lysine analogues. This study tested the hypothesis that early post-operative adverse events and blood product utilization would affected in this post-aprotinin era. Methods/Results Adult patients (n=781) undergoing coronary artery bypass (CABG), valve replacement, or both from November 1, 2005-October 31, 2008 at a single institution were included. Multiple logistic regression modeling and propensity scoring were performed on 29 pre-operative and intra-operative variables in patients receiving aprotinin (n=325) or lysine analogues (n=456). The propensity adjusted relative risk (RR;95% confidence interval;CI) for the intra-operative use of packed red blood cells (RR:0.75;CI:0.57–0.99), fresh frozen plasma (RR:0.37;0.21–0.64), and cryoprecipitate (RR:0.06;CI:0.02–0.22) were lower in the aprotinin versus lysine analogue group (all p<0.05). The risk for mortality (RR:0.53;CI:0.16–1.79) and neurological events (RR:0.87;CI:0.35–2.18) remained similar between groups, whereas a trend for reduced risk for renal dysfunction was observed in the aprotinin group. Conclusions In the post-aprotinin era with the exclusive use of lysine analogues, the relative risk of early post-operative outcomes such as mortality and renal dysfunction have not improved, but the risk for the intra-operative use of blood products has increased. Thus, improvements in early post-operative outcomes have not been realized with the discontinued use of aprotinin, but rather increased blood product utilization has occurred with the attendant costs and risks inherent with this strategy. PMID:21911820

  17. Investigation following resuscitated cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Roughly two thirds of resuscitated cardiac arrests in children and youth are due to inherited heart diseases. The most commonly implicated are the cardiac ion channelopathies long QT syndrome, CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and Brugada syndrome. Diagnosis is pivotal to further management of the child if he/she survives, and also to other family members who may be at risk. Thorough investigation of the cardiac arrest survivor is essential to either identify or exclude inherited heart disease. If standard cardiac investigation does not reveal a diagnosis, pharmacological provocation tests are needed to unmask electrocardiographic signs of disease, even if, due to severe brain injury, it is planned ultimately to allow a natural death. Examples are the ajmaline/flecainide challenge for Brugada syndrome and epinephrine for CPVT. A supportive, informative and sympathetic approach to the family is essential. An arrhythmia specialist and a cardiac genetic service should be involved early, with storage of DNA and cardiac/genetic investigation of the family. This review proposes a diagnostic algorithm-based approach to the investigation of this increasingly common clinical scenario.

  18. Involved-Field, Low-Dose Chemoradiotherapy for Early-Stage Anal Carcinoma

    SciT

    Hatfield, Paul; Cooper, Rachel; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To report the results of patients with early-stage anal cancer treated using a low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and June 2006, 21 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions within 3 weeks) and concurrent chemotherapy (bolus mitomycin-C 12 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 to a maximum of 20 mg followed by infusion 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/24 h on Days 1-4). Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent small-volume, involved-field radiotherapy and 3 were treated with anteroposterior-posteroanterior parallel-opposed pelvic fields. Of the 21 patients, 17 had had lesions that weremore » excised with close (<1 mm) or involved margins, 1 had had microinvasive disease on biopsy, and 3 had had macroscopic tumor <2 cm in diameter (T1). All were considered to have Stage N0 disease radiologically. Results: After a median follow-up of 42 months, only 1 patient (4.7%) had experienced local recurrence and has remained disease free after local excision. No distant recurrences or deaths occurred. Only 1 patient could not complete treatment (because of Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity). Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (9.5%). No significant late toxicity was identified. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.« less

  19. Exercise facilitates early recognition of cardiac and vascular remodeling in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in swine.

    PubMed

    Stam, Kelly; van Duin, Richard W B; Uitterdijk, André; Cai, Zongye; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2018-03-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in 4% of patients after pulmonary embolism and is accompanied by an impaired exercise tolerance, which is ascribed to the increased right ventricular (RV) afterload in combination with a ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in the lungs. The present study aimed to investigate changes in arterial Po 2 and hemodynamics in response to graded treadmill exercise during development and progression of CTEPH in a novel swine model. Swine were chronically instrumented and received multiple pulmonary embolisms by 1) microsphere infusion (Spheres) over 5 wk, 2) endothelial dysfunction by administration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 7 wk, 3) combined pulmonary embolisms and endothelial dysfunction (L-NAME + Spheres), or 4) served as sham-operated controls (sham). After a 9 wk followup, embolization combined with endothelial dysfunction resulted in CTEPH, as evidenced by mean pulmonary artery pressures of 39.5 ± 5.1 vs. 19.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (Spheres, P < 0.001), 22.7 ± 2.0 mmHg (L-NAME, P < 0.001), and 20.1 ± 1.5 mmHg (sham, P < 0.001), and a decrease in arterial Po 2 that was exacerbated during exercise, indicating V/Q mismatch. RV dysfunction was present after 5 wk of embolization, both at rest (trend toward increased RV end-systolic lumen area, P = 0.085, and decreased stroke volume index, P = 0.042) and during exercise (decreased stroke volume index vs. control, P = 0.040). With sustained pulmonary hypertension, RV hypertrophy (Fulton index P = 0.022) improved RV function at rest and during exercise, but this improvement was insufficient in CTEPH swine to result in an exercise-induced increase in cardiac index. In conclusion, embolization in combination with endothelial dysfunction results in CTEPH in swine. Exercise increased RV afterload, exacerbated the V/Q mismatch, and unmasked RV dysfunction. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we present the first

  20. Cerebral Oximetry During Infant Cardiac Surgery: Evaluation of and Relationship to Early Postoperative Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kussman, Barry D.; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A.; Newburger, Jane W.; Mayer, John E.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Bacha, Emile A.; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome Methods Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% versus 35%. Results Prior to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO2 values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO2 values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO2 and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with ≥5 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, there was no correlation between the rSO2 (91 ± 6%) or hematocrit (29.2 ± 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO2 during arrest. Conclusions Intraoperative rSO2 varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:19299774

  1. Involvement of PI3K, Akt, and RhoA in oestradiol regulation of cardiac iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Zafirovic, Sonja; Sudar-Milovanovic, Emina; Obradovic, Milan; Djordjevic, Jelena; Jasnic, Nebojsa; Borovic, Milica Labudovic; Isenovic, Esma R

    2018-02-12

    Oestradiol is an important regulatory factor with several positive effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. We evaluated the molecular mechanism of the in vivo effects of oestradiol on the regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression and activity. Male Wistar rats were treated with oestradiol (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and after 24 h the animals were sacrificed. The concentrations of NO and L-Arginine (L-Arg) were determined spectrophotometrically. For protein expressions of iNOS, p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB-p65), Ras homolog gene family-member A (RhoA), angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), p85, p110 and protein kinase B (Akt), Western blot method was used. Co-immunoprecipitation was used for measuring the association of IRS-1 with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). The expression of iNOS messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was measured with the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue was used to detect localization and expression of iNOS in heart tissue. Oestradiol treatment reduced L-Arg concentration (p<0.01), iNOS mRNA (p<0.01) and protein (p<0.001) expression, level of RhoA (p<0.05) and AT1R (p<0.001) protein. In contrast, plasma NO (p<0.05), Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 (p<0.05) and protein level of p85 (p<0.001) increased after oestradiol treatment. Our results suggest that oestradiol in vivo regulates cardiac iNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, through attenuation of RhoA and AT1R. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Rats Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction and Fibrosis Post-Myocardial Infarction Involving MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoxin; Li, Xiaoyan; Lyu, Yongnan; He, Yiyu; Wan, Weiguo; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) in ameliorating post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) fibrosis via microRNA-dependent regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) remains unknown. Material/Methods MI and RSD were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by ligating the left coronary artery and denervating the bilateral renal nerves, respectively. Norepinephrine, renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in plasma, collagen, microRNA21, microRNA 101a, microRNA 133a and CTGF in heart tissue, as well as cardiac function were evaluated six weeks post-MI. Results In the RSD group, parameters of cardiac function were significantly improved as evidenced by increased LV ejection fraction (p<0.01), LV end-systolic diameter (p<0.01), end-diastolic diameter (p<0.05), LV systolic pressure (p<0.05), maximal rate of pressure rise and decline (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin, p<0.05), and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (p<0.05) when compared with MI rats. Further, reduced collagen deposition in peri-infarct myocardium was observed in RSD-treated rats along with higher microRNA101a and microRNA133a (p<0.05) and lower microRNA21 expression (p<0.01) than in MI rats. CTGF mRNA and protein levels were decreased in LV following RSD (p<0.01), accompanied by decreased expression of norepinephrine, renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in plasma (p<0.05) compared with untreated MI rats. Conclusions The potential therapeutic effects of RSD on post-MI LV fibrosis may be partly mediated by inhibition of CTGF expression via upregulation of microRNA 101a and microRNA 133a and downregulation of microRNA21. PMID:27490896

  3. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 Sigma Factor K in Early-Stage Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, David G.; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σK is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods. PMID:22544236

  4. Involvement of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 sigma factor K in early-stage sporulation.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David G; Dahlsten, Elias; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-07-01

    A key survival mechanism of Clostridium botulinum, the notorious neurotoxic food pathogen, is the ability to form heat-resistant spores. While the genetic mechanisms of sporulation are well understood in the model organism Bacillus subtilis, nothing is known about these mechanisms in C. botulinum. Using the ClosTron gene-knockout tool, sigK, encoding late-stage (stage IV) sporulation sigma factor K in B. subtilis, was disrupted in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 to produce two different mutants with distinct insertion sites and orientations. Both mutants were unable to form spores, and their elongated cell morphology suggested that the sporulation pathway was blocked at an early stage. In contrast, sigK-complemented mutants sporulated successfully. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of sigK in the parent strain revealed expression at the late log growth phase in the parent strain. Analysis of spo0A, encoding the sporulation master switch, in the sigK mutant and the parent showed significantly reduced relative levels of spo0A expression in the sigK mutant compared to the parent strain. Similarly, sigF showed significantly lower relative transcription levels in the sigK mutant than the parent strain, suggesting that the sporulation pathway was blocked in the sigK mutant at an early stage. We conclude that σ(K) is essential for early-stage sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, rather than being involved in late-stage sporulation, as reported for the sporulation model organism B. subtilis. Understanding the sporulation mechanism of C. botulinum provides keys to control the public health risks that the spores of this dangerous pathogen cause through foods.

  5. The developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling may involved in autism during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-J; Tan, H-P; Du, Y-J

    2014-05-16

    Autism is a developmental disorder defined by the presence of a triad of communication, social and stereo typical behavioral characteristics with onset before 3years of age. In spite of the fact that there are potential environmental factors for autistic behavior, the dysfunction of serotonin during early development of the brain could be playing a role in this prevalence rise. Serotonin can modulate a number of developmental events, including cell division, neuronal migration, cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. Hyperserotonemia during fetal development results in the loss of serotonin terminals through negative feedback. The increased serotonin causes a decrease of oxytocin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the central nucleus of the amygdale, which are associated with social interactions and vital in autism. However, hyposerotonemia may be also relevant to the development of sensory as well as motor and cognitive faculties. And the paucity of placenta-derived serotonin should have potential importance when the pathogenesis of autism is considered. This review briefly summarized the developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling involved in the pathogenesis of autism during early development of the brain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Discrimination Of Microorganisms Involved In Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Using Qualitative Volatile Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planas, Neus; Kendall, Catherine; Barr, Hugh; Magan, Naresh

    2009-05-01

    This study has examined the use of an electronic nose for the detection of volatile organic compounds produced by different microorganisms responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), an important disease among patients who require mechanical ventilation. Based on the analysis of the volatile organic compounds, electronic nose technology is being evaluated for the early detection and identification of many diseases. It has been shown that effective discrimination of two bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and yeast (Candida albicans), could be obtained after 24 h and filamentous fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) after 72 h. Discrimination between blank samples and those with as initial concentration of 102 CFU ml-1 was shown with 24 h incubation for bacteria and 48 h for fungi. Effective discrimination between all the species was achieved 72 h after incubation. Initial studies with mixtures of microorganisms involved in VAP suggest that complex interactions between species occur which influences the ability to differentiate dominant species using volatile production patterns. A nutrient agar base medium was found to be optimum for early discrimination between two microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans).

  7. Involving the Hard to Reach: Developing and Evaluating a Sexual Health Programme for Early School Leavers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, William C. W.; Holroyd, Eleanor A.; Lee, Albert; Wong, Jonathan C. P.; Leung, Phil W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Early school leavers cannot access school-based sex education programmes, increasing their vulnerability to sexual health issues. This study evaluated a culturally-sensitive and target-orientated sex education programme involving this group. Early school leavers were recruited from two branches of the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association in…

  8. Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) PRIMED cardiac arrest trial methods part 2: rationale and methodology for "Analyze Later vs. Analyze Early" protocol.

    PubMed

    Stiell, Ian G; Callaway, Clif; Davis, Dan; Terndrup, Tom; Powell, Judy; Cook, Andrea; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Daya, Mohamud; Kerber, Richard; Idris, Ahamed; Morrison, Laurie J; Aufderheide, Tom

    2008-08-01

    The primary objective of the trial is to compare survival to hospital discharge with modified Rankin score (MRS) < or =3 between a strategy that prioritizes a specified period of CPR before rhythm analysis (Analyze Later) versus a strategy of minimal CPR followed by early rhythm analysis (Analyze Early) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Design-Cluster randomized trial with cluster units defined by geographic region, or monitor/defibrillator machine. Population-Adults treated by emergency medical service (EMS) providers for non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest not witnessed by EMS. Setting-EMS systems participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium and agreeing to cluster randomization to the Analyze Later versus Analyze Early intervention in a crossover fashion. Sample size-Based on a two-sided significance level of 0.05, a maximum of 13,239 evaluable patients will allow statistical power of 0.996 to detect a hypothesized improvement in the probability of survival to discharge with MRS < or =3 rate from 5.41% after Analyze Early to 7.45% after Analyze Later (2.04% absolute increase in primary outcome). If this trial demonstrates a significant improvement in survival with a strategy of Analyze Later, it is estimated that 4000 premature deaths from cardiac arrest would be averted annually in North America alone.

  9. Multiple cytokines are involved in the early events leading to the Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wilberding, Akiko; Morimoto, Kaori; Satoh, Haruhisa; Harano, Keiko; Harano, Teruo; Arita, Seizaburo; Tooyama, Ikuo; Konishi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    It is likely that neuroinflammation begins well before detectable cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) occurs. Clarifying the alterations occurring prior to the clinical manifestation of overt AD dementia may provide valuable insight into the early diagnosis and management of AD. Herein, to address the issue that neuroinflammation precedes development of AD pathology, we analyzed cytokine expression profiles of the brain, with focus on non-demented control patients with increasing AD pathology, referred to as high pathology control (HPC) cases, who provide an intermediate subset between AD and normal control cases referred to as low pathology control (LPC) cases. With a semi-quantitative analysis of cytokine mRNA, among 15 cytokines and their related molecules tested, we found the involvement of eight: interleukin-1(IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 during the development from LPC to HPC, while decreases in IL-1ra, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNFα, and an increase in TACE were implicated in the later development from HPC to AD. These findings indicate that neuroinflammation precedes the clinical manifestation of overt dementia, rather than being involved at the later stages of AD. PMID:22586434

  10. Patient and public involvement in the early stages of clinical trial development: a systematic cohort investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Carrol; Dudley, Louise; Allam, Alison; Bell, Philip; Goodare, Heather; Hanley, Bec; Preston, Jennifer; Walker, Alison; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered particularly likely to benefit from patient and public involvement (PPI). Decisions made by professional researchers at the outset may go on to have a significant impact on the potential for PPI contributions. Objective To increase knowledge of PPI within the early development of RCTs by systematically describing the reported level, nature and acceptability of proposed PPI to the funders. Methods Documentation from the outline application process for all RCTs that received funding from the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme 2006–2010 was requested. For each application, data were extracted on trial characteristics, references to PPI in the development of the outline application and funding Board feedback, and plans for PPI in the full application and after the trial was funded. Results 110 applications were eligible with outline applications available for 90 (82%). The cohort covered a wide range of interventions and conditions. 54% (49/90) provided some information about PPI. 26 (28.9%) indicated PPI within the development of the outline application itself; 32 (35.6%) planned involvement in the full application and 43 (48%) once the trial was funded. Recruitment at diagnosis and surgical interventions were less likely to describe PPI. Blinded trials and trials in which participants may receive placebo only, more frequently described PPI activity. The HTA commissioning Board feedback rarely referred to PPI. Conclusions Incorporation of PPI within the development of the outline application or specification of plans for future involvement was low. Funder requests for applicants to provide information on PPI and justification for its absence should be welcomed but further research is needed to identify the impact of this on its contributions to research. Comments on PPI by reviewers should be directional rather than state that an increase is required. Challenges facing applicants in initiating

  11. Combining early post-resuscitation EEG and HRV features improves the prognostic performance in cardiac arrest model of rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Zhi; Wei, Liang; Chen, Gang; Chen, Bihua; Zuo, Feng; Li, Yongqin

    2018-04-09

    Early and reliable prediction of neurological outcome remains a challenge for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest (CA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of EEG, heart rate variability (HRV) features and the combination of them for outcome prognostication in CA model of rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 groups (n=8 each) with different cause and duration of untreated arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5, 6 and 7min of ventricular fibrillation or 4, 6 and 8min of asphyxia. EEG and ECG were continuously recorded for 4h under normothermia after resuscitation. The relationships between features of early post-resuscitation EEG, HRV and 96-hour outcome were investigated. Prognostic performances were evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). All of the animals were successfully resuscitated and 27 of them survived to 96h. Weighted-permutation entropy (WPE) and normalized high frequency (nHF) outperformed other EEG and HRV features for the prediction of survival. The AUC of WPE was markedly higher than that of nHF (0.892 vs. 0.759, p<0.001). The AUC was 0.954 when WPE and nHF were combined using a logistic regression model, which was significantly higher than the individual EEG (p=0.018) and HRV (p<0.001) features. Earlier post-resuscitation HRV provided prognostic information complementary to quantitative EEG in the CA model of rats. The combination of EEG and HRV features leads to improving performance of outcome prognostication compared to either EEG or HRV based features alone. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The CD147/MMP-2 signaling pathway may regulate early stage cardiac remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Bowei; Zhou, Wanxing; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Yuliang; Tan, Yongjing; Yuan, Congcong; Song, Yulan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is associated with early stage (age 8-16 weeks) ventricular remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We hypothesized that inhibited CD147/MMP-2 signalling might down-regulate MMP-2 expression and augment remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Twenty-nine male SHR (8 weeks) were randomly assigned to SHR, CD147, and CD147+DOX groups. The control group included eight age-matched WKY rats. CD147 and CD147+DOX groups received recombinant human CD147 (600 ng/kg in 1.5 mL saline, weekly). The SHR and WKY groups received the vehicle. The CD147+DOX group also received doxycycline, an inhibitor of MMPs (daily, 30 mg/kg in 1.5 mL saline, iG). On day 56 echocardiography and left ventricular mass index (LVWI) measurements were collected and histological sections were stained for cell and collagen content. Myocardium MMP-2, TIMP-1, CD147, and collagens types I and III were estimated by western blot. CD147 and the ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1 were lower in SHR than WKY rats (P<.05). Myocyte hypertrophy, partial fibre breaks, plasmolysis, necrosis and collagen content (collagen volume fraction [CVF], I and III) in SHR were above control levels (P<.05). CD147 rats showed CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 were increased (P<.05), CVF, LVWI, and collagen I and III were decreased (P<.05) and myocyte morphology was improved. CD147 levels did not differ between CD147+DOX and CD147 groups, CVF, collagens type I and III and partial fiber breaks were more abundant in CD147+DOX (P<.05). In summary, an inhibited CD147/MMP-2 pathway was associated with early stage cardiac remodelling, and CD147 supplementation may attenuate this response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. β-Adrenergic receptors desensitization is not involved in exercise-induced cardiac fatigue: NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress as a new trigger.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Damien; Boissière, Julien; Doucende, Grégory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Polge, Anne; Faure, Patrice; Goux, Aurélie; Tanguy, Stéphane; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Nottin, Stéphane

    2011-11-01

    Prolonged strenuous exercise (PSE) induces transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that β-adrenergic pathway desensitization could be involved in this phenomenon, but it remains to be confirmed. Moreover, other underlying mechanisms involving oxidative stress have been recently proposed. The present study aimed to evaluate the involvement of both the β-adrenergic pathway and NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme-induced oxidative stress in myocardial dysfunction in rats following PSE. Rats were divided into 4 groups: controls (Ctrl), 4-h exercised on treadmill (PSE), and 2 groups in which Nox enzyme was inhibited with apocynin treatment (Ctrl APO and PSE APO, respectively). We evaluated cardiac function in vivo and ex vivo during basal conditions and isoproterenol stress. GSH/GSSG ratio, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were evaluated. PSE induced a decrease in LV developed pressure, intrinsic myocardial contractility, and relaxation associated with an increase in plasma cTnI release. Our in vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated no differences in myocardial response to isoproterenol and of effective dose 50 between control and PSE rats. Interestingly, the LV dysfunction was reversed by apocynin treatment. Moreover, apocynin prevented cellular oxidation [GSH/GSSG ratio: PSE APO rats vs. PSE rats in arbitrary units (au): 1.98 ± 0.07 vs. 1.35 ± 0.10; P < 0.001]. However, no differences in MDA were observed between groups. These data suggest that myocardial dysfunction observed after PSE was not due to β-adrenergic receptor desensitization but could be due to a signaling oxidative stress from the Nox enzyme.

  14. Linking parent perceptions of children's weight to early coronary risk factors: results from the CARDIAC Project.

    PubMed

    Stabler, M E; Cottrell, L; Lilly, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health threat because of the increasing prevalence in childhood and its causal relationship to the leading cause of death in America, heart disease. Detecting early signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children and appropriately intervening to reverse the unhealthy trajectory associated with childhood obesity is of great importance. The objective of this study is to observe parental perception of their child's body mass index (BMI) and find associations between inaccurately estimated children and CVD risk factors. This study analyzed the association between 147 rural fifth grade students' lipid profiles and parents' self-reported survey who participated in the 2008-2011 Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities study. After controlling for covariates, underestimated children were more likely to have higher log-transformed triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values and overestimated children were more likely to have lower systolic blood pressure. Underestimating a child's BMI is associated with coronary risk-related factors, while overestimating a child's BMI is associate with a protective CVD marker. A follow-up study examining the development of CVD risk factors in children of parents who inaccurately estimate their BMI would help clarify this relationship. Knowledge of how parental perceptions directly influence higher lipid levels in children could have an impact on public health efforts in the fight against childhood obesity in rural environments.

  15. Early Administration of Glutamine Protects Cardiomyocytes from Post-Cardiac Arrest Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Li, Chao-Jui; Syu, Shih-Han; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Wu, Han-Ping; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Lu, Huai-En; Chen, Wen-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest acidosis can decrease survival. Effective medications without adverse side effects are still not well characterized. We aimed to analyze whether early administration of glutamine could improve survival and protect cardiomyocytes from postcardiac arrest acidosis using animal and cell models. Forty Wistar rats with postcardiac arrest acidosis (blood pH < 7.2) were included. They were divided into study (500 mg/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, n = 20) and control (normal saline, n = 20) groups. Each of the rats received resuscitation. The outcomes were compared between the two groups. In addition, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were exposed to HBSS with different pH levels (7.3 or 6.5) or to culture medium (control). Apoptosis-related markers and beating function were analyzed. We found that the duration of survival was significantly longer in the study group ( p < 0.05). In addition, in pH 6.5 or pH 7.3 HBSS buffer, the expression levels of cell stress (p53) and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-xL) markers were significantly lower in cardiomyocytes treated with 50 mM L-glutamine than those without L-glutamine (RT-PCR). L-glutamine also increased the beating function of cardiomyocytes, especially at the lower pH level (6.5). More importantly, glutamine decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased these cells' beating function at a low pH level.

  16. Early signs of cardiac failure: a clue for parvovirus infection screening in the first trimester?

    PubMed

    Carraca, Teresa; Matias, Alexandra; Brandão, Otília; Montenegro, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a potent inhibitor of erythropoiesis due to its cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells. Although adult disease is generally mild, fetal parvovirus B19 infection can cause spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy and aplastic anemia, nonimmune hydrops fetalis and in utero fetal demise. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 maternal infection during pregnancy is about 1-2%. The vertical transmission occurs in 10-35%, being highest in the first and second trimesters. The risk of adverse fetal outcome is 10%. In contrast to the second or third trimester, in pregnancies affected by increased nuchal translucency (NT) in the late first trimester, the prevalence of maternal infection was not higher than in the general population. We report a case of first-trimester parvovirus B19 infection with increased NT and reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus (DV) at 11 weeks, with fetal demise 2 weeks later. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Toxicoproteomics: serum proteomic pattern diagnostics for early detection of drug induced cardiac toxicities and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Petricoin, Emanuel F; Rajapaske, Vinodh; Herman, Eugene H; Arekani, Ali M; Ross, Sally; Johann, Donald; Knapton, Alan; Zhang, J; Hitt, Ben A; Conrads, Thomas P; Veenstra, Timothy D; Liotta, Lance A; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    Proteomics is more than just generating lists of proteins that increase or decrease in expression as a cause or consequence of pathology. The goal should be to characterize the information flow through the intercellular protein circuitry which communicates with the extracellular microenvironment and then ultimately to the serum/plasma macroenvironment. The nature of this information can be a cause, or a consequence, of disease and toxicity based processes as cascades of reinforcing information percolate through the system and become reflected in changing proteomic information content of the circulation. Serum Proteomic Pattern Diagnostics is a new type of proteomic platform in which patterns of proteomic signatures from high dimensional mass spectrometry data are used as a diagnostic classifier. While this approach has shown tremendous promise in early detection of cancers, detection of drug-induced toxicity may also be possible with this same technology. Analysis of serum from rat models of anthracycline and anthracenedione induced cardiotoxicity indicate the potential clinical utility of diagnostic proteomic patterns where low molecular weight peptides and protein fragments may have higher accuracy than traditional biomarkers of cardiotoxicity such as troponins. These fragments may one day be harvested by circulating nanoparticles designed to absorb, enrich and amplify the diagnostic biomarker repertoire generated even at the critical initial stages of toxicity.

  18. The Clinical Presentation, Survival Outcomes, and Management of Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Cardiac Metastasis Without Inferior Vena Cava Involvement: Results From a Pooled Clinical Trial Database and Systematic Review of Reported Cases.

    PubMed

    Viteri Malone, Mariuxi A; Ares, Gustavo Ruiz; De Velasco, Guillermo; Brandão, Raphael; Lin, Xun; Norton, Craig; Simantov, Ronit; Moslehi, Javid; Krajewski, Katherine M; Choueiri, Toni K; McKay, Rana R

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are uncommon and there are limited data regarding the presentation and outcomes of this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with RCC with cardiac metastasis without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement. We conducted a pooled retrospective analysis of metastatic RCC patients treated in 4 clinical trials. Additionally, we conducted a systematic review of cases reported in the literature from 1973 to 2015. Patients with cardiac metastases from RCC without IVC involvement were included. Patient and disease characteristics were described. Additionally, treatments, response to therapy, and survival outcomes were summarized. Of 1765 metastatic RCC patients in the clinical trials database, 10 had cardiac metastases without IVC involvement. All patients received treatment with targeted therapy. There was 1 observed partial response (10%) and 6 patients showed stable disease (60%). The median progression-free survival was 6.9 months. The systematic review of reported clinical cases included 39 patients. In these patients, the most common cardiac site of involvement was the right ventricle (51%; n = 20). Patients were treated with medical (28%; n = 11) and/or surgical treatment (49%; n = 19) depending on whether disease was isolated (n = 13) or multifocal (n = 26). To our knowledge, this is the first series to report on the presentation and outcomes of patients with cardiac metastasis without IVC involvement in RCC. We highlight that although the frequency of patients with cardiac metastases without IVC involvement is low, these patients have a unique clinical presentation and warrant special multidisciplinary management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac involvement in female Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy carriers in comparison to their first-degree male relatives: a comparative cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Florian, Anca; Rösch, Sabine; Bietenbeck, Michael; Engelen, Markus; Stypmann, Jörg; Waltenberger, Johannes; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies are X-linked recessive disorders associated with both skeletal myopathy and progressive cardiomyopathy in males. Female DMD/BMD carriers (DMDc/BMDc) are mostly free of skeletal muscle symptoms, but they are also prone to cardiomyopathy. The aim of the current study was to characterize the frequency, pattern, and extent of cardiomyopathy in female DMD/BMD carriers (DMDc/BMDc) in comparison to their first-degree male MD relatives. Thirty-six (age 44 ± 14 years) female MD carriers (20 DMDc and 16 BMDc) constituted the 'MD carrier group' and were prospectively enrolled. All MD carriers underwent a complete CMR study comprising cine- and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In 22 of these women ('female MD carrier comparison group', 7 DMD and 15 BMD), at least one first-degree male relative with a previously established diagnosis of MD underwent the same CMR protocol and was assigned to the 'male MD comparison group' (n = 24, 6 DMD and 18 BMD). In the total MD carrier group, 17 (47%) MD carriers had at least one pathological CMR finding [5 (14%) with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) and 16 (44%) with the presence of LGE]. All LGE-positive patients (n = 16) showed non-ischaemic LGE with subepicardial involvement of the LV lateral free wall being the most frequent pattern (13/16, 81%). Compared with BMDc, DMDc demonstrated more frequently a pathological CMR result (65 vs. 19%; P = 0.008)--in spite of being significantly younger (40 ± 11 vs. 50 ± 16 years, P = 0.038). In the male MD comparison group, the same LGE pattern as in female carriers was seen, but with a significantly higher prevalence of cardiac abnormalities compared with their female carrier relatives constituting the female MD comparison group (75 vs. 27%; P = 0.003). Cardiac involvement is a frequent finding in female carriers of DMD, but less frequently observed in carriers of BMD. Those DMDc and BMDc with cardiac involvement

  20. MicroRNA-133 regulates the expression of GLUT4 by targeting KLF15 and is involved in metabolic control in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Horie, Takahiro; Ono, Koh; Nishi, Hitoo; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Nagao, Kazuya; Kinoshita, Minako; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Takanabe, Rieko; Hasegawa, Koji; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2009-11-13

    GLUT4 shows decreased levels in failing human adult hearts. We speculated that GLUT4 expression in cardiac muscle may be fine-tuned by microRNAs. Forced expression of miR-133 decreased GLUT4 expression and reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes. A computational miRNA target prediction algorithm showed that KLF15 is one of the targets of miR-133. It was confirmed that over-expression of miR-133 reduced the protein level of KLF15, which reduced the level of the downstream target GLUT4. Cardiac myocytes infected with lenti-decoy, in which the 3'UTR with tandem sequences complementary to miR-133 was linked to the luciferase reporter gene, had decreased miR-133 levels and increased levels of GLUT4. The expression levels of KLF15 and GLUT4 were decreased at the left ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure stage in a rat model. The present results indicated that miR-133 regulates the expression of GLUT4 by targeting KLF15 and is involved in metabolic control in cardiomyocytes.

  1. IRAK-M Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Early-Onset Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Balaci, Lenuta ; Spada, Maria Cristina ; Olla, Nazario ; Sole, Gabriella ; Loddo, Laura ; Anedda, Francesca ; Naitza, Silvia ; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta ; Maschio, Andrea ; Altea, Daniele ; Uda, Manuela ; Pilia, Sabrina ; Sanna, Serena ; Masala, Marco ; Crisponi, Laura ; Fattori, Matilde ; Devoto, Marcella ; Doratiotto, Silvia ; Rassu, Stefania ; Mereu, Simonetta ; Giua, Enrico ; Cadeddu, Natalina Graziella ; Atzeni, Roberto ; Pelosi, Umberto ; Corrias, Adriano ; Perra, Roberto ; Torrazza, Pier Luigi ; Pirina, Pietro ; Ginesu, Francesco ; Marcias, Silvano ; Schintu, Maria Grazia ; Giacco, Gennaro Sergio Del ; Manconi, Paolo Emilio ; Malerba, Giovanni ; Bisognin, Andrea ; Trabetti, Elisabetta ; Boner, Attilio ; Pescollderungg, Lydia ; Pignatti, Pier Franco ; Schlessinger, David ; Cao, Antonio ; Pilia, Giuseppe 

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In the past decade, several loci and >100 genes have been found to be associated with the disease in at least one population. Among these loci, region 12q13-24 has been implicated in asthma etiology in multiple populations, suggesting that it harbors one or more asthma susceptibility genes. We performed linkage and association analyses by transmission/disequilibrium test and case-control analysis in the candidate region 12q13-24, using the Sardinian founder population, in which limited heterogeneity of pathogenetic alleles for monogenic and complex disorders as well as of environmental conditions should facilitate the study of multifactorial traits. We analyzed our cohort, using a cutoff age of 13 years at asthma onset, and detected significant linkage to a portion of 12q13-24. We identified IRAK-M as the gene contributing to the linkage and showed that it is associated with early-onset persistent asthma. We defined protective and predisposing SNP haplotypes and replicated associations in an outbred Italian population. Sequence analysis in patients found mutations, including inactivating lesions, in the IRAK-M coding region. Immunohistochemistry of lung biopsies showed that IRAK-M is highly expressed in epithelial cells. We report that IRAK-M is involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset persistent asthma. IRAK-M, a negative regulator of the Toll-like receptor/IL-1R pathways, is a master regulator of NF-κB and inflammation. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between hyperactivation of the innate immune system and chronic airway inflammation and indicate IRAK-M as a potential target for therapeutic intervention against asthma. PMID:17503328

  2. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Millward, Jason M.; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Wuerfel, Jens T.; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset. PMID:23452162

  3. Evaluation of Trastuzumab-induced early cardiac dysfunction using two-dimensional Strain Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Emren, Sadik Volkan; Tuluce, Selcen Yakar; Levent, Fatih; Tuluce, Kamil; Kalkan, Toygar; Yildiz, Yasar; Alacacioğlu, Ahmet; Kucukzeybek, Yüksel; Akyol, Murat; Salman, Tarık

    2015-12-01

    Trastuzumab, a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of breast cancer. has been shown to induce subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction during a three to six month period as evidenced by strain echocardiographic examination without any change occurring in the ejection fraction of LV. The present study evaluated the presence of subclinical LV dysfunction using strain echocardiography 1 day and 7 days after the initiation of trastuzumab therapy. The patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant trastuzumab therapy underwent 2-dimensional, tissue Doppler, and strain echocardiographic examination at baseline and 1 day and 7 days after therapy. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS) values, and other echocardiographic parameters were calculated. A total of 40 females, mean age 50+/-10 years, were evaluated. Of these patients, 97% received anthracycline and 73% received radiotherapy before the initiation of trastuzumab therapy. No change was observed in any of the echocardiographic parameters 1 day after the initiation of trastuzumab therapy (p>0.05). The LV ejection fraction, tissue Doppler parameters, and GCS values did not show any changes 7 days after the initiation of therapy, whereas significant decreases were observed in GLS value (19.2+/-4.0% vs. 17.2+/-3.4, p=0.001) and systolic annular velocity of the lateral LV wall (S' velocity) (10.5+/-3.2 vs. 8.6+/-2.2, p=0.002). Trastuzumab therapy is associated with subclinical LV dysfunction as early as 7 days after initiation of the therapy as evidenced by the decreases in GLS value of LV and systolic annular velocity of the lateral LV wall.

  4. Type I Diabetic Akita Mouse Model is Characterized by Abnormal Cardiac Deformation During Early Stages of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with Speckle-Tracking Based Strain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingchao; Xiao, Hong; Wu, Jianfei; Zha, Lingfeng; Zhou, Mengchen; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Mengru; Shi, Shumei; Li, Yanze; Lyu, Liangkun; Wang, Qing; Tu, Xin; Lu, Qiulun

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been demonstrated to have a strong association with heart failure. Conventional echocardiographic analysis cannot sensitively monitor cardiac dysfunction in type I diabetic Akita hearts, but the phenotype of heart failure is observed in molecular levels during the early stages. Male Akita (Ins2WT/C96Y) mice were monitored with echocardiographic imaging at various ages, and then with conventional echocardiographic analysis and speckle-tracking based strain analyses. With speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic Akita mice showed changes in average global radial strain at the age of 12 weeks, as well as decreased longitudinal strain. These changes occurred in the early stage and remained throughout the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in Akita mice. Speckle-tracking showed that the detailed and precise changes of cardiac deformation in the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy in the genetic type I diabetic Akita mice were uncoupled. We monitored early-stage changes in the heart of diabetic Akita mice. We utilize this technique to elucidate the underlying mechanism for heart failure in Akita genetic type I diabetic mice. It will further advance the assessment of cardiac abnormalities, as well as the discovery of new drug treatments using Akita genetic type I diabetic mice. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Nishimura, Akinori; Htun, Than Myint; Nishioka, Ryo; Oka, Yumi; Tsujimura, Yuki; Inoue, Chizuru; Ishii, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely cultivated around the world and is known to be domesticated from its wild form, O. rufipogon. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 were reported to be involved in non-shattering of seeds of Japonica-type cultivated rice, O. sativa cv. Nipponbare. In this study, we focused on non-shattering characteristics of O. sativa Indica cv. IR36 having functional allele at qSH1. We produced backcross recombinant inbred lines having chromosomal segments from IR36 in the genetic background of wild rice, O. rufipogon W630. Histological and quantitative trait loci analyses of abscission layer formation were conducted. In the analysis of quantitative trait loci, a strong peak was observed close to sh4. We, nevertheless, found that some lines showed complete abscission layer formation despite carrying the IR36 allele at sh4, implying that non-shattering of seeds of IR36 could be regulated by the combination of mutations at sh4 and other seed-shattering loci. We also genotyped qSH3, a recently identified seed-shattering locus. Lines that have the IR36 alleles at sh4 and qSH3 showed inhibition of abscission layer formation but the degree of seed shattering was different from that of IR36. On the basis of these results, we estimated that non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication involved mutations in at least three loci, and these genetic materials produced in this study may help to identify novel seed-shattering loci.

  6. 'Finding a balance' in involving patients in goal setting early after stroke: a physiotherapy perspective.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A; Roberts, A R; Freeman, J A

    2014-09-01

    Collaborative goal setting (between patient and professional) confers benefits within stroke and neurological rehabilitation, and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, evidence suggests that patient participation in rehabilitation goal setting is not maximized, particularly within the hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiotherapists' perceptions about their experiences of collaborative goal setting with patients in the sub-acute stages after stroke, in the hospital setting. This qualitative study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Nine physiotherapists, of varying experience, were selected using purposive then theoretical sampling from three National Health Service hospital stroke units in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory to find common themes. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) 'coming to terms with stroke' - the individual patient journey; 2) the evolution of goal setting skill - the individual physiotherapist journey; and 3) 'finding a balance' - managing expectations and negotiating interactions. A provisional grounded theory was constructed, which highlighted that, from the physiotherapists' perspective, collaboration with patients within goal setting early after stroke involved finding a balance between numerous different drivers, which have the potential to compete. Patient-directed and therapist-directed goal setting approaches could be viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, along which patient-centred goal setting is possible. Physiotherapists perceived that collaborating with patients in goal setting was important but challenging. Goal setting interactions with other professionals, patients and families were perceived as complex, difficult and requiring significant effort. The importance of individuality and temporality were recognized suggesting that

  7. c-Myc Alters Substrate Utilization and O-GlcNAc Protein Posttranslational Modifications without Altering Cardiac Function during Early Aortic Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.; Olson, Aaron K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli cause transcription of the proto-oncogene c-Myc (Myc). Prior work showed that myocardial knockout of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we assessed the interplay between Myc, substrate oxidation and cardiac function during early pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc knockout (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n = 7/group). Additional groups underwent sham surgery (Cont-Sham and MycKO-Sham, n = 5 per group). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. In sham hearts, Myc knockout did not affect cardiac function or substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle. However, Myc knockout altered fractional contributions during TAC. The unlabeled fractional contribution increased in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC, whereas ketone and free fatty acid fractional contributions decreased. Additionally, protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc were significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Cont-Sham and MycKO-TAC. In conclusion, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy, which may regulate Myc-induced metabolic changes. PMID:26266538

  8. Episodic retrieval involves early and sustained effects of reactivating information from encoding.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K

    2015-02-01

    Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P < 0.001). PCT was more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of upper versus lower UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  10. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Gallo, Alessandra; Silvestre, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the role of ion currents in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis oocyte plasma membrane during different stages of growth, meiosis, fertilization and early development. Three stages of immature oocytes were discriminated in the ovary, with the germinal vesicle showing specific different features of growth and maturation. Stage-A (pre-vitellogenic) oocytes exhibited the highest L-type calcium current activity and were incompetent for meiosis resumption. Stage-B (vitellogenic) oocytes showed a progressive disappearance of calcium currents and the first appearance of sodium currents that remained high during the maturation process, up to the post-vitellogenic stage-C oocytes. The latter had acquired meiotic competence, undergoing spontaneous in vitro maturation and interacting with the spermatozoon. However, fertilized oocytes did not produce normal larvae, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation may affect embryo development. In mature oocytes at the metaphase I stage, sodium currents were present and remained high up to the zygote stage. Oocytes fertilized in the absence of sodium showed significant reduction of the fertilization current amplitude and high development of anomalous "rosette" embryos. Current amplitudes became negligible in embryos at the 2- and 4-cell stage, whereas resumption of all the current activities occurred at the 8-cell embryo. Taken together, these results suggest: (i) an involvement of L-type calcium currents in initial oocyte meiotic progression and growth; (ii) a role of sodium currents at fertilization; (iii) a role of the fertilization current in ensuring normal embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Pru, James K; Tibary, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Patient and public involvement in the early stages of clinical trial development: a systematic cohort investigation.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Carrol; Dudley, Louise; Allam, Alison; Bell, Philip; Goodare, Heather; Hanley, Bec; Preston, Jennifer; Walker, Alison; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget

    2014-07-23

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered particularly likely to benefit from patient and public involvement (PPI). Decisions made by professional researchers at the outset may go on to have a significant impact on the potential for PPI contributions. To increase knowledge of PPI within the early development of RCTs by systematically describing the reported level, nature and acceptability of proposed PPI to the funders. Documentation from the outline application process for all RCTs that received funding from the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme 2006-2010 was requested. For each application, data were extracted on trial characteristics, references to PPI in the development of the outline application and funding Board feedback, and plans for PPI in the full application and after the trial was funded. 110 applications were eligible with outline applications available for 90 (82%). The cohort covered a wide range of interventions and conditions. 54% (49/90) provided some information about PPI. 26 (28.9%) indicated PPI within the development of the outline application itself; 32 (35.6%) planned involvement in the full application and 43 (48%) once the trial was funded. Recruitment at diagnosis and surgical interventions were less likely to describe PPI. Blinded trials and trials in which participants may receive placebo only, more frequently described PPI activity. The HTA commissioning Board feedback rarely referred to PPI. Incorporation of PPI within the development of the outline application or specification of plans for future involvement was low. Funder requests for applicants to provide information on PPI and justification for its absence should be welcomed but further research is needed to identify the impact of this on its contributions to research. Comments on PPI by reviewers should be directional rather than state that an increase is required. Challenges facing applicants in initiating PPI prior to funding need to be addressed. Published

  13. Molecular and Functional Effects of a Splice Site Mutation in the MYL2 Gene Associated with Cardioskeletal Myopathy and Early Cardiac Death in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiqun; Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The homozygous appearance of the intronic mutation (IVS6-1) in the MYL2 gene encoding for myosin ventricular/slow-twitch skeletal regulatory light chain (RLC) was recently linked to the development of slow skeletal muscle fiber type I hypotrophy and early cardiac death. The IVS6-1 (c403-1G>C) mutation resulted from a cryptic splice site in MYL2 causing a frameshift and replacement of the last 32 codons by 19 different amino acids in the RLC mutant protein. Infants who were IVS6-1+∕+-positive died between 4 and 6 months of age due to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In this report we have investigated the molecular mechanism and functional consequences associated with the IVS6-1 mutation using recombinant human cardiac IVS6-1 and wild-type (WT) RLC proteins. Recombinant proteins were reconstituted into RLC-depleted porcine cardiac muscle preparations and subjected to enzymatic and functional assays. IVS6-1-RLC showed decreased binding to the myosin heavy chain (MHC) compared with WT, and IVS6-1-reconstituted myosin displayed reduced binding to actin in rigor. The IVS6-1 myosin demonstrated a significantly lower Vmax of the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity compared with WT. In stopped-flow experiments, IVS6-1 myosin showed slower kinetics of the ATP induced dissociation of the acto-myosin complex and a significantly reduced slope of the kobs-[MgATP] relationship compared to WT. In skinned porcine cardiac muscles, RLC-depleted and IVS6-1 reconstituted muscle strips displayed a significant decrease in maximal contractile force and a significantly increased Ca2+ sensitivity, both hallmarks of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutations in MYL2. Our results showed that the amino-acid changes in IVS6-1 were sufficient to impose significant conformational alterations in the RLC protein and trigger a series of abnormal protein-protein interactions in the cardiac muscle sarcomere. Notably, the mutation disrupted the RLC-MHC interaction and the steady-state and

  14. Adjuvant Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Whole Breast Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Long-Term Hospital-Related Morbidity From Cardiac Causes

    SciT

    Chan, Elisa K.; Woods, Ryan; McBride, Mary L.

    Purpose: The risk of cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (HF-WBI) compared with conventional whole-breast/chest wall radiation therapy (CF-WBI) in women with left-sided breast cancer remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increase in hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women ≤80 years of age with early-stage breast cancer were treated with postoperative radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor, and treatment factors. Hospital administrative records identified baseline cardiacmore » risk factors and other comorbidities. Factors between radiation therapy groups were balanced using a propensity-score model. The first event of a hospital admission for cardiac causes after radiation therapy was determined from hospitalization records. Ten- and 15-year cumulative hospital-related cardiac morbidity after radiation therapy was estimated for left- and right-sided cases using a competing risk approach. Results: The median follow-up was 13.2 years. For left-sided cases, 485 women were treated with CF-WBI, and 2221 women were treated with HF-WBI. Mastectomy was more common in the HF-WBI group, whereas boost was more common in the CF-WBI group. The CF-WBI group had a higher prevalence of diabetes. The 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes (95% confidence interval) was not different between the 2 radiation therapy regimens after propensity-score adjustment: 21% (19-22) with HF-WBI and 21% (17-25) with CF-WBI (P=.93). For right-sided cases, the 15-year cumulative hospital-related morbidity from cardiac causes was also similar between the radiation therapy groups (P=.76). Conclusions: There is no difference in morbidity leading to hospitalization from cardiac causes among women with left-sided early

  15. Early neurologically focused follow-up after cardiac arrest is cost-effective: A trial-based economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moulaert, Véronique R M; Goossens, Mariëlle; Heijnders, Irene L C; Verbunt, Jeanine A; Heugten, Caroline M van

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an early intervention service for cardiac arrest survivors called 'Stand still …, and move on' from a societal perspective. This concise nursing intervention consists of screening for cognitive and emotional problems, information provision and support, self-management promotion, and further referral if necessary. Earlier research confirmed the feasibility of the intervention and its effectiveness in improving emotional functioning and quality of life. In this multicentre randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up 185 patients were included between April 2007 and December 2010. The experimental group received the intervention, the control group received care-as-usual. Intervention costs, other direct healthcare costs (e.g. hospital care, rehabilitation, medication, home care) and indirect costs (productivity loss) were measured during ten months using monthly cost-diaries. The economic evaluation comprised a cost-utility analysis (SF-36) and a cost-effectiveness analysis (QOLIBRI) using bootstrapping (5000 replications) to quantify uncertainty concerning the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER), and the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was estimated. To check the robustness of the findings, two sensitivity analyses were performed using the EQ-5D and the complete cases respectively. Of 136 (74%) participants sufficient data concerning costs were collected to be included in this economic evaluation. Intervention costs were on average €127 (SD 85). No significant differences between groups were found with regard to overall costs. The ICERs of the cost-utility and the cost-effectiveness analyses supported the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 54-76% for the SF-36 and 94% for the QOLIBRI. Findings were robust. The intervention 'Stand still …, and move on' has positive societal economic effects and has a high probability to be

  16. Update on the evaluation of a new drug for effects on cardiac repolarization in humans: issues in early drug development

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Vaibhav; Karnad, Dilip R; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Kothari, Snehal

    2010-01-01

    Following reports of death from cardiac arrhythmias with drugs like terfenadine and cisapride, the International Conference for Harmonization formulated a guidance (E14) document. This specifies that all new drugs must undergo a ‘thorough QT/QTc’ (TQT) study to detect drug-induced QT prolongation, a surrogate marker of ventricular tachycardia, especially torsades de pointes (TdPs). With better understanding of data from several completed TQT studies, regulatory requirements have undergone some changes since the E14 guidance was implemented in October 2005. This article reviews the implications of the E14 guidance and the changes in its interpretation including choice of baseline QT, demonstration of assay sensitivity, statistical analysis of the effect of new drug and positive control, and PK-PD modelling. Some issues like use of automated QT measurements remain unresolved. Pharmaceutical companies too are modifying Phase 1 studies to detect QTc liability early in order to save time and resources. After the E14 guidance, development of several drugs that prolong QTc by >5 ms is being abandoned by sponsors. However, all drugs that prolong the QT interval do not increase risk of TdP. Researchers in regulatory agencies, academia and industry are working to find better biomarkers of drug-induced TdP which could prevent many useful drugs from being prematurely abandoned. Drug-induced TdP is a rare occurrence. With fewer drugs that prolong QT interval reaching the licensing stage, knowing which of these drugs are torsadogenic is proving to be elusive. Thus, paradoxically, the effectiveness of the E14 guidance itself has made prospective validation of new biomarkers difficult. This article is part of a themed section on QT safety. To view this issue visit http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2010 PMID:19775279

  17. Intravascular ultrasound of the proximal left anterior descending artery is sufficient to detect early cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Floré, Vincent; Brown, Adam J; Pettit, Stephen J; West, Nick E J; Lewis, Clive; Parameshwar, Jayan; Hoole, Stephen P

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) can be detected early with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), but there is limited information on the most efficient imaging protocol. Coronary angiography and IVUS of the three coronary arteries were performed. Volumetric IVUS analysis was performed, and a Stanford grade determined for each vessel. Eighteen patients were included 18 (range 12-24) months after transplantation. Angiographic CAV severity ranged from none (CAV0) to mild (CAV1), whereas IVUS CAV severity ranged from none (Stanford grade I) to severe (grade IV). Maximal intimal thickness measured with IVUS was significantly greater in the LAD (0.84 ± 0.48 mm) than in the LCX (0.46 ± 0.32 mm) or the RCA (0.53 ± 0.41 mm, P = .005). Diagnostic accuracy of IVUS in the left anterior descending artery was 100% (18 of 18 Stanford grades matched the patient's highest overall Stanford grade), 66% in the right coronary artery (12 of 18), and 56% in the left circumflex artery (11 of 18). The minimal required length of left anterior descending artery pullbacks to attain 100% accuracy was 36 mm (range 3-36 mm) distal from the guide catheter ostium. These data suggest that focal IVUS imaging of the proximal LAD followed by volumetric analysis may suffice when screening for transplant vasculopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Ten years of early defibrillation: "Bochum against sudden cardiac death". Acceptance and critical analysis of using automated external defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, C; Kloppe, C; Breger, W; Kloppe, A; Mügge, A; Wiemer, M

    2015-04-01

    There is a comprehensive early defibrillation program in Bochum (Germany); since 2003 a total of 175 automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been installed in urban areas by the city of Bochum and private companies. These were preferably installed in places with high foot traffic, e.g., public buildings, companies, and event/shopping centers. Approximately 15,000 laypeople who work in the vicinity of the AED locations were trained in the use of defibrillators and in basic resuscitation. In addition, rescue workers on fire trucks and medically trained personnel in physicians' medical practices were equipped as "first responders" with AEDs. After an initiation phase, all available information after each AED use since August 2004 has been collected by the project coordinator. During the period of data collection (August 2004 to August 2013), an AED was used in a total of 17 patients who had suffered sudden cardiac death (SCD) under the project in Bochum. Eleven patients had primary ventricular fibrillation (VF). Six of these survived without neurological deficit. In another 6 patients, a nondefibrillatable rhythm disorder was diagnosed. The AEDs are reliable and showed impeccable rhythm analysis before the instructions to provide any necessary shock. Compared to the number of existing units and an estimated number of 37-100 SCD/100,000, the use of the AEDs only 17 times appears relatively small. To improve the effectiveness of the AED program in Bochum, an analysis of the emergency service responses, which were necessary because of sudden circulatory collapse, is currently being performed. This will allow areas with an increased incidence of SCD to be identified and a plan for the strategic placement of AED and emergency services can be made.

  19. Detection and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction with quantitative post-mortem cardiac 1.5T MR.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Schuster, Frederick; Riva, Fabiano; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, quantitative MR sequences have started being used in post-mortem imaging. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction can be detected and discerned by quantitative 1.5T post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values. In 80 deceased individuals (25 female, 55 male), a cardiac MR quantification sequence was performed prior to cardiac dissection at autopsy in a prospective study. Focal myocardial signal alterations detected in synthetically generated MR images were MR quantified for their T1, T2 and PD values. The locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at autopsy heart dissection and cardiac tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in PMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction. In PMCMR seventy-three focal myocardial signal alterations were detected in 49 of 80 investigated hearts. These signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n=39), acute (n=14), subacute (n=10) and chronic (n=10) age stages of myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their quantitative T1, T2 and PD values, a significant difference between all defined age groups of myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 1.5T PMCMR quantification based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values is feasible for characterization and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vγ1+γδT, early cardiac infiltrated innate population dominantly producing IL-4, protect mice against CVB3 myocarditis by modulating IFNγ+ T response.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fangfang; Yan, Kepeng; Xu, Dan; Qian, Qian; Liu, Hui; Li, Min; Xu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of the myocardium closely associated with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Vγ1 + γδT cells, one of early cardiac infiltrated innate population, were reported to protect CVB3 myocarditis while the precise mechanism not fully addressed. To explore cytokine profiles and kinetics of Vγ1 + γδT and mechanism of protection against VMC, flow cytometry was conducted on cardiac Vγ1 cells in C57BL/6 mice following CVB3 infection. The level of cardiac inflammation, transthoracic echocardiography and viral replication were evaluated after monoclonal antibody depletion of Vγ1γδT. We found that Vγ1 + γδT cells infiltration peaked in the heart at day3 post CVB3 infection and constituted a minor source of IFN-γ but major producers for early IL-4. Vγ1γδT cells were activated earlier holding a higher IL-4-producing efficiency than CD4 + Th cells in the heart. Depletion of Vγ1 + γδT resulted in a significantly exacerbated cardiac infiltration, increased T, macrophage and neutrophil population in heart homogenates and worse cardiomyopathy; which was accompanied by a significant expansion of peripheral IFNγ + CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Neutralization of IL-4 in mice resulted in an exacerbated acute myocarditis confirming the IL-4-mediated protective mechanism of Vγ1. Our findings identify a unique property of Vγ1 + γδT cells as one dominant early producers of IL-4 upon CVB3 acute infection which is a key mediator to protect mice against acute myocarditis by modulating IFNγ-secreting T response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender and Race Variations in the Intersection of Religious Involvement, Early Trauma, and Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Katia G; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Sharps, Phyllis; Lee, Jerry

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine gender and race variations in regards to the influence of religious involvement (RI) as a moderator of the effects of early traumatic stress (ETS) on health-related quality of life among adult survivors of child abuse. A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study Seventh-day Adventist adults in North America (N = 10,283). A secondary analysis of data collected via questionnaires was done using multiple regression. Data revealed that women had a significantly higher prevalence of any or all ETS subtypes, except for physical abuse prevalence, which was the same for both genders. Blacks reported a significantly higher prevalence of at least one ETS subtype than did Whites, except for neglect, where Whites had a higher prevalence. Exposure to at least one ETS subtype was associated with worse negative effect on mental health (B = -2.08, p < .0001 vs. B = -1.54, p < .0001) and physical health (B = -2.01, p < .0001 vs. B = -1.11, p < .0001) for women compared to men. Among those exposed to all ETS subtypes (n = 447), Whites had significant worse physical health, with White women having almost two times the negative effect on physical health (B = -4.50, p < .0001) than White men (B = -2.87, p < .05). As for RI moderation, based on tests of three-way interactions of race-RI-ETS, there were no associated differences. However, tests of three-way interactions of gender-RI-ETS showed a significant buffering effect. Among those with high levels of negative religious coping (RC), women exposed to ETS had significantly worse physical health (B = -1.28) than men. Results give evidence of gender and racial differences on the magnitude of the ETS-health effect, as well as gender differences in ETS-health buffering by RC. Findings suggest gender and racial differences must be considered when devising holistic nursing interventions for improving health outcomes of early trauma survivors. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 μL), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 μL min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 μM) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 μm from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 μm from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 μm from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 μm). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 μm by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic

  3. Impact of Different Initial Epinephrine Treatment Time Points on the Early Postresuscitative Hemodynamic Status of Children With Traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Syue, Yuan-Jhen; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Lu, Huai-En; Chang, Chin-Fu; Chang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Cheng Hsu; Chen, Wen-Liang; Li, Chao-Jui

    2016-03-01

    The postresuscitative hemodynamic status of children with traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) might be impacted by the early administration of epinephrine, but this topic has not been well addressed. The aim of this study was to analyze the early postresuscitative hemodynamics, survival, and neurologic outcome according to different time points of first epinephrine treatment among children with traumatic OHCA.Information on 388 children who presented to the emergency departments of 3 medical centers and who were treated with epinephrine for traumatic OHCA during the study period (2003-2012) was retrospectively collected. The early postresuscitative hemodynamic features (cardiac functions, end-organ perfusion, and consciousness), survival, and neurologic outcome according to different time points of first epinephrine treatment (early: <15, intermediate: 15-30, and late: >30 minutes after collapse) were analyzed.Among 165 children who achieved sustained return of spontaneous circulation, 38 children (9.8%) survived to discharge and 12 children (3.1%) had good neurologic outcomes. Early epinephrine increased the postresuscitative heart rate and blood pressure in the first 30 minutes, but ultimately impaired end-organ perfusion (decreased urine output and initial creatinine clearance) (all P < 0.05). Early epinephrine treatment increased the chance of achieving sustained return of spontaneous circulation, but did not increase the rates of survival and good neurologic outcome.Early epinephrine temporarily increased heart rate and blood pressure in the first 30 minutes of the postresuscitative period, but impaired end-organ perfusion. Most importantly, the rates of survival and good neurologic outcome were not significantly increased by early epinephrine administration.

  4. Impact of Different Initial Epinephrine Treatment Time Points on the Early Postresuscitative Hemodynamic Status of Children With Traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan-Ren; Syue, Yuan-Jhen; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Lu, Huai-En; Chang, Chin-Fu; Chang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Cheng Hsu; Chen, Wen-Liang; Li, Chao-Jui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The postresuscitative hemodynamic status of children with traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) might be impacted by the early administration of epinephrine, but this topic has not been well addressed. The aim of this study was to analyze the early postresuscitative hemodynamics, survival, and neurologic outcome according to different time points of first epinephrine treatment among children with traumatic OHCA. Information on 388 children who presented to the emergency departments of 3 medical centers and who were treated with epinephrine for traumatic OHCA during the study period (2003–2012) was retrospectively collected. The early postresuscitative hemodynamic features (cardiac functions, end-organ perfusion, and consciousness), survival, and neurologic outcome according to different time points of first epinephrine treatment (early: <15, intermediate: 15–30, and late: >30 minutes after collapse) were analyzed. Among 165 children who achieved sustained return of spontaneous circulation, 38 children (9.8%) survived to discharge and 12 children (3.1%) had good neurologic outcomes. Early epinephrine increased the postresuscitative heart rate and blood pressure in the first 30 minutes, but ultimately impaired end-organ perfusion (decreased urine output and initial creatinine clearance) (all P < 0.05). Early epinephrine treatment increased the chance of achieving sustained return of spontaneous circulation, but did not increase the rates of survival and good neurologic outcome. Early epinephrine temporarily increased heart rate and blood pressure in the first 30 minutes of the postresuscitative period, but impaired end-organ perfusion. Most importantly, the rates of survival and good neurologic outcome were not significantly increased by early epinephrine administration. PMID:27015217

  5. Involvement of ciliary neurotrophic factor in early diabetic retinal neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Xu, Yupeng; Xiong, Shuyu; Zhang, Jian; Gu, Qing; Ke, Bilian; Xu, Xun

    2018-05-23

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been evaluated as a candidate therapeutic agent for diabetes and its neural complications. However, its role in diabetic retinopathy has not been fully elucidated. This is a randomized unblinded animal experiment. Wistar rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were regularly injected with CNTF or vehicle control in their vitreous bodies beginning at 2 weeks after STZ injection. A total of five injections were used. In diabetic rats, the levels of CNTF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR. The abundance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and β-III tubulin was detected by western blot. Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining (TUNEL) was used to detect cell apoptosis in the retinal tissue. The activation of caspase-3 was also measured. The protein and mRNA levels of CNTF in diabetic rat retinas were reduced compared to control rats. In addition, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and dopaminergic amacrine cells appeared to undergo degeneration in diabetic rat retinas, as revealed by transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining (TUNEL). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and β-III tubulin protein levels also decreased significantly. Intraocular administration of CNTF rescued RGCs and dopaminergic amacrine cells from neurodegeneration and counteracted the downregulation of β-III tubulin and TH expression, thus demonstrating its therapeutic potential. Our study suggests that early diabetic retinal neuropathy involves the reduced expression of CNTF and can be ameliorated by an exogenous supply of this neurotrophin.

  6. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    PubMed

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Robert D.; Jordan, Kristi Y.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 through 14 years were available for 400 adolescents. Results indicate that experiencing peer rejection in elementary school and greater involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence are correlated but that these peer relationship experiences may represent two different pathways to adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Peer rejection experiences, but not involvement with antisocial peers, predict later externalizing behavior problems when controlling for stability in externalizing behavior. Externalizing problems were most common when rejection was experienced repeatedly. Early externalizing problems did not appear to moderate the relation between peer rejection and later problem behavior. Discussion highlights multiple pathways connecting externalizing behavior problems from early childhood through adolescence with peer relationship experiences in middle childhood and early adolescence. PMID:11393650

  8. Cardiac consequences of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, A; Regan, T J

    1995-06-01

    A variety of disciplines including noninvasive and invasive cardiac methodologies, as well as epidemiologic studies, have provided information that has altered our view on the relation of diabetes to cardiac disease. Instead of an exclusive focus on coronary artery disease, it is now recognized that heart muscle can be independently involved in diabetic patients. In diabetics without known cardiac disease, abnormalities of left ventricular mechanical function have been demonstrated in 40 to 50% of subjects, and it is primarily a diastolic phenomenon. Left ventricular hypertrophy may eventually appear in the absence of hypertension. The diastolic dysfunction appears related to interstitial collagen deposition, largely attributable to diminished degradation. The presence of even moderate obesity intensifies the abnormality. Reversibility of this process is not readily achieved with chronic insulin therapy. Experimental studies have indicated normalization of the collagen alteration by endurance training, begun relatively early in the disease process. General measures of management include the control of other cardiac risk factors and a reasonable program of physical activity. The high mortality during an initial acute myocardial infarction has been attributed to heart failure, which is managed as in nondiabetic patients. Recently, the early introduction of aspirin, thrombolysis, and beta-adrenergic blockade has reduced mortality during the initial infarction. Chronic use of the latter agent over the subsequent years has also proven to be more beneficial in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction compared with nondiabetic patients.

  9. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Italy is characterized by a great coastal extension, and by a series of possible tsunamigenic sources: many active faults, onshore and offshore, also near the shoreline and in shallow water, active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Campi Flegrei for example), continental margins where landslides can occur. All these threats justify the establishment of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), especially in Southern Italy where most of the sources capable of large disastrous tsunamis are located. One of the main characteristics of such sources, that however is common to other countries in not only in the Mediterranean, is their vicinity to the coast, which means that the tsunami lead time for attacking the coastal system is expected to be within 10-15 minutes in several cases. This constraint of time imposes to conceive and adopt specific plans aiming at a quick tsunami detection and alert dissemination for the TEWS, since obviously the TEWS alert must precede and not follow the tsunami first arrival. The need to be quick introduces the specific problem of uncertainty that is though inherent to any forecast system, but it is a very big issue especially when time available is short, since crucial decisions have to be taken in presence of incomplete data and incomplete processing. This is just the big problem that has to be faced by a system like the a TEWS in Italy. Uncertainties can be reduced by increasing the capabilities of the tsunami monitoring system by densifying the traditional instrumental networks (e.g. by empowering seismic and especially coastal and offshore sea-level observation systems) in the identified tsunamigenic source areas. However, uncertainties, though are expected to have a decreasing trend as time passes after the tsunami initiation, cannot be eliminated and have to be appropriately dealt with: uncertainties lead to under- and overestimation of the tsunami size and arrival times, and to missing or to false alerts, or in other terms they degrade the

  10. c-Myc alters substrate utilization and O-GlcNAc protein posttranslational modifications without altering cardiac function during early aortic constriction

    DOE PAGES

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; ...

    2015-08-12

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated workingmore » hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (predominately glucose) contribution. The changes in free fatty acid and unlabeled fractional contributions were abrogated by Myc inactivation during TAC (MycKO-TAC). Additionally, protein posttranslational modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. Lastly, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy.« less

  11. c-Myc alters substrate utilization and O-GlcNAc protein posttranslational modifications without altering cardiac function during early aortic constriction

    SciT

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated workingmore » hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (predominately glucose) contribution. The changes in free fatty acid and unlabeled fractional contributions were abrogated by Myc inactivation during TAC (MycKO-TAC). Additionally, protein posttranslational modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. Lastly, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy.« less

  12. Early Coronary Reperfusion Facilitates Return of Spontaneous Circulation and Improves Cardiovascular Outcomes After Ischemic Cardiac Arrest and Extracorporeal Resuscitation in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hutin, Alice; Lamhaut, Lionel; Lidouren, Fanny; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Mongardon, Nicolas; Carli, Pierre; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan; Tissier, Renaud

    2016-12-22

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is widely proposed for the treatment of refractory cardiac arrest. It should be associated with coronary angiography if coronary artery disease is suspected. However, the prioritization of care remains unclear in this situation. Our goal was to determine whether coronary reperfusion should be instituted as soon as possible in such situations in a pig model. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented and submitted to coronary artery occlusion and ventricular fibrillation. After 5 minutes of untreated cardiac arrest, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started. Fifteen minutes later, ECPR was initiated for a total duration of 240 minutes. Animals randomly underwent either early or late coronary reperfusion at 20 or 120 minutes of ECPR, respectively. This timing was adapted to the kinetic of infarct extension in pigs. Return of spontaneous circulation was determined as organized electrocardiogram rhythm with systolic arterial pressure above 80 mm Hg. During conventional CPR, hemodynamic parameters were not different between groups. Carotid blood flow then increased by 70% after the onset of ECPR in both groups. No animal (0 of 7) elicited return of spontaneous circulation after late reperfusion versus 4 of 7 after early reperfusion (P=0.025). The hemodynamic parameters, such as carotid blood flow, were also improved in early versus late reperfusion groups (113±20 vs 43±17 mL/min after 240 minutes of ECPR, respectively; P=0.030), along with infarct size decrease (71±4% vs 84±2% of the risk zone, respectively; P=0.013). Early reperfusion improved hemodynamic status and facilitated return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine model of ischemic cardiac arrest treated by ECPR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Utility of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy in Preventing Early Cardiac Perfusion Defects: A Prospective Study

    SciT

    Zagar, Timothy M., E-mail: zagar@med.unc.edu; Kaidar-Person, Orit; Tang, Xiaoli

    Purpose: To evaluate early cardiac single photon computed tomography (SPECT) findings after left breast/chest wall postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective single-institution single-arm study of patients who were planned for tangential RT with DIBH to the left breast/chest wall (± internal mammary nodes). The DIBH was done by use of a controlled surface monitoring technique (AlignRT, Vision RT Ltd, London, UK). The RT was given with tangential fields and a heart block. Radiation-induced cardiac perfusion and wall motion changes were assessed by pre-RT and 6-month post-RTmore » SPECT scans. A cumulative SPECT summed-rest score was used to quantify perfusion in predefined left ventricle segments. The incidence of wall motion abnormalities was assessed in each of these same segments. Results: A total of 20 patients with normal pre-RT scans were studied; their median age was 56 years (range, 39-72 years). Seven (35%) patients also received irradiation to the left internal mammary chain, and 5 (25%) received an additional RT field to supraclavicular nodes. The median heart dose was 94 cGy (range, 56-200 cGy), and the median V25{sub Gy} was zero (range, 0-0.1). None of the patients had post-RT perfusion or wall motion abnormalities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DIBH and conformal cardiac blocking for patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer is an effective means to avoid early RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects.« less

  14. Control of early cardiac-specific transcription of Nkx2-5 by a GATA-dependent enhancer.

    PubMed

    Lien, C L; Wu, C; Mercer, B; Webb, R; Richardson, J A; Olson, E N

    1999-01-01

    The homeobox gene Nkx2-5 is the earliest known marker of the cardiac lineage in vertebrate embryos. Nkx2-5 expression is first detected in mesodermal cells specified to form heart at embryonic day 7.5 in the mouse and expression is maintained throughout the developing and adult heart. In addition to the heart, Nkx2-5 is transiently expressed in the developing pharynx, thyroid and stomach. To investigate the mechanisms that initiate cardiac transcription during embryogenesis, we analyzed the Nkx2-5 upstream region for regulatory elements sufficient to direct expression of a lacZ transgene in the developing heart of transgenic mice. We describe a cardiac enhancer, located about 9 kilobases upstream of the Nkx2-5 gene, that fully recapitulates the expression pattern of the endogenous gene in cardiogenic precursor cells from the onset of cardiac lineage specification and throughout the linear and looping heart tube. Thereafter, as the atrial and ventricular chambers become demarcated, enhancer activity becomes restricted to the developing right ventricle. Transcription of Nkx2-5 in pharynx, thyroid and stomach is controlled by regulatory elements separable from the cardiac enhancer. This distal cardiac enhancer contains a high-affinity binding site for the cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor GATA4 that is essential for transcriptional activity. These results reveal a novel GATA-dependent mechanism for activation of Nkx2-5 transcription in the developing heart and indicate that regulation of Nkx2-5 is controlled in a modular manner, with multiple regulatory regions responding to distinct transcriptional networks in different compartments of the developing heart.

  15. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    PubMed

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  16. [Cardiac cachexia].

    PubMed

    Miján, Alberto; Martín, Elvira; de Mateo, Beatriz

    2006-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), especially affecting the right heart, frequently leads to malnutrition. If the latter is severe and is combined to other factors, it may lead to cardiac cachexia. This one is associated to increased mortality and lower survival of patients suffering from it. The causes of cardiac cachexia are diverse, generally associated to maintenance of a negative energy balance, with increasing evidence of its multifactorial origin. Neurohumoral, inflammatory, immunological, and metabolic factors, among others, are superimposed in the patient with CHF, leading to involvement and deterioration of several organs and systems, since this condition affects both lean (or active cellular) mass and adipose and bone tissue osteoporosis. Among all, the most pronounced deterioration may be seen at skeletal muscle tissue, at both structural and functional levels, the heart not being spared. As for treatment, it should be based on available scientific evidence. Assessment of nutritional status of any patient with CHF is a must, with the requirement of nutritional intervention in case of malnutrition. In this situation, especially if accompanied by cardiac cachexia, it is required to modify energy intake and oral diet quality, and to consider the indication of specific complementary or alternative artificial nutrition. Besides, the causal relationship of the beneficial role of moderate physical exertion is increasing, as well as modulation of metabolic and inflammatory impairments observed in cardiac cachexia with several drugs, leading to a favorable functional and structural response in CHF patients.

  17. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL...

  18. La Participacion de los Padres en los Programas Preescolares. (Hispanic Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs.) ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Linda M.

    To determine effective strategies for involving Hispanic parents in their children's early childhood programs, educators need to develop a greater understanding of the features of the Hispanic culture that influence parents' childrearing practices and orientation toward formal education. Educators should be aware of Hispanics' diversity in terms…

  19. Government's Involvement in Safety Management in Public Early Childhood Education Centres (ECECs) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbinedion, Doye Angela; Abraham, N. M.; Nwogu, U. J.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined Governments' Involvement in Safety Management in Public Early Childhood Education Centres (ECECs) in Rivers State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study which adopted the descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of five hundred and ten (510) ECECs in the twenty three (23) Local…

  20. Economic Considerations of Early Rule-In/Rule-Out Algorithms for The Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction in The Emergency Department Using Cardiac Troponin and Glycemic Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Colleen; Xie, Feng; Whitlock, Richard; Ma, Jinhui; Clayton, Natasha; Sherbino, Jonathan; Hill, Stephen A; Pare, Guillaume; McQueen, Matthew; Mehta, Shamir R; Devereaux, P J; Worster, Andrew; Kavsak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated the utility of a rule-in/rule-out strategy for myocardial infarction (MI) using glycemic biomarkers in combination with cardiac troponin in the emergency department (ED). Given that the cost of assessing patients with possible MI in the ED is increasing, we sought to compare the health services cost of our previously identified early rule-in/rule-out approaches for MI among patients who present to the ED with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We compared the cost differences between different rule-in/rule-out strategies for MI using presentation cardiac troponin I (cTnI), high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), glucose, and/or hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ) in 1137 ED patients (7-day MI n = 133) as per our previously defined algorithms and compared them with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0-h algorithm-cutoffs. Costs associated with each decision model were obtained from site-specific sources (length of stay) and provincial sources (Ontario Case Costing Initiative). Algorithms incorporating cardiac troponin and glucose for early rule-in/rule-out were the most cost effective and clinically safest methods (i.e., ≤1 MI missed) for early decision making, with hs-cTnI and glucose yielding lower costs compared to cTnI and glucose, despite the higher price for the hs-cTnI test. The addition of Hb A 1c to the algorithms increased the cost of these algorithms but did not miss any additional patients with MI. Applying the ESC 0-h algorithm-cutoffs for hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were the most costly. Rule-in/rule-out algorithms incorporating presentation glucose with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin are the safest and most cost-effective options as compared to the ESC 0-h algorithm-cutoffs. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Fungal infections in children in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Radoslaw; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Irga-Jaworska, Ninela; Chojnicki, Maciej; Steffens, Mariusz; Paczkowski, Konrad; Zielinski, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative infections are still an important problem in cardiac surgery, especially in the paediatric population, and may influence the final outcome of congenital heart disease treatment. Postoperative infections with fungi are uncommon. The aetiology is poorly understood, and the proper diagnosis and treatment is unclear. In this single-centre study, the frequency of invasive fungal disease in children who underwent surgical management of congenital heart diseases was determined along with the risk factors for infection, treatment options and outcomes. All consecutive paediatric patients (<18 years of age) who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease between September 2008 and December 2015 in a paediatric cardiac centre in Poland were identified. Those who developed invasive fungal disease in the early postoperative period (30 days) were identified. Of the 1540 cardiosurgical procedures for congenital heart disease, 6 were complicated by fungal infection (0.39%). One patient had a high probability of fungal infection, but the diagnosis was unproved. Nevertheless, the patient was successfully treated with antifungal treatment. Five had proven invasive fungal disease. Of these, 3 were diagnosed with candidaemia. All had undergone cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the remaining 2 patients, 1 was a preterm newborn with complete atrioventricular septal defect who developed rib fungal invasion. The remaining patient had pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and developed Fournier's gangrene after surgery. None of the patients died due to infection in the early postoperative period. However, the child with rib fungal invasion died 39 days after surgery as a result of multiorgan failure. Fungal infections in paediatric patients after cardiac surgery may markedly influence morbidity and mortality. Fungal infection prophylaxis in this specific group of children may reduce morbidity, whereas early empirical treatment followed by a targeted approach may

  2. Structural insights into the human RyR2 N-terminal region involved in cardiac arrhythmias

    SciT

    Borko, Ľubomír; Bauerová-Hlinková, Vladena, E-mail: vladena.bauerova@savba.sk; Hostinová, Eva

    2014-11-01

    X-ray and solution structures of the human RyR2 N-terminal region were obtained under near-physiological conditions. The structure exhibits a unique network of interactions between its three domains, revealing an important stabilizing role of the central helix. Human ryanodine receptor 2 (hRyR2) mediates calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The N-terminal region of hRyR2 (amino acids 1–606) is the target of >30 arrhythmogenic mutations and contains a binding site for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1. Here, the solution and crystal structures determined under near-physiological conditions, as well as a homology model of the hRyR2 N-terminal region, are presented. The N-terminusmore » is held together by a unique network of interactions among its three domains, A, B and C, in which the central helix (amino acids 410–437) plays a prominent stabilizing role. Importantly, the anion-binding site reported for the mouse RyR2 N-terminal region is notably absent from the human RyR2. The structure concurs with the differential stability of arrhythmogenic mutations in the central helix (R420W, I419F and I419F/R420W) which are owing to disparities in the propensity of mutated residues to form energetically favourable or unfavourable contacts. In solution, the N-terminus adopts a globular shape with a prominent tail that is likely to involve residues 545–606, which are unresolved in the crystal structure. Docking the N-terminal domains into cryo-electron microscopy maps of the closed and open RyR1 conformations reveals C{sup α} atom movements of up to 8 Å upon channel gating, and predicts the location of the leucine–isoleucine zipper segment and the interaction site for spinophilin and phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 on the RyR surface.« less

  3. Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the respiratory uncoupling induced by free calcium and ADP-magnesium in isolated cardiac mitochondria: comparing reoxygenation in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Meynier, Alexandra; Razik, Hafida; Cordelet, Catherine; Grégoire, Stéphane; Demaison, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we have observed that the simultaneous application of free calcium (fCa) and ADP-magnesium (Mg) reduced the ADP:O ratio in isolated cardiac mitochondria. The uncoupling was prevented by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the permeability transition pore. The purpose of this study was to know if the generation of oxygen free radicals (OFR) is involved in this phenomenon and if it occurs during reoxygenation (Reox) of cultured cardiomyocytes. Cardiac mitochondria were harvested from male Wistar rats. Respiration was assessed in two media with different fCa concentrations (0 or 0.6 microM) with palmitoylcarnitine and ADP-Mg as respiration substrates. The production of Krebs cycle intermediates (KCI) was determined. Without fCa in the medium, the mitochondria displayed a large production of citrate + isocitrate + alpha-ketoglutarate. fCa drastically reduced these KCI and promoted the accumulation of succinate. To know if OFR are involved in the respiratory uncoupling, the effect of 4OH-TEMPO (250 microM), a hydrosoluble scavenger of OFR, was tested. 4OH-TEMPO completely abolished the fCa- and ADP-Mg-induced uncoupling. Conversely, vitamin E contributed to further decreasing the ADP:O ratio. Since no hydrosoluble electron acceptor was added in our experiment, the oxygen free radical-induced oxidized vitamin E was confined near the mitochondrial membranes, which should reduce the ADP:O ratio by opening the permeability transition pore. The generation of OFR could result from the matrix accumulation of succinate. Taken together, these results indicate that mitochondrial Ca uptake induces a slight increase in membrane permeability. Thereafter, Mg enters the matrix and, in combination with Ca, stimulates the isocitrate and/or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases. Matrix succinate favors oxygen free radical generation that further increases membrane permeability and allows respiratory uncoupling through proton leakage. To determine whether the phenomenon takes place

  4. Health related quality of life assessment in acute coronary syndrome patients: the effectiveness of early phase I cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Anchah, Lawrence; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Lim, Melissa Siaw Han; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Sim, Kui Hian; Ong, Tiong Kiam

    2017-01-13

    Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is one of the most burdensome cardiovascular diseases in terms of the cost of interventions. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Programme (CRP) is well-established in improving clinical outcomes but the assessment of actual clinical improvement is challenging, especially when considering pharmaceutical care (PC) values in phase I CRP during admission and upon discharge from hospital and phase II outpatient interventions. This study explores the impact of pharmacists' interventions in the early stages of CRP on humanistic outcomes and follow-up at a referral hospital in Malaysia. We recruited 112 patients who were newly diagnosed with ACS and treated at the referral hospital, Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia. In the intervention group (modified CRP), all medication was reviewed by the clinical pharmacists, focusing on drug indication; understanding of secondary prevention therapy and adherence to treatment strategy. We compared the "pre-post" quality of life (QoL) of three groups (intervention, conventional and control) at baseline, 6 months and 12 months post-discharge with Malaysian norms. QoL data was obtained using a validated version of Short-Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure tests was used to compare the mean differences of scores over time. A pre-post quasi-experimental non-equivalent group comparison design was applied to 112 patients who were followed up for one year. At baseline, the physical and mental health summaries reported poor outcomes in all three groups. However, these improved gradually but significantly over time. After the 6-month follow-up, the physical component summary reported in the modified CRP (MCRP) participants was higher, with a mean difference of 8.02 (p = 0.015) but worse in the mental component summary, with a mean difference of -4.13. At the 12-month follow-up, the MCRP participants performed better in their physical component (PCS) than those in the

  5. Nonresidential Grandparents' Emotional and Financial Involvement in Relation to Early Adolescent Grandchild Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorgason, Jeremy B.; Padilla-Walker, Laura; Jackson, Jami

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between grandparents' involvement and grandchildren's positive outcomes. Data were from 408 families taken from Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later) of the Flourishing Families Project, which is a study involving families with a child between the ages of 10 and 14 at Time 1 (M age of child = 11.30, 49% female, 82% Caucasian).…

  6. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  7. Examining a Causal Model of Early Drug Involvement Among Inner City Junior High School Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; And Others

    Reflecting the need to construct more inclusive, socially and culturally relevant conceptions of drug use than currently exist, the determinants of drug involvement among inner-city youths within the context of a causal model were investigated. The drug involvement of the Black and Puerto Rican junior high school girls and boys was hypothesized to…

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Cardiac and Digestive Clinical Forms of Chronic Chagas Disease: Involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Ronchi, Luiz Sérgio; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Castiglioni, Lílian; Netinho, João Gomes; Cavasini, Carlos Eugênio; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333) and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region—rs1799987) polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD. PMID:26599761

  9. Genetic Susceptibility to Cardiac and Digestive Clinical Forms of Chronic Chagas Disease: Involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Ronchi, Luiz Sérgio; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Castiglioni, Lílian; Netinho, João Gomes; Cavasini, Carlos Eugênio; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333) and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region--rs1799987) polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD.

  10. Late onset of neutral lipid storage disease due to novel PNPLA2 mutations causing total loss of lipase activity in a patient with myopathy and slight cardiac involvement.

    PubMed

    Missaglia, Sara; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mora, Marina; Gibertini, Sara; Blasevich, Flavia; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Moro, Laura; Cassandrini, Denise; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Gerevini, Simonetta; Tavian, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) presents with skeletal muscle myopathy and severe dilated cardiomyopathy in nearly 40% of cases. NLSDM is caused by mutations in the PNPLA2 gene, which encodes the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Here we report clinical and genetic findings of a patient carrying two novel PNPLA2 mutations (c.696+4A>G and c.553_565delGTCCCCCTTCTCG). She presented at age 39 with right upper limb abduction weakness slowly progressing over the years with asymmetric involvement of proximal upper and lower limb muscles. Cardiological evaluation through ECG and heart echo scan was normal until the age 53, when mild left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was detected. Molecular analysis revealed that only one type of PNPLA2 transcript, with exon 5 skipping, was expressed in patient cells. Such aberrant mRNA causes the production of a shorter ATGL protein, lacking part of the catalytic domain. This is an intriguing case, displaying severe PNPLA2 mutations with clinical presentation characterized by slight cardiac impairment and full expression of severe asymmetric myopathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early clinics of the cardiac forms of Chagas' disease: Discovery and study of original medical files (1909-1915).

    PubMed

    Gachelin, Gabriel; Bestetti, Reinaldo B

    2017-10-01

    We have uncovered 80 medical files corresponding to original cases of Chagas' disease used for the classical description of the acute and cardiac forms of the disease. Sixty of them were diagnosed cardiac forms of the disease. The detailed clinical description of these 60 files is in excellent agreement with the nosography of progressive heart disease given by Chagas in his original 1922 paper. The reports we had access to, characterize a novel form of cardiac disease, dominated by progressive AV block, enlargement and displacement of the heart and sudden death, in relatively young adults including juveniles. In contrast to that remarkable clinical description, the assertion made by Chagas that this set of clinical signs was the consequence of an earlier infection by Trypanosoma cruzi rests on weak evidence, due to the difficulty to identify the parasite in most patients. Moreover, the association of thyroid dysfunction with cardiac disease emphasized by Chagas cannot be deduced from the files we have examined. Finally, the main reason why the disease had not been recognized for long as a defined clinical entity, is likely the absence of markedly distinctive clinical signs compared to most other parasitic diseases, poor sanitary conditions and the probable lack of clinical skills of the rare doctors working in the area where the disease was described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of application of pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technology in early treatment of patients with large area burns].

    PubMed

    Wang, D Y; Xie, W G; Xi, M M; Li, Z; Wang, B

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To analyze the changes and relationship of early hemodynamic indexes of patients with large area burns monitored by pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology, so as to assess the guiding value of this technology in the treatment of patients with large area burns during shock period. Methods: Eighteen patients with large area burns, confirming to the study criteria, were admitted to our unit from May 2016 to May 2017. Pulse contour cardiac output index (PCCI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) of patients were monitored by PiCCO instrument from admission to post injury day (PID) 7, and they were calibrated and recorded once every four hours. The fluid infusion coefficients of patients at the first and second 24 hours post injury were calculated. The blood lactic acid values of patients from PID 1 to 7 were also recorded. The correlations among PCCI, SVRI, and GEDVI as well as the correlation between SVRI and blood lactic acid of these 18 patients were analyzed. Prognosis of patients were recorded. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, single sample t test and Bonferroni correction, Pearson correlation analysis, and Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: (1) There was statistically significant difference in PCCI value of patients from post injury hour (PIH) 4 to 168 ( F =7.428, P <0.01). The PCCI values of patients at PIH 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 were (2.4±0.9), (2.6±1.2), (2.2±0.6), (2.6±0.7), (2.8±0.6), and (2.7±0.7) L·min(-1)·m(-2,) respectively, and they were significantly lower than the normal value 4 L·min(-1)·m(-2)( t =-3.143, -3.251, -11.511, -8.889, -6.735, -6.976, P <0.05 or P <0.01). At PIH 76, 80, 84, 88, 92, and 96, the PCCI values of patients were (4.9±1.5), (5.7±2.0), (5.9±1.7), (5.5±1.3), (5.3±1.1), and (4.9±1.4) L·min(-1)·m(-2,) respectively, and they were significantly higher than the

  13. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Exploring the Gap between Service Providers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Curtiss, Sarah J.; Uchima, Kelly; Laxman, Daniel J.; Santos, Rosa M.; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine early intervention (EI) service providers'perceptions of the roles played by fathers in services, as well as their perceptions of the barriers that limit fathers from being engaged in the services provided for families of children with disabilities. A total of 511 EI service providers…

  15. Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Exploring the Gap between Service Providers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Curtiss, Sarah J.; Uchima, Kelly; Laxman, Daniel J.; Santos, Rosa M.; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna; Dyer, Wm. Justin; Jeans, Laurie M.; Kern, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine early intervention (EI) service providers' perceptions of the roles played by fathers in services, as well as their perceptions of the barriers that limit fathers from being engaged in the services provided for families of children with disabilities. A total of 511 EI service providers…

  16. Molecular mechanisms involved in the early steps of flavivirus cell entry.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses enter their host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a well-orchestrated process of receptor recognition, penetration and uncoating. Recent findings on these early steps in the life cycle of flaviviruses are the focus of this review. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  18. Father's involvement and its effect on early breastfeeding practices in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Vui, Le Thi; Nghia, Dang Thi; Målqvist, Mats

    2016-10-01

    Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. UCP3 Ablation Exacerbates High-Salt Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lang, Hongmei; Xiang, Yang; Ai, Zhihua; You, Zhiqing; Jin, Xiaolan; Wan, Yong; Yang, Yongjian

    2018-04-20

    Excessive salt intake and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are both critical for the development of hypertension and heart failure. The uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) plays a cardio-protective role in early heart failure development. However, the potential role for UCP3 in salt intake and LVH is unclear. UCP3-/- and C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal-salt (NS, 0.5%) or a high-salt (HS, 8%) diet for 24 weeks. The cardiac function, endurance capacity, energy expenditure, and mitochondrial functional capacity were measured in each group. Elevated blood pressure was only observed in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. High salt induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction were observed in both C57BL/6 and UCP3-/- mice. However, the cardiac lesions were more profound in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. Furthermore, HS-fed UCP3-/-mice experienced more severe mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction compared with HS-fed C57BL/6 mice, represented by the decreased volume of oxygen consumption and heat production at the whole-body level. UCP3 protein was involved in the incidence of high-salt induced hypertension and the progression of cardiac dysfunction in the early stages of heart failure. UCP3 ablation exacerbated high-salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Function predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Early Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Magdy, Abdel Hamid; Bakhoum, Sameh; Sharaf, Yasser; Sabry, Dina; El-Gengehe, Ahmed T; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are mobilized from the bone marrow and increase in the early phase after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of CECs and indices of endothelial dysfunction in patients with STEMI. In 78 patients with acute STEMI, characterization of CD34+/VEGFR2+ CECs, and indices of endothelial damage/dysfunction such as brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were determined. Blood samples for CECs assessment and quantification were obtained within 24 hours of admission and FMD was assessed during the index hospitalization. At 30 days follow up, the primary composite end point of major cardiac adverse events (MACE) consisting of all-cause mortality, recurrent non-fatal MI, or heart failure and the secondary endpoint of early adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling were analyzed. The 17 patients (22%) who developed MACE had significantly higher CEC level (P = 0.004), vWF level (P =0.028), and significantly lower FMD (P = 0.006) compared to the remaining patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that CECs level and LV ejection fraction were independent predictors of MACE. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for CEC level, FMD, and the logistic model with both markers were 0.73, 0.75, and 0.82 respectively for prediction of the MACE. The 16 patients who developed the secondary endpoint had significantly higher CEC level compared to remaining patients (p =0.038). In conclusion, increased circulating endothelial cells and endothelial dysfunction predicted the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events and adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with STEMI. PMID:26864952

  1. Cardiac-specific ablation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 leads to oxidative stress, broad mitochondrial deficiency and early death

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Ludger; Stanley-Hasnain, Shanna; Fung, Amelia; Grothe, Daniela; Rao, Vivek; Mak, Tak W.

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of normal heart function requires proper control of protein turnover. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a principal regulator of protein degradation. Mdm2 is the main E3 ubiquitin ligase for p53 in mitotic cells thereby regulating cellular growth, DNA repair, oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, which of these Mdm2-related activities are preserved in differentiated cardiomyocytes has yet to be determined. We sought to elucidate the role of Mdm2 in the control of normal heart function. We observed markedly reduced Mdm2 mRNA levels accompanied by highly elevated p53 protein expression in the hearts of wild type mice subjected to myocardial infarction or trans-aortic banding. Accordingly, we generated conditional cardiac-specific Mdm2 gene knockout (Mdm2f/f;mcm) mice. In adulthood, Mdm2f/f;mcm mice developed spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction with early mortality post-tamoxifen. A decreased polyubiquitination of myocardial p53 was observed, leading to its stabilization and activation, in the absence of acute stress. In addition, transcriptomic analysis of Mdm2-deficient hearts revealed that there is an induction of E2f1 and c-Myc mRNA levels with reduced expression of the Pgc-1a/Ppara/Esrrb/g axis and Pink1. This was associated with a significant degree of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and an inhibition of redox homeostasis and mitochondrial bioenergetics. All these processes are early, Mdm2-associated events and contribute to the development of pathological hypertrophy. Our genetic and biochemical data support a role for Mdm2 in cardiac growth control through the regulation of p53, the Pgc-1 family of transcriptional coactivators and the pivotal antioxidant Pink1. PMID:29267372

  2. Cardiac and peripheral adjustments induced by early exercise training intervention were associated with autonomic improvement in infarcted rats: role in functional capacity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Luciana; Rodrigues, Bruno; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Malfitano, Christiane; Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina Alba; Medeiros, Alessandra; Curi, Rui; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Lacchini, Silvia; Montano, Nicola; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2011-04-01

    To test the effects of early exercise training (ET) on left ventricular (LV) and autonomic functions, haemodynamics, tissues blood flows (BFs), maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max), and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into: control (C), sedentary-infarcted (SI), and trained-infarcted (TI). One week after MI, TI group underwent an ET protocol (90 days, 50-70% VO(2) max). Left ventricular function was evaluated non-invasively and invasively. Baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, and pulse interval were measured. Cardiac output (CO) and regional BFs were determined using coloured microspheres. Infarcted area was reduced in TI (19 ± 6%) compared with SI (34 ± 5%) after ET. Exercise training improved the LV and autonomic functions, the CO and regional BF changes induced by MI, as well as increased SERCA2 expression and mRNA vascular endothelial growth factor levels. These changes brought about by ET resulted in mortality rate reduction in the TI (13%) group compared with the SI (54%) group. Early aerobic ET reduced cardiac and peripheral dysfunctions and preserved cardiovascular autonomic control after MI in trained rats. Consequently, these ET-induced changes resulted in improved functional capacity and survival after MI.

  3. Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease and Candidate Risk Genes Involved in Endolysosomal Transport.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, Brian W; Vardarajan, Badri N; Naj, Adam C; Whitehead, Patrice L; Rolati, Sophie; Slifer, Susan; Carney, Regina M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Gilbert, John R; Wang, Li-San; Farrer, Lindsay A; Reitz, Christiane; Haines, Jonathan L; Beecham, Gary W; Martin, Eden R; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Mayeux, Richard P; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 lead to early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) but account for only approximately 11% of EOAD overall, leaving most of the genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. This extreme phenotype likely harbors highly penetrant risk variants, making it primed for discovery of novel risk genes and pathways for AD. To search for rare variants contributing to the risk for EOAD. In this case-control study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 51 non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with EOAD (age at onset <65 years) and 19 Caribbean Hispanic families previously screened as negative for established APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 causal variants. Participants were recruited from John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Case Western Reserve University, and Columbia University. Rare, deleterious, nonsynonymous, or loss-of-function variants were filtered to identify variants in known and suspected AD genes, variants in multiple unrelated NHW patients, variants present in 19 Hispanic EOAD WES families, and genes with variants in multiple unrelated NHW patients. These variants/genes were tested for association in an independent cohort of 1524 patients with EOAD, 7046 patients with late-onset AD (LOAD), and 7001 cognitively intact controls (age at examination, >65 years) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. The study was conducted from January 21, 2013, to October 13, 2016. Alzheimer disease diagnosed according to standard National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Association between Alzheimer disease and genetic variants and genes was measured using logistic regression and sequence kernel association test-optimal gene tests, respectively. Of the 1524 NHW patients with EOAD, 765 (50.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 60.0 (4.9) years; of the 7046 NHW patients with LOAD, 4171 (59.2%) were women and mean

  4. Early initiation of post-sternotomy cardiac rehabilitation exercise training (SCAR): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Grace; Worrall, Sandra; Powell, Richard; Kimani, Peter K; Banerjee, Prithwish; Barker, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines recommend abstinence from supervised cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training for 6 weeks post-sternotomy. This practice is not based on empirical evidence, thus imposing potentially unnecessary activity restrictions. Delayed participation in CR exercise training promotes muscle atrophy, reduces cardiovascular fitness and prolongs recovery. Limited data suggest no detrimental effect of beginning CR exercise training as early as 2 weeks post-surgery, but randomised controlled trials are yet to confirm this. The purpose of this trial is to compare CR exercise training commenced early (2 weeks post-surgery) with current usual care (6 weeks post-surgery) with a view to informing future CR guidelines for patients recovering from sternotomy. Methods and analysis In this assessor-blind randomised controlled trial, 140 cardiac surgery patients, recovering from sternotomy, will be assigned to 8 weeks of twice-weekly supervised CR exercise training commencing at either 2 weeks (early CR) or 6 weeks (usual care CR) post-surgery. Usual care exercise training will adhere to current UK recommendations. Participants in the early CR group will undertake a highly individualised 2–3 week programme of functional mobility, strength and cardiovascular exercise before progressing to a usual care CR programme. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (inpatient), pre-CR (2 or 6 weeks post-surgery), post-CR (10 or 14 weeks post-surgery) and 12 months. The primary outcome will be change in 6 min walk distance. Secondary outcomes will include measures of functional fitness, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Recruitment commenced on July 2017 and will complete by December 2019. Results will be disseminated via national governing bodies, scientific meetings and peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT03223558; Pre-results. PMID:29574443

  5. Proteomics Identification of Potential Candidates Involved in Cell Proliferation for Early Stage of Brain Regeneration in the Adult Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fei Tieng; Ogawa, Satoshi; Smith, A Ian; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of the non-mammalian vertebrates has better neuroregenerative capability as compared with the mammalian CNS. Regeneration of habenula was observed 40 days after damage in zebrafish. During the early stage of regeneration, we found a significant increase of apoptotic cells on day-1 post-damage and of proliferative cells on day-3 post-damage. To identify the molecular factor(s) involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration, differentially expressed proteins during sham, 20- and 40-h post-habenula damage were investigated by proteomic approach by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight (MALDI-ToF) and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein profiles revealed 17 differentially (>1.5-fold) expressed proteins: 10 upregulated, 4 downregulated, 2 proteins were found to be downregulated at the early stage but upregulated at a later stage, and 1 protein was found to be upregulated at 2 different time points. All proteins identified can be summarized under few molecular processes involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration in zebrafish CNS: apoptosis regulation (Wnt inhibitory factor 1 [WIF1]), neuroprotection (metallothionein), cell proliferation (Spred2, ependymin, Lhx1, and Wnts), differentiation (Spred2, Lhx9, and Wnts), and morphogenesis (cytoplasmic actins and draculin). These protein profiling results suggest that drastic molecular changes occur in the neuroregenerative process during this period, which includes cell proliferation, differentiation, and protection.

  6. African American adolescent mothers' early caregiving involvement and childrens' behavior and academic performance at age 7.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M

    2011-01-01

    The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.

  7. Redox status and pro-survival/pro-apoptotic protein expression in the early cardiac hypertrophy induced by experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, R O; Dreher, G J; Schenkel, P C; Fernandes, T R G; Ribeiro, M F M; Araujo, A S R; Belló-Klein, A

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the redox status and redox-sensitive proteins that may contribute to a non-genomic mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy induction by hyperthyroidism. Wistar rats, treated with L-thyroxine (T4) during 2 weeks (12 mg·l(-1) in drinking water), presented cardiac hypertrophy (68% higher than control), without signals of liver or lung congestion. Myocardial reduction of the reduced glutathione: oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio (45%) (redox status) and elevation in hydrogen peroxide concentration (H(2) O(2) ) (28%) were observed in hyperthyroid as compared with the control. No significant difference was found in thioredoxin (Trx), Trx reductase activity and Nrf2 (a transcriptional factor) protein expression between groups. Redox-sensitive proteins, quantified using Western blot, presented the following results: increased p-ERK: total extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) (200%) and Bax:Bcl-2 (62%) ratios and reduced total-Akt (63%) and p-Akt (53%) expressions in the hyperthyroid rats as compared with the control. The redox imbalance, associated with increased immunocontent of a protein related to maladaptative growth (ERK) and reduced immunocontent of protein related to cytoprotection/survival (Akt), may suggest that the molecular scenario could favour the decompensation process of cardiac hypertrophy induced by experimental hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Supporting Family Involvement in Early Childhood Education: A Guide for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Greensboro. School of Education.

    This document provides information designed to help businesses increase their involvement in supporting children and families. The first of three chapters discusses the impact of social changes on the work force, and lists benefits that accrue to businesses and families when businesses institute policies that support employees' families. The…

  9. Game On: Diminishing Risks for Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence through Positive Involvement in Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Erin M.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    While research shows that low levels of social acceptance and elevated body dissatisfaction increase risks for depressive symptoms among both girls and boys, little is known about protective factors that can mediate these risks. We test the hypothesis that positive team sports involvement mediates the effects of these risks on depression in a…

  10. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development for the public to be involved in the identification of social, economic, and environmental impacts... substantial adverse impact on abutting property, otherwise has a significant social, economic, environmental... planning, (B) The project's alternatives, and major design features, (C) The social, economic...

  11. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development for the public to be involved in the identification of social, economic, and environmental impacts... substantial adverse impact on abutting property, otherwise has a significant social, economic, environmental... planning, (B) The project's alternatives, and major design features, (C) The social, economic...

  12. Children's Early Child Care and Their Mothers' Later Involvement with Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…

  13. Principles for Developing Male Involvement Programs in Early Childhood Settings: A Personal Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay

    1996-01-01

    Notes society's increasing demands that men assume a more active role as fathers. Lists five principles for developing a male involvement program in child care settings outside of home. Claims that these programs can be successful if female facilitators are sensitive to gender differences in communication and aware of the unique needs men bring to…

  14. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood: A Comparison of English Language Learners and English First Language Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Sarah N.; Pelletier, Janette

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated parents' communication, involvement and knowledge of their children's abilities in reading and mathematics among parents who spoke English as a first language (EL1) and those who were English language learners (ELL). Forty-two kindergarten-aged children, their parents and their teachers participated in the study. Results…

  15. Conventional Warfare and United States Military Involvement in Latin America: Early Adolescents' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed adolescents' views concerning conventional war and compared views to those of adolescents 15 years ago. Surveyed 362 seventh graders regarding conventional warfare and United States military involvement in Latin America. Compared to adolescents in 1971, adolescents in 1986 were somewhat more accepting of war. Many were skeptical of…

  16. Identification of early zygotic genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and discovery of a motif involved in early zygotic genome activation.

    PubMed

    Biedler, James K; Hu, Wanqi; Tae, Hongseok; Tu, Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    During early embryogenesis the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and all mRNAs present are of maternal origin. The maternal-zygotic transition marks the time over which embryogenesis changes its dependence from maternal RNAs to zygotically transcribed RNAs. Here we present the first systematic investigation of early zygotic genes (EZGs) in a mosquito species and focus on genes involved in the onset of transcription during 2-4 hr. We used transcriptome sequencing to identify the "pure" (without maternal expression) EZGs by analyzing transcripts from four embryonic time ranges of 0-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-12 hr, which includes the time of cellular blastoderm formation and up to the start of gastrulation. Blast of 16,789 annotated transcripts vs. the transcriptome reads revealed evidence for 63 (P<0.001) and 143 (P<0.05) nonmaternally derived transcripts having a significant increase in expression at 2-4 hr. One third of the 63 EZG transcripts do not have predicted introns compared to 10% of all Ae. aegypti genes. We have confirmed by RT-PCR that zygotic transcription starts as early as 2-3 hours. A degenerate motif VBRGGTA was found to be overrepresented in the upstream sequences of the identified EZGs using a motif identification software called SCOPE. We find evidence for homology between this motif and the TAGteam motif found in Drosophila that has been implicated in EZG activation. A 38 bp sequence in the proximal upstream sequence of a kinesin light chain EZG (KLC2.1) contains two copies of the mosquito motif. This sequence was shown to support EZG transcription by luciferase reporter assays performed on injected early embryos, and confers early zygotic activity to a heterologous promoter from a divergent mosquito species. The results of these studies are consistent with the model of early zygotic genome activation via transcriptional activators, similar to what has been found recently in Drosophila.

  17. Cardiac arrest and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Tabitha A; Sanson, Tracy G

    2009-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy is rare occurring in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. When it does occur, it is important for a clinician to be familiar with the features peculiar to the pregnant state. Knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic changes of pregnancy is helpful in the treatment and diagnosis. Although the main focus should be on the mother, it should not be forgotten that there is another potential life at stake. Resuscitation of the mother is performed in the same manner as in any other patient, except for a few minor adjustments because of the changes of pregnancy. The specialties of obstetrics and neonatology should be involved early in the process to ensure appropriate treatment of both mother and the newborn. This article will explore the changes that occur in pregnancy and their impact on treatment. The common causes of maternal cardiac arrest will be discussed briefly. PMID:19561954

  18. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  19. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  20. Vascular-mediated signalling involved in early phosphate stress response in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Yi; Ham, Byung-Kook; Chen, Jieyu; Yoshida, Akiko; Kochian, Leon V; Fei, Zhangjun; Lucas, William J

    2016-04-04

    Depletion of finite global rock phosphate (Pi) reserves will impose major limitations on future agricultural productivity and food security. Hence, modern breeding programmes seek to develop Pi-efficient crops with sustainable yields under reduced Pi fertilizer inputs. In this regard, although the long-term responses of plants to Pi stress are well documented, the early signalling events have yet to be elucidated. Here, we show plant tissue-specific responses to early Pi stress at the transcription level and a predominant role of the plant vascular system in this process. Specifically, imposition of Pi stress induces rapid and major changes in the mRNA population in the phloem translocation stream, and grafting studies have revealed that many hundreds of phloem-mobile mRNAs are delivered to specific sink tissues. We propose that the shoot vascular system acts as the site of root-derived Pi stress perception, and the phloem serves to deliver a cascade of signals to various sinks, presumably to coordinate whole-plant Pi homeostasis.

  1. Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is involved in porcine in vitro fertilisation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Liu, Y; Larsen, K; Hou, Y P; Callesen, H

    2018-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that extracellular calcium is necessary in fertilisation and embryo development but the mechanism is still not well understood. The present study mainly focussed on the extracellular calcium effector called the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and examined its expression in porcine gametes and embryos and its function during fertilisation and early embryo development. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, CASR was found to be expressed in porcine oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos at different developmental stages. Functionally, medium supplementation with a CASR agonist or an antagonist during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) was tested. During fertilisation, the presence of a CASR agonist increased sperm penetration rate and decreased polyspermy rate leading to an increased normal fertilisation rate. During embryo development, for the IVF embryos, agonist treatment during IVC significantly increased cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate compared with the control group. Furthermore, parthenogenetically activated embryos showed similar results with lower cleavage and blastocyst formation rates in the antagonist group than in the other groups. It was concluded that CASR, as the effector of extracellular calcium, modulates porcine fertilisation and early embryo development.

  2. Early interventions involving parents to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vanderveen, J A; Bassler, D; Robertson, C M T; Kirpalani, H

    2009-05-01

    To determine in a systematic review, whether interventions for infant development that involve parents, improve neurodevelopment at 12 months corrected age or older. Randomized trials were identified where an infant intervention was aimed to improve development and involved parents of preterms; and long-term neurodevelopment using standardized tests at 12 months (or longer) was reported. Identified studies (n=25) used a variety of interventions including parent education, infant stimulation, home visits or individualized developmental care. Meta-analysis at 12 months (N=2198 infants) found significantly higher mental (N=2198) and physical (N=1319) performance scores favoring the intervention group. At 24 months, the mental (N=1490) performance scores were improved, but physical (N=1025) performance scores were not statistically significant. The improvement in neurodevelopmental outcome was not sustained at 36 months (N=961) and 5 years (N=1017). Positive clinically meaningful effects (>5 points) are seen to an age of 36 months, but are no longer present at 5 years.

  3. [Predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biological markers in patients with severe sepsis: a five-year single-center retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Zang, Xuefeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Gu, Xuyun; Zhen, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers in patients with severe sepsis. A retrospective analysis of severe septic patients (patients with acute coronary syndrome and end stage renal disease were excluded) in department of intensive care unit of Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 was conducted. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), creatine kinase (CK), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) within 6 hours after admission, and bedside echocardiography indexes [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio of the peak blood flow velocity in the early stage of the mitral valve and the peak blood flow rate of the mitral valve (E/A ratio)] within 6 hours after diagnosis were recorded. The differences of indexes between patients with decreased contractile function (LVEF < 0.50) group and normal group, and the difference between dead group and survival group within 28-day were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Logistic regression analysis were conducted to assess the early detected prognostic value in severe sepsis patients. (1) A total of 316 patients were enrolled in the survey period. Decreased cardiac systolic function (LVEF < 0.50) was found in 89 cases (28.2%), and cardiac diastolic function impaired (E/A ratio < 1) in 269 cases (85.1%); while 79 cases (25.0%) had both systolic function and diastolic function impairment. (2) NT-proBNP and cTnI were statistically different between cardiac systolic function impaired group and normal group. Further Logistic regression analysis showed that only NT-proBNP was significantly correlated with LVEF [β=-1.311, odds ratio (OR) = 0.269, P < 0.001]. (3) Eighty-two of 316 cases were died in 28-day, and the 28-day mortality rate was 25.9%. Compared

  4. Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Vives, Marc; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Marczin, Nandor; Monedero, Pablo; Rao, Vivek

    2014-05-01

    Acute kidney injury develops in up to 30% of patients who undergo cardiac surgery, with up to 3% of patients requiring dialysis. The requirement for dialysis after cardiac surgery is associated with an increased risk of infection, prolonged stay in critical care units and long-term need for dialysis. The development of acute kidney injury is independently associated with substantial short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Its pathogenesis involves multiple pathways. Haemodynamic, inflammatory, metabolic and nephrotoxic factors are involved and overlap each other leading to kidney injury. Clinical studies have identified predictors for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury that can be used effectively to determine the risk for acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. High-risk patients can be targeted for renal protective strategies. Nonetheless, there is little compelling evidence from randomized trials supporting specific interventions to protect or prevent acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients. Several strategies have shown some promise, including less invasive procedures in those at greatest risk, natriuretic peptide, fenoldopam, preoperative hydration, preoperative optimization of anaemia and postoperative early use of renal replacement therapy. The efficacy of larger-scale trials remains to be confirmed.

  5. A key role for peroxynitrite-mediated inhibition of cardiac ERG (Kv11.1) K+ channels in carbon monoxide–induced proarrhythmic early afterdepolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Al-Owais, Moza M.; Hettiarachchi, Nishani T.; Kirton, Hannah M.; Hardy, Matthew E.; Boyle, John P.; Scragg, Jason L.; Steele, Derek S.; Peers, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to CO causes early afterdepolarization arrhythmias. Previous studies in rats have indicated that arrhythmias arose as a result of augmentation of the late Na+ current. The purpose of the present study was to examine the basis for CO-induced arrhythmias in guinea pig myocytes in which action potentials (APs) more closely resemble those of human myocytes. Whole-cell current- and voltage-clamp recordings were made from isolated guinea pig myocytes as well as from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells that express wild-type or a C723S mutant form of ether-a-go-go–related gene (ERG; Kv11.1). We also monitored the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in HEK293 cells fluorimetrically. CO—applied as the CO-releasing molecule, CORM-2—prolonged the APs and induced early afterdepolarizations in guinea pig myocytes. In HEK293 cells, CO inhibited wild-type, but not C723S mutant, Kv11.1 K+ currents. Inhibition was prevented by an antioxidant, mitochondrial inhibitors, or inhibition of NO formation. CO also raised ONOO− levels, an effect that was reversed by the ONOO− scavenger, FeTPPS [5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinato-iron(III)], which also prevented the CO inhibition of Kv11.1 currents and abolished the effects of CO on Kv11.1 tail currents and APs in guinea pig myocytes. Our data suggest that CO induces arrhythmias in guinea pig cardiac myocytes via the ONOO−-mediated inhibition of Kv11.1 K+ channels.—Al-Owais, M. M., Hettiarachchi, N. T., Kirton, H. M., Hardy, M. E., Boyle, J. P., Scragg, J. L., Steele, D. S., Peers, C. A key role for peroxynitrite-mediated inhibition of cardiac ERG (Kv11.1) K+ channels in carbon monoxide–induced proarrhythmic early afterdepolarizations. PMID:28743763

  6. [Values of combination of urinary L-FABP and NGAL in early diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children].

    PubMed

    Tang, Rong; Ao, Xiang; Zhong, Yong; Wang, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Qiao-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the values of combination of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in children. A total of 97 children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were enrolled. Serum and urine samples were collected before and after surgery. Levels of serum creatinine (Scr), urinary L-FABP, and urinary NGAL from AKI group (n=18) and non-AKI group (n=79) were measured, and the postoperative dynamic changes in these markers were compared between the two groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under ROC curve (AUC) were used to assess the values of these markers alone or in combination in the prediction of postoperative AKI. The levels of urinary L-FABP and NGAL in the AKI group were significantly higher than those in the non-AKI group at 2 and 6 hours after surgery, and the changes in their concentrations were earlier than Scr. The AUCs of urinary L-FABP alone in predicting AKI at 2 and 6 hours after surgery were 0.921 and 0.896 respectively, and those of urinary NGAL alone were 0.908 and 0.928 respectively. Those of their combination were 0.942 and 0.929 respectively. Urinary L-FABP and NGAL significantly increase in the early stage of AKI after cardiac surgery in children, which are significantly earlier than the changes in Scr. They can be used to predict the occurrence of AKI in the early stage. A combination of the two biomarkers can further improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

  7. Early cysteine-dependent inactivation of 26S proteasomes does not involve particle disassembly.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Martín; Korovila, Ioanna; Köhler, Markus; García-García, Carlos; Cabrera-García, J Daniel; Marina, Anabel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Grune, Tilman

    2018-06-01

    Under oxidative stress 26S proteasomes suffer reversible disassembly into its 20S and 19S subunits, a process mediated by HSP70. This inhibits the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome and allows the degradation of oxidized proteins by a free 20S proteasome. Low fluxes of antimycin A-stimulated ROS production caused dimerization of mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 and cytosolic peroxiredoxin 2, but not peroxiredoxin overoxidation and overall oxidation of cellular protein thiols. This moderate redox imbalance was sufficient to inhibit the ATP stimulation of 26S proteasome activity. This process was dependent on reversible cysteine oxidation. Moreover, our results show that this early inhibition of ATP stimulation occurs previous to particle disassembly, indicating an intermediate step during the redox regulation of the 26S proteasome with special relevance under redox signaling rather than oxidative stress conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Drosophila caspases involved in developmentally regulated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons during early metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyunghee; Wang, Zixing; Sehgal, Ritika; Chen, Chun-Hong; Kikuno, Keiko; Hay, Bruce; Park, Jae H

    2011-01-01

    A great number of obsolete larval neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system are eliminated by developmentally programmed cell death (PCD) during early metamorphosis. To elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal PCD occurring during this period, we undertook genetic dissection of seven currently known Drosophila caspases in the PCD of a group of interneurons (vCrz) that produce corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide in the ventral nerve cord. The molecular death program in the vCrz neurons initiates within 1 hour after pupariation, as demonstrated by the cytological signs of cell death and caspase activation. PCD was significantly suppressed in dronc-null mutants, but not in null mutants of either dredd or strica. A double mutation lacking both dronc and strica impaired PCD phenotype more severely than did a dronc mutation alone, but comparably to a triple dredd/strica/dronc mutation, indicating that dronc is a main initiator caspase, while strica plays a minor role that overlaps with dronc's. As for effector caspases, vCrz PCD requires both ice and dcp-1 functions, as they work cooperatively for a timely removal of the vCrz neurons. Interestingly, the activation of the Ice and Dcp-1 is not solely dependent on Dronc and Strica, implying an alternative pathway to activate the effectors. Two remaining effector caspase genes, decay and damm, found no apparent functions in the neuronal PCD, at least during early metamorphosis. Overall, our work revealed that vCrz PCD utilizes dronc, strica, dcp-1, and ice wherein the activation of Ice and Dcp-1 requires a novel pathway in addition to the initiator caspases.

  9. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to 56Fe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Samy S.; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a ;priming; dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a ;challenge; dose of 56Fe in a mouse model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of 56Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of 56Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Results: Exposure to 56Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before 56Fe prevented all of the responses to 56Fe. Conclusions: This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions.

  10. Significant correlation of comprehensive Aristotle score with total cardiac output during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Cai, Sally; Walsh, Mark; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-07-01

    The comprehensive Aristotle score has been proposed as an individualized measure of the complexity of a given surgical procedure and has been reported to significantly correlate with postoperative morbidity and mortality after the Norwood procedure. An important factor leading to postoperative morbidity and mortality is low cardiac output. We studied the correlation between the comprehensive Aristotle score and cardiac output (CO) in infants after the Norwood procedure. Respiratory mass spectrometry was used to continuously measure systemic oxygen consumption (VO(2)) in 22 infants for 72 hours postoperatively. Arterial, superior vena caval and pulmonary venous blood gases were measured at 2 to 4 hour intervals to calculate CO. The comprehensive Aristotle score was collected. Hospital mortality was 4.5%. The comprehensive Aristotle score ranged from 14.5 to 23.5 and negatively correlated with CO (P = 0.027). Among the patient-adjusted factors, myocardial dysfunction (n = 10), mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure (n = 9) and atrioventricular valve regurgitation (n = 4) (P = 0.01) negatively correlated with CO (P = 0.06 to 0.07). Aortic atresia (n = 9) was associated with a lower CO (P = 0.01) for the first 24 hours which linearly increased overtime (P = 0.0001). No correlation was found between CO and other factors (P > 0.3 for all). Comprehensive Aristotle score significantly negatively correlates with CO after the Norwood procedure. A preoperative estimation of the comprehensive Aristotle score, particularly in association with myocardial dysfunction, mechanical ventilation to treat cardiorespiratory failure, atrioventricular valve regurgitation and aortic atresia may help to anticipate a high postoperative morbidity with low cardiac output syndrome.

  11. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to (56)Fe irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Samy S; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a "priming" dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a "challenge" dose of (56)Fe in a mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of (56)Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of (56)Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Exposure to (56)Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before (56)Fe prevented all of the responses to (56)Fe. This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to 56Fe irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Samy S.; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Boerma, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a “priming” dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a “challenge” dose of 56Fe in a mouse model. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of 56Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of 56Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Results Exposure to 56Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before 56Fe prevented all of the responses to 56Fe. Conclusions This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions. PMID:26948008

  13. Abnormalities in early markers of muscle involvement support a delay in myogenesis in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Rebeca; Bernal, Sara; Alias, Laura; Tizzano, Eduardo F

    2014-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord that results in muscle denervation and profound weakness in affected patients. We sought evidence for primary muscle involvement in the disease during human development by analyzing the expression of several muscle cytoskeletal components (i.e. slow, fast, and developmental myosin, desmin, and vimentin) in fetal or postnatal skeletal muscle samples from 5 SMA cases and 6 controls. At 14 weeks' gestation, SMA samples had higher percentages of myotubes expressing fast myosin and lower percentages of myotubes expressing slow myosin versus control samples. Desmin and vimentin were highly expressed at prenatal stages without notable differences between control and SMA samples, although both proteins showed persistent immunostaining in atrophic fibers in postnatal SMA samples. We also studied the expression of Pax7-positive nuclei as a marker of satellite cells and found no differences between control and SMA prenatal samples. There was, however, a significant increase in satellite cells in postnatal atrophic SMA fibers, suggesting an abnormal myogenic process. Together, these results support the hypothesis of a delay in muscle maturation as one of the primary pathologic components of SMA. Furthermore, myosins and Pax7 may be useful research markers of muscle involvement in this disease.

  14. Multiple Service System Involvement and Later Offending Behavior: Implications for Prevention and Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    We investigated patterns of childhood and adolescent experiences that correspond to later justice system entry, including persistence into adulthood, and explored whether timing of potential supports to the child or onset of family poverty, according to developmental periods and gender, would distinguish among latent classes. We constructed a database containing records for 8587 youths from a Midwestern metropolitan region, born between 1982 and 1991, with outcomes. We used data from multiple publicly funded systems (child welfare, income maintenance, juvenile and criminal justice, mental health, Medicaid, vital statistics). We applied a latent class analysis and interpreted a 7-class model. Classes with higher rates of offending persisting into adulthood were characterized by involvement with multiple publicly funded systems in childhood and adolescence, with the exception of 1 less-urban, predominantly female class that had similarly high system involvement coupled with lower rates of offending. Poverty and maltreatment appear to play a critical role in offending trajectories. Identifying risk factors that cluster together may help program and intervention staff best target those most in need of more intensive intervention.

  15. Involved-node radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Definition and guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).

    PubMed

    Eich, Hans Theodor; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Willich, Normann

    2008-08-01

    Radiotherapy of Hodgkin's Lymphoma has evolved from extended-field to involved-field (IF) radiotherapy reducing toxicity whilst maintaining high cure rates. Recent publications recommend further reduction in the radiation field to involved-node (IN) radiotherapy; however, this concept has never been tested in a randomized trial. The German Hodgkin Study Group aims to compare it with standard IF radiotherapy in their future HD17 trial. ALL patients must be examined by the radiation oncologist before the start of chemotherapy. At that time, patients must have complete staging CT scans. For patients with IN radiotherapy, a radiation planning CT before and after chemotherapy with patients in the treatment position is recommended. Fusion techniques, allowing the overlapping of the pre- and postchemotherapy CT scans, should be used. Usage of PET-CT scans with patients in the treatment position is recommended, whenever possible. The clinical target volume encompasses the initial volume of the Lymph node(s) before chemotherapy and incorporates the initial Location and extent of the disease taking the displacement of the normal tissues into account. The margin of the planning target volume should be 2 cm in axial and 3 cm in craniocaudal direction. If necessary, it can be reduced to 1-1.5 cm. To minimize Lung and cardiac toxicity, the target definition in the mediastinum is different. The concept of IN radiotherapy has been proposed as a means to further improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing the risk of radiation-induced toxicity, including second malignancies. Field sizes wiLL further decrease compared to IF radiotherapy.

  16. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. PMID:27899502

  17. Early transcriptional response to biotic stress in mixed starter fermentations involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Tronchoni, Jordi; Curiel, Jose Antonio; Morales, Pilar; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2017-01-16

    Advances in microbial wine biotechnology have led to the recent commercialization of several non-Saccharomyces starter cultures. These are intended to be used in either simultaneous or sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The different types of microbial interactions that can be stablished during wine fermentation acquire an increased relevance in the context of these mixed-starter fermentations. We analysed the transcriptional response to co-cultivation of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. The study focused in the initial stages of wine fermentation, before S. cerevisiae completely dominates the mixed cultures. Both species showed a clear response to the presence of each other, even though the portion of the genome showing altered transcription levels was relatively small. Changes in the transcription pattern suggested a stimulation of metabolic activity and growth, as a consequence of the presence of competitors in the same medium. The response of S. cerevisiae seems to take place earlier, as compared to T. delbrueckii. Enhanced glycolytic activity of the mixed culture was confirmed by the CO 2 production profile during these early stages of fermentation. Interestingly, HSP12 expression appeared induced by co-cultivation for both of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii in the two time points studied. This might be related with a recently described role of Hsp12 in intercellular communication in yeast. Expression of S. cerevisiae PAU genes was also stimulated in mixed cultures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nonsynaptic glycine release is involved in the early KCC2 expression.

    PubMed

    Allain, Anne-Emilie; Cazenave, William; Delpy, Alain; Exertier, Prisca; Barthe, Christophe; Meyrand, Pierre; Cattaert, Daniel; Branchereau, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The cation-chloride co-transporters are important regulators of the cellular Cl(-) homeostasis. Among them the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) is responsible for intracellular chloride accumulation in most immature brain structures, whereas the K(+) -Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) extrudes chloride from mature neurons, ensuring chloride-mediated inhibitory effects of GABA/glycine. We have shown that both KCC2 and NKCC1 are expressed at early embryonic stages (E11.5) in the ventral spinal cord (SC). The mechanisms by which KCC2 is prematurely expressed are unknown. In this study, we found that chronically blocking glycine receptors (GlyR) by strychnine led to a loss of KCC2 expression, without affecting NKCC1 level. This effect was not dependent on the firing of Na(+) action potentials but was mimicked by a Ca(2+) -dependent PKC blocker. Blocking the vesicular release of neurotransmitters did not impinge on strychnine effect whereas blocking volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) chloride channels reproduced the GlyR blockade, suggesting that KCC2 is controlled by a glycine release from progenitor radial cells in immature ventral spinal networks. Finally, we showed that the strychnine treatment prevented the maturation of rhythmic spontaneous activity. Thereby, the GlyR-activation is a necessary developmental process for the expression of functional spinal motor networks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 764-779, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Impact of onsite or dispatched automated external defibrillator use on early survival after sudden cardiac arrest occurring in international airports].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena Linda; Caffrey-Villari, Sherry; Ramirez, Diomeda; Caron, Jean-Luc; Mannhart, Patrice; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Lapostolle, Frederic; Adnet, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health challenge. Use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by laypersons improves survival of patient's victim of OHCA. The aim of our study was to compare onsite AED vs. dispatched AED management of cardiac arrest occurring in international airports. We conducted a retrospective, observational, comparative, study on data collected from three international airports: Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle (CDG), Chicago and Madrid-Barajas. We included patients with OHCA occurring inside the airport between 2009 and 2013. Group public access (PUB) included airports where AED were available to laypersons and group dispatched (SEC) was represented by Paris-CDG airport where AED was provided by paramedic teams. The primary endpoint was successful resuscitation defined as survival at time of hospital admission. We included 150 consecutive patients victim of OHCA in the three airports. The time between collapse and AED setting was significantly shorter in the PUB vs. SEC group (4±3minutes vs. 11±11, P=0.0006). The total duration of resuscitation was shorter in the PUB group (10±10minutes vs. 36±25minutes, P<0.0001). Survival at time of hospital admission was higher in the PUB group (62% vs. 38%, P=0.01). The availability of public access AEDs in international airports seems to allow a quicker defibrillation and an increased success rate of resuscitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac Endothelial Cell Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lother, Achim; Bergemann, Stella; Deng, Lisa; Moser, Martin; Bode, Christoph; Hein, Lutz

    2018-03-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are a highly specialized cell type with marked diversity between different organs or vascular beds. Cardiac ECs are an important player in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology but are not sufficiently characterized yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the cardiac EC transcriptome. We applied fluorescence-assisted cell sorting to isolate pure ECs from adult mouse hearts. RNAseq revealed 1288 genes predominantly expressed in cardiac ECs versus heart tissue including several transcription factors. We found an overrepresentation of corresponding transcription factor binding motifs within the promotor region of EC-enriched genes, suggesting that they control the EC transcriptome. Cardiac ECs exhibit a distinct gene expression profile when compared with renal, cerebral, or pulmonary ECs. For example, we found the Meox2 / Tcf15, Fabp4 , and Cd36 signaling cascade higher expressed in cardiac ECs which is a key regulator of fatty acid uptake and involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The results from this study provide a comprehensive resource of gene expression and transcriptional control in cardiac ECs. The cardiac EC transcriptome exhibits distinct differences in gene expression compared with other cardiac cell types and ECs from other organs. We identified new candidate genes that have not been investigated in ECs yet as promising targets for future evaluation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Cardiac involvement in facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy: a family study using Thallium-201 single-photon-emission-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Faustmann, P M; Farahati, J; Rupilius, B; Dux, R; Koch, M C; Reiners, C

    1996-12-01

    Fifteen persons from two consecutive generations of one family affected with facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) were clinically and neurophysiologically examined. Diagnostic muscle biopsies were obtained from two members. Linkage analysis showed that all four affected members of the family inherit the same 4q35 haplotype giving a lod score of z = +1.44. Six family members were examined by ECG at rest and under stress, by two-dimensional echocardiography, and by cardiac Thallium-201 single-photon-emission computed tomography (Tl-201-SPECT) under dobutamine stress and at rest. Abnormal reduced Tl-201 uptake in cardiac SPECT was only found in the affected members of the family. Therefore we suggest that cardiac Tl-201-SPECT abnormalities in FSHD reflect cardiomyogenic changes in this type of muscular disease.

  2. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  3. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization ...

  4. Sudden unexpected death owing to unilateral medial medullary infarction with early involvement of the respiratory center.

    PubMed

    Hata, Yukiko; Yoshida, Koji; Kinoshita, Koshi; Nishida, Naoki

    2014-05-01

    A 64-year-old woman was found dead in her home. At autopsy, although relatively fresh bruises were found on her body, no lethal injury was observed in an internal observation. Mild edematous swelling of the right half of the medulla oblongata was observed. There was acute medial medullary infarction (MMI), which mainly involved the nucleus hypoglossi, medial lemniscus, hypoglossal root, inferior olivary nucleus, and pyramidal tract. Subacute infarction of the lower part of the cerebellum was also found, and severe atherosclerosis of the right vertebral artery containing thrombi was found as the culprit lesion. Immunohistochemistry using amyloid precursor protein (APP) was positive in neuronal tissue in the nucleus ambiguus, despite not showing coagulative necrosis in the nucleus. Therefore, acute ischemic necrosis of the nucleus ambiguus, which is considered to be a component of the dorsal respiratory group, may be a significant finding for her expected death. Immunohistochemistry of APP may be useful for confirming the precise extent of acute ischemia in brain stem infarction, such as unilateral MMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A first city-wide early defibrillation project in a German city: 5-year results of the Bochum against sudden cardiac arrest study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Immediate defibrillation is the decisive determinant of prognosis in patients suffering from cardiac/circulatory arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation (VF). Therefore, various national and international associations recommend that first responders use defibrillators as soon as possible and also recommend public access to early defibrillation programmes. Here we report the results of the first city-wide early defibrillation project in a large German urban area. Methods There were 155 automated external defibrillators (AEDs) put into operation in the Bochum municipal area, and 6,294 people took part in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and AED training. Free, accessible AEDs were installed in places with large volumes of people. Additionally, emergency forces were progressively equipped with AEDs. Results Twelve AED administrations prior to the arrival of an emergency physician were recorded and analysed over a period of 5 years (08/2004-08/2009). Rhythm analysis via AED demonstrated VF in seven cases, non-malignant dysrhythmias in four cases and asystole in one case. Two of the seven patients with VF were successfully defibrillated and survived cardiac/circulatory arrest without any neurological sequelae. Eight of the 12 AED applications were performed by laymen. The mean time between switching the unit on and applying the electrodes to the patient was 39 seconds (SD +/-20 sec). On average, another 20 seconds elapsed before the AED recommendation of "shock delivery" was displayed, and a total of 96 seconds elapsed before shock administration (± 56 sec). Conclusion Consistent with other reports, our findings show that the organisation of a city-wide initiative by a project office combining public access and first-responder defibrillation programmes can be safe, feasible and successful. Our experiences confirm that strategic planning of AED placement is a prerequisite for successful, cost-effective resuscitation. PMID:20550655

  6. Age and benefit of early coronary angiography after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in patients presenting with shockable rhythm: Insights from the Sudden Death Expertise Center registry.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Nadia; Bougouin, Wulfran; Dumas, Florence; Beganton, Franckie; Chocron, Richard; Varenne, Olivier; Spaulding, Christian; Karam, Nicole; Montalescot, Gilles; Aubry, Pierre; Sideris, Georges; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier; Cariou, Alain

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the association between provision of post-resuscitation care and prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in elderly patients. Previous studies have suggested futility after 65 years of age. We aimed to evaluate the association of early coronary angiogram (CAG) followed if necessary by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with favorable outcome after OHCA among elderly patients, compared to younger patients. Using a large French registry, we included all OHCA patients with an initial shockable rhythm, transported to hospital from 2011 to 2015. Favorable outcome was defined as hospital discharge with Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 or 2. and were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age groups: <65, 65-75 and >75 years. Among 1502 included patients, 31% were older than 65 and 12% older than 75 years. An early CAG was performed in 79%, 88% and 76% of patients below 65, between 65 and 75 and above 75, respectively (P = 0.002). The rate of patients discharged with CPC1 or 2 was 42% below 65, 38% between 65 and 75 and 24% above 75 (P < 0.001). Among the whole population, early CAG (OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 3.9-10.5, P < 0.001) was associated with favorable outcome. In subgroups analysis, CAG was associated with favorable outcome among patients <65 and 65-75. In patients >75, there was a trend towards a favorable outcome (OR2.9, 95CI = 0.9-9.1). In a large registry of OHCA survivors, the early CAG use was associated with a better prognosis. This benefit was persistent up to 75 years of age, suggesting that age alone should not guide the decision for early invasive strategy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Involvement of scientific societies in early benefit assessment: Simulated participation or valuable additional input?

    PubMed

    Bleß, Hans-Holger; Seidlitz, Cornelia; Ohlmeier, Christoph; de Millas, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The German framework of early benefit assessment (EBA) of drugs also provides for the participation of scientific medical societies. The aim of their inclusion is to assure that care providers can critically assess all aspects of the EBA and provide insights into relevant aspects regarding the provision of care. This study systematically reviews the frequency of participation of the scientific medical societies (FGs) and the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (AkdÄ) within the scope of the EBA. In addition, the positioning of AkdÄ/FG is compared to the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) with a focus on antidiabetic drugs and cancer drugs. A literature analysis was performed based on the comprehensive documentation of benefit assessments published by G-BA. All proceedings of antidiabetic drugs and cancer drugs were included, for which a decision was published by August 6, 2015. In addition, statements of FGs or AkdÄ were identified by an exploratory literature review and included in the analysis. The statements considered were assessed with regard to three categories: (1) additional benefit, (2) appropriate comparator (ZVT) and (3) suitability of the endpoints. For each procedure and category, it was assessed whether there was agreement or disagreement between IGWiG/G-BA and AkdÄ/FGs statements. Regarding the additional benefit, a deviating position was further differentiated according to the level of additional benefit (higher/lower). Afterwards, the proportion of favorable and unfavorable positions was calculated, stratified by FGs and AkdÄ and, separately, for proceedings of antidiabetics and cancer drugs. The literature review revealed 41 proceedings of cancer drugs and 21 proceedings of antidiabetic drugs which were included in the analyses. Statements by AkdÄ/FGs were identified in 90 % of the proceedings for antidiabetic drugs and in 98 % of the proceedings for cancer drugs

  8. Knock-in mice harboring a Ca(2+) desensitizing mutation in cardiac troponin C develop early onset dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Bradley K; Singh, Sonal; Fan, Qiying; Hernandez, Adriana; Portillo, Jesus P; Reiser, Peter J; Tikunova, Svetlana B

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of aberrant Ca(2+) binding and exchange with cardiac myofilaments are not clearly understood. In order to examine the effect of decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of cTnC on cardiac function, we generated knock-in mice carrying a D73N mutation (not known to be associated with heart disease in human patients) in cTnC. The D73N mutation was engineered into the regulatory N-domain of cTnC in order to reduce Ca(2+) sensitivity of reconstituted thin filaments by increasing the rate of Ca(2+) dissociation. In addition, the D73N mutation drastically blunted the extent of Ca(2+) desensitization of reconstituted thin filaments induced by cTnI pseudo-phosphorylation. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygous knock-in mice carrying the D73N mutation exhibited a substantially decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development in skinned ventricular trabeculae. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that median survival time for knock-in mice was 12 weeks. Echocardiographic analysis revealed that knock-in mice exhibited increased left ventricular dimensions with thinner walls. Echocardiographic analysis also revealed that measures of systolic function, such as ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS), were dramatically reduced in knock-in mice. In addition, knock-in mice displayed electrophysiological abnormalities, namely prolonged QRS and QT intervals. Furthermore, ventricular myocytes isolated from knock-in mice did not respond to β-adrenergic stimulation. Thus, knock-in mice developed pathological features similar to those observed in human patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In conclusion, our results suggest that decreasing Ca(2+) sensitivity of the regulatory N-domain of cTnC is sufficient to trigger the development of DCM.

  9. Alteration of diffusion-tensor MRI measures in brain regions involved in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Kuei; Chou, Ying-Hui; Sundman, Mark; Hickey, Patrick; Kasoff, Willard S; Bernstein, Adam; Trouard, Theodore P; Lin, Tanya; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Sherman, Scott J; Weingarten, Carol

    2018-06-07

    Many non-motor symptoms (e.g., hyposmia) appear years before the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is thus desirable to be able to use noninvasive brain imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to detect brain abnormalities in early PD stages. Among the MRI modalities, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is suitable for detecting changes of brain tissue structure due to neurological diseases. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether DTI signals measured from brain regions involved in early stages of PD differ from those of healthy controls. To answer this question, we analyzed whole-brain DTI data of 30 early-stage PD patients and 30 controls using improved ROI based analysis methods. Results showed that 1) the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the olfactory tract (connected with the olfactory bulb: one of the first structures affected by PD) are lower in PD patients than healthy controls; 2) FA values are higher in PD patients than healthy controls in the following brain regions: corticospinal tract, cingulum (near hippocampus), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (temporal part). Experimental results suggest that the tissue property, measured by FA, in olfactory regions is structurally modulated by PD with a mechanism that is different from other brain regions.

  10. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  11. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Bouteau, François

    2014-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·–) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·– generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca2+]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD. PMID:24420571

  12. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    PubMed

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Urinary L-FABP and its combination with urinary NGAL in early diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shang; Che, Miaolin; Xue, Song; Xie, Bo; Zhu, Mingli; Lu, Renhua; Zhang, Weimin; Qian, Jiaqi; Yan, Yucheng

    2013-02-01

    The early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) may be become possible by several promising early biomarkers which may facilitate the early detection, differentiation and prognosis prediction of AKI. In this study, we investigated the value of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and their combination in predicting the occurrence and the severity of AKI following cardiac surgery. We prospectively followed 109 patients undergoing open heart surgery and identified 26 that developed AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl or ≥150% of baseline creatinine. Serum creatinine (SCr), urinary L-FABP, and NGAL corrected by urine creatinine were tested pre-operation, at 0 hour and 2 hours post-operation. Each marker was assessed at each time point between patients with and without AKI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under curves (AUC) were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urinary L-FABP, NGAL and their combination for predicting AKI. Patients were aged 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 66.1% were male and baseline SCr was 70.5 ± 19.1 umol/L. Of 109 patients, 26(23.9%) developed AKI (AKIN stage I, II and III were 46.2%, 34.6% and 19.2% separately). The levels of urinary L-FABP and NGAL were significantly higher in AKI patients than non-AKI patients at 0 hour and 2 hours postoperative. AUCs for L-FABP was 0.844 (sensitivity (ST) 0.846, specificity (SP) 0.819, cut-off (CO) 2226.50 μg/g Ucr) at 0 hours and 0.832 at 2 hours (ST 0.808, SP 0.747, CO 673.09 μg/g Ucr) while 0.866 for NGAL at 0 hours (ST 0.769, SP 0.819, CO 131.12 μg/g Ucr) and 0.871 at 2 hours (ST 0.808, SP 0.831, CO 33.73 μg/g Ucr) to predict AKI occurrence. Using a combination of L-FABP and NGAL analyzed at the same timepoint as above, we were able to obtain an AUC of 0.911-0.927, p < 0.001. Similar AUCs of 0.81-0.87 were found to predict AKI stage II-III. Urinary L-FABP and NGAL increased at an

  14. Predicted Risk of Radiation-Induced Cancers After Involved Field and Involved Node Radiotherapy With or Without Intensity Modulation for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma in Female Patients

    SciT

    Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@unige.ch; Johanson, Safora; Peguret, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the excess relative risk (ERR) of radiation-induced cancers (RIC) in female patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) female patients treated with conformal (3DCRT), intensity modulated (IMRT), or volumetric modulated arc (RA) radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Plans for 10 early-stage HL female patients were computed for 3DCRT, IMRT, and RA with involved field RT (IFRT) and involvednode RT (INRT) radiation fields. Organs at risk dose--volume histograms were computed and inter-compared for IFRT vs. INRT and 3DCRT vs. IMRT/RA, respectively. The ERR for cancer induction in breasts, lungs, and thyroid was estimated using both linear and nonlinear models. Results:more » The mean estimated ERR for breast, lung, and thyroid were significantly lower (p < 0.01) with INRT than with IFRT planning, regardless of the radiation delivery technique used, assuming a linear dose-risk relationship. We found that using the nonlinear model, the mean ERR values were significantly (p < 0.01) increased with IMRT or RA compared to those with 3DCRT planning for the breast, lung, and thyroid, using an IFRT paradigm. After INRT planning, IMRT or RA increased the risk of RIC for lung and thyroid only. Conclusions: In this comparative planning study, using a nonlinear dose--risk model, IMRT or RA increased the estimated risk of RIC for breast, lung, and thyroid for HL female patients. This study also suggests that INRT planning, compared to IFRT planning, may reduce the ERR of RIC when risk is predicted using a linear model. Observing the opposite effect, with a nonlinear model, however, questions the validity of these biologically parameterized models.« less

  15. Early glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein phosphatase 2A independent tau dephosphorylation during global brain ischaemia and reperfusion following cardiac arrest and the role of the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Majd, Shohreh; Power, John H T; Koblar, Simon A; Grantham, Hugh J M

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal tau phosphorylation (p-tau) has been shown after hypoxic damage to the brain associated with traumatic brain injury and stroke. As the level of p-tau is controlled by Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3β, Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK), different activity levels of these enzymes could be involved in tau phosphorylation following ischaemia. This study assessed the effects of global brain ischaemia/reperfusion on the immediate status of p-tau in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reported an early dephosphorylation of tau at its AMPK sensitive residues, Ser(396) and Ser(262) after 2 min of ischaemia, which did not recover during the first two hours of reperfusion, while the tau phosphorylation at GSK-3β sensitive but AMPK insensitive residues, Ser(202) /Thr(205) (AT8), as well as the total amount of tau remained unchanged. Our data showed no alteration in the activities of GSK-3β and PP2A during similar episodes of ischaemia of up to 8 min and reperfusion of up to 2 h, and 4 weeks recovery. Dephosphorylation of AMPK followed the same pattern as tau dephosphorylation during ischaemia/reperfusion. Catalase, another AMPK downstream substrate also showed a similar pattern of decline to p-AMPK, in ischaemic/reperfusion groups. This suggests the involvement of AMPK in changing the p-tau levels, indicating that tau dephosphorylation following ischaemia is not dependent on GSK-3β or PP2A activity, but is associated with AMPK dephosphorylation. We propose that a reduction in AMPK activity is a possible early mechanism responsible for tau dephosphorylation. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A randomized trial of early versus delayed mediastinal drain removal after cardiac surgery using silastic and conventional tubes

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Emmanuel; Miller, Corey S.; Jensen, Henrik; Basmadjian, Arsène; Bouchard, Denis; Carrier, Michel; Perrault, Louis P.; Cartier, Raymond; Pellerin, Michel; Demers, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mediastinal drainage following cardiac surgery with traditional large-bore plastic tubes can be painful and cumbersome. This study was designed to determine whether prolonged drainage (5 days) with a silastic tube decreased the incidence of significant pericardial effusion and tamponade following aortic or valvular surgery. METHODS One hundred and fifty patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery in a tertiary cardiac surgery institution were randomized to receive a conventional mediastinal tube plus a silastic Blake drain (n = 75), or two conventional tubes (n = 75). Conventional drains were removed on postoperative day (POD) 1, while Blake drains were removed on POD 5. The primary end-point was the combined incidence of significant pericardial effusion (≥15 mm) or tamponade through POD 5. Secondary end-points included total mediastinal drainage, postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) and pain. RESULTS Analysis was performed for 67 patients in the Blake group and 73 in the conventional group. There was no difference between the two groups in the combined end-point of significant effusion or tamponade (7.4 vs 8.3%, P = 0.74), or in the incidence of AF (47 vs 46%, P = 0.89). Mean 24-h drainage was greater in the Blake group than in the conventional group (749 ± 444 ml vs 645 ± 618 ml, P < 0.01). Overall incidence of significant pericardial effusion at 30 days was 12.1% (n = 17), with 5% (n = 7) requiring drainage. The Blake group had a numerically lower incidence of effusion requiring drainage at POD 30 (3.0 vs 6.8%, P = 0.44). Postoperative pain was similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing ascending aortic or valvular surgery, prolonged drainage with silastic tubes is safe and does not increase postoperative pain. There was no difference between the Blake and conventional drains with regard to significant pericardial effusion or tamponade in this cohort; however, this conclusion is limited by the low overall incidence of the

  17. Risks for Early Substance Involvement Associated with Parental Alcoholism and Parental Separation in an Adolescent Female Cohort*

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Method Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n = 613 African Ancestry (AA), n = 3550 European or other Ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. Results In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. Conclusion For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. PMID:24647368

  18. Risks for early substance involvement associated with parental alcoholism and parental separation in an adolescent female cohort.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mary; Vaughan, Ellen L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Sartor, Carolyn E; Duncan, Alexis E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-05-01

    We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n=613 African Ancestry (AA), n=3550 European or other ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Importance of Early Worsening Renal Function Following Initiation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Dries, Daniel L.; Coca, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Worsening renal function (WRF) in the setting of heart failure has been associated with increased mortality. However, it is unclear if this decreased survival is a direct result of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or if the mechanism underlying the deterioration in GFR is driving prognosis. Given that WRF in the setting of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) initiation is likely mechanistically distinct from spontaneously occurring WRF, we sought to investigate the relative early WRF associated mortality rates in subjects randomized to ACE-I or placebo. Methods and Results Subjects in the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction limited data set were studied (6,377 patients). The interaction between early WRF (decrease in estimated GFR ≥20% at 14 days), randomization to enalapril, and mortality was the primary endpoint. In the overall population, early WRF was associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR=1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4, p=0.037). When analysis was restricted to the placebo group, this association strengthened (adjusted HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8, p=0.004). However, in the enalapril group, early WRF had no adverse prognostic significance (adjusted HR=1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.3, p=1.0, p interaction=0.09). In patients that continued study drug despite early WRF, a survival advantage remained with enalapril therapy (adjusted HR=0.66, 95% CI 0.5–0.9, p=0.018). Conclusions These data support the notion that the mechanism underlying WRF is important in determining its prognostic significance. Specifically, early WRF in the setting of ACE-I initiation appears to represent a benign event which is not associated with a loss of benefit from continued ACE-I therapy. PMID:21903907

  20. Perfusion MRI in Early Stage of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease to Predict Lateral Pillar Involvement: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Harry K W; Wiesman, Kathryn D; Kulkarni, Vedant; Burgess, Jamie; Chen, Elena; Brabham, Case; Ikram, Haseeb; Du, Jerry; Lu, Amanda; Kulkarni, Ashok V; Dempsey, Molly; Herring, J Anthony

    2014-07-16

    Current radiographic classifications for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease cannot be applied at the early stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to quantify the perfusion of the femoral epiphysis in the early stages of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with use of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine if the extent of epiphyseal perfusion can predict the lateral pillar involvement at the mid-fragmentation stage. Twenty-nine patients had gadolinium-enhanced perfusion MRI at the initial stage or early fragmentation stage of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and were followed prospectively. The percent perfusion of the whole epiphysis and its lateral third was measured by four independent observers using image analysis software. The radiographs obtained at the mid-fragmentation stage were used for the lateral pillar classification. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and logistic regression analyses were performed. The mean age (and standard deviation) at diagnosis was 7.7 ± 1.7 years (range, 5.3 to 11.3 years). The mean interval between the MRI and the time of maximum fragmentation was 8.2 ± 5.5 months. The interobserver ICC for the percent perfusion of the lateral third of the epiphysis was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83 to 0.95). The mean percent perfusion of the lateral third of the epiphysis was 92% ± 2%, 68% ± 18%, and 46% ± 12% for the hips in which the lateral pillar was later classified as A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.001). When the perfusion level was ≥90% in the lateral third of the epiphysis, the odds ratio of the lateral pillar being later classified as group A, as opposed to B or C, was 72.0 (CI: 3.5 to 1476). With a perfusion level of ≤55% in the lateral third of the epiphysis, the odds ratio of the lateral pillar being later classified as group C, as opposed to A or B, was 33.3 (CI: 2.8 to 392). Similar results were obtained for the whole epiphysis. Perfusion MRI measurements of the total epiphysis and its

  1. Cardiac arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... it does not necessarily cause death. Sometimes a heart attack can trigger a cardiac arrest, however. Cardiac arrest is caused by a problem with the heart's electrical system, such as: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) . When ...

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000791.htm Cardiac rehabilitation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a program that helps you live ...

  3. Early intracellular signaling events induced by in vitro metreleptin administration in cardiac myocytes and uterine smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, S K; Park, S; Choi, Y; Moon, H-S

    2015-08-05

    Intracellular signaling pathways regulated by leptin have largely been studied in metabolically important organs such as adipose tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that leptin plays a key role in pathophysiology of insulin resistance. However, whether synthetic analog of leptin, metreleptin, has similar effects on cardiac myocytes (CM) and uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC) has not yet been studied. Hence, in order to address these questions, we extended previous observations and investigated in vitro signaling study whether metreleptin may activate key signaling pathways. We observed that metreleptin activates Jak2 and STAT3 signaling pathways in dose- and time-dependent manner in CM and USMC. Also, we found that metreleptin increases ERK1/2, JNK and/or p38 phosphorylation in CM. In vitro metreleptin administration also increased ERK1/2 and/or p38 phosphorylation in USMC. By contrast, JNK was not regulated by in vitro metreleptin administration in USMC. Moreover, metreleptin-activated all signaling pathways were blocked by pre-treatment of PD98095 (ERK inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and/or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), respectively. Finally, metreleptin increased cell size (hypertrophy) in both CM and USMC. Our data provide novel insights into the role of Jak2, STAT3, ERK1/2, JNK and/or p38 as probable mediators of the action of leptin in regulating hypertrophy in CM and USMC.

  4. Opposite effects of statins on mitochondria of cardiac and skeletal muscles: a ‘mitohormesis’ mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and PGC-1

    PubMed Central

    Bouitbir, Jamal; Charles, Anne-Laure; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Kindo, Michel; Daussin, Frédéric; Auwerx, Johan; Piquard, François; Geny, Bernard; Zoll, Joffrey

    2012-01-01

    Aims Statins protect against cardiovascular-related mortality but induce skeletal muscle toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of statins, we tested the hypothesis that statins optimized cardiac mitochondrial function but impaired vulnerable skeletal muscle by inducing different level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods and results In atrium of patients treated with statins, ROS production was decreased and oxidative capacities were enhanced together with an extensive augmentation of mRNAs expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC-1) family. However, in deltoid biopsies from patients with statin-induced muscular myopathy, oxidative capacities were decreased together with ROS increase and a collapse of PGC-1 mRNA expression. Several animal and cell culture experiments were conducted and showed by using ROS scavengers that ROS production was the triggering factor responsible of atorvastatin-induced activation of mitochondrial biogenesis pathway and improvement of antioxidant capacities in heart. Conversely, in skeletal muscle, the large augmentation of ROS production following treatment induced mitochondrial impairments, and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis mechanisms. Quercetin, an antioxidant molecule, was able to counteract skeletal muscle deleterious effects of atorvastatin in rat. Conclusion Our findings identify statins as a new activating factor of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant capacities, and suggest the importance of ROS/PGC-1 signalling pathway as a key element in regulation of mitochondrial function in cardiac as well as skeletal muscles. PMID:21775390

  5. Ripk3 promotes ER stress-induced necroptosis in cardiac IR injury: A mechanism involving calcium overload/XO/ROS/mPTP pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pingjun; Hu, Shunying; Jin, Qinhua; Li, Dandan; Tian, Feng; Toan, Sam; Li, Yang; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yundai

    2018-06-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 3 (Ripk3)-mediated necroptosis contributes to cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through poorly defined mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that Ripk3 was strongly upregulated in murine hearts subjected to IR injury and cardiomyocytes treated with LPS and H 2 O 2 . The higher level of Ripk3 was positively correlated to the infarction area expansion, cardiac dysfunction and augmented cardiomyocytes necroptosis. Function study further illustrated that upregulated Ripk3 evoked the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was accompanied with an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ level ([Ca 2+ ]c) and xanthine oxidase (XO) expression. Activated XO raised cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediated the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and cardiomyocytes necroptosis. By comparison, genetic ablation of Ripk3 abrogated the ER stress and thus blocked the [Ca 2+ ]c overload-XO-ROS-mPTP pathways, favouring a pro-survival state that ultimately resulted in the inhibition of cardiomyocytes necroptosis in the setting of cardiac IR injury. In summary, the present study helps to elucidate how necroptosis is mediated by ER stress, via the calcium overload /XO/ROS/mPTP opening axis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management: An Early Marker of Lower Mortality and Favorable Neurologic Outcome in Comatose Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian; Wanscher, Michael; Pehrson, Steen; Køber, Lars; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Søholm, Helle; Winther-Jensen, Matilde; Pellis, Tommaso; Kuiper, Michael; Erlinge, David; Friberg, Hans; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2016-02-01

    patients treated with targeted temperature management at 36°C. This study confirms an independent association of bradycardia and lower mortality and favorable neurologic outcome in a large cohort of comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated by targeted temperature management at 33°C. Bradycardia during targeted temperature management at 33°C may thus be a novel, early marker of favorable outcome.

  8. Sinus bradycardia during hypothermia in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest - a new early marker of favorable outcome?

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Søholm, Helle; Nielsen, Niklas; Wanscher, Michael; Køber, Lars; Pehrson, Steen; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2015-04-01

    Bradycardia is a common finding in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), presumably as a normal physiological response to low body temperature. We hypothesized that a normal physiological response with sinus bradycardia (SB) indicates less neurological damage and therefore would be associated with lower mortality. We studied 234 consecutive comatose survivors of OHCA with presumed cardiac etiology and shockable primary rhythm, who underwent a full 24-h TH-protocol (33°C) at a tertiary heart center (years: 2004-2010). Primary endpoint was 180-day mortality; secondary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome (180-day cerebral performance category: 1-2). SB, defined as sinus rhythm <50 beats per minute during TH, was present in 115 (49%) patients. Baseline characteristics including sex, witnessed arrest, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and time to return of spontaneous circulation were not different between SB- and no-SB patients. However, SB-patients were younger, 57±14 vs. 63±14 years, p<0.001 and less frequently had known heart failure (7% vs. 20%, p<0.01). Patients experiencing SB during the hypothermia phase of TH had a 17% 180-day mortality rate compared to 38% in no-SB patients (p<0.001), corresponding to a 180-day hazard ratio (HRadjusted=0.45 (0.23-0.88, p=0.02)) in the multivariable analysis. Similarly, SB during hypothermia was directly associated with lower odds of unfavorable neurological outcome (ORunadjusted=0.42 (0.23-0.75, p<0.01). Sinus bradycardia during therapeutic hypothermia is independently associated with a lower 180-day mortality rate and may thus be a novel, early marker of favorable outcome in comatose survivors of OHCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of cardiac comorbidities on early and 1-year outcome after percutaneous mitral valve interventions: data from the German transcatheter mitral valve interventions (TRAMI) registry.

    PubMed

    Schwencke, Carsten; Bijuklic, Klaudija; Ouarrak, Taoufik; Lubos, Edith; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Plicht, Björn; Eggebrecht, Holger; Baldus, Stephan; Schymik, Gerhard; Boekstegers, Peter; Hoffmann, Rainer; Senges, Jochen; Schofer, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The use of the MitraClip system has gained widespread acceptance for the treatment of patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) who are not suitable for the conventional surgery. This study sought to investigate the early and 1-year outcome after MitraClip therapy of patients with MR and cardiac comorbidities. Outcomes through 12-month follow-up of patients (n = 528) who underwent MitraClip implantation were obtained from the German transcatheter mitral valve interventions (TRAMI) registry. The majority of these patients (n = 409, 77.5 %) also suffered from coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 65, 12.3 %) or concomitant valvular aortic disease (AV, n = 54, 10.2 %) were less frequent. Although the prevalent pathogenesis was functional MR, patients with DCM had significantly more frequent a functional MR (96.9 %) compared to patients with CAD (74.9 %) or AV (62.5 %, p < 0.001). Technical success was achieved in 97.5 % of patients. Procedural echocardiograms demonstrated in the vast majority of patients a reduction from severe MR III to mild MR I with no difference between the groups (p = 0.83). The peri-procedural complication rate was very low. At 30-day and 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients were in NYHA functional class II or lower. The rate of death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MACCE) was comparable in the three patient groups during 12-month follow-up (DCM 26.9 %, CAD 30.3 % and AV 27.5 %, p = 0.85). The MitraClip implantation is feasible and safe even in high-risk patients with MR and cardiac comorbidities.

  10. Tissue-Specific Expression of DNA Methyltransferases Involved in Early-Life Nutritional Stress of Chicken, Gallus gallus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong W.; Madkour, Mahmoud; Kuenzel, Wayne J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation was reported as a possible stress-adaptation mechanism involved in the transcriptional regulation of stress responsive genes. Limited data are available on effects of psychological stress and early-life nutritional stress on DNA methylation regulators [DNMTs: DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNMT1 associated protein (DMAP1), DNMT 3 alpha (DNMT3A) and beta (DNMT3B)] in avian species. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate changes in expression of DNMT1, DMAP1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B following acute (AS) or chronic immobilization stress (CS); (2) test immediate effect of early-life nutritional stress [food deprivation (FD) for 12 h (12hFD) or 36 h (36hFD) at the post-hatching period] on expression of DNA methylation regulators and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and the long-term effect of early-life nutritional stress at 6 weeks of age. Expression of DNMTs and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration decreased by CS compared to AS (p < 0.05), indicating differential roles of DNA methylation regulators in the stress response. Plasma CORT at 12hFD and 36hFD birds increased compared to control birds (12hF and 36hF), but there were no significant differences in plasma CORT of 12hFD and 36hFD birds at 6 weeks of age compared to 6 week controls. DNMT1, DMAP1, and DNMT3B expression in the anterior pituitary increased by 12hFD, but decreased at 36hFD compared to their controls (P < 0.05). In liver, DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B expression decreased by 12hFD, however, no significant changes occurred at 36hFD. Expression of DMAP1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B in anterior pituitary and DMAP1 and DNMT3A expression in liver at 6 weeks of age were higher in 36hFD stressed birds compared to controls as well as 12hFD stressed birds. Hepatic GR expression decreased by 12hFD and increased by 36hFD (p < 0.05). Expression patterns of GR in the liver of FD stress-induced birds persisted until 6 weeks of age, suggesting the possible lifelong involvement of liver

  11. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Characteristics of hand involvement in a comparative study of two early RA cohorts from the UK and China.

    PubMed

    Su, Bowen; Ma, Qing; Edwards, Christopher J; Williams, Mark; Adams, Jo

    2017-10-01

    To compare the characteristics of early hand involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using two matched populations, from the UK and China. A cohort comparison study was conducted. Sixty Chinese patients recruited from Shanghai, China were matched on gender and age with 60 patients from a prospective early RA cohort from the UK (SARAH trial). The procedures of data collection in China followed the standard operating procedures employed in the SARAH trial. Outcome measures including Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), medication history and physical assessments were used to assess functional ability and hand impairment. UK patients reported significantly more hand pain (P = 0.015), less satisfaction with dominant hand performance (P  = 0.040), more swollen and tender joints (P = 0.016 and P = 0.001) and greater dexterity of both dominant and non-dominant hands (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001), while Chinese patients had higher disease activity indicated by erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, more rheumatoid factor, less satisfaction in both dominant and non-dominant hand appearances (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) and greater dominant hand deformity (P  = 0.003). No statistically significant differences were seen in range of movement and overall hand function as reported by the MHQ. The severity of RA is not milder in China than in the UK and the characteristics of hand involvement tend to be different. Clinicians should consider country-specific differences in managing pain and delivering treatment. It would be helpful for a future study to investigate the RA impact characteristics on a wider range of patients both from within China and from other populations. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. On the Evolution of the Cardiac Pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Silja; van Eif, Vincent; Garric, Laurence; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The rhythmic contraction of the heart is initiated and controlled by an intrinsic pacemaker system. Cardiac contractions commence at very early embryonic stages and coordination remains crucial for survival. The underlying molecular mechanisms of pacemaker cell development and function are still not fully understood. Heart form and function show high evolutionary conservation. Even in simple contractile cardiac tubes in primitive invertebrates, cardiac function is controlled by intrinsic, autonomous pacemaker cells. Understanding the evolutionary origin and development of cardiac pacemaker cells will help us outline the important pathways and factors involved. Key patterning factors, such as the homeodomain transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Shox2, and the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet-1, components of the T-box (Tbx), and bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) families are well conserved. Here we compare the dominant pacemaking systems in various organisms with respect to the underlying molecular regulation. Comparative analysis of the pathways involved in patterning the pacemaker domain in an evolutionary context might help us outline a common fundamental pacemaker cell gene programme. Special focus is given to pacemaker development in zebrafish, an extensively used model for vertebrate development. Finally, we conclude with a summary of highly conserved key factors in pacemaker cell development and function. PMID:29367536

  14. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairments provoked by chronic early-life stress involve excessive activation of CRH receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Autumn S.; Rex, Christopher S.; Chen, Yuncai; Dubé, Céline; Maras, Pamela M.; Grigoriadis, Dimitri E.; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress impairs learning and memory in humans and rodents and disrupts long-term potentiation (LTP) in animal models. These effects are associated with structural changes in hippocampal neurons, including reduced dendritic arborization. Unlike the generally reversible effects of chronic stress on adult rat hippocampus, we have previously found that the effects of early-life stress endure and worsen during adulthood, yet the mechanisms for these clinically important sequelae are poorly understood. Stress promotes secretion of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hippocampal interneurons, activating receptors (CRF1) located on pyramidal cell dendrites. Additionally, chronic CRF1 occupancy negatively affects dendritic arborization in mouse organotypic slice cultures, similar to the pattern observed in middle-aged, early-stressed (CES) rats. Here we found that CRH-expression is augmented in hippocampus of middle-aged CES rats, and then tested if the morphological defects and poor memory performance in these animals involve excessive activation of CRF1 receptors. Central or peripheral administration of a CRF1 blocker following the stress period improved memory performance of CES rats in novel object recognition tests and in the Morris water maze. Consonant with these effects, the antagonist also prevented dendritic atrophy and LTP attenuation in CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. Together, these data suggest that persistently elevated hippocampal CRH-CRF1 interaction contributes importantly to the structural and cognitive impairments associated with early-life stress. Reducing CRF1 occupancy post-hoc normalized hippocampal function during middle-age, thus offering potential mechanism-based therapeutic interventions for children affected by chronic stress. PMID:20881118

  15. Early Changes in QRS Frequency Following Cardiac Resynchronization Predict Hemodynamic Response in Left Bundle Branch Block Patients.

    PubMed

    Niebauer, Mark J; Rickard, John; Tchou, Patrick J; Varma, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    QRS characteristics are the cornerstone of patient selection in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) and baseline QRS ≥150 milliseconds portends a good outcome. We previously showed that baseline QRS frequency analysis adds predictive value to LBBB alone and have hypothesized that a change in frequency characteristics following CRT may produce additional predictive value. We examined the QRS frequency characteristics of 182 LBBB patients before and soon after CRT. Patients were assigned to responder and nonresponder groups. Responders were defined by a decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) ≥15% following CRT. We analyzed the QRS in ECG leads I, AVF, and V3 before and soon after CRT using the discrete Fourier transform algorithm. The percentage of total QRS power within discrete frequency intervals before and after CRT was calculated. The reduction in lead V3 power <10 Hz was the best indicator of response. Baseline QRS width was similar between the responders and nonresponders (162.2 ± 17.2 milliseconds vs. 158 ± 22.1 milliseconds, respectively; P = 0.180). Responders exhibited a greater reduction in QRS power <10 Hz (-17.0 ± 11.9% vs. -6.6 ± 12.5%; P < 0.001) and a significant AUC (0.743; P < 0.001). A ≥8% decline in QRS power <10 Hz produced the best predictive values (PPV = 84%, NPV = 59%). Importantly, when patients with baseline QRS <150 milliseconds were compared, the AUC improved (0.892, P < 0.001). Successful CRT produces a significant reduction in QRS power below 10 Hz, particularly when baseline QRS <150 milliseconds. These results indicate that QRS frequency changes after CRT provide additional predictive value to QRS alone. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Determinants of father involvement with young children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2016-02-01

    The current study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Snow et al., 2007) to explore determinants of resident father involvement. Families (N = 2,900) were measured at 3 time points (9 months, 2 years, and 4 years of age). Father, mother, and child factors were examined in relation to father caregiving and play. Latent change score models indicated that fathers engaged in more caregiving and play behaviors and increased at a faster rate when they more strongly identified with their role as a father. Fathers engaged in more caregiving when mothers reported higher depressive symptoms and increased in play more slowly when marital conflict was higher. In addition, a Mother Depressive Symptoms × Marital Conflict interaction emerged indicating that fathers differed in their levels of caregiving depending on mothers' report of depressive symptoms, but only when marital conflict was low. Fathers also increased in caregiving at a faster rate with girls than boys. A comprehensive framework for examining resident father involvement is presented. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Interventions aimed at reducing obesity in early childhood: a meta-analysis of programs that involve parents.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, H Melis; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Mesman, Judi; van der Veek, Shelley

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a growing problem even in very young childhood, resulting in high costs for individuals and society. As a response, numerous obesity prevention and intervention programs have been developed. Previous research has shown that early intervention programs are more effective when parents are involved, but the effectiveness of specific aspects of programs with parental involvement has not been investigated. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the features related to the effectiveness of different types of obesity intervention programs involving parents and targeting young children (0-6-year-olds). The Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases were searched for childhood obesity prevention and intervention programs involving parents. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) software. Fifty studies with effect sizes measured at short-term follow-up (within 3 months from the end of the intervention) and 26 studies with effect sizes measured at long-term follow-up (all reported in a total of 49 publications) were identified. The combined effect size of interventions was small but significant at short-term follow-up (d = .08, p < .01). The results suggested the presence of a potential publication bias in studies providing results at long-term follow-up, with a nonsignificant adjusted effect size (d = .02), which indicated that obesity interventions were not effective at long-term follow-up. Multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that interventions were more effective when including either interactive sessions or educational materials as opposed to those including both interactive sessions and noninteractive educational materials. No other moderators regarding sample characteristics, study design, or methodological quality were significant. Interventions targeting young children that require parental involvement are effective at short-term follow-up, specifically when interventions include one mode of

  18. Parent Involvement, Parental Depression, and Program Satisfaction among Low-Income Parents Participating in a Two-Generation Early Childhood Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForett, Dore R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study simultaneously examined parental depression and parent involvement as predictors of satisfaction with an early childhood intervention program. Parents (N = 203) of Head Start children participated in this short-term longitudinal study. Measures of parent involvement and satisfaction assessed multiple dimensions of…

  19. Can binary early warning scores perform as well as standard early warning scores for discriminating a patient's risk of cardiac arrest, death or unanticipated intensive care unit admission?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Stuart; Kovacs, Caroline; Briggs, Jim; Meredith, Paul; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B

    2015-08-01

    Although the weightings to be summed in an early warning score (EWS) calculation are small, calculation and other errors occur frequently, potentially impacting on hospital efficiency and patient care. Use of a simpler EWS has the potential to reduce errors. We truncated 36 published 'standard' EWSs so that, for each component, only two scores were possible: 0 when the standard EWS scored 0 and 1 when the standard EWS scored greater than 0. Using 1564,153 vital signs observation sets from 68,576 patient care episodes, we compared the discrimination (measured using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve--AUROC) of each standard EWS and its truncated 'binary' equivalent. The binary EWSs had lower AUROCs than the standard EWSs in most cases, although for some the difference was not significant. One system, the binary form of the National Early Warning System (NEWS), had significantly better discrimination than all standard EWSs, except for NEWS. Overall, Binary NEWS at a trigger value of 3 would detect as many adverse outcomes as are detected by NEWS using a trigger of 5, but would require a 15% higher triggering rate. The performance of Binary NEWS is only exceeded by that of standard NEWS. It may be that Binary NEWS, as a simplified system, can be used with fewer errors. However, its introduction could lead to significant increases in workload for ward and rapid response team staff. The balance between fewer errors and a potentially greater workload needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  1. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p < .001), mean pulmonary arterial pressure fell (p = .012), but central venous pressure (p = .58) and left atrial pressure (p = .20) were unchanged. After adjustment for age, primary diagnosis, pre-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical support, and marginal donor factors, longer total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p < .001) in the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, longer post-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical ventilation (p = .03), longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in the intensive care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contribut