Science.gov

Sample records for early cell divisions

  1. Cell division

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... structure made up of 16 cells. This structure is called a morula, which is Latin for mulberry. The cells continue to divide ... days following conception into a blastocyst. Although it is only the size of a pinhead, the blastocyst ...

  2. Cell Division Synchronization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report summarizes the progress in the design and construction of automatic equipment for synchronizing cell division in culture by periodic...Concurrent experiments in hypothermic synchronization of algal cell division are reported.

  3. The role of a cell surface inhibitor in early signal transduction associated with the regulation of cell division and differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Enebo, D. J.; Moos, P. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Serum stimulation of quiescent human fibroblast cultures resulted in a hyperphosphorylation of the nuclear retinoblastoma gene susceptibility product (RB). However, serum stimulation in the presence of 9 x 10(-8) M of a purified bovine sialoglycopeptide (SGP) cell surface inhibitor abrogated the hyperphosphorylation of the RB protein and the subsequent progression of cells through the mitotic cycle. The experimental results suggest that the SGP mediated its cell cycle arrest at a site in the cell cycle that was at the time of RB phosphorylation or somewhat upstream of the modification of this regulatory protein of cell division. Both cells serum-deprived and serum stimulated in the presence of the SGP displayed only a hypophosphorylated RB protein, consistent with the SGP-mediated cell cycle arrest point being near the G1/S interface.

  4. Gravity and the orientation of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A novel culture system for mammalian cells was used to investigate division orientations in populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the influence of gravity on the positioning of division axes. The cells were tethered to adhesive sites, smaller in diameter than a newborn cell, distributed over a nonadhesive substrate positioned vertically. The cells grew and divided while attached to the sites, and the angles and directions of elongation during anaphase, projected in the vertical plane, were found to be random with respect to gravity. However, consecutive divisions of individual cells were generally along the same axis or at 90 degrees to the previous division, with equal probability. Thus, successive divisions were restricted to orthogonal planes, but the choice of plane appeared to be random, unlike the ordered sequence of cleavage orientations seen during early embryo development.

  5. Cell division and density of symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is controlled by the host's nutritional conditions during early infection process.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    The association of ciliate Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic Chlorella sp. is a mutualistic symbiosis. However, both the alga-free paramecia and symbiotic algae can still grow independently and can be reinfected experimentally by mixing them. Effects of the host's nutritional conditions against the symbiotic algal cell division and density were examined during early reinfection. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that algal cell division starts 24 h after mixing with alga-free P. bursaria, and that the algal mother cell wall is discarded from the perialgal vacuole membrane, which encloses symbiotic alga. Labelling of the mother cell wall with Calcofluor White Stain, a cell-wall-specific fluorochrome, was used to show whether alga had divided or not. Pulse labelling of alga-free P. bursaria cells with Calcofluor White Stain-stained algae with or without food bacteria for P. bursaria revealed that the fluorescence of Calcofluor White Stain in P. bursaria with bacteria disappeared within 3 days after mixing, significantly faster than without bacteria. Similar results were obtained both under constant light and dark conditions. This report is the first describing that the cell division and density of symbiotic algae of P. bursaria are controlled by the host's nutritional conditions during early infection. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The drosophila fragile X protein dFMR1 is required during early embryogenesis for pole cell formation and rapid nuclear division cycles.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Girish; Calhoun, Gretchen; Schedl, Paul

    2006-11-01

    The FMR family of KH domain RNA-binding proteins is conserved from invertebrates to humans. In humans, inactivation of the X-linked FMR gene fragile X is the most common cause of mental retardation and leads to defects in neuronal architecture. While there are three FMR family members in humans, there is only a single gene, dfmr1, in flies. As in humans, inactivation of dfmr1 causes defects in neuronal architecture and in behavior. dfmr1 has other functions in the fly in addition to neurogenesis. Here we have analyzed its role during early embryonic development. We found that dfmr1 embryos display defects in the rapid nuclear division cycles that precede gastrulation in nuclear migration and in pole cell formation. While the aberrations in nuclear division are correlated with a defect in the assembly of centromeric/centric heterochromatin, the defects in pole cell formation are associated with alterations in the actin-myosin cytoskeleton.

  7. Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1.

    PubMed

    Gudipaty, S A; Lindblom, J; Loftus, P D; Redd, M J; Edes, K; Davey, C F; Krishnegowda, V; Rosenblatt, J

    2017-03-02

    Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state. Here we show that mammalian epithelial cell division occurs in regions of low cell density where cells are stretched. By experimentally stretching epithelia, we find that mechanical stretch itself rapidly stimulates cell division through activation of the Piezo1 channel. To stimulate cell division, stretch triggers cells that are paused in early G2 phase to activate calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, thereby activating the cyclin B transcription that is necessary to drive cells into mitosis. Although both epithelial cell division and cell extrusion require Piezo1 at the steady state, the type of mechanical force controls the outcome: stretch induces cell division, whereas crowding induces extrusion. How Piezo1-dependent calcium transients activate two opposing processes may depend on where and how Piezo1 is activated, as it accumulates in different subcellular sites with increasing cell density. In sparse epithelial regions in which cells divide, Piezo1 localizes to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, whereas in dense regions in which cells extrude, it forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. Because Piezo1 senses both mechanical crowding and stretch, it may act as a homeostatic sensor to control epithelial cell numbers, triggering extrusion and apoptosis in crowded regions and cell division in sparse regions.

  8. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P.; Belland, Robert J.; Cox, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  9. The stem cell division theory of cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    All cancer registries constantly show striking differences in cancer incidence by age and among tissues. For example, lung cancer is diagnosed hundreds of times more often at age 70 than at age 20, and lung cancer in nonsmokers occurs thousands of times more frequently than heart cancer in smokers. An analysis of these differences using basic concepts in cell biology indicates that cancer is the end-result of the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells. In other words, the main determinant of carcinogenesis is the number of cell divisions that the DNA of a stem cell has accumulated in any type of cell from the zygote. Cell division, process by which a cell copies and separates its cellular components to finally split into two cells, is necessary to produce the large number of cells required for living. However, cell division can lead to a variety of cancer-promoting errors, such as mutations and epigenetic mistakes occurring during DNA replication, chromosome aberrations arising during mitosis, errors in the distribution of cell-fate determinants between the daughter cells, and failures to restore physical interactions with other tissue components. Some of these errors are spontaneous, others are promoted by endogenous DNA damage occurring during quiescence, and others are influenced by pathological and environmental factors. The cell divisions required for carcinogenesis are primarily caused by multiple local and systemic physiological signals rather than by errors in the DNA of the cells. As carcinogenesis progresses, the accumulation of DNA errors promotes cell division and eventually triggers cell division under permissive extracellular environments. The accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells drives not only the accumulation of the DNA alterations required for carcinogenesis, but also the formation and growth of the abnormal cell populations that characterize the disease. This model of carcinogenesis provides a new framework for understanding the

  10. Teaching Cell Division: Basics and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of cell division that includes only the essential concepts necessary for understanding genetics and evolution. Makes recommendations based on published research and teaching experiences that can be used to judge the merits of potential activities and materials for teaching cell division. Makes suggestions regarding the…

  11. Concerted control of Escherichia coli cell division

    PubMed Central

    Osella, Matteo; Nugent, Eileen; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The coordination of cell growth and division is a long-standing problem in biology. Focusing on Escherichia coli in steady growth, we quantify cell division control using a stochastic model, by inferring the division rate as a function of the observable parameters from large empirical datasets of dividing cells. We find that (i) cells have mechanisms to control their size, (ii) size control is effected by changes in the doubling time, rather than in the single-cell elongation rate, (iii) the division rate increases steeply with cell size for small cells, and saturates for larger cells. Importantly, (iv) the current size is not the only variable controlling cell division, but the time spent in the cell cycle appears to play a role, and (v) common tests of cell size control may fail when such concerted control is in place. Our analysis illustrates the mechanisms of cell division control in E. coli. The phenomenological framework presented is sufficiently general to be widely applicable and opens the way for rigorous tests of molecular cell-cycle models. PMID:24550446

  12. Molecular coordination of Staphylococcus aureus cell division

    PubMed Central

    Cotterell, Bryony E; Walther, Christa G; Fenn, Samuel J; Grein, Fabian; Wollman, Adam JM; Leake, Mark C; Olivier, Nicolas; Cadby, Ashley; Mesnage, Stéphane; Jones, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability, but despite its ability to withstand internal turgor must remain dynamic to permit growth and division. Peptidoglycan is the major cell wall structural polymer, whose synthesis requires multiple interacting components. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a prolate spheroid that divides in three orthogonal planes. Here, we have integrated cellular morphology during division with molecular level resolution imaging of peptidoglycan synthesis and the components responsible. Synthesis occurs across the developing septal surface in a diffuse pattern, a necessity of the observed septal geometry, that is matched by variegated division component distribution. Synthesis continues after septal annulus completion, where the core division component FtsZ remains. The novel molecular level information requires re-evaluation of the growth and division processes leading to a new conceptual model, whereby the cell cycle is expedited by a set of functionally connected but not regularly distributed components. PMID:29465397

  13. Label free cell-tracking and division detection based on 2D time-lapse images for lineage analysis of early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Gutwein, Michelle; Gunsalus, Kristin C; Geiger, Davi

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report a database and a series of techniques related to the problem of tracking cells, and detecting their divisions, in time-lapse movies of mammalian embryos. Our contributions are (1) a method for counting embryos in a well, and cropping each individual embryo across frames, to create individual movies for cell tracking; (2) a semi-automated method for cell tracking that works up to the 8-cell stage, along with a software implementation available to the public (this software was used to build the reported database); (3) an algorithm for automatic tracking up to the 4-cell stage, based on histograms of mirror symmetry coefficients captured using wavelets; (4) a cell-tracking database containing 100 annotated examples of mammalian embryos up to the 8-cell stage; and (5) statistical analysis of various timing distributions obtained from those examples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell Division and Evolution of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Arcenegui-Siemens, Xavier; Schliecker, Gudrun

    A tissue is a geometrical, space-filling, random cellular network; it remains in this steady state while individual cells divide. Cell division (fragmentation) is a local, elementary topological transformation which establishes statistical equilibrium of the structure. Statistical equilibrium is characterized by observable relations (Lewis, Aboav) between cell shapes, sizes and those of their neighbours, obtained through maximum entropy and topological correlation extending to nearest neighbours only, i.e. maximal randomness. For a two-dimensional tissue (epithelium), the distribution of cell shapes and that of mother and daughter cells can be obtained from elementary geometrical and physical arguments, except for an exponential factor favouring division of larger cells, and exponential and combinatorial factors encouraging a most symmetric division. The resulting distributions are very narrow, and stationarity severely restricts the range of an adjustable structural parameter

  15. Early Detection Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"171","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","field_deltas":{"1":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early

  17. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  18. Asymmetries in Cell Division, Cell Size, and Furrowing in the Xenopus laevis Embryo.

    PubMed

    Tassan, Jean-Pierre; Wühr, Martin; Hatte, Guillaume; Kubiak, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions produce two daughter cells with distinct fate. During embryogenesis, this mechanism is fundamental to build tissues and organs because it generates cell diversity. In adults, it remains crucial to maintain stem cells. The enthusiasm for asymmetric cell division is not only motivated by the beauty of the mechanism and the fundamental questions it raises, but has also very pragmatic reasons. Indeed, misregulation of asymmetric cell divisions is believed to have dramatic consequences potentially leading to pathogenesis such as cancers. In diverse model organisms, asymmetric cell divisions result in two daughter cells, which differ not only by their fate but also in size. This is the case for the early Xenopus laevis embryo, in which the two first embryonic divisions are perpendicular to each other and generate two pairs of blastomeres, which usually differ in size: one pair of blastomeres is smaller than the other. Small blastomeres will produce embryonic dorsal structures, whereas the larger pair will evolve into ventral structures. Here, we present a speculative model on the origin of the asymmetry of this cell division in the Xenopus embryo. We also discuss the apparently coincident asymmetric distribution of cell fate determinants and cell-size asymmetry of the 4-cell stage embryo. Finally, we discuss the asymmetric furrowing during epithelial cell cytokinesis occurring later during Xenopus laevis embryo development.

  19. Collective dynamics during cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    In order to correctly divide, cells have to move all their chromosomes at the center, a process known as congression. This task is performed by the combined action of molecular motors and randomly growing and shrinking microtubules. Chromosomes are captured by growing microtubules and transported by motors using the same microtubules as tracks. Coherent motion occurs as a result of a large collection of random and deterministic dynamical events. Understanding this process is important since a failure in chromosome segregation can lead to chromosomal instability one of the hallmarks of cancer. We describe this complex process in a three dimensional computational model involving thousands of microtubules. The results show that coherent and robust chromosome congression can only happen if the total number of microtubules is neither too small, nor too large. Our results allow for a coherent interpretation a variety of biological factors already associated in the past with chromosomal instability and related pathological conditions.

  20. Kinetics of cell division in epidermal maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Allon M.; Doupé, David P.; Jones, Phillip H.; Simons, Benjamin D.

    2007-08-01

    The rules governing cell division and differentiation are central to understanding the mechanisms of development, aging, and cancer. By utilizing inducible genetic labeling, recent studies have shown that the clonal population in transgenic mouse epidermis can be tracked in vivo. Drawing on these results, we explain how clonal fate data may be used to infer the rules of cell division and differentiation underlying the maintenance of adult murine tail-skin. We show that the rates of cell division and differentiation may be evaluated by considering the long-time and short-time clone fate data, and that the data is consistent with cells dividing independently rather than synchronously. Motivated by these findings, we consider a mechanism for cancer onset based closely on the model for normal adult skin. By analyzing the expected changes to clonal fate in cancer emerging from a simple two-stage mutation, we propose that clonal fate data may provide a novel method for studying the earliest stages of the disease.

  1. Division Planes Alternate in Spherical Cells of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Begg, K. J.; Donachie, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the spherical cells of Escherichia coli rodA mutants, division is initiated at a single point, from which a furrow extends progressively around the cell. Using “giant” rodA ftsA cells, we confirmed that each new division furrow is initiated at the midpoint of the previous division plane and runs perpendicular to it. PMID:9573213

  2. Effects of Polyhydroxybutyrate Production on Cell Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kathleen; Rahman, Asif; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biological engineering can be utilized to aide the advancement of improved long-term space flight. The potential to use synthetic biology as a platform to biomanufacture desired equipment on demand using the three dimensional (3D) printer on the International Space Station (ISS) gives long-term NASA missions the flexibility to produce materials as needed on site. Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are biodegradable, have properties similar to plastics, and can be produced in Escherichia coli using genetic engineering. Using PHBs during space flight could assist mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications, particularly through 3D printing. It is well documented that during PHB production E. coli cells can become significantly elongated. The elongation of cells reduces the ability of the cells to divide and thus to produce PHB. I aim to better understand cell division during PHB production, through the design, building, and testing of synthetic biological circuits, and identify how to potentially increase yields of PHB with FtsZ overexpression, the gene responsible for cell division. Ultimately, an increase in the yield will allow more products to be created using the 3D printer on the ISS and beyond, thus aiding astronauts in their missions.

  3. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B.; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O.; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  4. Ubiquitous marine bacterium inhibits diatom cell division.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Helena M; Amin, Shady A; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Intricate relationships between microorganisms structure the exchange of molecules between taxa, driving their physiology and evolution. On a global scale, this molecular trade is an integral component of biogeochemical cycling. As important microorganisms in the world's oceans, diatoms and bacteria have a large impact on marine biogeochemistry. Here, we describe antagonistic effects of the globally distributed flavobacterium Croceibacter atlanticus on a phylogenetically diverse group of diatoms. We used the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana to study the antagonistic impact in more detail. In co-culture, C. atlanticus attaches to T. pseudonana and inhibits cell division, inducing diatom cells to become larger and increase in chlorophyll a fluorescence. These changes could be explained by an absence of cytokinesis that causes individual T. pseudonana cells to elongate, accumulate more plastids and become polyploid. These morphological changes could benefit C. atlanticus by augmenting the colonizable surface area of the diatom, its photosynthetic capabilities and possibly its metabolic secretions.

  5. Lipid Cell Biology: A Focus on Lipids in Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Storck, Elisabeth M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Eggert, Ulrike S

    2018-06-20

    Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis. We analyze how lipids facilitate changes in cellular morphology during division and how they participate in key signaling events. We identify which cytokinesis proteins are associated with membranes, suggesting lipid interactions. More broadly, we highlight key unaddressed questions in lipid cell biology and techniques, including mass spectrometry, advanced imaging, and chemical biology, which will help us gain insights into the functional roles of lipids.

  6. Cell cycles and cell division in the archaea.

    PubMed

    Samson, Rachel Y; Bell, Stephen D

    2011-06-01

    Until recently little was known about the cell cycle parameters and division mechanisms of archaeal organisms. Although this is still the case for the majority of archaea, significant advances have been made in some model species. The information that has been gleaned thus far points to a remarkable degree of diversity within the archaeal domain of life. More specifically, members of distinct phyla have very different chromosome copy numbers, replication control systems and even employ distinct machineries for cell division. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative regulation of B cell division destiny by signal strength.

    PubMed

    Turner, Marian L; Hawkins, Edwin D; Hodgkin, Philip D

    2008-07-01

    Differentiation to Ab secreting and isotype-switched effector cells is tightly linked to cell division and therefore the degree of proliferation strongly influences the nature of the immune response. The maximum number of divisions reached, termed the population division destiny, is stochastically distributed in the population and is an important parameter in the quantitative outcome of lymphocyte responses. In this study, we further assessed the variables that regulate B cell division destiny in vitro in response to T cell- and TLR-dependent stimuli. Both the concentration and duration of stimulation were able to regulate the average maximum number of divisions undergone for each stimulus. Notably, a maximum division destiny was reached during provision of repeated saturating stimulation, revealing that an intrinsic limit to proliferation exists even under these conditions. This limit was linked directly to division number rather than time of exposure to stimulation and operated independently of the survival regulation of the cells. These results demonstrate that a B cell population's division destiny is regulable by the stimulatory conditions up to an inherent maximum value. Division destiny is a crucial parameter in regulating the extent of B cell responses and thereby also the nature of the immune response mounted.

  8. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  9. Are There Really Animals Like That? No Cell Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwelder, R. E.; Garoian, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    Provides examples of animals in which growth occurs without cell division. Indicates that this phenomenon (called cell constancy or eutely) is an oddity of development that has arisen independently in several animal groups. (JN)

  10. Centrosome movement in the early divisions of Caenorhabditis elegans: A cortical site determining centrosome position

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, A.A.

    1989-09-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, early blastomeres of the P cell lineage divide successively on the same axis. This axis is a consequence of the specific rotational movement of the pair of centrosomes and nucleus. A laser has been used to perturb the centrosome movements that determine the pattern of early embryonic divisions. The results support a previously proposed model in which a centrosome rotates towards its correct position by shortening of connections, possibly microtubules, between a centrosome and a defined site on the cortex of the embryo.

  11. Universal rule for the symmetric division of plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Sébastien; Dumais, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The division of eukaryotic cells involves the assembly of complex cytoskeletal structures to exert the forces required for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. In plants, empirical evidence suggests that tensional forces within the cytoskeleton cause cells to divide along the plane that minimizes the surface area of the cell plate (Errera’s rule) while creating daughter cells of equal size. However, exceptions to Errera’s rule cast doubt on whether a broadly applicable rule can be formulated for plant cell division. Here, we show that the selection of the plane of division involves a competition between alternative configurations whose geometries represent local area minima. We find that the probability of observing a particular division configuration increases inversely with its relative area according to an exponential probability distribution known as the Gibbs measure. Moreover, a comparison across land plants and their most recent algal ancestors confirms that the probability distribution is widely conserved and independent of cell shape and size. Using a maximum entropy formulation, we show that this empirical division rule is predicted by the dynamics of the tense cytoskeletal elements that lead to the positioning of the preprophase band. Based on the fact that the division plane is selected from the sole interaction of the cytoskeleton with cell shape, we posit that the new rule represents the default mechanism for plant cell division when internal or external cues are absent. PMID:21383128

  12. Cell division and endoreduplication: doubtful engines of vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    John, Peter C L; Qi, Ruhu

    2008-03-01

    Currently, there is little information to indicate whether plant cell division and development is the collective effect of individual cell programming (cell-based) or is determined by organ-wide growth (organismal). Modulation of cell division does not confirm cell autonomous programming of cell expansion; instead, final cell size seems to be determined by the balance between cells formed and subsequent tissue growth. Control of growth in regions of the plant therefore has great importance in determining cell, organ and plant development. Here, we question the view that formation of new cells and their programmed expansion is the driving force of growth. We believe there is evidence that division does not drive, but requires, cell growth and a similar requirement for growth is detected in the modified cycle termed endoreduplication.

  13. Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Li, Lu; Vogelstein, Bert

    2017-03-24

    Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors (R). We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutations are responsible for two-thirds of the mutations in human cancers. All of these results are consistent with epidemiological estimates of the fraction of cancers that can be prevented by changes in the environment. Moreover, they accentuate the importance of early detection and intervention to reduce deaths from the many cancers arising from unavoidable R mutations. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Cell division cycle 45 promotes papillary thyroid cancer progression via regulating cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Shi, Run; Zhao, Sha; Li, Xiaona; Lu, Shan; Bu, Hemei; Ma, Xianghua

    2017-05-01

    Cell division cycle 45 was reported to be overexpressed in some cancer-derived cell lines and was predicted to be a candidate oncogene in cervical cancer. However, the clinical and biological significance of cell division cycle 45 in papillary thyroid cancer has never been investigated. We determined the expression level and clinical significance of cell division cycle 45 using The Cancer Genome Atlas, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. A great upregulation of cell division cycle 45 was observed in papillary thyroid cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of cell division cycle 45 positively correlates with more advanced clinical characteristics. Silence of cell division cycle 45 suppressed proliferation of papillary thyroid cancer cells via G1-phase arrest and inducing apoptosis. The oncogenic activity of cell division cycle 45 was also confirmed in vivo. In conclusion, cell division cycle 45 may serve as a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for papillary thyroid cancer.

  15. Ploidy-Dependent Unreductional Meiotic Cell Division in Polyploid Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meiosis includes one round of DNA replication and two successive nuclear divisions, i.e. meiosis I (reductional) and meiosis II (equational). This specialized cell division reduces chromosomes in half and generates haploid gametes in sexual reproduction of eukaryotes. It ensures faithful transmiss...

  16. Tissue damage-induced intestinal stem cell division in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Amcheslavsky, Alla; Jiang, Jin; Ip, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Stem cell division is essential for tissue integrity during growth, aging, and pathogenic assaults. Adult gastrointestinal tract encounters numerous stimulations and impaired tissue regeneration may lead to inflammatory diseases and cancer. Intestinal stem cells in adult Drosophila have recently been identified and shown to replenish the various cell types within the midgut. However, it is not known whether these intestinal stem cells can respond to environmental challenges. By feeding dextran sulfate sodium and bleomycin to flies and by expressing apoptotic proteins, we show that Drosophila intestinal stem cells can increase the rate of division in response to tissue damage. Moreover, if tissue damage results in epithelial cell loss, the newly formed enteroblasts can differentiate into mature epithelial cells. By using this newly established system of intestinal stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration, we find that the insulin receptor signaling pathway is required for intestinal stem cell division. PMID:19128792

  17. The distinctive cell division interactome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yinan; Li, Yan; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2017-12-12

    Bacterial cell division is an essential process driven by the formation of a Z-ring structure, as a cytoskeletal scaffold at the mid-cell, followed by the recruitment of various proteins which form the divisome. The cell division interactome reflects the complement of different interactions between all divisome proteins. To date, only two cell division interactomes have been characterized, in Escherichia coli and in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The cell divison proteins encoded by Neisseria gonorrhoeae include FtsZ, FtsA, ZipA, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsI, FtsW, and FtsN. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cell division interactome of N. gonorrhoeae using several different methods to identify protein-protein interactions. We also characterized the specific subdomains of FtsA implicated in interactions with FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsN and FtsW. Using a combination of bacterial two-hybrid (B2H), glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), nine interactions were observed among the eight gonococcal cell division proteins tested. ZipA did not interact with any other cell division proteins. Comparisons of the N. gonorrhoeae cell division interactome with the published interactomes from E. coli and S. pneumoniae indicated that FtsA-FtsZ and FtsZ-FtsK interactions were common to all three species. FtsA-FtsW and FtsK-FtsN interactions were only present in N. gonorrhoeae. The 2A and 2B subdomains of FtsA Ng were involved in interactions with FtsQ, FtsZ, and FtsN, and the 2A subdomain was involved in interaction with FtsW. Results from this research indicate that N. gonorrhoeae has a distinctive cell division interactome as compared with other microorganisms.

  18. Cell division is dispensable but not irrelevant in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Joseph R

    2009-12-01

    In part, members of the genus Streptomyces have been studied because they produce many important secondary metabolites with antibiotic activity and for the interest in their relatively elaborate life cycle. These sporulating filamentous bacteria are remarkably synchronous for division and genome segregation in specialized aerial hyphae. Streptomycetes share some, but not all, of the division genes identified in the historic model rod-shaped organisms. Curiously, normally essential cell division genes are dispensable for growth and viability of Streptomyces coelicolor. Mainly, cell division plays a more important role in the developmental phase of life than during vegetative growth. Dispensability provides an advantageous genetic system to probe the mechanisms of division proteins, especially those with functions that are poorly understood.

  19. Auxin-Dependent Cell Division and Cell Elongation. 1-Naphthaleneacetic Acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Activate Different Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Campanoni, Prisca; Nick, Peter

    2005-01-01

    During exponential phase, the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell line cv Virginia Bright Italia-0 divides axially to produce linear cell files of distinct polarity. This axial division is controlled by exogenous auxin. We used exponential tobacco cv Virginia Bright Italia-0 cells to dissect early auxin signaling, with cell division and cell elongation as physiological markers. Experiments with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) demonstrated that these 2 auxin species affect cell division and cell elongation differentially; NAA stimulates cell elongation at concentrations that are much lower than those required to stimulate cell division. In contrast, 2,4-D promotes cell division but not cell elongation. Pertussis toxin, a blocker of heterotrimeric G-proteins, inhibits the stimulation of cell division by 2,4-D but does not affect cell elongation. Aluminum tetrafluoride, an activator of the G-proteins, can induce cell division at NAA concentrations that are not permissive for division and even in the absence of any exogenous auxin. The data are discussed in a model where the two different auxins activate two different pathways for the control of cell division and cell elongation. PMID:15734918

  20. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  1. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-03-16

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf.

  2. Z ring as executor of bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Dajkovic, Alex; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2006-01-01

    It has become apparent that bacteria possess ancestors of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins. FtsZ, the ancestral homologue of tubulin, assembles into a cytoskeletal structure associated with cell division, designated the Z ring. Formation of the Z ring represents a major point of both spatial and temporal regulation of cell division. Here we discuss findings concerning the structure and the formation of the ring as well as its spatial and temporal regulation.

  3. Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Stem Cell Divisions: An Adaptation against Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Shahriyari, Leili; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been held that a central characteristic of stem cells is their ability to divide asymmetrically. Recent advances in inducible genetic labeling provided ample evidence that symmetric stem cell divisions play an important role in adult mammalian homeostasis. It is well understood that the two types of cell divisions differ in terms of the stem cells' flexibility to expand when needed. On the contrary, the implications of symmetric and asymmetric divisions for mutation accumulation are still poorly understood. In this paper we study a stochastic model of a renewing tissue, and address the optimization problem of tissue architecture in the context of mutant production. Specifically, we study the process of tumor suppressor gene inactivation which usually takes place as a consequence of two “hits”, and which is one of the most common patterns in carcinogenesis. We compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric (and mixed) stem cell divisions, and focus on the rate at which double-hit mutants are generated. It turns out that symmetrically-dividing cells generate such mutants at a rate which is significantly lower than that of asymmetrically-dividing cells. This result holds whether single-hit (intermediate) mutants are disadvantageous, neutral, or advantageous. It is also independent on whether the carcinogenic double-hit mutants are produced only among the stem cells or also among more specialized cells. We argue that symmetric stem cell divisions in mammals could be an adaptation which helps delay the onset of cancers. We further investigate the question of the optimal fraction of stem cells in the tissue, and quantify the contribution of non-stem cells in mutant production. Our work provides a hypothesis to explain the observation that in mammalian cells, symmetric patterns of stem cell division seem to be very common. PMID:24204602

  4. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  5. Genome organization during the cell cycle: unity in division.

    PubMed

    Golloshi, Rosela; Sanders, Jacob T; McCord, Rachel Patton

    2017-09-01

    During the cell cycle, the genome must undergo dramatic changes in structure, from a decondensed, yet highly organized interphase structure to a condensed, generic mitotic chromosome and then back again. For faithful cell division, the genome must be replicated and chromosomes and sister chromatids physically segregated from one another. Throughout these processes, there is feedback and tension between the information-storing role and the physical properties of chromosomes. With a combination of recent techniques in fluorescence microscopy, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), biophysical experiments, and computational modeling, we can now attribute mechanisms to many long-observed features of chromosome structure changes during cell division. Apparent conflicts that arise when integrating the concepts from these different proposed mechanisms emphasize that orchestrating chromosome organization during cell division requires a complex system of factors rather than a simple pathway. Cell division is both essential for and threatening to proper genome organization. As interphase three-dimensional (3D) genome structure is quite static at a global level, cell division provides an important window of opportunity to make substantial changes in 3D genome organization in daughter cells, allowing for proper differentiation and development. Mistakes in the process of chromosome condensation or rebuilding the structure after mitosis can lead to diseases such as cancer, premature aging, and neurodegeneration. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1389. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1389 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cell-Division Behavior in a Heterogeneous Swarm Environment.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Adam; Herrmann, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a system of virtual particles that interact using simple kinetic rules. It is known that heterogeneous mixtures of particles can produce particularly interesting behaviors. Here we present a two-species three-dimensional swarm in which a behavior emerges that resembles cell division. We show that the dividing behavior exists across a narrow but finite band of parameters and for a wide range of population sizes. When executed in a two-dimensional environment the swarm's characteristics and dynamism manifest differently. In further experiments we show that repeated divisions can occur if the system is extended by a biased equilibrium process to control the split of populations. We propose that this repeated division behavior provides a simple model for cell-division mechanisms and is of interest for the formation of morphological structure and to swarm robotics.

  7. A novel cell division factor from tobacco 2B-13 cells that induced cell division in auxin-starved tobacco BY-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Eguchi, Kentaro; Nishida, Ikuo; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin; van Onckelen, Harry; Nagata, Toshiyuki

    2006-06-01

    Effects of auxin as plant hormones are widespread; in fact in almost all aspects of plant growth and development auxin plays a pivotal role. Although auxin is required for propagating cell division in plant cells, its effect upon cell division is least understood. If auxin is depleted from the culture medium, cultured cells cease to divide. It has been demonstrated in this context that the addition of auxin to auxin-starved nondividing tobacco BY-2 cells induced semisynchronous cell division. On the other hand, there are some cell lines, named habituated cells, that can grow without auxin. The cause and reason for the habituated cells have not been clarified. A habituated cell line named 2B-13 is derived from the tobacco BY-2 cell line, which has been most intensively studied among plant cell lines. When we tried to find the difference between two cell lines of BY-2 and 2B-13 cells, we found that the addition of culture filtrated from the auxin-habituated 2B-13 cells induced semisynchronous cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. The cell division factor (CDF) that is responsible for inducing cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells was purified to near-homogeneity by sequential passage through a hydroxyapatite column, a ConA Sepharose column and a Sephadex gel filtration column. The resulting purified fraction appeared as a single band of high molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels by silver staining and was able to induce cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. Identification of the protein by MALD-TOF-MS/MS revealed that it is structurally related to P-glycoprotein from Gossypioides kirkii, which belongs to ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters. The significance of CDF as a possible ABC-transporter is discussed in relationship to auxin-autotrophic growth and auxin-signaling pathway.

  8. Asymmetric cell division requires specific mechanisms for adjusting global transcription.

    PubMed

    Mena, Adriana; Medina, Daniel A; García-Martínez, José; Begley, Victoria; Singh, Abhyudai; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari C; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2017-12-01

    Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant. This cannot apply to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where this mechanism would provoke a never-ending increasing mRNA synthesis rate in smaller daughter cells. We show here that, contrarily to other eukaryotes with symmetric division, budding yeast keeps the nascent transcription rates of its RNA polymerases constant and increases mRNA stability. This control on RNA pol II-dependent transcription rate is obtained by controlling the cellular concentration of this enzyme. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Division of Labor in Biofilms: the Ecology of Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The dense aggregation of cells on a surface, as seen in biofilms, inevitably results in both environmental and cellular heterogeneity. For example, nutrient gradients can trigger cells to differentiate into various phenotypic states. Not only do cells adapt physiologically to the local environmental conditions, but they also differentiate into cell types that interact with each other. This allows for task differentiation and, hence, the division of labor. In this article, we focus on cell differentiation and the division of labor in three bacterial species: Myxococcus xanthus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During biofilm formation each of these species differentiates into distinct cell types, in some cases leading to cooperative interactions. The division of labor and the cooperative interactions between cell types are assumed to yield an emergent ecological benefit. Yet in most cases the ecological benefits have yet to be elucidated. A notable exception is M. xanthus, in which cell differentiation within fruiting bodies facilitates the dispersal of spores. We argue that the ecological benefits of the division of labor might best be understood when we consider the dynamic nature of both biofilm formation and degradation.

  10. Spire, an actin nucleation factor, regulates cell division during Drosophila heart development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Johnson, Tamara L; Stoller-Conrad, Jessica R; Schulz, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila dorsal vessel is a beneficial model system for studying the regulation of early heart development. Spire (Spir), an actin-nucleation factor, regulates actin dynamics in many developmental processes, such as cell shape determination, intracellular transport, and locomotion. Through protein expression pattern analysis, we demonstrate that the absence of spir function affects cell division in Myocyte enhancer factor 2-, Tinman (Tin)-, Even-skipped- and Seven up (Svp)-positive heart cells. In addition, genetic interaction analysis shows that spir functionally interacts with Dorsocross, tin, and pannier to properly specify the cardiac fate. Furthermore, through visualization of double heterozygous embryos, we determines that spir cooperates with CycA for heart cell specification and division. Finally, when comparing the spir mutant phenotype with that of a CycA mutant, the results suggest that most Svp-positive progenitors in spir mutant embryos cannot undergo full cell division at cell cycle 15, and that Tin-positive progenitors are arrested at cell cycle 16 as double-nucleated cells. We conclude that Spir plays a crucial role in controlling dorsal vessel formation and has a function in cell division during heart tube morphogenesis.

  11. Process for control of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, C. D., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method of controlling mitosis of biological cells was developed, which involved inducing a change in the intracellular ionic hierarchy accompanying the cellular electrical transmembrane potential difference (Esubm) of the cells. The ionic hierarchy may be varied by imposing changes on the relative concentrations of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-), or by directly imposing changes in the physical Esubm level across the cell surface.

  12. Regulation of Asymmetric Division by Atypical Protein Kinase C Influences Early Specification of CD8+ T Lymphocyte Fates

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Patrick J.; Lopez, Justine; Kim, Stephanie H.; Akimoto, Kazunori; Ohno, Shigeo; Chang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes responding to microbial pathogens give rise to effector T cells that provide acute defense and memory T cells that provide long-lived immunity. Upon activation, CD8+ T lymphocytes can undergo asymmetric division, unequally distributing factors to the nascent daughter cells that influence their eventual fate towards the effector or memory lineages. Individual loss of either atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoform, PKCζ or PKCλ/ι, partially impairs asymmetric divisions and increases CD8+ T lymphocyte differentiation toward a long-lived effector fate at the expense of memory T cell formation. Here, we show that deletion of both aPKC isoforms resulted in a deficit in asymmetric divisions, increasing the proportion of daughter cells that inherit high amounts of effector fate-associated molecules, IL-2Rα, T-bet, IFNγR, and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). However, unlike CD8+ T cells deficient in only one aPKC isoform, complete loss of aPKC unexpectedly increased CD8+ T cell differentiation toward a short-lived, terminal effector fate, as evidenced by increased rates of apoptosis and decreased expression of Eomes and Bcl2 early during the immune response. Together, these results provide evidence for an important role for asymmetric division in CD8+ T lymphocyte fate specification by regulating the balance between effector and memory precursors at the initiation of the adaptive immune response. PMID:26765121

  13. Mechanical influences in bacterial morphogenesis and cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sean

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial cells utilize a ring-like organelle (the Z-ring) to accomplish cell division. The Z-ring actively generates a contractile force and influences cell wall growth. We will discuss a general model of bacterial morphogenesis where mechanical forces are coupled to the growth dynamics of the cell wall. The model suggests a physical mechanism that determines the shapes of bacteria cells. The roles of several bacterial cytoskeletal proteins and the Z-ring are discussed. We will also explore molecular mechanisms of force generation by the Z-ring and how cells can generate mechanical forces without molecular motors.

  14. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  15. Active Early Detection Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Cyclin D regulation of a sexually dimorphic asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Tilmann, Christopher; Kimble, Judith

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The C. elegans somatic gonadal precursor cell (SGP) divides asymmetrically to establish gonad-specific coordinates in both sexes. In addition, the SGP division is sexually dimorphic and initiates sex-specific programs of gonadogenesis. Wnt/MAPK signaling determines the gonadal axes, and the FKH-6 transcription factor specifies the male mode of SGP division. In this paper, we demonstrate that C. elegans cyclin D controls POP-1/TCF asymmetry in the SGP daughters as well as fkh-6 and rnr expression in the SGPs. Although cyclin D mutants have delayed SGP divisions, the cyclin D defects are not mimicked by other methods of retarding the SGP division. We find that EFL-1/E2F has an antagonistic effect on fkh-6 expression and gonadogenesis, which is relieved by cyclin D activity. We propose that cyclin D and other canonical regulators of the G1/S transition coordinate key regulators of axis formation and sex determination with cell cycle progression to achieve the sexually dimorphic SGP asymmetric division. PMID:16198291

  18. A crucial step in cell division identified | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    When cell division doesn’t go according to plan, the resulting daughter cells can become unstable or even cancerous. A team of CCR investigators has now discovered a crucial step required for normal cell division to occur. Read more...

  19. How to Foster an Understanding of Growth and Cell Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Dirk; Fleige, Jennifer; Riemeier, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    The study presents the frequencies of students' conceptions of growth and cell division before and after one hour of instruction. The investigation supplements qualitative results by directing attention to those conceptions which might occur most frequently to students: teachers can then concentrate their preparation on practical requirements. A…

  20. LocZ Is a New Cell Division Protein Involved in Proper Septum Placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Holečková, Nela; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT How bacteria control proper septum placement at midcell, to guarantee the generation of identical daughter cells, is still largely unknown. Although different systems involved in the selection of the division site have been described in selected species, these do not appear to be widely conserved. Here, we report that LocZ (Spr0334), a newly identified cell division protein, is involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that locZ is not essential but that its deletion results in cell division defects and shape deformation, causing cells to divide asymmetrically and generate unequally sized, occasionally anucleated, daughter cells. LocZ has a unique localization profile. It arrives early at midcell, before FtsZ and FtsA, and leaves the septum early, apparently moving along with the equatorial rings that mark the future division sites. Consistently, cells lacking LocZ also show misplacement of the Z-ring, suggesting that it could act as a positive regulator to determine septum placement. LocZ was identified as a substrate of the Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP, which regulates cell division in S. pneumoniae. Interestingly, homologues of LocZ are found only in streptococci, lactococci, and enterococci, indicating that this close phylogenetically related group of bacteria evolved a specific solution to spatially regulate cell division. PMID:25550321

  1. Golgi apparatus partitioning during cell division.

    PubMed

    Rabouille, Catherine; Jokitalo, Eija

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses the mitotic segregation of the Golgi apparatus. The results from classical biochemical and morphological studies have suggested that in mammalian cells this organelle remains distinct during mitosis, although highly fragmented through the formation of mitotic Golgi clusters of small tubules and vesicles. Shedding of free Golgi-derived vesicles would consume Golgi clusters and disperse this organelle throughout the cytoplasm. Vesicles could be partitioned in a stochastic and passive way between the two daughter cells and act as a template for the reassembly of this key organelle. This model has recently been modified by results obtained using GFP- or HRP-tagged Golgi resident enzymes, live cell imaging and electron microscopy. Results obtained with these techniques show that the mitotic Golgi clusters are stable entities throughout mitosis that partition in a microtubule spindle-dependent fashion. Furthermore, a newer model proposes that at the onset of mitosis, the Golgi apparatus completely loses its identity and is reabsorbed into the endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that the partitioning of the Golgi apparatus is entirely dependent on the partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum. We critically discuss both models and summarize what is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the Golgi disassembly and reassembly during and after mitosis. We will also review how the study of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis in other organisms can answer current questions and perhaps reveal novel mechanisms.

  2. Symmetry of initial cell divisions among primitive hematopoietic progenitors is independent of ontogenic age and regulatory molecules.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Law, P; Francis, K; Palsson, B O; Ho, A D

    1999-10-15

    We have developed a time-lapse camera system to follow the replication history and the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) at a single-cell level. Combined with single-cell culture, we correlated the early replication behavior with colony development after 14 days. The membrane dye PKH26 was used to monitor cell division. In addition to multiple, synchronous, and symmetric divisions, single-sorted CD34(+)/CD38(-) cells derived from fetal liver (FLV) also gave rise to a daughter cell that remained quiescent for up to 8 days, whereas the other daughter cell proliferated exponentially. Upon separation and replating as single cells onto medium containing a cytokine cocktail, 60.6% +/- 9.8% of the initially quiescent cells (PKH26 bright) gave rise again to colonies and 15.8% +/- 7.8% to blast colonies that could be replated. We have then determined the effects of various regulatory molecules on symmetry of initial cell divisions. After single-cell sorting, the CD34(+)/CD38(-) cells derived from FLV were exposed to flt3-ligand, thrombopoietin, stem cell factor (SCF), or medium containing a cytokine cocktail (with SCF, interleukin-3, interleukin-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and erythropoietin). Whereas mitotic rate, colony efficiency, and asymmetric divisions could be altered using various regulatory molecules, the asymmetric division index, defined as the number of asymmetric divisions versus the number of dividing cells, was not altered significantly. This observation suggests that, although lineage commitment and cell proliferation can be skewed by extrinsic signaling, symmetry of early divisions is probably under the control of intrinsic factors.

  3. Automated cell tracking identifies mechanically oriented cell divisions during Drosophila axis elongation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael F Z; Hunter, Miranda V; Wang, Gang; McFaul, Christopher; Yip, Christopher M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in a conserved process known as axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern-recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations. Mesectoderm cells did not intercalate and sustained increased AP strain before cell division. After division, mesectoderm cell density increased along the AP axis, thus relieving strain. We used laser ablation to isolate mesectoderm cells from the influence of other tissues. Uncoupling the mesectoderm from intercalating cells did not affect cell division orientation. Conversely, separating the mesectoderm from the anterior and posterior poles of the embryo resulted in uniformly oriented divisions. Our data suggest that mesectoderm cells align their division angle to reduce strain caused by mechanical forces along the AP axis of the embryo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  5. Asymmetric cell division of stem cells in the lung and other systems

    PubMed Central

    Berika, Mohamed; Elgayyar, Marwa E.; El-Hashash, Ahmed H. K.

    2014-01-01

    New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric vs. symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division (ACD) in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms. PMID:25364740

  6. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available

  7. Plant cell division is specifically affected by nitrotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Aleksandra M.; Durst, Steffen; Nick, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Virtually all eukaryotic α-tubulins harbour a C-terminal tyrosine that can be reversibly removed and religated, catalysed by a specific tubulin–tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTC) and a specific tubulin–tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively. The biological function of this post-translational modification has remained enigmatic. 3-nitro-L-tyrosine (nitrotyrosine, NO2Tyr), can be incorporated into detyrosinated α-tubulin instead of tyrosine, producing irreversibly nitrotyrosinated α-tubulin. To gain insight into the possible function of detyrosination, the effect of NO2Tyr has been assessed in two plant model organisms (rice and tobacco). NO2Tyr causes a specific, sensitive, and dose-dependent inhibition of cell division that becomes detectable from 1 h after treatment and which is not observed with non-nitrosylated tyrosine. These effects are most pronounced in cycling tobacco BY-2 cells, where the inhibition of cell division is accompanied by a stimulation of cell length, and a misorientation of cross walls. NO2Tyr reduces the abundance of the detyrosinated form of α-tubulin whereas the tyrosinated α-tubulin is not affected. These findings are discussed with respect to a model where NO2Tyr is accepted as substrate by TTL and subsequently blocks TTC activity. The irreversibly tyrosinated α-tubulin impairs microtubular functions that are relevant to cell division in general, and cell wall deposition in particular. PMID:20018903

  8. Mechanics of Constriction during Cell Division: A Variational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Almendro-Vedia, Victor G.; Monroy, Francisco; Cao, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    During symmetric division cells undergo large constriction deformations at a stable midcell site. Using a variational approach, we investigate the mechanical route for symmetric constriction by computing the bending energy of deformed vesicles with rotational symmetry. Forces required for constriction are explicitly computed at constant area and constant volume, and their values are found to be determined by cell size and bending modulus. For cell-sized vesicles, considering typical bending modulus of , we calculate constriction forces in the range . The instability of symmetrical constriction is shown and quantified with a characteristic coefficient of the order of , thus evidencing that cells need a robust mechanism to stabilize constriction at midcell. PMID:23990888

  9. Formation of a cylindrical bridge in cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citron, Daniel; Schmidt, Laura E.; Reichl, Elizabeth; Ren, Yixin; Robinson, Douglas; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2007-11-01

    In nature, the shape transition associated with the division of a mother cell into two daughter cells proceeds via a variety of routes. In the cylinder-thinning route, which has been observed in Dictyostelium and most animal cells, the mother cell first forms a broad bridge-like region, also known as a furrow, between two daughter cells. The furrow then rapidly evolves into a cylindrical bridge, which thins and eventually severs the mother cell into two. The fundamental mechanism underlying this division route is not understood. Recent experiments on Dictyostelium found that, while the cylinder-thinning route persists even when key actin cross-linking proteins are missing, it is disrupted by the removal of force-generating myosin-II proteins. Other measurements revealed that mutant cells lacking myosin-II have a much more uniform tension over the cell surface than wild-type cells. This suggests that tension variation may be important. Here we use a fluid model, previously shown to reproduce the thinning dynamics [Zhang & Robinson, PNAS 102, 7186 (2005)], to test this idea. Consistent with the experiments, the model shows that the cylinder formation process occurs regardless of the exact viscoelastic properties of the cell. In contrast to the experiments, a tension variation in the model hinders, rather then expedites, the cylinder formation.

  10. Bestatin Inhibits Cell Growth, Cell Division, and Spore Cell Differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Poloz, Yekaterina; Catalano, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Bestatin methyl ester (BME) is an inhibitor of Zn2+-binding aminopeptidases that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. We have used Dictyostelium as a model organism to study the effects of BME. Only two Zn2+-binding aminopeptidases have been identified in Dictyostelium to date, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A and B (PsaA and PsaB). PSA from other organisms is known to regulate cell division and differentiation. Here we show that PsaA is differentially expressed throughout growth and development of Dictyostelium, and its expression is regulated by developmental morphogens. We present evidence that BME specifically interacts with PsaA and inhibits its aminopeptidase activity. Treatment of cells with BME inhibited the rate of cell growth and the frequency of cell division in growing cells and inhibited spore cell differentiation during late development. Overexpression of PsaA-GFP (where GFP is green fluorescent protein) also inhibited spore cell differentiation but did not affect growth. Using chimeras, we have identified that nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization of PsaA affects the choice between stalk or spore cell differentiation pathway. Cells that overexpressed PsaA-GFP (primarily nuclear) differentiated into stalk cells, while cells that overexpressed PsaAΔNLS2-GFP (cytoplasmic) differentiated into spores. In conclusion, we have identified that BME inhibits cell growth, division, and differentiation in Dictyostelium likely through inhibition of PsaA. PMID:22345351

  11. Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers. Etiologic studies investigate

  12. Cell division and the ESCRT complex: A surprise from the archaea.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Thijs Jg; Bernander, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The Archaea constitute the third domain of life, a separate evolutionary lineage together with the Bacteria and the Eukarya.1 Species belonging to the Archaea contain a surprising mix of bacterial (metabolism, life style, genomic organization) and eukaryotic (replication, transcription, translation) features.2 The archaeal kingdom comprises two main phyla, the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota. Regarding the cell division process in archaeal species (reviewed in ref. 3), members of the Euryarchaeota rely on an FtsZ-based cell division mechanism4 whereas, previously, no division genes had been detected in the crenarchaea. However, we recently reported the discovery of the elusive cell division machinery in crenarchaea from the genus Sulfolobus.5 The minimal machinery consists of three genes, which we designated cdvA, B and C (for cell division), organized into an operon that is widely conserved among crenarchaea. The gene products polymerize between segregating nucleoids at the early mitotic stage, forming a complex that remains associated with the leading edge of constriction throughout cytokinesis. Interestingly, CdvB and CdvC were shown to be related to the eukaryotic ESCRT-III protein sorting machinery (reviewed in ref. 6), indicating shared common ancestry and mechanistic similarities to endosomal vesicle formation and viral (HIV) budding in eukaryotes. We also demonstrated that the cdv operon is subject to checkpoint-like regulation, and that the genes display a complementary phylogenetic distribution within the Archaea domain relative to FtsZ-dependent division systems.5 Here, the findings are further explored and discussed, and topics for further investigation are suggested.

  13. An Improved Model of Nonuniform Coleochaete Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuandi; Cong, Jinyu

    2016-08-01

    Cell division is a key biological process in which cells divide forming new daughter cells. In the present study, we investigate continuously how a Coleochaete cell divides by introducing a modified differential equation model in parametric equation form. We discuss both the influence of "dead" cells and the effects of various end-points on the formation of the new cells' boundaries. We find that the boundary condition on the free end-point is different from that on the fixed end-point; the former has a direction perpendicular to the surface. It is also shown that the outer boundaries of new cells are arc-shaped. The numerical experiments and theoretical analyses for this model to construct the outer boundary are given.

  14. Microgravity effects during fertilization, cell division, development, and calcium metabolism in sea urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to explore the role of microgravity during fertilization, early development, cytoskeletal organization, and skeletal calcium deposition in a model development system: the sea urchin eggs and embryos. While pursuing these objectives, we have also helped to develop, test, and fly the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) system. Cells were fixed at preselected time points to preserve the structures and organelles of interest with regards to cell biology events during development. The protocols used for the analysis of the results had been developed during the earlier part of this research and were applied for post-flight analysis using light and (immuno)fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The structures of interest are: microtubules during fertilization, cell division, and cilia movement; microfilaments during cell surface restructuring and cell division; centrosomes and centrioles during cell division, cell differentiation, and cilia formation and movement; membranes, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chromosomes at all stages of development; and calcium deposits during spicule formation in late-stage embryos. In addition to further explore aspects important or living in space, several aspects of this research are also aimed at understanding diseases that affect humans on Earth which may be accelerated in space.

  15. Peptide promotes overcoming of the division limit in human somatic cell.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Bondarev, I E; Butyugov, A A; Smirnova, T D

    2004-05-01

    We previously showed that treatment of normal human diploid cells with Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) induced expression of telomerase catalytic subunit, its enzymatic activity, and elongation of telomeres. Here we studied the effect of this peptide on proliferative potential of human fetal fibroblasts. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts derived from a 24-week fetus lost the proliferative potential at the 34th passage. The mean size of telomeres in these cells was appreciably lower than during early passages (passage 10). Addition of Epithalon to aging cells in culture induced elongation of telomeres to the size comparable to their length during early passages. Peptide-treated cells with elongated telomeres made 10 extra divisions (44 passages) in comparison with the control and continued dividing. Hence, Epithalon prolonged the vital cycle of normal human cells due to overcoming the Heyflick limit.

  16. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data

  17. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  18. Oriented cell division: new roles in guiding skin wound repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaowei; Ma, Kui; Geng, Zhijun; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Tissue morphogenesis depends on precise regulation and timely co-ordination of cell division and also on the control of the direction of cell division. Establishment of polarity division axis, correct alignment of the mitotic spindle, segregation of fate determinants equally or unequally between daughter cells, are essential for the realization of oriented cell division. Furthermore, oriented cell division is regulated by intrinsic cues, extrinsic cues and other cues, such as cell geometry and polarity. However, dysregulation of cell division orientation could lead to abnormal tissue development and function. In the present study, we review recent studies on the molecular mechanism of cell division orientation and explain their new roles in skin repair and regeneration. PMID:26582817

  19. How PI3K-derived lipids control cell division.

    PubMed

    Campa, Carlo C; Martini, Miriam; De Santis, Maria C; Hirsch, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    To succeed in cell division, intense cytoskeletal and membrane remodeling are required to allow accurate chromosome segregation and cytoplasm partitioning. Spatial restriction of the actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking define the cell symmetry and equivalent membrane scission events, respectively. Protein complexes coordinating mitosis are recruited to membrane microdomains characterized by the presence of the phosphatidylinositol lipid members (PtdIns), like PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3,PtdIns(4,5)P 2, and PtdIns(3)P. These PtdIns represent a minor component of cell membranes, defining membrane domain identity, ultimately controlling cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics during mitosis. The coordinated presence of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 at the cell poles and PtdIns(4,5)P 2 at the cleavage furrow controls the polarity of the actin cytoskeleton leading to symmetrical cell division. In the endosomal compartment, the trafficking of PtdIns(3)P positive vesicles allows the recruitment of the protein machinery required for the abscission.

  20. Professionals' Judgments of Peer Interaction Interventions: A Survey of Members of the Division for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tracy Newman; Brown, William H.; Grego, John M.; Johnson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed a sample of the membership of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) with the Social Interaction Program Features Questionnaire-Revised (SIPFQ-R) to determine their judgments of the acceptability, feasibility, and current use of contemporary peer interaction intervention tactics and…

  1. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  2. A plant cell division algorithm based on cell biomechanics and ellipse-fitting.

    PubMed

    Abera, Metadel K; Verboven, Pieter; Defraeye, Thijs; Fanta, Solomon Workneh; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart M

    2014-09-01

    The importance of cell division models in cellular pattern studies has been acknowledged since the 19th century. Most of the available models developed to date are limited to symmetric cell division with isotropic growth. Often, the actual growth of the cell wall is either not considered or is updated intermittently on a separate time scale to the mechanics. This study presents a generic algorithm that accounts for both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells with isotropic and anisotropic growth. Actual growth of the cell wall is simulated simultaneously with the mechanics. The cell is considered as a closed, thin-walled structure, maintained in tension by turgor pressure. The cell walls are represented as linear elastic elements that obey Hooke's law. Cell expansion is induced by turgor pressure acting on the yielding cell-wall material. A system of differential equations for the positions and velocities of the cell vertices as well as for the actual growth of the cell wall is established. Readiness to divide is determined based on cell size. An ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to determine the position and orientation of the dividing wall. The cell vertices, walls and cell connectivity are then updated and cell expansion resumes. Comparisons are made with experimental data from the literature. The generic plant cell division algorithm has been implemented successfully. It can handle both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells coupled with isotropic and anisotropic growth modes. Development of the algorithm highlighted the importance of ellipse-fitting to produce randomness (biological variability) even in symmetrically dividing cells. Unlike previous models, a differential equation is formulated for the resting length of the cell wall to simulate actual biological growth and is solved simultaneously with the position and velocity of the vertices. The algorithm presented can produce different tissues varying in topological and geometrical

  3. Long-range ordered vorticity patterns in living tissue induced by cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossen, Ninna S.; Tarp, Jens M.; Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H.; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2014-12-01

    In healthy blood vessels with a laminar blood flow, the endothelial cell division rate is low, only sufficient to replace apoptotic cells. The division rate significantly increases during embryonic development and under halted or turbulent flow. Cells in barrier tissue are connected and their motility is highly correlated. Here we investigate the long-range dynamics induced by cell division in an endothelial monolayer under non-flow conditions, mimicking the conditions during vessel formation or around blood clots. Cell divisions induce long-range, well-ordered vortex patterns extending several cell diameters away from the division site, in spite of the system’s low Reynolds number. Our experimental results are reproduced by a hydrodynamic continuum model simulating division as a local pressure increase corresponding to a local tension decrease. Such long-range physical communication may be crucial for embryonic development and for healing tissue, for instance around blood clots.

  4. Hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into restricted myeloid progenitors before cell division in mice.

    PubMed

    Grinenko, Tatyana; Eugster, Anne; Thielecke, Lars; Ramasz, Beáta; Krüger, Anja; Dietz, Sevina; Glauche, Ingmar; Gerbaulet, Alexander; von Bonin, Malte; Basak, Onur; Clevers, Hans; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Wielockx, Ben

    2018-05-15

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously replenish all blood cell types through a series of differentiation steps and repeated cell divisions that involve the generation of lineage-committed progenitors. However, whether cell division in HSCs precedes differentiation is unclear. To this end, we used an HSC cell-tracing approach and Ki67 RFP knock-in mice, in a non-conditioned transplantation model, to assess divisional history, cell cycle progression, and differentiation of adult HSCs. Our results reveal that HSCs are able to differentiate into restricted progenitors, especially common myeloid, megakaryocyte-erythroid and pre-megakaryocyte progenitors, without undergoing cell division and even before entering the S phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phenotype of the undivided but differentiated progenitors correlated with the expression of lineage-specific genes and loss of multipotency. Thus HSC fate decisions can be uncoupled from physical cell division. These results facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms that control fate decisions in hematopoietic cells.

  5. From HeLa cell division to infectious diarrhoea

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, J.; Osborne, M.P.; Spencer, A.J.

    1990-09-01

    Hela S3 cells were grown in suspension both randomly and, synchronously using hydroxyurea which blocks cells at the G1/S interface. Cryosections were prepared, freeze-dried and analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. As cells moved into S and through M phases (Na) and (Cl) increased; both returned to normal levels upon re-entering G1 phase. The Na/K ratio was 1:1 in G1 phase. Infection of HeLa S3 cells in G1 phase with vaccinia virus resulted in no change in intracellular (Na). Infection of neonatal mice with murine rotavirus was localized to villus tip enterocytes and gave rise to diarrhoea which was maximal at 72hmore » post-infection (p.i.). Diarrhoea was preceded by ischemia of villi (18-42h p.i.) and villus shortening (maximal at 42h p.i.), and was also coincident with a dramatic regrowth of villi. At 48h p.i. a proliferative zone of electron lucent cells was observed in villus base regions. Cryosections of infected gut, taken before, during, and after infection, together with corresponding age-matched controls, were freeze-dried and analysed by X-ray microanalysis. At 48h p.i. electron lucent villus base cells were shown to be more hydrated, and, to contain higher levels of both Na and Cl and lower levels of P, S, K and Mg than corresponding control cells. These studies increase confidence in the use of X-ray microanalysis in studying biological systems, provide some insight into the process of cell division, and constitute the basis of a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion.27 references.« less

  6. Radioisotopic Method for Measuring Cell Division Rates of Individual Species of Diatoms from Natural Populations †

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon is an essential element for diatom frustule synthesis and is usually taken up only by dividing cells. With 68Ge, a radioactive analog of Si, the cell cycle marker event of frustule formation was identified for individual species of diatom. The frequency of cells within a population undergoing this division event was estimated, and the cell division rate was calculated. In laboratory cultures, these rates of cell division and those calculated from changes in cell numbers were similar. By dual labeling with 68Ge(OH)4 and NaH14CO3, rates of cell division and photosynthesis were coincidently measured for diatoms both in laboratory cultures and when isolated from natural populations in estuarine, offshore, and polar environments. These techniques permit the coupling between photosynthesis and cell division to be examined in situ for individual species of diatom. PMID:16347039

  7. Stochastic modeling of cell growth with symmetric or asymmetric division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Amir, Ariel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a class of biologically motivated stochastic processes in which a unicellular organism divides its resources (volume or damaged proteins, in particular) symmetrically or asymmetrically between its progeny. Assuming the final amount of the resource is controlled by a growth policy and subject to additive and multiplicative noise, we derive the recursive integral equation describing the evolution of the resource distribution over subsequent generations and use it to study the properties of stable resource distributions. We find conditions under which a unique stable resource distribution exists and calculate its moments for the class of affine linear growth policies. Moreover, we apply an asymptotic analysis to elucidate the conditions under which the stable distribution (when it exists) has a power-law tail. Finally, we use the results of this asymptotic analysis along with the moment equations to draw a stability phase diagram for the system that reveals the counterintuitive result that asymmetry serves to increase stability while at the same time widening the stable distribution. We also briefly discuss how cells can divide damaged proteins asymmetrically between their progeny as a form of damage control. In the appendixes, motivated by the asymmetric division of cell volume in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we extend our results to the case wherein mother and daughter cells follow different growth policies.

  8. Parameter estimation for an immortal model of colonic stem cell division using approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kevin

    2012-08-07

    In this paper we use approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the parameters in an immortal model of colonic stem cell division. We base the inferences on the observed DNA methylation patterns of cells sampled from the human colon. Utilising DNA methylation patterns as a form of molecular clock is an emerging area of research and has been used in several studies investigating colonic stem cell turnover. There is much debate concerning the two competing models of stem cell turnover: the symmetric (immortal) and asymmetric models. Early simulation studies concluded that the observed methylation data were not consistent with the immortal model. A later modified version of the immortal model that included preferential strand segregation was subsequently shown to be consistent with the same methylation data. Most of this earlier work assumes site independent methylation models that do not take account of the known processivity of methyltransferases whilst other work does not take into account the methylation errors that occur in differentiated cells. This paper addresses both of these issues for the immortal model and demonstrates that approximate Bayesian computation provides accurate estimates of the parameters in this neighbour-dependent model of methylation error rates. The results indicate that if colonic stem cells divide asymmetrically then colon stem cell niches are maintained by more than 8 stem cells. Results also indicate the possibility of preferential strand segregation and provide clear evidence against a site-independent model for methylation errors. In addition, algebraic expressions for some of the summary statistics used in the approximate Bayesian computation (that allow for the additional variation arising from cell division in differentiated cells) are derived and their utility discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell division in Escherichia coli cultures monitored at single cell resolution

    PubMed Central

    Roostalu, Johanna; Jõers, Arvi; Luidalepp, Hannes; Kaldalu, Niilo; Tenson, Tanel

    2008-01-01

    Background A fundamental characteristic of cells is the ability to divide. To date, most parameters of bacterial cultures, including cell division, have been measured as cell population averages, assuming that all bacteria divide at a uniform rate. Results We monitored the division of individual cells in Escherichia coli cultures during different growth phases. Our experiments are based on the dilution of green fluorescent protein (GFP) upon cell division, monitored by flow cytometry. The results show that the vast majority of E. coli cells in exponentially growing cultures divided uniformly. In cultures that had been in stationary phase up to four days, no cell division was observed. However, upon dilution of stationary phase culture into fresh medium, two subpopulations of cells emerged: one that started dividing and another that did not. These populations were detectable by GFP dilution and displayed different side scatter parameters in flow cytometry. Further analysis showed that bacteria in the non-growing subpopulation were not dead, neither was the difference in growth capacity reducible to differences in stationary phase-specific gene expression since we observed uniform expression of several stress-related promoters. The presence of non-growing persisters, temporarily dormant bacteria that are tolerant to antibiotics, has previously been described within growing bacterial populations. Using the GFP dilution method combined with cell sorting, we showed that ampicillin lyses growing bacteria while non-growing bacteria retain viability and that some of them restart growth after the ampicillin is removed. Thus, our method enables persisters to be monitored even in liquid cultures of wild type strains in which persister formation has low frequency. Conclusion In principle, the approaches developed here could be used to detect differences in cell division in response to different environmental conditions and in cultures of unicellular organisms other than E

  10. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M., E-mail: carien.niessen@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Lossmore » of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.« less

  11. A specific role of iron in promoting meristematic cell division during adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Hilo, Alexander; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Melzer, Michael; Rutten, Twan; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-10

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is characterized by a sequence of physiological and morphological processes and determined by external factors, including mineral nutrition, the impacts of which remain largely elusive. Morphological and anatomical evaluation of the effects of mineral elements on AR formation in leafy cuttings of Petunia hybrida revealed a striking stimulation by iron (Fe) and a promotive action of ammonium (NH4+). The optimal application period for these nutrients corresponded to early division of meristematic cells in the rooting zone and coincided with increased transcript levels of mitotic cyclins. Fe-localization studies revealed an enhanced allocation of Fe to the nuclei of meristematic cells in AR initials. NH4+ supply promoted AR formation to a lesser extent, most likely by favoring the availability of Fe. We conclude that Fe acts locally by promoting cell division in the meristematic cells of AR primordia. These results highlight a specific biological function of Fe in AR development and point to an unexploited importance of Fe for the vegetative propagation of plants from cuttings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Control of the proportion of inner cells by asymmetric divisions and the ensuing resilience of cloned rabbit embryos

    PubMed Central

    Duranthon, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian embryo cloning by nuclear transfer has a low success rate. This is hypothesized to correlate with a high variability of early developmental steps that segregate outer cells, which are fated to extra-embryonic tissues, from inner cells, which give rise to the embryo proper. Exploring the cell lineage of wild-type embryos and clones, imaged in toto until hatching, highlights the respective contributions of cell proliferation, death and asymmetric divisions to phenotypic variability. Preferential cell death of inner cells in clones, probably pertaining to the epigenetic plasticity of the transferred nucleus, is identified as a major difference with effects on the proportion of inner cell. In wild type and clones, similar patterns of outer cell asymmetric divisions are shown to be essential to the robust proportion of inner cells observed in wild type. Asymmetric inner cell division, which is not described in mice, is identified as a regulator of the proportion of inner cells and likely gives rise to resilient clones. PMID:29567671

  13. Mechanisms of Regulating Tissue Elongation in Drosophila Wing: Impact of Oriented Cell Divisions, Oriented Mechanical Forces, and Reduced Cell Size

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingzi; Naveed, Hammad; Kachalo, Sema; Xu, Lisa X.; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth and cell division plays fundamental roles in tissue morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms of regulating tissue elongation through cell growth and cell division are still not well understood. The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila provides a model system that has been widely used to study tissue morphogenesis. Here we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the mechanisms of regulating tissue elongation in Drosophila wing. We simulate the effects of directional cues on tissue elongation. We also computationally analyze the role of reduced cell size. Our simulation results indicate that oriented cell divisions, oriented mechanical forces, and reduced cell size can all mediate tissue elongation, but they function differently. We show that oriented cell divisions and oriented mechanical forces act as directional cues during tissue elongation. Between these two directional cues, oriented mechanical forces have a stronger influence than oriented cell divisions. In addition, we raise the novel hypothesis that reduced cell size may significantly promote tissue elongation. We find that reduced cell size alone cannot drive tissue elongation. However, when combined with directional cues, such as oriented cell divisions or oriented mechanical forces, reduced cell size can significantly enhance tissue elongation in Drosophila wing. Furthermore, our simulation results suggest that reduced cell size has a short-term effect on cell topology by decreasing the frequency of hexagonal cells, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our simulation results suggest that cell divisions without cell growth play essential roles in tissue elongation. PMID:24504016

  14. Teaching Cell Division to Secondary School Students: An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztap, Haydar; Ozay, Esra; Oztap, Fulya

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the difficulties biology teachers face when teaching cell division in the secondary schools of the central part of the Erzurum province in Turkey. During this research, a questionnaire was distributed to a total of 36 secondary school biology teachers. Findings of the study indicate biology teachers perceive cell division as…

  15. Mechanical Regulation in Cell Division and in Neurotransmitter Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, Sathish

    During their lifecycle, cells must produce forces which play important roles in several subcellular processes. Force-producing components are organized into macromolecular assemblies of proteins that are often dynamic, and are constructed or disassembled in response to various signals. The forces themselves may directly be involved in subcellular mechanics, or they may influence mechanosensing proteins either within or outside these structures. These proteins play different roles: they may ensure the stability of the force-producing structure, or they may send signals to a coupled process. The generation and sensing of subcellular forces is an active research topic, and this thesis focusses on the roles of these forces in two key areas: cell division and neurotransmitter release. The first part of the thesis deals with the effect of force on cell wall growth regulation during division in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a cigar-shaped, unicellular organism. During cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division in which the cell physically divides into two, a tense cytokinetic ring anchored to the cellular membrane assembles and constricts, accompanied by the inward centripetal growth of new cell wall, called septum, in the wake of the inward-moving membrane. The contour of the septum hole maintains its circularity as it reduces in size--an indication of regulated growth. To characterize the cell wall growth process, we performed image analysis on contours of the leading edge of the septum obtained via fluorescence microscopy in the labs of our collaborators. We quantified the deviations from circularity using the edge roughness. The roughness was spatially correlated, suggestive of regulated growth. We hypothesized that the cell wall growers are mechanosensitive and respond to the force exerted by the ring. A mathematical model based on this hypothesis then showed that this leads to corrections of roughness in a curvature-dependent fashion. Thus, one of

  16. Cell and plastid division are coordinated through the prereplication factor AtCDT1

    PubMed Central

    Raynaud, Cécile; Perennes, Claudette; Reuzeau, Christophe; Catrice, Olivier; Brown, Spencer; Bergounioux, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The cell division cycle involves nuclear and cytoplasmic events, namely organelle multiplication and distribution between the daughter cells. Until now, plastid and plant cell division have been considered as independent processes because they can be uncoupled. Here, down-regulation of AtCDT1a and AtCDT1b, members of the prereplication complex, is shown to alter both nuclear DNA replication and plastid division in Arabidopsis thaliana. These data constitute molecular evidence for relationships between the cell-cycle and plastid division. Moreover, the severe developmental defects observed in AtCDT1-RNA interference (RNAi) plants underline the importance of coordinated cell and organelle division for plant growth and morphogenesis. PMID:15928083

  17. Arabidopsis  SABRE and CLASP interact to stabilize cell division plane orientation and planar polarity

    PubMed Central

    Pietra, Stefano; Gustavsson, Anna; Kiefer, Christian; Kalmbach, Lothar; Hörstedt, Per; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Stepanova, Anna N.; Alonso, Jose M.; Grebe, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The orientation of cell division and the coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) contribute to shape diverse multicellular organisms. The root of Arabidopsis thaliana displays regularly oriented cell divisions, cell elongation and planar polarity providing a plant model system to study these processes. Here we report that the SABRE protein, which shares similarity with proteins of unknown function throughout eukaryotes, has important roles in orienting cell division and planar polarity. SABRE localizes at the plasma membrane, endomembranes, mitotic spindle and cell plate. SABRE stabilizes the orientation of CLASP-labelled preprophase band microtubules predicting the cell division plane, and of cortical microtubules driving cell elongation. During planar polarity establishment, sabre is epistatic to clasp at directing polar membrane domains of Rho-of-plant GTPases. Our findings mechanistically link SABRE to CLASP-dependent microtubule organization, shedding new light on the function of SABRE-related proteins in eukaryotes. PMID:24240534

  18. Arabidopsis  SABRE and CLASP interact to stabilize cell division plane orientation and planar polarity.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Stefano; Gustavsson, Anna; Kiefer, Christian; Kalmbach, Lothar; Hörstedt, Per; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Stepanova, Anna N; Alonso, Jose M; Grebe, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The orientation of cell division and the coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) contribute to shape diverse multicellular organisms. The root of Arabidopsis thaliana displays regularly oriented cell divisions, cell elongation and planar polarity providing a plant model system to study these processes. Here we report that the SABRE protein, which shares similarity with proteins of unknown function throughout eukaryotes, has important roles in orienting cell division and planar polarity. SABRE localizes at the plasma membrane, endomembranes, mitotic spindle and cell plate. SABRE stabilizes the orientation of CLASP-labelled preprophase band microtubules predicting the cell division plane, and of cortical microtubules driving cell elongation. During planar polarity establishment, sabre is epistatic to clasp at directing polar membrane domains of Rho-of-plant GTPases. Our findings mechanistically link SABRE to CLASP-dependent microtubule organization, shedding new light on the function of SABRE-related proteins in eukaryotes.

  19. Occludin Independently Regulates Permeability under Hydrostatic Pressure and Cell Division in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Brett E.; Cancel, Limary; Tarbell, John M.; Antonetti, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the function of the tight junction protein occludin in the control of permeability, under diffusive and hydrostatic pressures, and its contribution to the control of cell division in retinal pigment epithelium. Methods Occludin expression was inhibited in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 by siRNA. Depletion of occludin was confirmed by Western blot, confocal microscopy, and RT-PCR. Paracellular permeability of cell monolayers to fluorescently labeled 70 kDa dextran, 10 kDa dextran, and 467 Da tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) was examined under diffusive conditions or after the application of 10 cm H2O transmural pressure. Cell division rates were determined by tritiated thymidine incorporation and Ki67 immunoreactivity. Cell cycle inhibitors were used to determine whether changes in cell division affected permeability. Results Occludin depletion increased diffusive paracellular permeability to 467 Da TAMRA by 15%, and permeability under hydrostatic pressure was increased 50% compared with control. Conversely, depletion of occludin protein with siRNA did not alter diffusive permeability to 70 kDa and 10 kDa RITC-dextran, and permeability to 70 kDa dextran was twofold lower in occludin-depleted cells under hydrostatic pressure conditions. Occludin depletion also increased thymidine incorporation by 90% and Ki67-positive cells by 50%. Finally, cell cycle inhibitors did not alter the effect of occludin siRNA on paracellular permeability. Conclusions The data suggest that occludin regulates tight junction permeability in response to changes in hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, these data suggest that occludin also contributes to the control of cell division, demonstrating a novel function for this tight junction protein. PMID:18263810

  20. CELL DIVISION IN A SPECIES OF ERWINIA. III. REVERSAL OF INHIBITION OF CELL DIVISION CAUSED BY D-AMINO ACIDS, PENICILLIN, AND ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Grula, E.A.; Grula, M.M.

    Inhibition of cell division in an Erwinia sp. occurs in the presence of any of six D-amino acids, penicillin, or ultraviolet light. Cell-division inhibition caused by D-amino acids is pH-dependent; however, elongation caused by penicillin occurs over a wide range of pH. Bulging and spheroplast formation in the presence of penicillin occurs only at pH values below 7.6; however, division continues to be inhibited at higher pH levels. Reversal of cell-division inhibition caused by two D-amino acids (phenylalanine and histidine) can be partially overcome by their respective L-isomers. Divalent cations (Zn, Ca, Mn) cause varying amounts of reversal of divisionmore » inhibition in all systems studied; each system appears to have an individual requirement. All induced division inhibitions, including that caused by penicillin, can be reversed by pantoyl lactone or omega methylpantoyl lactone. Evidence is presented and discussed concerning the possible importance of pantoyl lactone and divalent cations in terminal steps of the cell-division process in this organism. (auth)« less

  1. Molecular Insights into Division of Single Human Cancer Cells in On-Chip Transparent Microtubes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In vivo, mammalian cells proliferate within 3D environments consisting of numerous microcavities and channels, which contain a variety of chemical and physical cues. External environments often differ between normal and pathological states, such as the unique spatial constraints that metastasizing cancer cells experience as they circulate the vasculature through arterioles and narrow capillaries, where they can divide and acquire elongated cylindrical shapes. While metastatic tumors cause most cancer deaths, factors impacting early cancer cell proliferation inside the vasculature and those that can promote the formation of secondary tumors remain largely unknown. Prior studies investigating confined mitosis have mainly used 2D cell culture systems. Here, we mimic aspects of metastasizing tumor cells dividing inside blood capillaries by investigating single-cell divisions of living human cancer cells, trapped inside 3D rolled-up, transparent nanomembranes. We assess the molecular effects of tubular confinement on key mitotic features, using optical high- and super-resolution microscopy. Our experiments show that tubular confinement affects the morphology and dynamics of the mitotic spindle, chromosome arrangements, and the organization of the cell cortex. Moreover, we reveal that membrane blebbing and/or associated processes act as a potential genome-safety mechanism, limiting the extent of genomic instability caused by mitosis in confined circumstances, especially in tubular 3D microenvironments. Collectively, our study demonstrates the potential of rolled-up nanomembranes for gaining molecular insights into key cellular events occurring in tubular 3D microenvironments in vivo. PMID:27267364

  2. The SPOR Domain, a Widely Conserved Peptidoglycan Binding Domain That Targets Proteins to the Site of Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Yahashiri, Atsushi; Jorgenson, Matthew A; Weiss, David S

    2017-07-15

    Sporulation-related repeat (SPOR) domains are small peptidoglycan (PG) binding domains found in thousands of bacterial proteins. The name "SPOR domain" stems from the fact that several early examples came from proteins involved in sporulation, but SPOR domain proteins are quite diverse and contribute to a variety of processes that involve remodeling of the PG sacculus, especially with respect to cell division. SPOR domains target proteins to the division site by binding to regions of PG devoid of stem peptides ("denuded" glycans), which in turn are enriched in septal PG by the intense, localized activity of cell wall amidases involved in daughter cell separation. This targeting mechanism sets SPOR domain proteins apart from most other septal ring proteins, which localize via protein-protein interactions. In addition to SPOR domains, bacteria contain several other PG-binding domains that can exploit features of the cell wall to target proteins to specific subcellular sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Characterization of a Null Allelic Mutant of the Rice NAL1 Gene Reveals Its Role in Regulating Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Fang, Jingjing; Lou, Lamei; Zhao, Jinfeng; Yuan, Shoujiang; Yin, Liang; Sun, Wei; Peng, Lixiang; Guo, Baotai; Li, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    Leaf morphology is closely associated with cell division. In rice, mutations in Narrow leaf 1 (NAL1) show narrow leaf phenotypes. Previous studies have shown that NAL1 plays a role in regulating vein patterning and increasing grain yield in indica cultivars, but its role in leaf growth and development remains unknown. In this report, we characterized two allelic mutants of NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), nal1-2 and nal1-3, both of which showed a 50% reduction in leaf width and length, as well as a dwarf culm. Longitudinal and transverse histological analyses of leaves and internodes revealed that cell division was suppressed in the anticlinal orientation but enhanced in the periclinal orientation in the mutants, while cell size remained unaltered. In addition to defects in cell proliferation, the mutants showed abnormal midrib in leaves. Map-based cloning revealed that nal1-2 is a null allelic mutant of NAL1 since both the whole promoter and a 404-bp fragment in the first exon of NAL1 were deleted, and that a 6-bp fragment was deleted in the mutant nal1-3. We demonstrated that NAL1 functions in the regulation of cell division as early as during leaf primordia initiation. The altered transcript level of G1- and S-phase-specific genes suggested that NAL1 affects cell cycle regulation. Heterogenous expression of NAL1 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) further supported that NAL1 affects cell division. These results suggest that NAL1 controls leaf width and plant height through its effects on cell division. PMID:25658704

  4. BioClips of symmetric and asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W; White, John G

    2007-05-01

    Animations have long been used as tools to illustrate complex processes in such diverse fields as mechanical engineering, astronomy, bacteriology and physics. Animations in biology hold particular educational promise for depicting complex dynamic processes, such as photosynthesis, motility, viral replication and cellular respiration, which cannot be easily explained using static two-dimensional images. However, these animations have often been restrictive in scope, having been created for a specific classroom or research audience. In recent years, a new type of animation has emerged called the BioClip (http://www.bioclips.com) that strives to present science in an interactive multimedia format, which is, at once, informative and entertaining, by combining animations, text descriptions and music in one portable cross-platform document. In the present article, we illustrate the educational value of this new electronic resource by reviewing in depth two BioClips our group has created which describe the processes of symmetric and asymmetric cell division (http://www.wormclassroom.org/cb/bioclip).

  5. An Equatorial Contractile Mechanism Drives Cell Elongation but not Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Elsa; Bhattachan, Punit; Deng, Wei; Mathiesen, Birthe T.; Jiang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Cell shape changes and proliferation are two fundamental strategies for morphogenesis in animal development. During embryogenesis of the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis, elongation of individual notochord cells constitutes a crucial stage of notochord growth, which contributes to the establishment of the larval body plan. The mechanism of cell elongation is elusive. Here we show that although notochord cells do not divide, they use a cytokinesis-like actomyosin mechanism to drive cell elongation. The actomyosin network forming at the equator of each notochord cell includes phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain, α-actinin, cofilin, tropomyosin, and talin. We demonstrate that cofilin and α-actinin are two crucial components for cell elongation. Cortical flow contributes to the assembly of the actomyosin ring. Similar to cytokinetic cells, membrane blebs that cause local contractions form at the basal cortex next to the equator and participate in force generation. We present a model in which the cooperation of equatorial actomyosin ring-based constriction and bleb-associated contractions at the basal cortex promotes cell elongation. Our results demonstrate that a cytokinesis-like contractile mechanism is co-opted in a completely different developmental scenario to achieve cell shape change instead of cell division. We discuss the occurrences of actomyosin rings aside from cell division, suggesting that circumferential contraction is an evolutionally conserved mechanism to drive cell or tissue elongation. PMID:24503569

  6. A plant cell division algorithm based on cell biomechanics and ellipse-fitting

    PubMed Central

    Abera, Metadel K.; Verboven, Pieter; Defraeye, Thijs; Fanta, Solomon Workneh; Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The importance of cell division models in cellular pattern studies has been acknowledged since the 19th century. Most of the available models developed to date are limited to symmetric cell division with isotropic growth. Often, the actual growth of the cell wall is either not considered or is updated intermittently on a separate time scale to the mechanics. This study presents a generic algorithm that accounts for both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells with isotropic and anisotropic growth. Actual growth of the cell wall is simulated simultaneously with the mechanics. Methods The cell is considered as a closed, thin-walled structure, maintained in tension by turgor pressure. The cell walls are represented as linear elastic elements that obey Hooke's law. Cell expansion is induced by turgor pressure acting on the yielding cell-wall material. A system of differential equations for the positions and velocities of the cell vertices as well as for the actual growth of the cell wall is established. Readiness to divide is determined based on cell size. An ellipse-fitting algorithm is used to determine the position and orientation of the dividing wall. The cell vertices, walls and cell connectivity are then updated and cell expansion resumes. Comparisons are made with experimental data from the literature. Key Results The generic plant cell division algorithm has been implemented successfully. It can handle both symmetrically and asymmetrically dividing cells coupled with isotropic and anisotropic growth modes. Development of the algorithm highlighted the importance of ellipse-fitting to produce randomness (biological variability) even in symmetrically dividing cells. Unlike previous models, a differential equation is formulated for the resting length of the cell wall to simulate actual biological growth and is solved simultaneously with the position and velocity of the vertices. Conclusions The algorithm presented can produce different

  7. Drosophila Sulf1 is required for the termination of intestinal stem cell division during regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate is crucial for regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular heparan sulfate endosulfatase Sulf1 resulted in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which was caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK-STAT, EGFR and Hedgehog pathways. Using a regeneration model, we found that ISCs failed to properly halt division at the termination stage in Sulf1 mutants, showing that Sulf1 is required for terminating ISC division at the end of regeneration. We propose that post-transcriptional regulation of mitogen signaling by heparan sulfate structural modifications provides a new regulatory step for precise temporal control of stem cell activity during regeneration. PMID:27888216

  8. CDKL5 localizes at the centrosome and midbody and is required for faithful cell division.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Isabella; Valente, Davide; Chandola, Chetan; Magi, Fiorenza; Bergo, Anna; Monteonofrio, Laura; Tramarin, Marco; Fazzari, Maria; Soddu, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte

    2017-07-24

    The cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene has been associated with rare neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by the early onset of seizures and intellectual disability. The CDKL5 protein is widely expressed in most tissues and cells with both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. In post-mitotic neurons CDKL5 is mainly involved in dendritic arborization, axon outgrowth, and spine formation while in proliferating cells its function is still largely unknown. Here, we report that CDKL5 localizes at the centrosome and at the midbody in proliferating cells. Acute inactivation of CDKL5 by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to multipolar spindle formation, cytokinesis failure and centrosome accumulation. At the molecular level, we observed that, among the several midbody components we analyzed, midbodies of CDKL5-depleted cells were devoid of HIPK2 and its cytokinesis target, the extrachromosomal histone H2B phosphorylated at S14. Of relevance, expression of the phosphomimetic mutant H2B-S14D, which is capable of overcoming cytokinesis failure in HIPK2-defective cells, was sufficient to rescue spindle multipolarity in CDKL5-depleted cells. Taken together, these results highlight a hitherto unknown role of CDKL5 in regulating faithful cell division by guaranteeing proper HIPK2/H2B functions at the midbody.

  9. The EGU Seismology Division Early Career Scientist Representative team and its initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Laura; Ermert, Laura; Gualtieri, Lucia; Spieker, Kathrin; Van Noten, Koen; Agius, Matthew R.; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    Since 2014, the Seismology Division (SM) of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) has its Early Career Scientist (ECS) representative to reach out to its numerous 'younger' members. In April 2016, a new team of representatives joined the Division. We are a vivid team of early career scientists, representing both (either) PhD students and post-doctoral researchers working in different seismological disciplines and different countries. The initiatives of the SM ECS-rep team have various aims: (1) to motivate the ECSs to get involved in activities and initiatives of the EGU and the Seismology Division, (2) to promote the research of ECSs, (3) to discuss issues concerning seismologists during this particular stage of their career, (4) to share ideas on how to promote equality between scientists and (5) to improve on the public dissemination of scientific knowledge. In an effort to reach out to experienced and ECS seismologists more effectively and to continuously encourage to voice their ideas by contributing and following our initiatives, a blog and social media pages dedicated to seismology and earthquake trivia are run by the team. Weekly posts are published on the blog and shared on the social media regarding scientific and social aspects of seismology. One of the major contributions recently introduced to the blog is the "Paper of the Month" series where experienced seismologists write about recent or classical - must read - seismology articles. We also aim to organise and promote social and scientific events. During the EGU General Assembly 2016 a social event was held in Vienna allowing ECS to network with peers in an informal environment. Given the success of this event, a similar event will be organized during the General Assembly 2017. Also, similar to previous years, a short course on basic seismology for non seismologists will be requested and offered to all ECSs attending the General Assembly. Finally, a workshop dedicated entirely to ECSs seismologists

  10. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization.

    PubMed

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  11. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  12. Moving with the flow: what transport laws reveal about cell division and expansion.

    PubMed

    Silk, Wendy Kuhn

    2006-01-01

    This material was presented as a keynote talk for the symposium, "Crosstalk between cell division and expansion," organized by G.T.S. Beemster and H. Tsukaya at the International Botanical Congress, Vienna in July, 2005. The review focuses on the utility of continuity equations to understand relationships among cell size, division and expansion; insights from Lagrangian or cell-specific descriptions of developmental variables; and a growth-diffusion equation to show effects of root growth zones on the surrounding soil.

  13. Cell division plane orientation based on tensile stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Louveaux, Marion; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Mirabet, Vincent; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cell geometry has long been proposed to play a key role in the orientation of symmetric cell division planes. In particular, the recently proposed Besson–Dumais rule generalizes Errera’s rule and predicts that cells divide along one of the local minima of plane area. However, this rule has been tested only on tissues with rather local spherical shape and homogeneous growth. Here, we tested the application of the Besson–Dumais rule to the divisions occurring in the Arabidopsis shoot apex, which contains domains with anisotropic curvature and differential growth. We found that the Besson–Dumais rule works well in the central part of the apex, but fails to account for cell division planes in the saddle-shaped boundary region. Because curvature anisotropy and differential growth prescribe directional tensile stress in that region, we tested the putative contribution of anisotropic stress fields to cell division plane orientation at the shoot apex. To do so, we compared two division rules: geometrical (new plane along the shortest path) and mechanical (new plane along maximal tension). The mechanical division rule reproduced the enrichment of long planes observed in the boundary region. Experimental perturbation of mechanical stress pattern further supported a contribution of anisotropic tensile stress in division plane orientation. Importantly, simulations of tissues growing in an isotropic stress field, and dividing along maximal tension, provided division plane distributions comparable to those obtained with the geometrical rule. We thus propose that division plane orientation by tensile stress offers a general rule for symmetric cell division in plants. PMID:27436908

  14. Noise and Epigenetic Inheritance of Single-Cell Division Times Influence Population Fitness.

    PubMed

    Cerulus, Bram; New, Aaron M; Pougach, Ksenia; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-05-09

    The fitness effect of biological noise remains unclear. For example, even within clonal microbial populations, individual cells grow at different speeds. Although it is known that the individuals' mean growth speed can affect population-level fitness, it is unclear how or whether growth speed heterogeneity itself is subject to natural selection. Here, we show that noisy single-cell division times can significantly affect population-level growth rate. Using time-lapse microscopy to measure the division times of thousands of individual S. cerevisiae cells across different genetic and environmental backgrounds, we find that the length of individual cells' division times can vary substantially between clonal individuals and that sublineages often show epigenetic inheritance of division times. By combining these experimental measurements with mathematical modeling, we find that, for a given mean division time, increasing heterogeneity and epigenetic inheritance of division times increases the population growth rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the heterogeneity and epigenetic inheritance of single-cell division times can be linked with variation in the expression of catabolic genes. Taken together, our results reveal how a change in noisy single-cell behaviors can directly influence fitness through dynamics that operate independently of effects caused by changes to the mean. These results not only allow a better understanding of microbial fitness but also help to more accurately predict fitness in other clonal populations, such as tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Loss of PodJ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Leads to Ectopic Polar Growth, Branching, and Reduced Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Furgeson, James C.; Zupan, John R.; Grangeon, Romain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that elongates by unipolar addition of new cell envelope material. Approaching cell division, the growth pole transitions to a nongrowing old pole, and the division site creates new growth poles in sibling cells. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organizing protein PopZ localizes specifically to growth poles. In contrast, the A. tumefaciens homolog of the C. crescentus polar organelle development protein PodJ localizes to the old pole early in the cell cycle and accumulates at the growth pole as the cell cycle proceeds. FtsA and FtsZ also localize to the growth pole for most of the cell cycle prior to Z-ring formation. To further characterize the function of polar localizing proteins, we created a deletion of A. tumefaciens podJ (podJAt). ΔpodJAt cells display ectopic growth poles (branching), growth poles that fail to transition to an old pole, and elongated cells that fail to divide. In ΔpodJAt cells, A. tumefaciens PopZ-green fluorescent protein (PopZAt-GFP) persists at nontransitioning growth poles postdivision and also localizes to ectopic growth poles, as expected for a growth-pole-specific factor. Even though GFP-PodJAt does not localize to the midcell in the wild type, deletion of podJAt impacts localization, stability, and function of Z-rings as assayed by localization of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP. Z-ring defects are further evidenced by minicell production. Together, these data indicate that PodJAt is a critical factor for polar growth and that ΔpodJAt cells display a cell division phenotype, likely because the growth pole cannot transition to an old pole. IMPORTANCE How rod-shaped prokaryotes develop and maintain shape is complicated by the fact that at least two distinct species-specific growth modes exist: uniform sidewall insertion of cell envelope material, characterized in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, and unipolar growth, which occurs

  16. Polyploid tumour cells elicit paradiploid progeny through depolyploidizing divisions and regulated autophagic degradation.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Salmina, Kristine; Huna, Anda; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; Cragg, Mark S; Ianzini, Fiorenza; Anisimov, Alim P

    2011-07-01

    'Neosis' describes the process whereby p53 function-deficient tumour cells undergo self-renewal after genotoxic damage apparently via senescing ETCs (endopolyploid tumour cells). We previously reported that autophagic digestion and extrusion of DNA occurs in ETC and subsequently revealed that self-renewal transcription factors are also activated under these conditions. Here, we further studied this phenomenon in a range of cell lines after genotoxic damage induced by gamma irradiation, ETO (etoposide) or PXT (paclitaxel) treatment. These experiments revealed that chromatin degradation by autophagy was compatible with continuing mitotic activity in ETC. While the actively polyploidizing primary ETC produced early after genotoxic insult activated self-renewal factors throughout the polygenome, the secondary ETC restored after failed multipolar mitosis underwent subnuclei differentiation. As such, only a subset of subnuclei continued to express OCT4 and NANOG, while those lacking these factors stopped DNA replication and underwent degradation and elimination through autophagy. The surviving subnuclei sequestered nascent cytoplasm to form subcells, while being retained within the confines of the old ETC. Finally, the preformed paradiploid subcells became released from their linking chromosome bridges through autophagy and subsequently began cell divisions. These data show that 'neotic' ETC resulting from genotoxically damaged p53 function-deficient tumour cells develop through a heteronuclear system differentiating the polyploid genome into rejuvenated 'viable' subcells (which provide mitotically propagating paradiploid descendents) and subnuclei, which become degraded and eliminated by autophagy. The whole process reduces aneuploidy in descendants of ETC.

  17. Droplet size influences division of mammalian cell factories in droplet microfluidic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem Kumar; Joensson, Haakan N; Andersson-Svahn, Helene

    2017-01-01

    The potential of using droplet microfluidics for screening mammalian cell factories has been limited by the difficulty in achieving continuous cell division during cultivation in droplets. Here, we report the influence of droplet size on mammalian cell division and viability during cultivation in droplets. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the most widely used mammalian host cells for biopharmaceuticals production were encapsulated and cultivated in 33, 180 and 320 pL droplets for 3 days. Periodic monitoring of the droplets during incubation showed that the cell divisions in 33 pL droplets stopped after 24 h, whereas continuous cell division was observed in 180 and 320 pL droplets for 72 h. The viability of the cells cultivated in the 33 pL droplets also dropped to about 50% in 72 h. In contrast, the viability of the cells in the larger droplets was above 90% even after 72 h of cultivation, making them a more suitable droplet size for 72-h cultivation. This study shows a direct correlation of microfluidic droplet size to the division and viability of mammalian cells. This highlights the importance of selecting suitable droplet size for mammalian cell factory screening assays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Kinetics of large-scale chromosomal movement during asymmetric cell division in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Männik, Jaana; O’Neill, Jordan C.

    2017-01-01

    Coordination between cell division and chromosome replication is essential for a cell to produce viable progeny. In the commonly accepted view, Escherichia coli realize this coordination via the accurate positioning of its cell division apparatus relative to the nucleoids. However, E. coli lacking proper positioning of its cell division planes can still successfully propagate. Here, we characterize how these cells partition their chromosomes into daughters during such asymmetric divisions. Using quantitative time-lapse imaging, we show that DNA translocase, FtsK, can pump as much as 80% (3.7 Mb) of the chromosome between daughters at an average rate of 1700±800 bp/s. Pauses in DNA translocation are rare, and in no occasions did we observe reversals at experimental time scales of a few minutes. The majority of DNA movement occurs at the latest stages of cell division when the cell division protein ZipA has already dissociated from the septum, and the septum has closed to a narrow channel with a diameter much smaller than the resolution limit of the microscope (~250 nm). Our data suggest that the narrow constriction is necessary for effective translocation of DNA by FtsK. PMID:28234902

  19. How-to-Do-It: Hands-on Activities that Relate Mendelian Genetics to Cell Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Heather R.; Gibson, Linda S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity designed to connect Mendelian laws with the physical processes of cell division. Included are materials production, procedures and worksheets for the meiosis-mitosis game and a genetics game. (CW)

  20. Activity and Accumulation of Cell Division-Promoting Phenolics in Tobacco Tissue Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Teutonico, Rita A.; Dudley, Matthew W.; Orr, John D.; Lynn, David G.; Binns, Andrew N.

    1991-01-01

    Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucosides (DCGs) are derivatives of the phenylpropanoid pathway that have been isolated from Catharansus roseus L. (Vinca rosea) crown gall tumors. Fractions containing purified DCGs have been shown previously to promote the growth of cytokinin-requiring tissues of tobacco in the absence of exogenous cytokinins. In this study, we utilized synthetic DCG isomers to confirm the cell division-promoting activity of DCG isomers A and B and show that they neither promote shoot meristem initiation on Nicotiana tabacum L., cv Havana 425, leaf explants nor induce betacyanin synthesis in amaranth seedlings. Analysis of cultured tobacco pith tissue demonstrated that DCG accumulation was stimulated by cytokinin treatment and correlated with cytokinin-induced cell division. Thus, the accumulation of metabolites that could replace cytokinin in cell division bioassays is stimulated by cytokinins. These data support the model that DCGs are a component of a cytokinin-mediated regulatory circuit controlling cell division. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:16668384

  1. Tumor-Initiating Label-Retaining Cancer Cells in Human Gastrointestinal Cancers Undergo Asymmetric Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M.; Mullinax, John E.; Ambe, Chenwi M.; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J.; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Garfield, Susan H.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. PMID:22331764

  2. Cell wall layers delimit cell groups derived from cell division in the foliose trebouxiophycean alga Prasiola japonica.

    PubMed

    Mine, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Urara; Kawashima, Shigetaka; Sekida, Satoko

    2018-01-22

    The cells in the foliose thallus of trebouxiophycean alga Prasiola japonica apparently develop into 2 × 2 cell groups composed of two two-celled groups, each of which is a pair of derivative cells of the latest cell division. In the present study, the structural features of cell walls of the alga P. japonica concerning the formation of the cell groups were investigated using histochemical methods. Thin cell layers stained by Calcofluor White appeared to envelope the two-celled and four-celled groups separately and, hence, separated them from neighboring cell groups, and the Calcofluor White-negative gaps between neighboring four-celled groups were specifically stained by lectins, such as soybean agglutinin, jacalin, and Vicia villosa lectin conjugated with fluorescein. These results indicated that the Calcofluor White-positive cell wall layer of parent cell that existed during two successive cell divisions structurally distinguished two-celled and four-celled groups from others in this alga. Moreover, the results suggested that the cell wall components of the Calcofluor White-negative gaps would possibly contribute to the formation of the planar thallus through lateral union of the cell groups.

  3. The invariant cleavage pattern displayed by ascidian embryos depends on spindle positioning along the cell's longest axis in the apical plane and relies on asynchronous cell divisions

    PubMed Central

    Dumollard, Rémi; Minc, Nicolas; Salez, Gregory; Aicha, Sameh Ben; Bekkouche, Faisal; Hebras, Céline; Besnardeau, Lydia; McDougall, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The ascidian embryo is an ideal system to investigate how cell position is determined during embryogenesis. Using 3D timelapse imaging and computational methods we analyzed the planar cell divisions in ascidian early embryos and found that spindles in every cell tend to align at metaphase in the long length of the apical surface except in cells undergoing unequal cleavage. Furthermore, the invariant and conserved cleavage pattern of ascidian embryos was found to consist in alternate planar cell divisions between ectoderm and endomesoderm. In order to test the importance of alternate cell divisions we manipulated zygotic transcription induced by β-catenin or downregulated wee1 activity, both of which abolish this cell cycle asynchrony. Crucially, abolishing cell cycle asynchrony consistently disrupted the spindle orienting mechanism underpinning the invariant cleavage pattern. Our results demonstrate how an evolutionary conserved cell cycle asynchrony maintains the invariant cleavage pattern driving morphogenesis of the ascidian blastula. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19290.001 PMID:28121291

  4. Model-based analysis of Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells reveals distinct division and expansion patterns for pavement and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery.

  5. Dynamic self-organisation of haematopoiesis and (a)symmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Måløy, Marthe; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Olav Brandsdal, Bjørn

    2017-02-07

    A model of haematopoiesis that links self-organisation with symmetric and asymmetric cell division is presented in this paper. It is assumed that all cell divisions are completely random events, and that the daughter cells resulting from symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions are, in general, phenotypically identical, and still, the haematopoietic system has the flexibility to self-renew, produce mature cells by differentiation, and regenerate undifferentiated and differentiated cells when necessary, due to self-organisation. As far as we know, no previous model implements symmetric and asymmetric division as the result of self-organisation. The model presented in this paper is inspired by experiments on the Drosophila germline stem cell, which imply that under normal conditions, the stem cells typically divide asymmetrically, whereas during regeneration, the rate of symmetric division increases. Moreover, the model can reproduce several of the results from experiments on female Safari cats. In particular, the model can explain why significant fluctuation in the phenotypes of haematopoietic cells was observed in some cats, when the haematopoietic system had reached normal population level after regeneration. To our knowledge, no previous model of haematopoiesis in Safari cats has captured this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of cell division and the spatial localization of assembled gene products in Caulobacter crescentus

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, P.D.

    Experiments are described that examine the role of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the regulation of cell division in Caulobacter crescentus; and the spatial localization of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in C. crescentus swarmer and predivisional cells. In the analysis of PBP function, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus PBPs with (/sup 3/H) penicillin G in wild type strain CB15, in a series of conditional cell division mutants and in new temperature sensitive cephalosporin C resistant mutants PC8002 and PC8003. 14 PBPs are characterized and a high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1B) that ismore » required for cell division is identified. PBP 1B competes for ..beta..-lactams that induce filament formation and may be a high affinity binding protein. A second high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1C) is also associated with defective cell division. The examination of PBP patterns in synchronous swarmer cells reveals that the in vivo activity of PBP 1B and PBP 1C increases at the time that the cell division pathway is initiated. None of the PBPs, however, appear to be differentially localized in the C. crescentus cell. In the analysis of MCP localization, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus MCPs with methyl-/sup 3/H. MCPs are examined in flagellated and non-flagellated vesicles prepared from cells by immunoaffinity chromatography.« less

  7. Using stochastic cell division and death to probe minimal units of cellular replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chib, Savita; Das, Suman; Venkatesan, Soumya; Sai Narain Seshasayee, Aswin; Thattai, Mukund

    2018-03-01

    The invariant cell initiation mass measured in bacterial growth experiments has been interpreted as a minimal unit of cellular replication. Here we argue that the existence of such minimal units induces a coupling between the rates of stochastic cell division and death. To probe this coupling we tracked live and dead cells in Escherichia coli populations treated with a ribosome-targeting antibiotic. We find that the growth exponent from macroscopic cell growth or decay measurements can be represented as the difference of microscopic first-order cell division and death rates. The boundary between cell growth and decay, at which the number of live cells remains constant over time, occurs at the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotic. This state appears macroscopically static but is microscopically dynamic: division and death rates exactly cancel at MIC but each is remarkably high, reaching 60% of the antibiotic-free division rate. A stochastic model of cells as collections of minimal replicating units we term ‘widgets’ reproduces both steady-state and transient features of our experiments. Sub-cellular fluctuations of widget numbers stochastically drive each new daughter cell to one of two alternate fates, division or death. First-order division or death rates emerge as eigenvalues of a stationary Markov process, and can be expressed in terms of the widget’s molecular properties. High division and death rates at MIC arise due to low mean and high relative fluctuations of widget number. Isolating cells at the threshold of irreversible death might allow molecular characterization of this minimal replication unit.

  8. Periplasmic Acid Stress Increases Cell Division Asymmetry (Polar Aging) of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Michelle W.; Yie, Anna M.; Eder, Elizabeth K.; Dennis, Richard G.; Basting, Preston J.; Martinez, Keith A.; Jones, Brian D.; Slonczewski, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Under certain kinds of cytoplasmic stress, Escherichia coli selectively reproduce by distributing the newer cytoplasmic components to new-pole cells while sequestering older, damaged components in cells inheriting the old pole. This phenomenon is termed polar aging or cell division asymmetry. It is unknown whether cell division asymmetry can arise from a periplasmic stress, such as the stress of extracellular acid, which is mediated by the periplasm. We tested the effect of periplasmic acid stress on growth and division of adherent single cells. We tracked individual cell lineages over five or more generations, using fluorescence microscopy with ratiometric pHluorin to measure cytoplasmic pH. Adherent colonies were perfused continually with LBK medium buffered at pH 6.00 or at pH 7.50; the external pH determines periplasmic pH. In each experiment, cell lineages were mapped to correlate division time, pole age and cell generation number. In colonies perfused at pH 6.0, the cells inheriting the oldest pole divided significantly more slowly than the cells inheriting the newest pole. In colonies perfused at pH 7.50 (near or above cytoplasmic pH), no significant cell division asymmetry was observed. Under both conditions (periplasmic pH 6.0 or pH 7.5) the cells maintained cytoplasmic pH values at 7.2–7.3. No evidence of cytoplasmic protein aggregation was seen. Thus, periplasmic acid stress leads to cell division asymmetry with minimal cytoplasmic stress. PMID:26713733

  9. A role for the ESCRT system in cell division in archaea.

    PubMed

    Samson, Rachel Y; Obita, Takayuki; Freund, Stefan M; Williams, Roger L; Bell, Stephen D

    2008-12-12

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms that lack endomembrane structures. However, a number of hyperthermophilic members of the Kingdom Crenarchaea, including members of the Sulfolobus genus, encode homologs of the eukaryotic endosomal sorting system components Vps4 and ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III). We found that Sulfolobus ESCRT-III and Vps4 homologs underwent regulation of their expression during the cell cycle. The proteins interacted and we established the structural basis of this interaction. Furthermore, these proteins specifically localized to the mid-cell during cell division. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant Vps4 in Sulfolobus resulted in the accumulation of enlarged cells, indicative of failed cell division. Thus, the archaeal ESCRT system plays a key role in cell division.

  10. Study of the mechanism of diatom cell division by means of 29Si isotope tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audinot, J.-N.; Guignard, C.; Migeon, H.-N.; Hoffmann, L.

    2006-07-01

    Diatoms are delicate unicellular organisms enclosed in a silica frustule, that is made up of two valves. Multiplication of the diatoms occurs by ordinary mitotic cell division. During cell division each cell produces two daughter cells, each of them keeping one of the two valves of the mother cell and producing a new valve by absorbing the silicon present in the environment. The NanoSIMS 50 allows ion imaging to be performed on diatoms in order to determine the site of fixation of silicon. The aim of this study was to observe and compare the mechanism of the construction of the new valve after cell division. To this end, different types of diatoms have been transferred in a culture medium enriched with 29Si and after several days, the distribution of the different isotopes of silicon has been determined by NanoSIMS50 imaging. The construction of new valves has been observed and the isotopic ratio has been determined.

  11. Myo19 ensures symmetric partitioning of mitochondria and coupling of mitochondrial segregation to cell division.

    PubMed

    Rohn, Jennifer L; Patel, Jigna V; Neumann, Beate; Bulkescher, Jutta; Mchedlishvili, Nunu; McMullan, Rachel C; Quintero, Omar A; Ellenberg, Jan; Baum, Buzz

    2014-11-03

    During animal cell division, an actin-based ring cleaves the cell into two. Problems with this process can cause chromosome missegregation and defects in cytoplasmic inheritance and the partitioning of organelles, which in turn are associated with human diseases. Although much is known about how chromosome segregation is coupled to cell division, the way organelles coordinate their inheritance during partitioning to daughter cells is less well understood. Here, using a high-content live-imaging small interfering RNA screen, we identify Myosin-XIX (Myo19) as a novel regulator of cell division. Previously, this actin-based motor was shown to control the interphase movement of mitochondria. Our analysis shows that Myo19 is indeed localized to mitochondria and that its silencing leads to defects in the distribution of mitochondria within cells and in mitochondrial partitioning at division. Furthermore, many Myo19 RNAi cells undergo stochastic division failure--a phenotype that can be mimicked using a treatment that blocks mitochondrial fission and rescued by decreasing mitochondrial fusion, implying that mitochondria can physically interfere with cytokinesis. Strikingly, using live imaging we also observe the inappropriate movement of mitochondria to the poles of spindles in cells depleted for Myo19 as they enter anaphase. Since this phenocopies the results of an acute loss of actin filaments in anaphase, these data support a model whereby the Myo19 actin-based motor helps to control mitochondrial movement to ensure their faithful segregation during division. The presence of DNA within mitochondria makes their inheritance an especially important aspect of symmetrical cell division. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical Forces Program the Orientation of Cell Division during Airway Tube Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zan; Hu, Yucheng; Wang, Zheng; Jiang, Kewu; Zhan, Cheng; Marshall, Wallace F; Tang, Nan

    2018-02-05

    Oriented cell division plays a key role in controlling organogenesis. The mechanisms for regulating division orientation at the whole-organ level are only starting to become understood. By combining 3D time-lapse imaging, mouse genetics, and mathematical modeling, we find that global orientation of cell division is the result of a combination of two types of spindles with distinct spindle dynamic behaviors in the developing airway epithelium. Fixed spindles follow the classic long-axis rule and establish their division orientation before metaphase. In contrast, rotating spindles do not strictly follow the long-axis rule and determine their division orientation during metaphase. By using both a cell-based mechanical model and stretching-lung-explant experiments, we showed that mechanical force can function as a regulatory signal in maintaining the stable ratio between fixed spindles and rotating spindles. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical forces, cell geometry, and oriented cell division function together in a highly coordinated manner to ensure normal airway tube morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, K F; Leys, C M; White, J G

    1998-01-01

    A novel screen to isolate conditional cell-division mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed. The screen is based on the phenotypes associated with existing cell-division mutations: some disrupt postembryonic divisions and affect formation of the gonad and ventral nerve cord-resulting in sterile, uncoordinated animals-while others affect embryonic divisions and result in lethality. We obtained 19 conditional mutants that displayed these phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature at the appropriate developmental stage. Eighteen of these mutations have been mapped; 17 proved to be single alleles of newly identified genes, while 1 proved to be an allele of a previously identified gene. Genetic tests on the embryonic lethal phenotypes indicated that for 13 genes, embryogenesis required maternal expression, while for 6, zygotic expression could suffice. In all cases, maternal expression of wild-type activity was found to be largely sufficient for embryogenesis. Cytological analysis revealed that 10 mutants possessed embryonic cell-division defects, including failure to properly segregate DNA, failure to assemble a mitotic spindle, late cytokinesis defects, prolonged cell cycles, and improperly oriented mitotic spindles. We conclude that this approach can be used to identify mutations that affect various aspects of the cell-division cycle. PMID:9649522

  14. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles") of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  15. Plasticity in Cell Division Patterns and Auxin Transport Dependency during in Vitro Embryogenesis in Brassica napus[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Mercedes; Li, Hui; Jacquard, Cédric; Angenent, Gerco C.; Krochko, Joan; Offringa, Remko; Boutilier, Kim

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, zygotic embryo divisions are highly regular, but it is not clear how embryo patterning is established in species or culture systems with irregular cell divisions. We investigated this using the Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system, where the male gametophyte is reprogrammed in vitro to form haploid embryos in the absence of exogenous growth regulators. Microspore embryos are formed via two pathways: a zygotic-like pathway, characterized by initial suspensor formation followed by embryo proper formation from the distal cell of the suspensor, and a pathway characterized by initially unorganized embryos lacking a suspensor. Using embryo fate and auxin markers, we show that the zygotic-like pathway requires polar auxin transport for embryo proper specification from the suspensor, while the suspensorless pathway is polar auxin transport independent and marked by an initial auxin maximum, suggesting early embryo proper establishment in the absence of a basal suspensor. Polarity establishment in this suspensorless pathway was triggered and guided by rupture of the pollen exine. Irregular division patterns did not affect cell fate establishment in either pathway. These results confirm the importance of the suspensor and suspensor-driven auxin transport in patterning, but also uncover a mechanism where cell patterning is less regular and independent of auxin transport. PMID:24951481

  16. RanGAP1 is a continuous marker of the Arabidopsis cell division plane

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianfeng Morgan; Zhao, Qiao; Rodrigo-Peiris, Thushani; Brkljacic, Jelena; He, Chao Sylvia; Müller, Sabine; Meier, Iris

    2008-01-01

    In higher plants, the plane of cell division is faithfully predicted by the preprophase band (PPB). The PPB, a cortical ring of microtubules and F-actin, disassembles upon nuclear-envelope breakdown. During cytokinesis, the expanding cell plate fuses with the plasma membrane at the cortical division site, the site of the former PPB. The nature of the “molecular memory” that is left behind by the PPB and is proposed to guide the cell plate to the cortical division site is unknown. RanGAP is the GTPase activating protein of the small GTPase Ran, which provides spatial information for nucleocytoplasmic transport and various mitotic processes in animals. Here, we show that, in dividing root cells, Arabidopsis RanGAP1 concentrates at the PPB and remains associated with the cortical division site during mitosis and cytokinesis, requiring its N-terminal targeting domain. In a fass/ton2 mutant, which affects PPB formation, RanGAP1 recruitment to the PPB site is lost, while its PPB retention is microtubule-independent. RanGAP1 persistence at the cortical division site, but not its initial accumulation at the PPB requires the 2 cytokinesis-regulating kinesins POK1 and POK2. Depletion of RanGAP by inducible RNAi leads to oblique cell walls and cell-wall stubs in root cell files, consistent with cytokinesis defects. We propose that Arabidopsis RanGAP, a continuous positive protein marker of the plant division plane, has a role in spatial signaling during plant cell division. PMID:19011093

  17. From Cell Differentiation to Cell Collectives: Bacillus subtilis Uses Division of Labor to Migrate

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell–cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called “van Gogh bundles”) of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity. PMID:25894589

  18. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-1 regulates daughter cell size asymmetry primarily in divisions that produce a small anterior daughter cell

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Ismar; Bao, Zhirong

    2018-01-01

    C. elegans cell divisions that produce an apoptotic daughter cell exhibit Daughter Cell Size Asymmetry (DCSA), producing a larger surviving daughter cell and a smaller daughter cell fated to die. Genetic screens for mutants with defects in apoptosis identified several genes that are also required for the ability of these divisions to produce daughter cells that differ in size. One of these genes, ham-1, encodes a putative transcription factor that regulates a subset of the asymmetric cell divisions that produce an apoptotic daughter cell. In a survey of C. elegans divisions, we found that ham-1 mutations affect primarily anterior/posterior divisions that produce a small anterior daughter cell. The affected divisions include those that generate an apoptotic cell as well as those that generate two surviving cells. Our findings suggest that HAM-1 primarily promotes DCSA in a certain class of asymmetric divisions. PMID:29668718

  19. Cell division patterns and chromosomal segregation defects in oral cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kaseb, Hatem O; Lewis, Dale W; Saunders, William S; Gollin, Susanne M

    2016-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a serious public health problem caused primarily by smoking and alcohol consumption or human papillomavirus. The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory posits that CSCs show unique characteristics, including self-renewal and therapeutic resistance. Examining biomarkers and other features of CSCs is critical to better understanding their biology. To this end, the results show that cellular SOX2 immunostaining correlates with other CSC biomarkers in OSCC cell lines and marks the rare CSC population. To assess whether CSC division patterns are symmetrical, resulting in two CSC, or asymmetrical, leading to one CSC and one cancer cell, cell size and fluorescence intensity of mitotic cells stained with SOX2 were analyzed. Asymmetrical SOX2 distribution in ≈25% of the mitoses analyzed was detected. Chromosomal instability, some of which is caused by chromosome segregation defects (CSDs), is a feature of cancer cells that leads to altered gene copy numbers. We compare chromosomal instability (as measured by CSDs) between CSCs (SOX2+) and non-CSCs (SOX2-) from the same OSCC cell lines. CSDs were more common in non-CSCs (SOX2-) than CSCs (SOX2+) and in symmetrical CSC (SOX2+) mitotic pairs than asymmetrical CSC (SOX2+/SOX2-) mitotic pairs. CSCs showed fewer and different types of CSDs after ionizing radiation treatment than non-CSCs. Overall, these data are the first to demonstrate both symmetrical and asymmetrical cell divisions with CSDs in OSCC CSC. Further, the results suggest that CSCs may undergo altered behavior, including therapeutic resistance as a result of chromosomal instability due to chromosome segregation defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Role of asymmetric cell division in lifespan control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Pernice, Wolfgang M A; Vevea, Jason D; Alessi Wolken, Dana M; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2014-01-01

    Aging determinants are asymmetrically distributed during cell division in S. cerevisiae, which leads to production of an immaculate, age-free daughter cell. During this process, damaged components are sequestered and retained in the mother cell, and higher functioning organelles and rejuvenating factors are transported to and/or enriched in the bud. Here, we will describe the key quality control mechanisms in budding yeast that contribute to asymmetric cell division of aging determinants including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuoles, extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs), and protein aggregates. PMID:25263578

  1. High frame-rate resolution of cell division during Candida albicans filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Darren D.; Berman, Judith; Brand, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    The commensal yeast, Candida albicans, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans and forms filaments called hyphae and pseudohyphae, in which cell division requires precise temporal and spatial control to produce mononuclear cell compartments. High-frame-rate live-cell imaging (1 frame/min) revealed that nuclear division did not occur across the septal plane. We detected the presence of nucleolar fragments that may be extrachromosomal molecules carrying the ribosomal RNA genes. Cells occasionally maintained multiple nucleoli, suggesting either polyploidy, multiple nuclei and/or aneuploidy of ChrR., while the migration pattern of sister nuclei differed between unbranched and branched hyphae. The presented movie challenges and extends previous concepts of C. albicans cell division. PMID:26854071

  2. Cell division versus cell elongation: the control of radicle elongation during thermoinhibition of Tagetes minuta achenes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicky J; Hills, Paul N; van Staden, Johannes

    2007-12-01

    Endogenous embryo factors, which act mainly in the radicle, prevent germination in Tagetes minuta at high temperatures. These factors act to prevent cell elongation, which is critical for radicle protrusion under optimal conditions. Once the radicle has emerged both cell elongation and cell division are required for post-germination growth. Germination can be induced at high temperatures by fusicoccin, which rapidly stimulates cell elongation. In addition, priming seeds at 25 degrees C on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol could also induce germination on water at 36 degrees C, indicating that priming prevents radicle protrusion at a point subsequent to the point of control in thermoinhibited achenes. Flow cytometry studies revealed that DNA synthesis occurs during thermoinhibition and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during this process inhibits subsequent germination on water under optimal conditions, suggesting a protective role for DNA synthesis in thermoinhibited achenes of T. minuta.

  3. Exposure of Human CD8+ T Cells to Type-2 Cytokines Impairs Division and Differentiation and Induces Limited Polarization.

    PubMed

    Fox, Annette; Harland, Kim L; Kedzierska, Katherine; Kelso, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Effector CD8 + T cells generally produce type-1 cytokines and mediators of the perforin/granzyme cytolytic pathway, yet type-2-polarized CD8 + cells (Tc2) are detected in type-2 (T2) cytokine-driven diseases such as asthma. It is unclear whether T2 cytokine exposure during activation is sufficient to polarize human CD8 + T cells. To address this question, a protocol was developed for high-efficiency activation of human CD8 + T cells in which purified single cells or populations were stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 and anti-CD11a mAb for up to 8 days in T2 polarizing or neutral conditions, before functional analysis. Activation of CD8 + naïve T cells (T N ) in T2 compared with neutral conditions decreased the size of single-cell clones, although early division kinetics were equivalent, indicating an effect on overall division number. Activation of T N in T2 conditions followed by brief anti-CD3 mAb restimulation favored expression of T2 cytokines, GATA3 and Eomes , and lowered expression of type-1 cytokines, Prf1 , Gzmb, T-BET, and Prdm1 . However, IL-4 was only weakly expressed, and PMA and ionomycin restimulation favored IFN-γ over IL-4 expression. Activation of T N in T2 compared with neutral conditions prevented downregulation of costimulatory (CD27, CD28) and lymph-node homing receptors (CCR7) and CD95 acquisition, which typically occur during differentiation into effector phenotypes. CD3 was rapidly and substantially induced after activation in neutral, but not T2 conditions, potentially contributing to greater division and differentiation in neutral conditions. CD8 + central memory T cells (T CM ) were less able to enter division upon reactivation in T2 compared with neutral conditions, and were more refractory to modulating IFN-γ and IL-4 production than CD8 + T N. In summary, while activation of T N in T2 conditions can generate T2 cytokine-biased cells, IL-4 expression is weak, T2 bias is lost upon strong restimulation, differentiation, and

  4. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Duarte, Erica S.; Dubar, Faustine; Lawton, Philippe; França da Silva, Cristiane; C. Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré; de Souza, Wanderley; Biot, Christophe; Vommaro, Rossiane C.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite’s DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13–25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment). Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h) post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition - with the appearance of ‘tethered’ parasites – malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results show

  5. Template DNA-strand co-segregation and asymmetric cell division in skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shinin, Vasily; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells are present in all tissues and organs, and are crucial for normal regulated growth. How the pool size of stem cells and their progeny is regulated to establish the tissue prenatally, then maintain it throughout life, is a key question in biology and medicine. The ability to precisely locate stem and progenitors requires defining lineage progression from stem to differentiated cells, assessing the mode of cell expansion and self-renewal and identifying markers to assess the different cell states within the lineage. We have shown that during lineage progression from a quiescent adult muscle satellite cell to a differentiated myofibre, both symmetric and asymmetric divisions take place. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a sub-population of label retaining satellite cells co-segregate template DNA strands to one daughter cell. These findings provide a means of identifying presumed stem and progenitor cells within the lineage. In addition, asymmetric segregation of template DNA and the cytoplasmic protein Numb provides a landmark to define cell behaviour as self-renewal and differentiation decisions are being executed.

  6. Planar cell polarity signaling coordinates oriented cell division and cell rearrangement in clonally expanding growth plate cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuwei; Li, Ang; Junge, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearrangements. Focusing on single column formation, we show that this stereotypical tissue architecture is established by a pivot-like process between sister cells. After mediolateral cell division, N-cadherin is enriched in the post-cleavage furrow; then one cell pivots around the other, resulting in stacking into a column. Perturbation analyses demonstrate that planar cell polarity signaling enables cells to pivot in the direction of limb elongation via this N-cadherin-mediated coupling. Our work provides new insights into the mechanisms generating appropriate tissue architecture of limb skeleton. PMID:28994649

  7. Planar cell polarity signaling coordinates oriented cell division and cell rearrangement in clonally expanding growth plate cartilage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuwei; Li, Ang; Junge, Jason; Bronner, Marianne

    2017-10-10

    Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearrangements. Focusing on single column formation, we show that this stereotypical tissue architecture is established by a pivot-like process between sister cells. After mediolateral cell division, N-cadherin is enriched in the post-cleavage furrow; then one cell pivots around the other, resulting in stacking into a column. Perturbation analyses demonstrate that planar cell polarity signaling enables cells to pivot in the direction of limb elongation via this N-cadherin-mediated coupling. Our work provides new insights into the mechanisms generating appropriate tissue architecture of limb skeleton.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of Early Division of the Forehead Flap Pedicle.

    PubMed

    Calloway, Hollin E; Moubayed, Sami P; Most, Sam P

    2017-09-01

    The paramedian forehead flap is considered the gold standard procedure to optimally reconstruct major defects of the nose, but this procedure generally requires 2 stages, where the flap pedicle is divided 3 weeks following the initial surgery to ensure adequate revascularization of the flap from the surrounding recipient tissue bed, which can cost a patient time out of work or away from normal social habits. It has previously been shown that the pedicle may be safely divided after 2 weeks in select patients where revascularization from the recipient bed was confirmed using intraoperative laser fluorescence angiography to potentially save the patient time and money. To demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of takedown of the paramedian forehead flap pedicle after 2 weeks using angiography with indocyanine green (ICG). Retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent 2-week division of the forehead flap after nasal reconstruction. Patient, tumor, defect, and outcomes data were collected. Cost-minimization analysis was performed by comparing the overall costs of 2-week takedown with angiography to a hypothetical patient undergoing 3-week takedown without angiography. Two-week division of the forehead flap after nasal reconstruction. Cost-minimization analysis performed by calculating the total variable costs for a patient in our cohort vs costs to a theoretical patient for whom angiography was not performed and the pedicle was divided at the 3-week mark. A total of 22 patients were included (mean [SD] age, 70.3 [10.0] years; 8 women [36.4%] and 14 men [63.6%]). The selection criteria for 2-week division of the pedicle are a wound bed with at least 50% vascularized tissue present, partial-thickness defects, and absence of nicotine use. All were divided at the 2-week mark with no instances of flap necrosis. One patient had a squamous eccrine carcinoma histology before reconstruction, all other patients had basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma

  9. CD8 Memory Cells Develop Unique DNA Repair Mechanisms Favoring Productive Division.

    PubMed

    Galgano, Alessia; Barinov, Aleksandr; Vasseur, Florence; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Rocha, Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Immune responses are efficient because the rare antigen-specific naïve cells are able to proliferate extensively and accumulate upon antigen stimulation. Moreover, differentiation into memory cells actually increases T cell accumulation, indicating improved productive division in secondary immune responses. These properties raise an important paradox: how T cells may survive the DNA lesions necessarily induced during their extensive division without undergoing transformation. We here present the first data addressing the DNA damage responses (DDRs) of CD8 T cells in vivo during exponential expansion in primary and secondary responses in mice. We show that during exponential division CD8 T cells engage unique DDRs, which are not present in other exponentially dividing cells, in T lymphocytes after UV or X irradiation or in non-metastatic tumor cells. While in other cell types a single DDR pathway is affected, all DDR pathways and cell cycle checkpoints are affected in dividing CD8 T cells. All DDR pathways collapse in secondary responses in the absence of CD4 help. CD8 T cells are driven to compulsive suicidal divisions preventing the propagation of DNA lesions. In contrast, in the presence of CD4 help all the DDR pathways are up regulated, resembling those present in metastatic tumors. However, this up regulation is present only during the expansion phase; i.e., their dependence on antigen stimulation prevents CD8 transformation. These results explain how CD8 T cells maintain genome integrity in spite of their extensive division, and highlight the fundamental role of DDRs in the efficiency of CD8 immune responses.

  10. Analysis of cell division patterns in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem

    DOE PAGES

    Shapiro, Bruce E.; Tobin, Cory; Mjolsness, Eric; ...

    2015-03-30

    The stereotypic pattern of cell shapes in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem (SAM) suggests that strict rules govern the placement of new walls during cell division. When a cell in the SAM divides, a new wall is built that connects existing walls and divides the cytoplasm of the daughter cells. Because features that are determined by the placement of new walls such as cell size, shape, and number of neighbors are highly regular, rules must exist for maintaining such order. Here in this paper we present a quantitative model of these rules that incorporates different observed features of cell division.more » Each feature is incorporated into a "potential function" that contributes a single term to a total analog of potential energy. New cell walls are predicted to occur at locations where the potential function is minimized. Quantitative terms that represent the well-known historical rules of plant cell division, such as those given by Hofmeister, Errera, and Sachs are developed and evaluated against observed cell divisions in the epidermal layer (L1) of Arabidopsis thaliana SAM. The method is general enough to allow additional terms for nongeometric properties such as internal concentration gradients and mechanical tensile forces.« less

  11. Auxin minimum triggers the developmental switch from cell division to cell differentiation in the Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    De Ruvo, Micol; Pacifici, Elena; Salvi, Elena; Sozzani, Rosangela; Benfey, Philip N.; Di Paola, Luisa; Marée, Athanasius F. M.; Costantino, Paolo; Grieneisen, Verônica A.; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, a stringent control of the transition between cell division and differentiation is crucial for correct tissue and organ development. In the Arabidopsis root, the boundary between dividing and differentiating cells is positioned by the antagonistic interaction of the hormones auxin and cytokinin. Cytokinin affects polar auxin transport, but how this impacts the positional information required to establish this tissue boundary, is still unknown. By combining computational modeling with molecular genetics, we show that boundary formation is dependent on cytokinin’s control on auxin polar transport and degradation. The regulation of both processes shapes the auxin profile in a well-defined auxin minimum. This auxin minimum positions the boundary between dividing and differentiating cells, acting as a trigger for this developmental transition, thus controlling meristem size. PMID:28831001

  12. A new class of cyclin dependent kinase in Chlamydomonas is required for coupling cell size to cell division

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubing; Liu, Dianyi; López-Paz, Cristina; Olson, Bradley JSC; Umen, James G

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cells actively control their size by mechanisms that are poorly understood. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii divides by multiple fission, wherein a ‘counting’ mechanism couples mother cell-size to cell division number allowing production of uniform-sized daughters. We identified a sizer protein, CDKG1, that acts through the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway as a D-cyclin-dependent RB kinase to regulate mitotic counting. Loss of CDKG1 leads to fewer mitotic divisions and large daughters, while mis-expression of CDKG1 causes supernumerous mitotic divisions and small daughters. The concentration of nuclear-localized CDKG1 in pre-mitotic cells is set by mother cell size, and its progressive dilution and degradation with each round of cell division may provide a link between mother cell-size and mitotic division number. Cell-size-dependent accumulation of limiting cell cycle regulators such as CDKG1 is a potentially general mechanism for size control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10767.001 PMID:27015111

  13. Foundation laid for understanding essentials of cell division | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR) scientists reported new molecular insights into understanding a critical aspect of cell division through a cross-disciplinary effort that combines cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), biochemical and cell biological approaches. Errors in segregation of chromosomes during mitosis can lead to an aberrant number of chromosomes, a condition

  14. Cell Division Induces and Switches Coherent Angular Motion within Bounded Cellular Collectives.

    PubMed

    Siedlik, Michael J; Manivannan, Sriram; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-06-06

    Collective cell migration underlies many biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer progression. In the embryo, cells have been observed to move collectively in vortices using a mode of collective migration known as coherent angular motion (CAM). To determine how CAM arises within a population and changes over time, here, we study the motion of mammary epithelial cells within engineered monolayers, in which the cells move collectively about a central axis in the tissue. Using quantitative image analysis, we find that CAM is significantly reduced when mitosis is suppressed. Particle-based simulations recreate the observed trends, suggesting that cell divisions drive the robust emergence of CAM and facilitate switches in the direction of collective rotation. Our simulations predict that the location of a dividing cell, rather than the orientation of the division axis, facilitates the onset of this motion. These predictions agree with experimental observations, thereby providing, to our knowledge, new insight into how cell divisions influence CAM within a tissue. Overall, these findings highlight the dynamic nature of CAM and suggest that regulating cell division is crucial for tuning emergent collective migratory behaviors, such as vortical motions observed in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A theory of germinal center B cell selection, division, and exit.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Mohr, Elodie; Pelletier, Nadége; Zhang, Yang; Victora, Gabriel D; Toellner, Kai-Michael

    2012-07-26

    High-affinity antibodies are generated in germinal centers in a process involving mutation and selection of B cells. Information processing in germinal center reactions has been investigated in a number of recent experiments. These have revealed cell migration patterns, asymmetric cell divisions, and cell-cell interaction characteristics, used here to develop a theory of germinal center B cell selection, division, and exit (the LEDA model). According to this model, B cells selected by T follicular helper cells on the basis of successful antigen processing always return to the dark zone for asymmetric division, and acquired antigen is inherited by one daughter cell only. Antigen-retaining B cells differentiate to plasma cells and leave the germinal center through the dark zone. This theory has implications for the functioning of germinal centers because compared to previous models, high-affinity antibodies appear one day earlier and the amount of derived plasma cells is considerably larger. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drosophila Sulf1 is required for the termination of intestinal stem cell division during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masahiko; Nakato, Hiroshi

    2017-01-15

    Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate is crucial for regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular heparan sulfate endosulfatase Sulf1 resulted in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which was caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK-STAT, EGFR and Hedgehog pathways. Using a regeneration model, we found that ISCs failed to properly halt division at the termination stage in Sulf1 mutants, showing that Sulf1 is required for terminating ISC division at the end of regeneration. We propose that post-transcriptional regulation of mitogen signaling by heparan sulfate structural modifications provides a new regulatory step for precise temporal control of stem cell activity during regeneration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cortical PAR polarity proteins promote robust cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Shawn N.; Davies, Tim; Zhuravlev, Yelena; Dumont, Julien; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the physical division of one cell into two, is thought to be fundamentally similar in most animal cell divisions and driven by the constriction of a contractile ring positioned and controlled solely by the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell divisions, the core polarity machinery (partitioning defective [PAR] proteins) controls the unequal inheritance of key cell fate determinants. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the cortical PAR proteins (including the small guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42) have an active role in regulating recruitment of a critical component of the contractile ring, filamentous actin (F-actin). We found that the cortical PAR proteins are required for the retention of anillin and septin in the anterior pole, which are cytokinesis proteins that our genetic data suggest act as inhibitors of F-actin at the contractile ring. Collectively, our results suggest that the cortical PAR proteins coordinate the establishment of cell polarity with the physical process of cytokinesis during asymmetric cell division to ensure the fidelity of daughter cell formation. PMID:26728855

  18. Localization of FtsZ in Helicobacter pylori and Consequences for Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Mara; Dempwolff, Felix; Schätzle, Sarah; Thomann, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Of the various kinds of cell division, the most common mode is binary fission, the division of a cell into two morphologically identical daughter cells. However, in the case of asymmetric cell division, Caulobacter crescentus produces two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types. Here, we have studied cell cycle progression of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of FtsZ protein and membrane staining. In small cells, representing newly divided cells, FtsZ localizes to a single cell pole. During the cell cycle, spiral intermediates are formed until an FtsZ ring is positioned with very little precision, such that central as well as acentral rings can be observed. Daughter cells showed considerably different sizes, suggesting that H. pylori divides asymmetrically. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses demonstrate that the H. pylori FtsZ ring is about as dynamic as that of Escherichia coli but that polar assemblies show less turnover. Strikingly, our results demonstrate that H. pylori cell division follows a different route from that in E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. It is also different from that in C. crescentus, where cytokinesis regulation proteins like MipZ play a role. Therefore, this report provides the first cell-biological analysis of FtsZ dynamics in the human pathogen H. pylori and even in epsilonproteobacteria to our knowledge. In addition, analysis of the filament architecture of H. pylori and E. coli FtsZ filaments in the heterologous system of Drosophila melanogaster S2 Schneider cells revealed that both have different filamentation properties in vivo, suggesting a unique intrinsic characteristic of each protein. PMID:23335414

  19. Three-dimensional patterns of cell division and expansion throughout the development of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalve, Shweta; Fotschki, Joanna; Beeckman, Tom; Vissenberg, Kris; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2014-12-01

    Variations in size and shape of multicellular organs depend on spatio-temporal regulation of cell division and expansion. Here, cell division and expansion rates were quantified relative to the three spatial axes in the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results show striking differences in expansion rates: the expansion rate in the petiole is higher than in the leaf blade; expansion rates in the lateral direction are higher than longitudinal rates between 5 and 10 days after stratification, but become equal at later stages of leaf blade development; and anticlinal expansion co-occurs with, but is an order of magnitude slower than periclinal expansion. Anticlinal expansion rates also differed greatly between tissues: the highest rates occurred in the spongy mesophyll and the lowest in the epidermis. Cell division rates were higher and continued for longer in the epidermis compared with the palisade mesophyll, causing a larger increase of palisade than epidermal cell area over the course of leaf development. The cellular dynamics underlying the effect of shading on petiole length and leaf thickness were then investigated. Low light reduced leaf expansion rates, which was partly compensated by increased duration of the growth phase. Inversely, shading enhanced expansion rates in the petiole, so that the blade to petiole ratio was reduced by 50%. Low light reduced leaf thickness by inhibiting anticlinal cell expansion rates. This effect on cell expansion was preceded by an effect on cell division, leading to one less layer of palisade cells. The two effects could be uncoupled by shifting plants to contrasting light conditions immediately after germination. This extended kinematic analysis maps the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cell division and expansion, providing a framework for further research to understand the molecular regulatory mechanisms involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  20. TfVPS32 Regulates Cell Division in the Parasite Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Lucrecia S; Midlej, Victor; Frontera, Lorena S; Moros Duarte, Daniel; Barbeito, Claudio G; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene; de Miguel, Natalia; Coceres, Veronica M

    2018-01-01

    The flagellated protist Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that causes bovine trichomonosis, a major sexually transmitted disease in cattle. Cell division has been described as a key player in controlling cell survival in other cells, including parasites but there is no information on the regulation of this process in T. foetus. The regulation of cytokinetic abscission, the final stage of cell division, is mediated by members of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. VPS32 is a subunit within the ESCRTIII complex and here, we report that TfVPS32 is localized on cytoplasmic vesicles and a redistribution of the protein to the midbody is observed during the cellular division. In concordance with its localization, deletion of TfVPS32 C-terminal alpha helices (α5 helix and/or α4-5 helix) leads to abnormal T. foetus growth, an increase in the percentage of multinucleated parasites and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Together, these results indicate a role of this protein in controlling normal cell division. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  1. Polarity, cell division, and out-of-equilibrium dynamics control the growth of epithelial structures

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti, Benedetta; Puliafito, Alberto; Shewan, Annette M.; Yu, Wei; Combes, Alexander N.; Little, Melissa H.; Chianale, Federica; Primo, Luca; Serini, Guido; Mostov, Keith E.; Celani, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The growth of a well-formed epithelial structure is governed by mechanical constraints, cellular apico-basal polarity, and spatially controlled cell division. Here we compared the predictions of a mathematical model of epithelial growth with the morphological analysis of 3D epithelial structures. In both in vitro cyst models and in developing epithelial structures in vivo, epithelial growth could take place close to or far from mechanical equilibrium, and was determined by the hierarchy of time-scales of cell division, cell–cell rearrangements, and lumen dynamics. Equilibrium properties could be inferred by the analysis of cell–cell contact topologies, and the nonequilibrium phenotype was altered by inhibiting ROCK activity. The occurrence of an aberrant multilumen phenotype was linked to fast nonequilibrium growth, even when geometric control of cell division was correctly enforced. We predicted and verified experimentally that slowing down cell division partially rescued a multilumen phenotype induced by altered polarity. These results improve our understanding of the development of epithelial organs and, ultimately, of carcinogenesis. PMID:24145168

  2. Molecular Programs Underlying Asymmetric Stem Cell Division and Their Disruption in Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Subhas; Brat, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric division of stem cells is a highly conserved and tightly regulated process by which a single stem cell produces two unequal daughter cells. One retains its stem cell identity while the other becomes specialized through a differentiation program and loses stem cell properties. Coordinating these events requires control over numerous intra- and extracellular biological processes and signaling networks. In the initial stages, critical events include the compartmentalization of fate determining proteins within the mother cell and their subsequent passage to the appropriate daughter cell in order to direct their destiny. Disturbance of these events results in an altered dynamic of self-renewing and differentiation within the cell population, which is highly relevant to the growth and progression of cancer. Other critical events include proper asymmetric spindle assembly, extrinsic regulation through micro-environmental cues, and non-canonical signaling networks that impact cell division and fate determination. In this review, we discuss mechanisms that maintain the delicate balance of asymmetric cell division in normal tissues and describe the current understanding how some of these mechanisms are deregulated in cancer.

  3. Analysis of Cell Division and Elongation Underlying the Developmental Acceleration of Root Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana1

    PubMed Central

    Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Baskin, Tobias I.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cell division and expansion in the regulation of organ growth rate, we used Arabidopsis thaliana primary roots grown vertically at 20°C with an elongation rate that increased steadily during the first 14 d after germination. We measured spatial profiles of longitudinal velocity and cell length and calculated parameters of cell expansion and division, including rates of local cell production (cells mm−1 h−1) and cell division (cells cell−1 h−1). Data were obtained for the root cortex and also for the two types of epidermal cell, trichoblasts and atrichoblasts. Accelerating root elongation was caused by an increasingly longer growth zone, while maximal strain rates remained unchanged. The enlargement of the growth zone and, hence, the accelerating root elongation rate, were accompanied by a nearly proportionally increased cell production. This increased production was caused by increasingly numerous dividing cells, whereas their rates of division remained approximately constant. Additionally, the spatial profile of cell division rate was essentially constant. The meristem was longer than generally assumed, extending well into the region where cells elongated rapidly. In the two epidermal cell types, meristem length and cell division rate were both very similar to that of cortical cells, and differences in cell length between the two epidermal cell types originated at the apex of the meristem. These results highlight the importance of controlling the number of dividing cells, both to generate tissues with different cell lengths and to regulate the rate of organ enlargement. PMID:9536070

  4. Liaisons between survivin and Plk1 during cell division and cell death.

    PubMed

    Colnaghi, Rita; Wheatley, Sally P

    2010-07-16

    Survivin and Plk1 kinase are important mediators of cell survival that are required for chromosome alignment, cytokinesis, and protection from apoptosis. Interference with either survivin or Plk1 activity manifests many similar outcomes: prometaphase delay/arrest, multinucleation, and increased apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of both survivin and Plk1 is deregulated in cancer. Given these similarities, we speculated that these two proteins may cooperate during mitosis and/or in cell death pathways. Here we report that survivin and Plk1 interact during mitosis and that Plk1 phosphorylates survivin at serine 20. Importantly, we find that overexpression of a non-phosphorylatable version, S20A, is unable to correct chromosomes connected to the spindle in a syntelic manner during prometaphase and allows cells harboring these maloriented chromosomes to enter anaphase, evading the spindle tension checkpoint. By contrast, the constitutive phosphomimic, S20D, completes congression and division ahead of schedule and, unlike S20A, is able to support proliferation in the absence of the endogenous protein. Despite the importance of this residue in mitosis, its mutation does not appear to affect the anti-apoptotic activity of survivin in response to TRAIL. Together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of survivin at Ser(20) by Plk1 kinase is essential for accurate chromosome alignment and cell proliferation but is dispensable for its anti-apoptotic activity in cancer cells.

  5. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Rules and Self-Organizing Properties of Post-embryonic Plant Organ Cell Division Patterns.

    PubMed

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Fangerau, Jens; Schmitz, Alexander; Smith, Richard S; Leitte, Heike; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Maizel, Alexis

    2016-02-22

    Plants form new organs with patterned tissue organization throughout their lifespan. It is unknown whether this robust post-embryonic organ formation results from stereotypic dynamic processes, in which the arrangement of cells follows rigid rules. Here, we combine modeling with empirical observations of whole-organ development to identify the principles governing lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. Lateral roots derive from a small pool of founder cells in which some take a dominant role as seen by lineage tracing. The first division of the founders is asymmetric, tightly regulated, and determines the formation of a layered structure. Whereas the pattern of subsequent cell divisions is not stereotypic between different samples, it is characterized by a regular switch in division plane orientation. This switch is also necessary for the appearance of patterned layers as a result of the apical growth of the primordium. Our data suggest that lateral root morphogenesis is based on a limited set of rules. They determine cell growth and division orientation. The organ-level coupling of the cell behavior ensures the emergence of the lateral root's characteristic features. We propose that self-organizing, non-deterministic modes of development account for the robustness of plant organ morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Overly long centrioles and defective cell division upon excess of the SAS-4-related protein CPAP.

    PubMed

    Kohlmaier, Gregor; Loncarek, Jadranka; Meng, Xing; McEwen, Bruce F; Mogensen, Mette M; Spektor, Alexander; Dynlacht, Brian D; Khodjakov, Alexey; Gönczy, Pierre

    2009-06-23

    The centrosome is the principal microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of animal cells. Accurate centrosome duplication is fundamental for genome integrity and entails the formation of one procentriole next to each existing centriole, once per cell cycle. The procentriole then elongates to eventually reach the same size as the centriole. The mechanisms that govern elongation of the centriolar cylinder and their potential relevance for cell division are not known. Here, we show that the SAS-4-related protein CPAP is required for centrosome duplication in cycling human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CPAP overexpression results in the formation of abnormally long centrioles. This also promotes formation of more than one procentriole in the vicinity of such overly long centrioles, eventually resulting in the presence of supernumerary MTOCs. This in turn leads to multipolar spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Overall, our findings suggest that centriole length must be carefully regulated to restrict procentriole number and thus ensure accurate cell division.

  8. FORMATION OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM OF MYCOBACTERIA RELATED TO CELL DIVISION

    PubMed Central

    Imaeda, Tamotsu; Ogura, Mituo

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150–163. 1963.—Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria. Images PMID:13956365

  9. Gibberellin reactivates and maintains ovary-wall cell division causing fruit set in parthenocarpic Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Bermejo, Almudena; Germanà, M Antonietta; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i.e. Citrus unshiu) have higher GA levels and better natural parthenocarpic fruit set compared to other facultative parthenocarpic Citrus (i.e. Citrus clementina). The autonomous activation of GA synthesis in C. unshiu ovary preceded cell division and CYCA1.1 up-regulation (a G2-stage cell cycle regulator) at anthesis setting a high proportion of fruits, whereas C. clementina lacked this GA-biosynthesis and CYCA1.1 up-regulation failing in fruit set. In situ hybridization experiments revealed a tissue-specific expression of GA20ox2 only in the dividing tissues of the pericarp. Furthermore, CYCA1.1 expression correlated endogenous GA1 content with GA3 treatment, which stimulated cell division and ovary growth, mostly in C. clementina. Instead, paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) negated cell division and reduced fruit set. Results suggest that in parthenocarpic citrus the specific GA synthesis in the ovary walls at anthesis triggers cell division and, thus, the necessary ovary growth rate to set fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural Protein 4.1 in the Nucleus of Human Cells: Dynamic Rearrangements during Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Lockett, Stephen; Gascard, Philippe; Penman, Sheldon; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne

    1997-01-01

    Structural protein 4.1, first identified as a crucial 80-kD protein in the mature red cell membrane skeleton, is now known to be a diverse family of protein isoforms generated by complex alternative mRNA splicing, variable usage of translation initiation sites, and posttranslational modification. Protein 4.1 epitopes are detected at multiple intracellular sites in nucleated mammalian cells. We report here investigations of protein 4.1 in the nucleus. Reconstructions of optical sections of human diploid fibroblast nuclei using antibodies specific for 80-kD red cell 4.1 and for 4.1 peptides showed 4.1 immunofluorescent signals were intranuclear and distributed throughout the volume of the nucleus. After sequential extractions of cells in situ, 4.1 epitopes were detected in nuclear matrix both by immunofluorescence light microscopy and resinless section immunoelectron microscopy. Western blot analysis of fibroblast nuclear matrix protein fractions, isolated under identical extraction conditions as those for microscopy, revealed several polypeptide bands reactive to multiple 4.1 antibodies against different domains. Epitope-tagged protein 4.1 was detected in fibroblast nuclei after transient transfections using a construct encoding red cell 80-kD 4.1 fused to an epitope tag. Endogenous protein 4.1 epitopes were detected throughout the cell cycle but underwent dynamic spatial rearrangements during cell division. Protein 4.1 was observed in nucleoplasm and centrosomes at interphase, in the mitotic spindle during mitosis, in perichromatin during telophase, as well as in the midbody during cytokinesis. These results suggest that multiple protein 4.1 isoforms may contribute significantly to nuclear architecture and ultimately to nuclear function. PMID:9128242

  11. Exploring Middle School Students' Conceptions of the Relationship between Genetic Inheritance and Cell Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; DeBarger, Angela Haydel; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Zhou, Xuechun; Tate, Erika

    2012-01-01

    This study examines students' understanding of the normative connections between key concepts of cell division, including both mitosis and meiosis, and underlying biological principles that are critical for an in-depth understanding of genetic inheritance. Using a structural equation modeling method, we examine middle school students'…

  12. Reflections from a Computer Simulations Program on Cell Division in Selected Kenyan Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kiboss, Joel K.; Wekesa, Eric W.

    2005-01-01

    The application of computer technology in education is a relatively new approach that is trying to justify inclusion in the Kenyan school curriculum. Being abstract, with a dynamic nature that does not manifest itself visibly, the process of cell division has posed difficulties for teachers. Consequently, a computer simulation program, using…

  13. Regulation of DNA synthesis and cell division by polyamines in Catharanthus roseus suspension cultures

    Treesearch

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; A. Komamine; W.C. Shortle

    1991-01-01

    Various inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis were used to study the role of polyamines in DNA synthesis and cell division in suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) was the major enzyme responsible for putrescine production. DL α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ADC activity, cellular...

  14. LIN-39/Hox triggers cell division and represses EFF-1/fusogen-dependent vulval cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shemer, Gidi; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    General mechanisms by which Hox genes establish cell fates are known. However, a few Hox effectors mediating cell behaviors have been identified. Here we found the first effector of LIN-39/HoxD4/Dfd in Caenorhabditis elegans. In specific vulval precursor cells (VPCs), LIN-39 represses early and late expression of EFF-1, a membrane protein essential for cell fusion. Repression of eff-1 is also achieved by the activity of CEH-20/Exd/Pbx, a known cofactor of Hox proteins. Unfused VPCs in lin-39(−);eff-1(−) double mutants fail to divide but migrate, executing vulval fates. Thus, lin-39 is essential for inhibition of EFF-1-dependent cell fusion and stimulation of cell proliferation during vulva formation. Supplemental material is available at http://www.genesdev.org. PMID:12502736

  15. Timing the start of division in E. coli: a single-cell study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshes, G.; Vanounou, S.; Fishov, I.; Feingold, M.

    2008-12-01

    We monitor the shape dynamics of individual E. coli cells using time-lapse microscopy together with accurate image analysis. This allows measuring the dynamics of single-cell parameters throughout the cell cycle. In previous work, we have used this approach to characterize the main features of single-cell morphogenesis between successive divisions. Here, we focus on the behavior of the parameters that are related to cell division and study their variation over a population of 30 cells. In particular, we show that the single-cell data for the constriction width dynamics collapse onto a unique curve following appropriate rescaling of the corresponding variables. This suggests the presence of an underlying time scale that determines the rate at which the cell cycle advances in each individual cell. For the case of cell length dynamics a similar rescaling of variables emphasizes the presence of a breakpoint in the growth rate at the time when division starts, τc. We also find that the τc of individual cells is correlated with their generation time, τg, and inversely correlated with the corresponding length at birth, L0. Moreover, the extent of the T-period, τg - τc, is apparently independent of τg. The relations between τc, τg and L0 indicate possible compensation mechanisms that maintain cell length variability at about 10%. Similar behavior was observed for both fast-growing cells in a rich medium (LB) and for slower growth in a minimal medium (M9-glucose). To reveal the molecular mechanisms that lead to the observed organization of the cell cycle, we should further extend our approach to monitor the formation of the divisome.

  16. New insights into FtsZ rearrangements during the cell division of Escherichia coli from single-molecule localization microscopy of fixed cells.

    PubMed

    Vedyaykin, Alexey D; Vishnyakov, Innokentii E; Polinovskaya, Vasilisa S; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail A; Sabantsev, Anton V

    2016-06-01

    FtsZ - a prokaryotic tubulin homolog - is one of the central components of bacterial division machinery. At the early stage of cytokinesis FtsZ forms the so-called Z-ring at mid-cell that guides septum formation. Many approaches were used to resolve the structure of the Z-ring, however, researchers are still far from consensus on this question. We utilized single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in combination with immunofluorescence staining to visualize FtsZ in Esherichia coli fixed cells that were grown under slow and fast growth conditions. This approach allowed us to obtain images of FtsZ structures at different stages of cell division and accurately measure Z-ring dimensions. Analysis of these images demonstrated that Z-ring thickness increases during constriction, starting at about 70 nm at the beginning of division and increasing by approximately 25% half-way through constriction. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. IFT Proteins Accumulate during Cell Division and Localize to the Cleavage Furrow in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher R.; Wang, Zhaohui; Diener, Dennis; Zones, James Matt; Rosenbaum, Joel; Umen, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins are well established as conserved mediators of flagellum/cilium assembly and disassembly. However, data has begun to accumulate in support of IFT protein involvement in other processes elsewhere in the cell. Here, we used synchronous cultures of Chlamydomonas to investigate the temporal patterns of accumulation and localization of IFT proteins during the cell cycle. Their mRNAs showed periodic expression that peaked during S and M phase (S/M). Unlike most proteins that are synthesized continuously during G1 phase, IFT27 and IFT46 levels were found to increase only during S/M phase. During cell division, IFT27, IFT46, IFT72, and IFT139 re-localized from the flagella and basal bodies to the cleavage furrow. IFT27 was further shown to be associated with membrane vesicles in this region. This localization pattern suggests a role for IFT in cell division. PMID:22328921

  18. From centriole biogenesis to cellular function: centrioles are essential for cell division at critical developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Martins, Ana; Riparbelli, Maria; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Bettencourt-Dias, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Centrioles are essential for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosome organization. Abnormalities in centrosome structure and number in many cancers can be associated with aberrant cell division and genomic instability.(1,2) Canonical centriole duplication occurs in coordination with the cell division cycle, such that a single new "daughter" centriole arises next to each "mother" centriole. If destroyed, or eliminated during development, centrioles can form de novo.(3-5) Here we discuss our recent data demonstrating a molecular pathway that operates in both de novo and canonical centriole biogenesis involving SAK/PLK4, SAS-6 and SAS-4.(6) We showed that centriole biogenesis is a self-assembly process locally triggered by high SAK/PLK4 activity that may or not be associated with an existing centriole. SAS-6 acts downstream of SAK/PLK4 to organize nine precentriolar units, which we call here enatosomes, fitting together laterally and longitudinally, specifying a tube-like centriole precursor.(7,8) The identification of mutants impaired in centriole biogenesis has permitted the study of the physiological consequences of their absence in the whole organism. In Drosophila, centrioles are not necessary for somatic cell divisions.(9,10) However, we show here that mitotic abnormalities arise in syncytial SAK/PLK4-derived mutant embryos resulting in lethality. Moreover male meiosis fails in both SAK/PLK4 and DSAS-4 mutant spermatids that have no centrioles. These results show diversity in the need for centrioles in cell division. This suggests that tissue specific constraints selected for different contributions of centrosome-independent and dependent mechanisms in spindle function. This heterogeneity should be taken into account both in reaching an understanding of spindle function and when designing drugs that target cell division.

  19. An Aminopropyl Carbazole Derivative Induces Neurogenesis by Increasing Final Cell Division in Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Yeon; Kong, Sun-Young; Yoon, Hye Jin; Ann, Jihyae; Lee, Jeewoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    P7C3 and its derivatives, 1-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-3-(p-tolylamino)propan-2-ol (1) and N-(3-(3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), were previously reported to increase neurogenesis in rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Although P7C3 is known to increase neurogenesis by protecting newborn neurons, it is not known whether its derivatives also have protective effects to increase neurogenesis. In the current study, we examined how 1 induces neurogenesis. The treatment of 1 in NSCs increased numbers of cells in the absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), while not affecting those in the presence of growth factors. Compound 1 did not induce astrocytogenesis during NSC differentiation. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulsing experiments showed that 1 significantly enhanced BrdU-positive neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that 1 promotes neurogenesis by the induction of final cell division during NSC differentiation.

  20. Foundation laid for understanding essentials of cell division | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR) scientists reported new molecular insights into understanding a critical aspect of cell division through a cross-disciplinary effort that combines cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), biochemical and cell biological approaches. Errors in segregation of chromosomes during mitosis can lead to an aberrant number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy, which can lead to cancer and birth defects. Read more…

  1. Accurate Cell Division in Bacteria: How Does a Bacterium Know Where its Middle Is?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Martin; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2004-03-01

    I will discuss the physical principles lying behind the acquisition of accurate positional information in bacteria. A good application of these ideas is to the rod-shaped bacterium E. coli which divides precisely at its cellular midplane. This positioning is controlled by the Min system of proteins. These proteins coherently oscillate from end to end of the bacterium. I will present a reaction-diffusion model that describes the diffusion of the Min proteins, and their binding/unbinding from the cell membrane. The system possesses an instability that spontaneously generates the Min oscillations, which control accurate placement of the midcell division site. I will then discuss the role of fluctuations in protein dynamics, and investigate whether fluctuations set optimal protein concentration levels. Finally I will examine cell division in a different bacteria, B. subtilis. where different physical principles are used to regulate accurate cell division. See: Howard, Rutenberg, de Vet: Dynamic compartmentalization of bacteria: accurate division in E. coli. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 278102 (2001). Howard, Rutenberg: Pattern formation inside bacteria: fluctuations due to the low copy number of proteins. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 128102 (2003). Howard: A mechanism for polar protein localization in bacteria. J. Mol. Biol. 335 655-663 (2004).

  2. Asymmetric stem-cell divisions define the architecture of human oesophageal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Seery, J P; Watt, F M

    2000-11-16

    In spite of its clinical importance, little is known about the stem-cell compartment of the human oesophageal epithelium [1,2]. The epithelial basal layer consists of two distinct zones, one overlying the papillae of the supporting connective tissue (PBL) and the other covering the interpapillary zone (IBL) [3]. In examining the oesophageal basal layer, we found that proliferating cells were rare in the IBL and a high proportion of mitoses were asymmetrical, giving rise to one basal daughter and one suprabasal, differentiating daughter. In the PBL, mitoses were more frequent and predominantly symmetrical. The IBL was characterised by low expression of ?1 integrins and high expression of the beta2 laminin chain. By combining fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with in vitro clonal analysis, we obtained evidence that the IBL is enriched for stem cells. A normal oesophageal epithelium with asymmetric divisions was reconstituted on denuded oesophageal connective tissue. In contrast, asymmetric divisions were not sustained on skin connective tissue, and the epithelium formed resembled epidermis. We propose that stem cells located in the IBL give rise to differentiating daughters through asymmetric divisions in response to cues from the underlying basement membrane. Until now, stem-cell fate in stratified squamous epithelia was believed to be achieved largely through populational asymmetry [4-6].

  3. Combination of Synthetic Chemistry and Live-Cell Imaging Identified a Rapid Cell Division Inhibitor in Tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nambo, Masakazu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Yamada, Tomomi; Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Kadofusa, Naoya; Kimata, Yusuke; Kuwata, Keiko; Umeda, Masaaki; Ueda, Minako

    2016-11-01

    Cell proliferation is crucial to the growth of multicellular organisms, and thus the proper control of cell division is important to prevent developmental arrest or overgrowth. Nevertheless, tools for controlling cell proliferation are still poor in plant. To develop novel tools, we focused on a specific compound family, triarylmethanes, whose members show various antiproliferative activities in animals. By combining organic chemistry to create novel and diverse compounds containing the triarylmethyl moiety and biological screens based on live-cell imaging of a fluorescently labeled tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) culture cell line (Nicotiana tabacum), we isolated (3-furyl)diphenylmethane as a strong but partially reversible inhibitor of plant cell division. We also found that this agent had efficient antiproliferative activity in developing organs of Arabidopsis thaliana without causing secondary defects in cell morphology, and induced rapid cell division arrest independent of the cell cycle stage. Given that (3-furyl)diphenylmethane did not affect the growth of a human cell line (HeLa) and a budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), it should act specifically on plants. Taking our results together, we propose that the combination of desired chemical synthesis and detailed biological analysis is an effective tool to create novel drugs, and that (3-furyl)diphenylmethane is a specific antiproliferative agent for plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The C. elegans engrailed homolog ceh-16 regulates the self-renewal expansion division of stem cell-like seam cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinxin; Tian, E; Xu, Yanhua; Zhang, Hong

    2009-09-15

    Stem cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric division to maintain the dynamic equilibrium of the stem cell pool and also to generate a variety of differentiated cells. The homeostatic mechanism controlling the choice between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is poorly understood. We show here that ceh-16, encoding the C. elegans ortholog of the transcription factor Engrailed, controls symmetric and asymmetric division of stem cell-like seam cells. Loss of function of ceh-16 causes certain seam cells, which normally undergo symmetric self-renewal expansion division with both daughters adopting the seam cell fate, to divide asymmetrically with only one daughter retaining the seam cell fate. The human engrailed homolog En2 functionally substitutes the role of ceh-16 in promoting self-renewal expansion division of seam cells. Loss of function of apr-1, encoding the C. elegans homolog of the Wnt signaling component APC, results in transformation of self-renewal maintenance seam cell division to self-renewal expansion division, leading to seam cell hyperplasia. The apr-1 mutation suppresses the seam cell division defect in ceh-16 mutants. Our study reveals that ceh-16 interacts with the Wnt signaling pathway to control the choice between self-renewal expansion and maintenance division and also demonstrates an evolutionarily conserved function of engrailed in promoting cell proliferation.

  5. Diurnal rhythm in the cell-division frequency of prochloron (prochlorophyta) in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.; Matta, J.

    1983-01-01

    Frequencies of cell division stages in suspensions of Prochloron cells, expressed at regular intervals throughout a natural day-night cycle from several colonies of four species of host didemnid, are given. The proportion of dividing cells of Prochloron living symbiotically in colonies of a didemnid, Diplosoma virens, rises from about 4% during the night (20.00-04.00 hrs.) to about 13% in the morning (0,.00-12.00 hrs.), and then falls again in the afternoon. Similiar, though less pronounced, changes were observed among Prochloron cells in two other symbiotic didemnids, Lissoclinum patella and L. voeltzkowi.

  6. Cell growth, division, and death in cohesive tissues: A thermodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Marcq, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    Cell growth, division, and death are defining features of biological tissues that contribute to morphogenesis. In hydrodynamic descriptions of cohesive tissues, their occurrence implies a nonzero rate of variation of cell density. We show how linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics allows us to express this rate as a combination of relevant thermodynamic forces: chemical potential, velocity divergence, and activity. We illustrate the resulting effects of the nonconservation of cell density on simple examples inspired by recent experiments on cell monolayers, considering first the velocity of a spreading front, and second an instability leading to mechanical waves.

  7. Illumination of growth, division and secretion by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist, M. Sloan; Swarts, Benjamin M.; Fox, Douglas M.; Lim, Shion An; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface is the essential interface between a bacterium and its surroundings. Composed primarily of molecules that are not directly genetically encoded, this highly dynamic structure accommodates the basic cellular processes of growth and division as well as the transport of molecules between the cytoplasm and the extracellular milieu. In this review, we describe aspects of bacterial growth, division and secretion that have recently been uncovered by metabolic labeling of the cell envelope. Metabolite derivatives can be used to label a variety of macromolecules, from proteins to non-genetically-encoded glycans and lipids. The embedded metabolite enables precise tracking in time and space, and the versatility of newer chemoselective detection methods offers the ability to execute multiple experiments concurrently. In addition to reviewing the discoveries enabled by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell envelope, we also discuss the potential of these techniques for translational applications. Finally, we offer some guidelines for implementing this emerging technology. PMID:25725012

  8. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Termination of T cell priming relies on a phase of unresponsiveness promoting disengagement from APCs and T cell division.

    PubMed

    Bohineust, Armelle; Garcia, Zacarias; Beuneu, Hélène; Lemaître, Fabrice; Bousso, Philippe

    2018-05-07

    T cells are primed in secondary lymphoid organs by establishing stable interactions with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the termination of T cell priming and the initiation of clonal expansion remain largely unknown. Using intravital imaging, we observed that T cells typically divide without being associated to APCs. Supporting these findings, we demonstrate that recently activated T cells have an intrinsic defect in establishing stable contacts with APCs, a feature that was reflected by a blunted capacity to stop upon T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. T cell unresponsiveness was caused, in part, by a general block in extracellular calcium entry. Forcing TCR signals in activated T cells antagonized cell division, suggesting that T cell hyporesponsiveness acts as a safeguard mechanism against signals detrimental to mitosis. We propose that transient unresponsiveness represents an essential phase of T cell priming that promotes T cell disengagement from APCs and favors effective clonal expansion. © 2018 Bohineust et al.

  10. Division rate, cell size and proteome allocation: impact on gene expression noise and implications for the dynamics of genetic circuits

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The cell division rate, size and gene expression programmes change in response to external conditions. These global changes impact on average concentrations of biomolecule and their variability or noise. Gene expression is inherently stochastic, and noise levels of individual proteins depend on synthesis and degradation rates as well as on cell-cycle dynamics. We have modelled stochastic gene expression inside growing and dividing cells to study the effect of division rates on noise in mRNA and protein expression. We use assumptions and parameters relevant to Escherichia coli, for which abundant quantitative data are available. We find that coupling of transcription, but not translation rates to the rate of cell division can result in protein concentration and noise homeostasis across conditions. Interestingly, we find that the increased cell size at fast division rates, observed in E. coli and other unicellular organisms, buffers noise levels even for proteins with decreased expression at faster growth. We then investigate the functional importance of these regulations using gene regulatory networks that exhibit bi-stability and oscillations. We find that network topology affects robustness to changes in division rate in complex and unexpected ways. In particular, a simple model of persistence, based on global physiological feedback, predicts increased proportion of persister cells at slow division rates. Altogether, our study reveals how cell size regulation in response to cell division rate could help controlling gene expression noise. It also highlights that understanding circuits' robustness across growth conditions is key for the effective design of synthetic biological systems. PMID:29657814

  11. Individuality and universality in the growth-division laws of single E. coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennard, Andrew S.; Osella, Matteo; Javer, Avelino; Grilli, Jacopo; Nghe, Philippe; Tans, Sander J.; Cicuta, Pietro; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The mean size of exponentially dividing Escherichia coli cells in different nutrient conditions is known to depend on the mean growth rate only. However, the joint fluctuations relating cell size, doubling time, and individual growth rate are only starting to be characterized. Recent studies in bacteria reported a universal trend where the spread in both size and doubling times is a linear function of the population means of these variables. Here we combine experiments and theory and use scaling concepts to elucidate the constraints posed by the second observation on the division control mechanism and on the joint fluctuations of sizes and doubling times. We found that scaling relations based on the means collapse both size and doubling-time distributions across different conditions and explain how the shape of their joint fluctuations deviates from the means. Our data on these joint fluctuations highlight the importance of cell individuality: Single cells do not follow the dependence observed for the means between size and either growth rate or inverse doubling time. Our calculations show that these results emerge from a broad class of division control mechanisms requiring a certain scaling form of the "division hazard rate function," which defines the probability rate of dividing as a function of measurable parameters. This "model free" approach gives a rationale for the universal body-size distributions observed in microbial ecosystems across many microbial species, presumably dividing with multiple mechanisms. Additionally, our experiments show a crossover between fast and slow growth in the relation between individual-cell growth rate and division time, which can be understood in terms of different regimes of genome replication control.

  12. An archaebacterial homologue of the essential eubacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P; Jackson, S P

    1996-01-01

    Life falls into three fundamental domains--Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya (formerly archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes,. respectively). Though Archaea lack nuclei and share many morphological features with Bacteria, molecular analyses, principally of the transcription and translation machineries, have suggested that Archaea are more related to Eucarya than to Bacteria. Currently, little is known about the archaeal cell division apparatus. In Bacteria, a crucial component of the cell division machinery is FtsZ, a GTPase that localizes to a ring at the site of septation. Interestingly, FtsZ is distantly related in sequence to eukaryotic tubulins, which also interact with GTP and are components of the eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton. By screening for the ability to bind radiolabeled nucleotides, we have identified a protein of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei that interacts tightly and specifically with GTP. Furthermore, through screening an expression library of P. woesei genomic DNA, we have cloned the gene encoding this protein. Sequence comparisons reveal that the P. woesei GTP-binding protein is strikingly related in sequence to eubacterial FtsZ and is marginally more similar to eukaryotic tubulins than are bacterial FtsZ proteins. Phylogenetic analyses reinforce the notion that there is an evolutionary linkage between FtsZ and tubulins. These findings suggest that the archaeal cell division apparatus may be fundamentally similar to that of Bacteria and lead us to consider the evolutionary relationships between Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8692886

  13. An archaebacterial homologue of the essential eubacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Baumann, P; Jackson, S P

    1996-06-25

    Life falls into three fundamental domains--Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya (formerly archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes,. respectively). Though Archaea lack nuclei and share many morphological features with Bacteria, molecular analyses, principally of the transcription and translation machineries, have suggested that Archaea are more related to Eucarya than to Bacteria. Currently, little is known about the archaeal cell division apparatus. In Bacteria, a crucial component of the cell division machinery is FtsZ, a GTPase that localizes to a ring at the site of septation. Interestingly, FtsZ is distantly related in sequence to eukaryotic tubulins, which also interact with GTP and are components of the eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton. By screening for the ability to bind radiolabeled nucleotides, we have identified a protein of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei that interacts tightly and specifically with GTP. Furthermore, through screening an expression library of P. woesei genomic DNA, we have cloned the gene encoding this protein. Sequence comparisons reveal that the P. woesei GTP-binding protein is strikingly related in sequence to eubacterial FtsZ and is marginally more similar to eukaryotic tubulins than are bacterial FtsZ proteins. Phylogenetic analyses reinforce the notion that there is an evolutionary linkage between FtsZ and tubulins. These findings suggest that the archaeal cell division apparatus may be fundamentally similar to that of Bacteria and lead us to consider the evolutionary relationships between Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.

  14. Inhibition of cell division in hupA hupB mutant bacteria lacking HU protein.

    PubMed Central

    Dri, A M; Rouviere-Yaniv, J; Moreau, P L

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli hupA hypB double mutants that lack HU protein have severe cellular defects in cell division, DNA folding, and DNA partitioning. Here we show that the sfiA11 mutation, which alters the SfiA cell division inhibitor, reduces filamentation and production of anucleate cells in AB1157 hupA hupB strains. However, lexA3(Ind-) and sfiB(ftsZ)114 mutations, which normally counteract the effect of the SfiA inhibitor, could not restore a normal morphology to hupA hupB mutant bacteria. The LexA repressor, which controls the expression of the sfiA gene, was present in hupA hupB mutant bacteria in concentrations half of those of the parent bacteria, but this decrease was independent of the specific cleavage of the LexA repressor by activated RecA protein. One possibility to account for the filamentous morphology of hupA hupB mutant bacteria is that the lack of HU protein alters the expression of specific genes, such as lexA and fts cell division genes. Images PMID:2019558

  15. Interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Coucke, Alice; Joanny, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed: stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches," and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  16. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Machinery in Agrobacterium tumefaciens During Unipolar Growth and Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Todd A.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zupan, John R.; Zik, Justin J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The synthesis of peptidoglycan (PG) in bacteria is a crucial process controlling cell shape and vitality. In contrast to bacteria such as Escherichia coli that grow by dispersed lateral insertion of PG, little is known of the processes that direct polar PG synthesis in other bacteria such as the Rhizobiales. To better understand polar growth in the Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we first surveyed its genome to identify homologs of (~70) well-known PG synthesis components. Since most of the canonical cell elongation components are absent from A. tumefaciens, we made fluorescent protein fusions to other putative PG synthesis components to assay their subcellular localization patterns. The cell division scaffolds FtsZ and FtsA, PBP1a, and a Rhizobiales- and Rhodobacterales-specific l,d-transpeptidase (LDT) all associate with the elongating cell pole. All four proteins also localize to the septum during cell division. Examination of the dimensions of growing cells revealed that new cell compartments gradually increase in width as they grow in length. This increase in cell width is coincident with an expanded region of LDT-mediated PG synthesis activity, as measured directly through incorporation of exogenous d-amino acids. Thus, unipolar growth in the Rhizobiales is surprisingly dynamic and represents a significant departure from the canonical growth mechanism of E. coli and other well-studied bacilli. PMID:24865559

  17. The influence of GAP-43 on orientation of cell division through G proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Zhao, Junpeng; Ju, Lili; Wen, Yujun; Xu, Qunyuan

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that GAP-43 is highly expressed in horizontally dividing neural progenitor cells, and G protein complex are required for proper mitotic-spindle orientation of those progenitors in the mammalian developing cortex. In order to verify the hypothesis that GAP-43 may influence the orientation of cell division through interacting with G proteins during neurogenesis, the GAP-43 RNA from adult C57 mouse was cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector, which was then transfected into Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system. The interaction of GAP-43 with Gαi was detected by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), while cystogenesis of 3D morphogenesis of MDCK cells and expression of GAP-43 and Gαi were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results showed are as follows: After being transfected by pEGFP-N1-GAP-43, GAP-43 was localized on the cell membrane and co-localized with Gαi, and this dramatically induced a defective cystogenesis in 3D morphogenesis of MDCK cells. The functional interaction between GAP-43 and Gαi proteins was proven by the co-IP assay. It can be considered from the results that the GAP-43 is involved in the orientation of cell division by interacting with Gαi and this should be an important mechanism for neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microtubule dynamics in cell division: exploring living cells with polarized light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Inoué, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    This Perspective is an account of my early experience while I studied the dynamic organization and behavior of the mitotic spindle and its submicroscopic filaments using polarized light microscopy. The birefringence of spindle filaments in normally dividing plant and animal cells, and those treated by various agents, revealed (a) the reality of spindle fibers and fibrils in healthy living cells; (b) the labile, dynamic nature of the molecular filaments making up the spindle fibers; (c) the mode of fibrogenesis and action of orienting centers; and (d) force-generating properties based on the disassembly and assembly of the fibrils. These studies, which were carried out directly on living cells using improved polarizing microscopes, in fact predicted the reversible assembly properties of microtubules.

  19. Timing of Tissue-specific Cell Division Requires a Differential Onset of Zygotic Transcription during Metazoan Embryogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Kin; Guan, Daogang; Ng, Kaoru Hon Chun; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; An, Xiaomeng; Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues. To unravel the genetic control over the endoderm-specific E2 division timing, a total of 822 essential and conserved genes were knocked down using RNAi followed by quantification of cell cycle lengths using in toto imaging of C. elegans embryogenesis and automated lineage. Intriguingly, knockdown of numerous genes encoding the components of general transcription pathway or its regulatory factors leads to a significant reduction in the E2 cell cycle length but an increase in cell cycle length of the remaining cells, indicating a differential requirement of transcription for division timing between the two. Analysis of lineage-specific RNA-seq data demonstrates an earlier onset of transcription in endoderm than in other germ layers, the timing of which coincides with the birth of E2, supporting the notion that the endoderm-specific delay in E2 division timing demands robust zygotic transcription. The reduction in E2 cell cycle length is frequently associated with cell migration defect and gastrulation failure. The results suggest that a tissue-specific transcriptional activation is required to coordinate fate differentiation, division timing, and cell migration to ensure proper development. PMID:27056332

  20. Citral induces auxin and ethylene-mediated malformations and arrests cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    PubMed

    Graña, E; Sotelo, T; Díaz-Tielas, C; Araniti, F; Krasuska, U; Bogatek, R; Reigosa, M J; Sánchez-Moreiras, A M

    2013-02-01

    Citral is a linear monoterpene which is present, as a volatile component, in the essential oil of several different aromatic plants. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of citral to alter the mitotic microtubules of plant cells, especially at low concentrations. The changes to the microtubules may be due to the compound acting directly on the treated root and coleoptile cells or to indirect action through certain phytohormones. This study, performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, analysed the short-term effects of citral on the auxin content and mitotic cells, and the long-term effects of these alterations on root development and ethylene levels. The results of this study show that citral alters auxin content and cell division and has a strong long-term disorganising effect on cell ultra-structure in A. thaliana seedlings. Its effects on cell division, the thickening of the cell wall, the reduction in intercellular communication, and the absence of root hairs confirm that citral is a strong phytotoxic compound, which has persistent effects on root development.

  1. Structural characterization of the cell division cycle in Strigomonas culicis, an endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatid.

    PubMed

    Brum, Felipe Lopes; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Elias, Maria Carolina; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado

    2014-02-01

    Strigomonas culicis (previously referred to as Blastocrithidia culicis) is a monoxenic trypanosomatid harboring a symbiotic bacterium, which maintains an obligatory relationship with the host protozoan. Investigations of the cell cycle in symbiont harboring trypanosomatids suggest that the bacterium divides in coordination with other host cell structures, particularly the nucleus. In this study we used light and electron microscopy followed by three-dimensional reconstruction to characterize the symbiont division during the cell cycle of S. culicis. We observed that during this process, the symbiotic bacterium presents different forms and is found at different positions in relationship to the host cell structures. At the G1/S phase of the protozoan cell cycle, the endosymbiont exhibits a constricted form that appears to elongate, resulting in the bacterium division, which occurs before kinetoplast and nucleus segregation. During cytokinesis, the symbionts are positioned close to each nucleus to ensure that each daughter cell will inherit a single copy of the bacterium. These observations indicated that the association of the bacterium with the protozoan nucleus coordinates the cell cycle in both organisms.

  2. Impact of physical confinement on nuclei geometry and cell division dynamics in 3D spheroids.

    PubMed

    Desmaison, Annaïck; Guillaume, Ludivine; Triclin, Sarah; Weiss, Pierre; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie

    2018-06-08

    Multicellular tumour spheroids are used as a culture model to reproduce the 3D architecture, proliferation gradient and cell interactions of a tumour micro-domain. However, their 3D characterization at the cell scale remains challenging due to size and cell density issues. In this study, we developed a methodology based on 3D light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) image analysis and convex hull calculation that allows characterizing the 3D shape and orientation of cell nuclei relative to the spheroid surface. By using this technique and optically cleared spheroids, we found that in freely growing spheroids, nuclei display an elongated shape and are preferentially oriented parallel to the spheroid surface. This geometry is lost when spheroids are grown in conditions of physical confinement. Live 3D LSFM analysis of cell division revealed that confined growth also altered the preferential cell division axis orientation parallel to the spheroid surface and induced prometaphase delay. These results provide key information and parameters that help understanding the impact of physical confinement on cell proliferation within tumour micro-domains.

  3. Identification of putative Z-ring-associated proteins, involved in cell division in human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mohammad; Sinha, Swati; Dubey, Priyanka; Lynn, Andrew M; Dhar, Suman K

    2016-07-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by FtsZ, which forms a Z ring at the middle of the cell, between the nucleoids. The Z ring is stabilized by Z ring-associated proteins (Zaps), which crosslink the FtsZ filaments and provide strength. The deletion of Zaps leads to the elongation phenotype with an abnormal Z ring. The components of cell division in Helicobacter pylori are similar to other gram negative bacteria except for the absence of few components including Zaps. Here, we used HHsearch to identify homologs of the missing cell division proteins and got potential hits for ZapA and ZapB, as well as for few other cell division proteins. We further validated the function of the putative ZapA homolog by genetic complementation, immuno-colocalization and biochemical analysis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Two distinct cytokinesis pathways drive trypanosome cell division initiation from opposite cell ends

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Gu, Jianhua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J.; Li, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis in Trypanosoma brucei, an early branching protozoan, occurs along its longitudinal axis uni-directionally from the anterior tip of the new flagellum attachment zone filament toward the cell’s posterior end. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we report that cytokinesis in T. brucei is regulated by a concerted action of Polo-like kinase, Aurora B kinase, and a trypanosome-specific protein CIF1. Phosphorylation of CIF1 by Polo-like kinase targets it to the anterior tip of the new flagellum attachment zone filament, where it subsequently recruits Aurora B kinase to initiate cytokinesis. Consistent with its role, CIF1 depletion inhibits cytokinesis initiation from the anterior end of the cell, but, surprisingly, triggers cytokinesis initiation from the posterior end of the cell, suggesting the activation of an alternative cytokinesis from the opposite cell end. Our results reveal the mechanistic roles of CIF1 and Polo-like kinase in cytokinesis initiation and elucidate the mechanism underlying the recruitment of Aurora B kinase to the cytokinesis initiation site at late anaphase. These findings also delineate a signaling cascade controlling cytokinesis initiation from the anterior end of the cell and uncover a backup cytokinesis that is initiated from the posterior end of the cell when the typical anterior-to-posterior cytokinesis is compromised. PMID:26929336

  5. Synthetic inhibitors of bacterial cell division targeting the GTP-binding site of FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Avila, Laura B; Huecas, Sonia; Artola, Marta; Vergoñós, Albert; Ramírez-Aportela, Erney; Cercenado, Emilia; Barasoain, Isabel; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Chacón, Pablo; López-Rodríguez, María L; Andreu, José M

    2013-09-20

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic Z-ring in most bacteria and a target for new antibiotics. FtsZ assembles with GTP into filaments that hydrolyze the nucleotide at the association interface between monomers and then disassemble. We have replaced FtsZ's GTP with non-nucleotide synthetic inhibitors of bacterial division. We searched for these small molecules among compounds from the literature, from virtual screening (VS), and from our in-house synthetic library (UCM), employing a fluorescence anisotropy primary assay. From these screens we have identified the polyhydroxy aromatic compound UCM05 and its simplified analogue UCM44 that specifically bind to Bacillus subtilis FtsZ monomers with micromolar affinities and perturb normal assembly, as examined with light scattering, polymer sedimentation, and negative stain electron microscopy. On the other hand, these ligands induce the cooperative assembly of nucleotide-devoid archaeal FtsZ into distinct well-ordered polymers, different from GTP-induced filaments. These FtsZ inhibitors impair localization of FtsZ into the Z-ring and inhibit bacterial cell division. The chlorinated analogue UCM53 inhibits the growth of clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. We suggest that these interfacial inhibitors recapitulate binding and some assembly-inducing effects of GTP but impair the correct structural dynamics of FtsZ filaments and thus inhibit bacterial division, possibly by binding to a small fraction of the FtsZ molecules in a bacterial cell, which opens a new approach to FtsZ-based antibacterial drug discovery.

  6. Inactivation of ceramide synthase 2 catalytic activity in mice affects transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism and cell division.

    PubMed

    Bickert, Andreas; Kern, Paul; van Uelft, Martina; Herresthal, Stefanie; Ulas, Thomas; Gutbrod, Katharina; Breiden, Bernadette; Degen, Joachim; Sandhoff, Konrad; Schultze, Joachim L; Dörmann, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Bauer, Reinhard; Willecke, Klaus

    2018-07-01

    The replacement of two consecutive histidine residues by alanine residues in the catalytic center of ceramide synthase 2 in a new transgenic mouse mutant (CerS2 H/A) leads to inactivation of catalytic activity and reduces protein level to 60% of the WT level. We show here by qRT-PCR and transcriptome analyses that several transcripts of genes involved in lipid metabolism and cell division are differentially regulated in livers of CerS2 H/A mice. Thus, very long chain ceramides produced by CerS2 are required for transcriptional regulation of target genes. The hepatocellular carcinomata previously described in old CerS2 KO mice were already present in 8-week-old CerS2 H/A animals and thus are caused by the loss of CerS2 catalytic activity already during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  8. Gα modulates salt-induced cellular senescence and cell division in rice and maize

    DOE PAGES

    Urano, Daisuke; Colaneri, Alejandro; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-09-16

    The plant G-protein network, comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ core subunits, regulates development, senses sugar, and mediates biotic and abiotic stress responses. Here in this paper, we report G-protein signalling in the salt stress response using two crop models, rice and maize. Loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes encoding the Gα subunit attenuate growth inhibition and cellular senescence caused by sodium chloride (NaCl). Gα null mutations conferred reduced leaf senescence, chlorophyll degradation, and cytoplasm electrolyte leakage under NaCl stress. Sodium accumulated in both wild-type and Gα-mutant shoots to the same levels, suggesting that Gα signalling controls cell death in leavesmore » rather than sodium exclusion in roots. Growth inhibition is probably initiated by osmotic change around root cells, because KCl and MgSO 4 also suppressed seedling growth equally as well as NaCl. NaCl lowered rates of cell division and elongation in the wild-type leaf sheath to the level of the Gα-null mutants; however there was no NaCl-induced decrease in cell division in the Gα mutant, implying that the osmotic phase of salt stress suppresses cell proliferation through the inhibition of Gα-coupled signalling. These results reveal two distinct functions of Gα in NaCl stress in these grasses: attenuation of leaf senescence caused by sodium toxicity in leaves, and cell cycle regulation by osmotic/ionic stress.« less

  9. Differences in Cell Division Rates Drive the Evolution of Terminal Differentiation in Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Rankin, Daniel J.; Rossetti, Valentina; Wagner, Andreas; Bagheri, Homayoun C.

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular differentiated organisms are composed of cells that begin by developing from a single pluripotent germ cell. In many organisms, a proportion of cells differentiate into specialized somatic cells. Whether these cells lose their pluripotency or are able to reverse their differentiated state has important consequences. Reversibly differentiated cells can potentially regenerate parts of an organism and allow reproduction through fragmentation. In many organisms, however, somatic differentiation is terminal, thereby restricting the developmental paths to reproduction. The reason why terminal differentiation is a common developmental strategy remains unexplored. To understand the conditions that affect the evolution of terminal versus reversible differentiation, we developed a computational model inspired by differentiating cyanobacteria. We simulated the evolution of a population of two cell types –nitrogen fixing or photosynthetic– that exchange resources. The traits that control differentiation rates between cell types are allowed to evolve in the model. Although the topology of cell interactions and differentiation costs play a role in the evolution of terminal and reversible differentiation, the most important factor is the difference in division rates between cell types. Faster dividing cells always evolve to become the germ line. Our results explain why most multicellular differentiated cyanobacteria have terminally differentiated cells, while some have reversibly differentiated cells. We further observed that symbioses involving two cooperating lineages can evolve under conditions where aggregate size, connectivity, and differentiation costs are high. This may explain why plants engage in symbiotic interactions with diazotrophic bacteria. PMID:22511858

  10. Chlamydia co-opts the rod shape-determining proteins MreB and Pbp2 for cell division.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Scot P; Karimova, Gouzel; Subtil, Agathe; Ladant, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that have extensively reduced their genome in adapting to the intracellular environment. The chlamydial genome contains only three annotated cell division genes and lacks ftsZ. How this obligate intracellular pathogen divides is uncharacterized. Chlamydiae contain two high-molecular-weight (HMW) penicillin binding proteins (Pbp) implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis, Pbp2 and Pbp3/FtsI. We show here, using HMW Pbp-specific penicillin derivatives, that both Pbp2 and Pbp3 are essential for chlamydial cell division. Ultrastructural analyses of antibiotic-treated cultures revealed distinct phenotypes: Pbp2 inhibition induced internal cell bodies within a single outer membrane whereas Pbp3 inhibition induced elongated phenotypes with little internal division. Each HMW Pbp interacts with the Chlamydia cell division protein FtsK. Chlamydiae are coccoid yet contain MreB, a rod shape-determining protein linked to Pbp2 in bacilli. Using MreB-specific antibiotics, we show that MreB is essential for chlamydial growth and division. Importantly, co-treatment with MreB-specific and Pbp-specific antibiotics resulted in the MreB-inhibited phenotype, placing MreB upstream of Pbp function in chlamydial cell division. Finally, we showed that MreB also interacts with FtsK. We propose that, in Chlamydia, MreB acts as a central co-ordinator at the division site to substitute for the lack of FtsZ in this bacterium. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Decoupling of Nuclear Division Cycles and Cell Size during the Coenocytic Growth of the Ichthyosporean Sphaeroforma arctica.

    PubMed

    Ondracka, Andrej; Dudin, Omaya; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2018-06-18

    Coordination of the cell division cycle with the growth of the cell is critical to achieve cell size homeostasis [1]. Mechanisms coupling the cell division cycle with cell growth have been described across diverse eukaryotic taxa [2-4], but little is known about how these processes are coordinated in organisms that undergo more complex life cycles, such as coenocytic growth. Coenocytes (multinucleate cells formed by sequential nuclear divisions without cytokinesis) are commonly found across the eukaryotic kingdom, including in animal and plant tissues and several lineages of unicellular eukaryotes [5]. Among the organisms that form coenocytes are ichthyosporeans, a lineage of unicellular holozoans that are of significant interest due to their phylogenetic placement as one of the closest relatives of animals [6]. Here, we characterize the coenocytic cell division cycle in the ichthyosporean Sphaeroforma arctica. We observe that, in laboratory conditions, S. arctica cells undergo a uniform and easily synchronizable coenocytic cell cycle, reaching up to 128 nuclei per cell before cellularization and release of daughter cells. Cycles of nuclear division occur synchronously within the coenocyte and in regular time intervals (11-12 hr). We find that the growth of cell volume is dependent on concentration of nutrients in the media; in contrast, the rate of nuclear division cycles is constant over a range of nutrient concentrations. Together, the results suggest that nuclear division cycles in the coenocytic growth of S. arctica are driven by a timer, which ensures periodic and synchronous nuclear cycles independent of the cell size and growth. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavior of centrosomes during fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald; Balczon, Ron; Simerly, Calvin; Mazia, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of centrosomes during the stages of fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs was monitored in an immunofluorescence microscope, using autoimmune centrosomal antiserum derived from a patient with scleroderma to label the centrosomal material. These observations showed that centrosomes reproduce during the interphase and aggregate and separate during cell mitosis. Results supported the hypothesis of Mazia (1984), who proposed that centrosomes are 'flexible bodies'. It was also found that, while the sea urchin centrosomes are paternally inherited as was initially proposed by Bovery (1904), the mouse centrosomes are of maternal origin.

  13. Fibroblasts Cultured on Nanowires Exhibit Low Motility, Impaired Cell Division, and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Henrik; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Samuelson, Lars; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Oredsson, Stina; Prinz, Christelle N

    2013-01-01

    Nanowires are commonly used as tools for interfacing living cells, acting as biomolecule-delivery vectors or electrodes. It is generally assumed that the small size of the nanowires ensures a minimal cellular perturbation, yet the effects of nanowires on cell migration and proliferation remain largely unknown. Fibroblast behaviour on vertical nanowire arrays is investigated, and it is shown that cell motility and proliferation rate are reduced on nanowires. Fibroblasts cultured on long nanowires exhibit failed cell division, DNA damage, increased ROS content and respiration. Using focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, highly curved but intact nuclear membranes are observed, showing no direct contact between the nanowires and the DNA. The nanowires possibly induce cellular stress and high respiration rates, which trigger the formation of ROS, which in turn results in DNA damage. These results are important guidelines to the design and interpretation of experiments involving nanowire-based transfection and electrical characterization of living cells. PMID:23813871

  14. Adiposity Alters Genes Important in Inflammation and Cell Cycle Division in Human Cumulus Granulosa Cell.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Zaher; Polotsky, Alex J; Bradford, Andrew P; Buyuk, Erkan; Chosich, Justin; Phang, Tzu; Jindal, Sangita; Santoro, Nanette

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether obesity alters genes important in cellular growth and inflammation in human cumulus granulosa cells (GCs). Eight reproductive-aged women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation followed by oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization were enrolled. Cumulus GC RNA was extracted and processed for microarray analysis on Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 chips. Gene expression data were validated on GCs from additional biologically similar samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison in gene expression was made between women with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2) (group 1; n = 4) and those with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) (group 2; n = 4). Groups 1 and 2 had significantly different BMI (21.4 ± 1.4 vs 30.4 ± 2.7 kg/m(2), respectively; P = .02) but did not differ in age (30.5 ± 1.7 vs 32.7 ± 0.3 years, respectively; P = .3). Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles by supervised clustering between group 1 versus group 2 resulted in the selection of 7 differentially expressed genes: fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF-12), protein phosphatase 1-like (PPM1L), zinc finger protein multitype 2 (ZFPM2), forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), and growth arrest-specific protein 7 (GAS7). FOXM1, CDC20, and GAS7 were downregulated while FGF-12 and PPM1L were upregulated in group 2 when compared to group 1. Validation with RT-PCR confirmed the microarray data except for ZFPM2 and IL1RL. As BMI increased, expression of FOXM1 significantly decreased (r = -.60, P = .048). Adiposity is associated with changes in the expression of genes important in cellular growth, cell cycle progression, and inflammation. The upregulation of the metabolic regulator gene PPM1L suggests that adiposity induces an abnormal metabolic follicular environment, potentially altering folliculogenesis and oocyte quality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Adiposity Alters Genes Important in Inflammation and Cell Cycle Division in Human Cumulus Granulosa Cell

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Zaher; Polotsky, Alex J.; Bradford, Andrew P.; Buyuk, Erkan; Chosich, Justin; Phang, Tzu; Jindal, Sangita; Santoro, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether obesity alters genes important in cellular growth and inflammation in human cumulus granulosa cells (GCs). Methods: Eight reproductive-aged women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation followed by oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization were enrolled. Cumulus GC RNA was extracted and processed for microarray analysis on Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 chips. Gene expression data were validated on GCs from additional biologically similar samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison in gene expression was made between women with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2 (group 1; n = 4) and those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (group 2; n = 4). Results: Groups 1 and 2 had significantly different BMI (21.4 ± 1.4 vs 30.4 ± 2.7 kg/m2, respectively; P = .02) but did not differ in age (30.5 ± 1.7 vs 32.7 ± 0.3 years, respectively; P = .3). Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles by supervised clustering between group 1 versus group 2 resulted in the selection of 7 differentially expressed genes: fibroblast growth factor 12 (FGF-12), protein phosphatase 1-like (PPM1L), zinc finger protein multitype 2 (ZFPM2), forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), and growth arrest-specific protein 7 (GAS7). FOXM1, CDC20, and GAS7 were downregulated while FGF-12 and PPM1L were upregulated in group 2 when compared to group 1. Validation with RT-PCR confirmed the microarray data except for ZFPM2 and IL1RL. As BMI increased, expression of FOXM1 significantly decreased (r = −.60, P = .048). Conclusions: Adiposity is associated with changes in the expression of genes important in cellular growth, cell cycle progression, and inflammation. The upregulation of the metabolic regulator gene PPM1L suggests that adiposity induces an abnormal metabolic follicular environment, potentially altering folliculogenesis and oocyte quality. PMID:25676576

  16. ABI domain containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Wojcik, Brandon; DeDent, Andrea C.; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Summary The human pathogen Staphyloccocus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harbored transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion. PMID:20923422

  17. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Force-balance model of suppression of multipolar division in cancer cells with extra centrosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Cancer cells often possess extra centrosomes which have the potential to cause cell death due to catastrophic multipolar division. Many cancer cells, however, are able to escape multipolar mitosis by clustering the extra centrosomes to form bipolar spindles. The mechanism of centrosome clustering is therefore of great interest to the development of anti-cancer drugs because the de-clustering of extra centrosomes provides an appealing way to eliminate cancer cells while keeping healthy cells intact. We present a physical model assuming 1) dynamic centrosomal microtubules interact with chromosomes by both pushing on chromosome arms and pulling along kinetochores; 2) these microtubules interact with force generators associated with actin/adhesion structures at the cell boundary; and 3) motors act on anti-parallel microtubules from different centrosomes. We find via computer simulations that chromosomes tend to aggregate near the cell center while centrosomes can be either clustered to form bipolar spindles or scattered to form multipolar spindles, depending on the strengths of relative forces, cell shape and adhesion geometry. The model predictions agree with data from cells plated on adhesive micropatterns and from biochemically or genetically perturbed cells. Furthermore, our model is able to explain various microtubule distributions in interphase cells on patterned substrates. This work was supported by NSF

  19. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  20. Control of cell division in Streptococcus pneumoniae by the conserved Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP.

    PubMed

    Beilharz, Katrin; Nováková, Linda; Fadda, Daniela; Branny, Pavel; Massidda, Orietta; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2012-04-10

    How the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae coordinates cell-wall synthesis during growth and division to achieve its characteristic oval shape is poorly understood. The conserved eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinase of S. pneumoniae, StkP, previously was reported to phosphorylate the cell-division protein DivIVA. Consistent with a role in cell division, GFP-StkP and its cognate phosphatase, GFP-PhpP, both localize to the division site. StkP localization depends on its penicillin-binding protein and Ser/Thr-associated domains that likely sense uncross-linked peptidoglycan, because StkP and PhpP delocalize in the presence of antibiotics that target the latest stages of cell-wall biosynthesis and in cells that have stopped dividing. Time-lapse microscopy shows that StkP displays an intermediate timing of recruitment to midcell: StkP arrives shortly after FtsA but before DivIVA. Furthermore, StkP remains at midcell longer than FtsA, until division is complete. Cells mutated for stkP are perturbed in cell-wall synthesis and display elongated morphologies with multiple, often unconstricted, FtsA and DivIVA rings. The data show that StkP plays an important role in regulating cell-wall synthesis and controls correct septum progression and closure. Overall, our results indicate that StkP signals information about the cell-wall status to key cell-division proteins and in this way acts as a regulator of cell division.

  1. Temporal controls of the asymmetric cell division cycle in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenghua; Brazhnik, Paul; Sobral, Bruno; Tyson, John J

    2009-08-01

    The asymmetric cell division cycle of Caulobacter crescentus is orchestrated by an elaborate gene-protein regulatory network, centered on three major control proteins, DnaA, GcrA and CtrA. The regulatory network is cast into a quantitative computational model to investigate in a systematic fashion how these three proteins control the relevant genetic, biochemical and physiological properties of proliferating bacteria. Different controls for both swarmer and stalked cell cycles are represented in the mathematical scheme. The model is validated against observed phenotypes of wild-type cells and relevant mutants, and it predicts the phenotypes of novel mutants and of known mutants under novel experimental conditions. Because the cell cycle control proteins of Caulobacter are conserved across many species of alpha-proteobacteria, the model we are proposing here may be applicable to other genera of importance to agriculture and medicine (e.g., Rhizobium, Brucella).

  2. Effect of microgravity environment on cell wall regeneration, cell divisions, growth, and differentiation of plants from protoplasts (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to investigate if microgravity has any influence on growth and differentiation of protoplasts. Formation of new cell walls on rapeseed protoplasts takes place within the first 24 hours after isolation. Cell division can be observed after 2-4 days and formation of cell aggregates after 5-7 days. Therefore, it is possible during the 7 day IML-1 Mission to investigate if cell wall formation, cell division, and cell differentiation are influenced by microgravity. Protoplasts of rapeseeds and carrot will be prepared shortly before launch and injected into 0.6 ml polyethylene bags. Eight bags are placed in an aluminum block inside the ESA Type 1 container. The containers are placed at 4 C in PTCU's and transferred to orbiter mid-deck. At 4 C all cell processes are slowed down, including cell wall formation. Latest access to the shuttle will be 12 hours before launch. In orbit the containers will be transferred from the PTC box to the 22 C Biorack incubator. The installation of a 1 g centrifuge in Biorack will make it possible to distinguish between effects of near weightlessness and effects caused by cosmic radiation and other space flight factors including vibrations. Parallel control experiments will be carried out on the ground. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

  3. Egf Signaling Directs Neoblast Repopulation by Regulating Asymmetric Cell Division in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kai; Thi-Kim Vu, Hanh; Mohan, Ryan D; McKinney, Sean A; Seidel, Chris W; Alexander, Richard; Gotting, Kirsten; Workman, Jerry L; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2016-08-22

    A large population of proliferative stem cells (neoblasts) is required for physiological tissue homeostasis and post-injury regeneration in planarians. Recent studies indicate that survival of a few neoblasts after sublethal irradiation results in the clonal expansion of the surviving stem cells and the eventual restoration of tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the population dynamics of neoblasts remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered a central role for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling during in vivo neoblast expansion mediated by Smed-egfr-3 (egfr-3) and its putative ligand Smed-neuregulin-7 (nrg-7). Furthermore, the EGF receptor-3 protein localizes asymmetrically on the cytoplasmic membrane of neoblasts, and the ratio of asymmetric to symmetric cell divisions decreases significantly in egfr-3(RNAi) worms. Our results not only provide the first molecular evidence of asymmetric stem cell divisions in planarians, but also demonstrate that EGF signaling likely functions as an essential regulator of neoblast clonal expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Children of Two to Three Years of Age in France: Early Childhood Settings and Age Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…

  5. Regulation of the Min Cell Division Inhibition Complex by the Rcs Phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Howery, Kristen E; Clemmer, Katy M; Şimşek, Emrah; Kim, Minsu; Rather, Philip N

    2015-08-01

    A key regulator of swarming in Proteus mirabilis is the Rcs phosphorelay, which represses flhDC, encoding the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2. Mutants in rcsB, the response regulator in the Rcs phosphorelay, hyperswarm on solid agar and differentiate into swarmer cells in liquid, demonstrating that this system also influences the expression of genes central to differentiation. To gain a further understanding of RcsB-regulated genes involved in swarmer cell differentiation, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to examine the RcsB regulon. Among the 133 genes identified, minC and minD, encoding cell division inhibitors, were identified as RcsB-activated genes. A third gene, minE, was shown to be part of an operon with minCD. To examine minCDE regulation, the min promoter was identified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and both transcriptional lacZ fusions and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR were used to confirm that the minCDE operon was RcsB activated. Purified RcsB was capable of directly binding the minC promoter region. To determine the role of RcsB-mediated activation of minCDE in swarmer cell differentiation, a polar minC mutation was constructed. This mutant formed minicells during growth in liquid, produced shortened swarmer cells during differentiation, and exhibited decreased swarming motility. This work describes the regulation and role of the MinCDE cell division system in P. mirabilis swarming and swarmer cell elongation. Prior to this study, the mechanisms that inhibit cell division and allow swarmer cell elongation were unknown. In addition, this work outlines for the first time the RcsB regulon in P. mirabilis. Taken together, the data presented in this study begin to address how P. mirabilis elongates upon contact with a solid surface. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to

  7. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Chattopadhyay, Abhishek; Shukla, Mukund; Zoń, Jerzy; Saxena, Praveen K

    2012-05-30

    Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together

  8. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable

  9. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 {yields} S transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. {yields} TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition. {yields} Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, theirmore » exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 {yields} S arrest is discussed.« less

  10. Modeling the Mechanics of Cell Division: Influence of Spontaneous Membrane Curvature, Surface Tension, and Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Heredia, Elena; Almendro-Vedia, Víctor G.; Monroy, Francisco; Cao, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Many cell division processes have been conserved throughout evolution and are being revealed by studies on model organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa. Cellular membrane constriction is one of these processes, observed almost universally during cell division. It happens similarly in all organisms through a mechanical pathway synchronized with the sequence of cytokinetic events in the cell interior. Arguably, such a mechanical process is mastered by the coordinated action of a constriction machinery fueled by biochemical energy in conjunction with the passive mechanics of the cellular membrane. Independently of the details of the constriction engine, the membrane component responds against deformation by minimizing the elastic energy at every constriction state following a pathway still unknown. In this paper, we address a theoretical study of the mechanics of membrane constriction in a simplified model that describes a homogeneous membrane vesicle in the regime where mechanical work due to osmotic pressure, surface tension, and bending energy are comparable. We develop a general method to find approximate analytical expressions for the main descriptors of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. Analytical solutions are obtained by combining a perturbative expansion for small deformations with a variational approach that was previously demonstrated valid at the reference state of an initially spherical vesicle at isotonic conditions. The analytic approximate results are compared with the exact solution obtained from numerical computations, getting a good agreement for all the computed quantities (energy, area, volume, constriction force). We analyze the effects of the spontaneous curvature, the surface tension and the osmotic pressure in these quantities, focusing especially on the constriction force. The more favorable conditions for vesicle constriction are determined, obtaining that smaller constriction forces are required for positive spontaneous

  11. MinCD cell division proteins form alternating co-polymeric cytomotive filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debnath; Trambaiolo, Daniel; Amos, Linda A.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Summary During bacterial cell division, filaments of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ assemble at midcell to form the cytokinetic Z-ring. Its positioning is regulated by the oscillation of MinCDE proteins. MinC is activated by MinD through an unknown mechanism and prevents Z-ring assembly anywhere but midcell. Here, using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and in vivo analyses we show that MinD activates MinC by forming a new class of alternating copolymeric filaments that show similarity to eukaryotic septin filaments A non-polymerising mutation in MinD causes aberrant cell division in E. coli. MinCD copolymers bind to membrane, interact with FtsZ, and are disassembled by MinE. Imaging a functional msfGFP-MinC fusion protein in MinE deleted cells reveals filamentous structures. EM imaging of our reconstitution of the MinCD-FtsZ interaction on liposome surfaces reveals a plausible mechanism for regulation of FtsZ ring assembly by MinCD copolymers. PMID:25500731

  12. Mechanics of kinetochore microtubules and their interactions with chromosomes during cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Fürthauer, Sebastian; Redemann, Stephanie; Baumgart, Johannes; Lindow, Norbert; Kratz, Andrea; Prohaska, Steffen; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The accurate segregation of chromosomes, and subsequent cell division, in Eukaryotic cells is achieved by the interactions of an assembly of microtubules (MTs) and motor-proteins, known as the mitotic spindle. We use a combination of our computational platform for simulating cytoskeletal assemblies and our structural data from high-resolution electron tomography of the mitotic spindle, to study the kinetics and mechanics of MTs in the spindle, and their interactions with chromosomes during chromosome segregation in the first cell division in C.elegans embryo. We focus on kinetochore MTs, or KMTs, which have one end attached to a chromosome. KMTs are thought to be a key mechanical component in chromosome segregation. Using exploratory simulations of MT growth, bending, hydrodynamic interactions, and attachment to chromosomes, we propose a mechanical model for KMT-chromosome interactions that reproduces observed KMT length and shape distributions from electron tomography. We find that including detailed hydrodynamic interactions between KMTs is essential for agreement with the experimental observations.

  13. Hydrocarbons Are Essential for Optimal Cell Size, Division, and Growth of Cyanobacteria1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Nürnberg, Dennis J.; Baers, Laura L.; Davey, Matthew P.; Parolini, Lucia; Huber, Roland G.; Cotton, Charles A. R.; Mastroianni, Giulia; Bombelli, Paolo; Ungerer, Petra; Stevens, Tim J.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are intricately organized, incorporating an array of internal thylakoid membranes, the site of photosynthesis, into cells no larger than other bacteria. They also synthesize C15-C19 alkanes and alkenes, which results in substantial production of hydrocarbons in the environment. All sequenced cyanobacteria encode hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways, suggesting an important, undefined physiological role for these compounds. Here, we demonstrate that hydrocarbon-deficient mutants of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 exhibit significant phenotypic differences from wild type, including enlarged cell size, reduced growth, and increased division defects. Photosynthetic rates were similar between strains, although a minor reduction in energy transfer between the soluble light harvesting phycobilisome complex and membrane-bound photosystems was observed. Hydrocarbons were shown to accumulate in thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Modeling of membranes suggests these compounds aggregate in the center of the lipid bilayer, potentially promoting membrane flexibility and facilitating curvature. In vivo measurements confirmed that Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 mutants lacking hydrocarbons exhibit reduced thylakoid membrane curvature compared to wild type. We propose that hydrocarbons may have a role in inducing the flexibility in membranes required for optimal cell division, size, and growth, and efficient association of soluble and membrane bound proteins. The recent identification of C15-C17 alkanes and alkenes in microalgal species suggests hydrocarbons may serve a similar function in a broad range of photosynthetic organisms. PMID:27707888

  14. Hydrocarbons Are Essential for Optimal Cell Size, Division, and Growth of Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lea-Smith, David J; Ortiz-Suarez, Maite L; Lenn, Tchern; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Baers, Laura L; Davey, Matthew P; Parolini, Lucia; Huber, Roland G; Cotton, Charles A R; Mastroianni, Giulia; Bombelli, Paolo; Ungerer, Petra; Stevens, Tim J; Smith, Alison G; Bond, Peter J; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Howe, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are intricately organized, incorporating an array of internal thylakoid membranes, the site of photosynthesis, into cells no larger than other bacteria. They also synthesize C15-C19 alkanes and alkenes, which results in substantial production of hydrocarbons in the environment. All sequenced cyanobacteria encode hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways, suggesting an important, undefined physiological role for these compounds. Here, we demonstrate that hydrocarbon-deficient mutants of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 exhibit significant phenotypic differences from wild type, including enlarged cell size, reduced growth, and increased division defects. Photosynthetic rates were similar between strains, although a minor reduction in energy transfer between the soluble light harvesting phycobilisome complex and membrane-bound photosystems was observed. Hydrocarbons were shown to accumulate in thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Modeling of membranes suggests these compounds aggregate in the center of the lipid bilayer, potentially promoting membrane flexibility and facilitating curvature. In vivo measurements confirmed that Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 mutants lacking hydrocarbons exhibit reduced thylakoid membrane curvature compared to wild type. We propose that hydrocarbons may have a role in inducing the flexibility in membranes required for optimal cell division, size, and growth, and efficient association of soluble and membrane bound proteins. The recent identification of C15-C17 alkanes and alkenes in microalgal species suggests hydrocarbons may serve a similar function in a broad range of photosynthetic organisms. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Glycomics Laboratory for the Early Detection of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Ovarian cancer is a silent killer with few early symptoms and advanced disease present at the time of diagnosis. This cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies with over 20,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The 5 year survival rates for ovarian cancer dramatically improve when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. Therefore, the long term goal of the

  16. How bacterial cell division might cheat turgor pressure - a unified mechanism of septal division in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Harold P

    2017-08-01

    An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure. A related question is how the V-shaped constriction of Gram-negative bacteria relates to the plate-like septum of Gram-positive bacteria. I collected evidence that Gram-negative bacteria have a latent capability of forming plate-like septa, and present a model in which septal division is the basic mechanism in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Parkin New Cargos: a New ROS Independent Role for Parkin in Regulating Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Stieg, David C; Cooper, Katrina F

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle progression requires the destruction of key cell cycle regulators by the multi-subunit E3 ligase called the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C). As the cell progresses through the cell cycle, the APC/C is sequentially activated by two highly conserved co-activators called Cdc20 and Cdh1. Importantly, APC/C Cdc20 is required to degrade substrates in G2/M whereas APC Cdh1 drives the cells into G1. Recently, Parkin, a monomeric E3 ligase that is required for ubiquitin-mediated mitophagy following mitochondrial stress, was shown to both bind and be activated by Cdc20 or Cdh1 during the cell cycle. This mitotic role for Parkin does not require an activating phosphorylation by its usual kinase partner PINK. Rather, mitotic Parkin activity requires phosphorylation on a different serine by the polo-like kinase Plk1. Interestingly, although Parkin Cdc20 and Parkin Cdh1 activity is independent of the APC/C, it mediates degradation of an overlapping subset of substrates. However, unlike the APC/C, Parkin is not necessary for cell cycle progression. Despite this, loss of Parkin activity accelerates genome instability and tumor growth in xenograft models. These findings provide a mechanism behind the previously described, but poorly understood, tumor suppressor role for Parkin. Taken together, studies suggest that the APC/C and Parkin have similar and unique roles to play in cell division, possibly being dependent upon the different subcellular address of these two ligases.

  18. Organ growth without cell division: somatic polyploidy in a moth, Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Buntrock, Lydia; Marec, František; Krueger, Sarah; Traut, Walther

    2012-11-01

    Organ growth depends on cell division and (or) cell growth. Here, we present a study on two organs whose growth depends entirely on cell growth, once they are formed in the embryo: Malpighian tubules and silk glands of the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella . Between first and last larval instar, the volume of Malpighian tubule cells increases by a factor of ∼1800 and that of silk gland cells by a factor of ∼3100. We determined the number of endocyles required to reach these stages by Feulgen cytometry. Cells of Malpighian tubules were in the 2C stage in first instar larvae and reached 1024C after 9 endocycles in last instar larvae (1C = 0.45 pg DNA). Silk gland cells already reached a DNA content of 8C-16C in first instar larvae and attained up to 8192C in last instar larvae after a total of 12 endocycles. The nuclei were small and more or less spherical in first instar larvae, but they were huge, flat, and bizarrely branched in last instar larvae. We consider branching as a compensatory adaptation to improve molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm in these excessively large and highly polyploid cells (i) by reducing the mean distance between nucleus and cytoplasm and (ii) by enlarging the surface-to-volume ratio of these nuclei.

  19. Colonic stem cell data are consistent with the immortal model of stem cell division under non-random strand segregation.

    PubMed

    Walters, K

    2009-06-01

    Colonic stem cells are thought to reside towards the base of crypts of the colon, but their numbers and proliferation mechanisms are not well characterized. A defining property of stem cells is that they are able to divide asymmetrically, but it is not known whether they always divide asymmetrically (immortal model) or whether there are occasional symmetrical divisions (stochastic model). By measuring diversity of methylation patterns in colon crypt samples, a recent study found evidence in favour of the stochastic model, assuming random segregation of stem cell DNA strands during cell division. Here, the effect of preferential segregation of the template strand is considered to be consistent with the 'immortal strand hypothesis', and explore the effect on conclusions of previously published results. For a sample of crypts, it is shown how, under the immortal model, to calculate mean and variance of the number of unique methylation patterns allowing for non-random strand segregation and compare them with those observed. The calculated mean and variance are consistent with an immortal model that incorporates non-random strand segregation for a range of stem cell numbers and levels of preferential strand segregation. Allowing for preferential strand segregation considerably alters previously published conclusions relating to stem cell numbers and turnover mechanisms. Evidence in favour of the stochastic model may not be as strong as previously thought.

  20. Equilibrium between cell division and apoptosis in immortal cells as an alternative to the G1 restriction mechanism in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Dedov, Vadim N; Dedova, Irina V; Nicholson, Garth A

    2004-04-01

    Starvation arrests cultured mammalian cells in the G(1) restriction point of the cell cycle, whereas cancer cells generally lose the regulatory control of the cell cycle. Human lymphocytes, infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also lose their cell cycle control and produce immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines. We show that during starvation, EBV-lymphoblasts override the cell cycle arrest in the G(1) restriction point and continue cell division. Simultaneously, starvation activates apoptosis in an approximately half of the daughter cells in each cell generation. Continuos cell division and partial removal of cells by apoptosis results in stabilization of viable cell numbers, where a majority of viable cells are in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to starvation, anticancer drug etoposide activates apoptosis indiscriminately in all EBV-lymphoblasts and convertes all the viable cells into apoptotic. We conclude that the removal of surplus cells by apoptosis may represent a survival mechanism of transformed (i.e., cancer) cell population in nutrient restricted conditions, whereas nontransformed mammalian cells are arrested in the G(1) restriction point of the cell cycle.

  1. Two Forkhead transcription factors regulate the division of cardiac progenitor cells by a Polo-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shaad M.; Tansey, Terese R.; Busser, Brian W.; Nolte, Michael T.; Jeffries, Neal; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S.; Rusan, Nasser M.; Michelson, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The development of a complex organ requires the specification of appropriate numbers of each of its constituent cell types, as well as their proper differentiation and correct positioning relative to each other. During Drosophila cardiogenesis, all three of these processes are controlled by jumeau (jumu) and Checkpoint suppressor homologue (CHES-1-like), two genes encoding forkhead transcription factors that we discovered utilizing an integrated genetic, genomic and computational strategy for identifying genes expressed in the developing Drosophila heart. Both jumu and CHES-1-like are required during asymmetric cell division for the derivation of two distinct cardiac cell types from their mutual precursor, and in symmetric cell divisions that produce yet a third type of heart cell. jumu and CHES-1-like control the division of cardiac progenitors by regulating the activity of Polo, a kinase involved in multiple steps of mitosis. This pathway demonstrates how transcription factors integrate diverse developmental processes during organogenesis. PMID:22814603

  2. Proliferate and survive: cell division cycle and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Borriello, Adriana; Roberto, Roberta; Della Ragione, Fulvio; Iolascon, Achille

    2002-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most frequent childhood cancers and a major cause of death from neoplasias of infancy. Although a wealth of studies on its molecular bases have been carried out, little conclusive information about its origin and evolution is available. Some intriguing findings have correlated neuroblastoma development with aberrations of two pivotal cellular processes generally altered in human cancers, namely cell division cycle and apoptosis. Indeed, it has been reported that neuroblastoma cell lines show accumulation of Id2 protein, a factor which is able to hamper the pRb protein antiproliferative activity. The increased Id2 is due to N-myc gene amplification and overexpression, a phenomenon frequently observed in neuroblastoma and an important independent negative marker. Moreover, neuroblastoma cells are frequently characterized by increased levels of survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptotic response, and by a deficiency of procaspase 8, a key intermediate of the programmed cell death cascade. These two events, probably, make neuroblastomas more resistant to programmed cell death. These recent findings might suggest that neuroblastoma cells have acquired the capability to proliferate easily and die difficultly. The mechanistic meaning of these data will be discussed in the present review. Moreover, we will suggest new therapeutic scenarios opened up by the described alterations of cell cycle and apoptosis engines.

  3. [Effects of chlorobenzene stress on seedling growth and cell division of Vicia faba].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan; Zhou, Qixing; Li, Peijun; Sun, Tieheng; Tai, Peidong; Xu, Huaxia; Zhang, Chungui; Zhang, Hairong

    2003-04-01

    Effects of 1, 2, 4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) stress on seedling growth, cell division and chromosomal aberration frequency of root-tip cells of Vicia faba were studied. The results indicated that the growth of the root length and mitotic index of root tip cells were successively decreased and even stopped with the increase of TCB concentrations and treatment duration. Numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations at metaphase and anaphase of root-tip cells in Vicia faba seedlings were produced by 50-300 micrograms.g-1 TCB treatment for 12-96 h. The percentage of c-mitosis, chromosomal bridge and chromosomal asymmetry array in root tip cells exposed to 50-100 micrograms.g-1 TCB for 12-24 h was up to 1.0-10.3%. The percentage of chromosomal stickness (S), chromosomal stickiness + chromosomal breakage (S + B), chromosomal stickness + chromosomal ring (S + R), chromosomal stickiness + chromosomal asymmetry array (S + A) and chromosomal stickness + chromosomal bridge (S + Be) in root tip cells reached 47.9-88.9%, and 18.1-29.6% for different kinds of chromosomal breakage at 300 micrograms.g-1 TCB for 12-96 h. Thus, the chromosomal aberration of root tip cells in Vicia faba seedlings could be used as a sensitive biomarker of monitoring soil contaminated with TCB.

  4. The cell wall hydrolase Pmp23 is important for assembly and stability of the division ring in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jacq, Maxime; Arthaud, Christopher; Manuse, Sylvie; Mercy, Chryslène; Bellard, Laure; Peters, Katharina; Gallet, Benoit; Galindo, Jennifer; Doan, Thierry; Vollmer, Waldemar; Brun, Yves V; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Vernet, Thierry; Grangeasse, Christophe; Morlot, Cecile

    2018-05-15

    Bacterial division is intimately linked to synthesis and remodeling of the peptidoglycan, a cage-like polymer that surrounds the bacterial cell, providing shape and mechanical resistance. The bacterial division machinery, which is scaffolded by the cytoskeleton protein FtsZ, includes proteins with enzymatic, structural or regulatory functions. These proteins establish a complex network of transient functional and/or physical interactions which preserve cell shape and cell integrity. Cell wall hydrolases required for peptidoglycan remodeling are major contributors to this mechanism. Consistent with this, their deletion or depletion often results in morphological and/or division defects. However, the exact function of most of them remains elusive. In this work, we show that the putative lysozyme activity of the cell wall hydrolase Pmp23 is important for proper morphology and cell division in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our data indicate that active Pmp23 is required for proper localization of the Z-ring and the FtsZ-positioning protein MapZ. In addition, Pmp23 localizes to the division site and interacts directly with the essential peptidoglycan synthase PBP2x. Altogether, our data reveal a new regulatory function for peptidoglycan hydrolases.

  5. Coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis and outer membrane constriction during Escherichia coli cell division

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Andrew N; Egan, Alexander JF; van't Veer, Inge L; Verheul, Jolanda; Colavin, Alexandre; Koumoutsi, Alexandra; Biboy, Jacob; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Damen, Mirjam J; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Typas, Athanasios; Gross, Carol A; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    To maintain cellular structure and integrity during division, Gram-negative bacteria must carefully coordinate constriction of a tripartite cell envelope of inner membrane, peptidoglycan (PG), and outer membrane (OM). It has remained enigmatic how this is accomplished. Here, we show that envelope machines facilitating septal PG synthesis (PBP1B-LpoB complex) and OM constriction (Tol system) are physically and functionally coordinated via YbgF, renamed CpoB (Coordinator of PG synthesis and OM constriction, associated with PBP1B). CpoB localizes to the septum concurrent with PBP1B-LpoB and Tol at the onset of constriction, interacts with both complexes, and regulates PBP1B activity in response to Tol energy state. This coordination links PG synthesis with OM invagination and imparts a unique mode of bifunctional PG synthase regulation by selectively modulating PBP1B cross-linking activity. Coordination of the PBP1B and Tol machines by CpoB contributes to effective PBP1B function in vivo and maintenance of cell envelope integrity during division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07118.001 PMID:25951518

  6. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1→S transition.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P; Nath, Utpal

    2011-07-01

    The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1→S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1→S arrest is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early detection of ovarian cancer by serum marker and targeted ultrasound imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    We propose to test the validity and specificity of our targeted ultrasound imaging probes in detecting early stage ovarian cancer (OVCA) by transvaginal ultrasound imaging (TVUS). We then test the predictive validity of these probes in a longitudinal study using the laying hen – the only widely available animal model of spontaneous OVCA. OVCA is a fatal gynecological

  8. Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Speaker | Dr. Nickolas Papadopoulos will present "Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancers". Date: June 5, 2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove, Conference Room: Seminar 110 Terrace Level East

  9. Validating a mouse model of ovarian cancer for early detection through imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Despite advances in treatment strategies, ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecological malignancy and the 5th largest cancer killer in women. Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening technique, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat. Ovarian cancer is almost always discovered at an

  10. Detecting cell division of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria from bright-field microscopy images with hidden conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lee-Ling S; Xinghua Zhang; Kundukad, Binu; Dauwels, Justin; Doyle, Patrick; Asada, H Harry

    2016-08-01

    An approach to automatically detect bacteria division with temporal models is presented. To understand how bacteria migrate and proliferate to form complex multicellular behaviours such as biofilms, it is desirable to track individual bacteria and detect cell division events. Unlike eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells such as bacteria lack distinctive features, causing bacteria division difficult to detect in a single image frame. Furthermore, bacteria may detach, migrate close to other bacteria and may orientate themselves at an angle to the horizontal plane. Our system trains a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model from tracked and aligned bacteria division sequences. The HCRF model classifies a set of image frames as division or otherwise. The performance of our HCRF model is compared with a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The results show that a HCRF classifier outperforms a HMM classifier. From 2D bright field microscopy data, it is a challenge to separate individual bacteria and associate observations to tracks. Automatic detection of sequences with bacteria division will improve tracking accuracy.

  11. Regulation of cell division cycle progression by bcl-2 expression: a potential mechanism for inhibition of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Expression of the bcl-2 gene has been shown to effectively confer resistance to programmed cell death under a variety of circumstances. However, despite a wealth of literature describing this phenomenon, very little is known about the mechanism of resistance. In the experiments described here, we show that bcl-2 gene expression can result in an inhibition of cell division cycle progression. These findings are based upon the analysis of cell cycle distribution, cell cycle kinetics, and relative phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, using primary tissues in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro, as well as continuous cell lines. The effects of bcl-2 expression on cell cycle progression appear to be focused at the G1 to S phase transition, which is a critical control point in the decision between continued cell cycle progression or the induction programmed cell death. In all systems tested, bcl-2 expression resulted in a substantial 30-60% increase in the length of G1 phase; such an increase is very substantial in the context of other regulators of cell cycle progression. Based upon our findings, and the related findings of others, we propose a mechanism by which bcl-2 expression might exert its well known inhibition of programmed cell death by regulating the kinetics of cell cycle progression at a critical control point. PMID:8642331

  12. Ethylene is an endogenous stimulator of cell division in the cambial meristem of Populus

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jonathan; Björklund, Simon; Vahala, Jorma; Hertzberg, Magnus; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Sundberg, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is an important signal in plant growth responses to environmental cues. In vegetative growth, ethylene is generally considered as a regulator of cell expansion, but a role in the control of meristem growth has also been suggested based on pharmacological experiments and ethylene-overproducing mutants. In this study, we used transgenic ethylene-insensitive and ethylene-overproducing hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) in combination with experiments using an ethylene perception inhibitor [1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)] to demonstrate that endogenous ethylene produced in response to leaning stimulates cell division in the cambial meristem. This ethylene-controlled growth gives rise to the eccentricity of Populus stems that is formed in association with tension wood. PMID:19293381

  13. MiRNA-124 is a link between measles virus persistent infection and cell division of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Naaman, Hila; Rall, Glenn; Matullo, Christine; Veksler-Lublinsky, Isana; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Gopas, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) infects a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid peripheral organs. However, in rare cases, the virus can persistently infect cells within the central nervous system. Although some of the factors that allow MV to persist are known, the contribution of host cell-encoded microRNAs (miRNA) have not been described. MiRNAs are a class of noncoding RNAs transcribed from genomes of all multicellular organisms and some viruses, which regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. We have studied the contribution of host cell-encoded miRNAs to the establishment of MV persistent infection in human neuroblastoma cells. Persistent MV infection was accompanied by differences in the expression profile and levels of several host cell-encoded microRNAs as compared to uninfected cells. MV persistence infection of a human neuroblastoma cell line (UKF-NB-MV), exhibit high miRNA-124 expression, and reduced expression of cyclin dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), a known target of miRNA-124, resulting in slower cell division but not cell death. By contrast, acute MV infection of UKF-NB cells did not result in increased miRNA-124 levels or CDK6 reduction. Ectopic overexpression of miRNA-124 affected cell viability only in UKF-NB-MV cells, causing cell death; implying that miRNA-124 over expression can sensitize cells to death only in the presence of MV persistent infection. To determine if miRNA-124 directly contributes to the establishment of MV persistence, UKF-NB cells overexpressing miRNA-124 were acutely infected, resulting in establishment of persistently infected colonies. We propose that miRNA-124 triggers a CDK6-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, which facilitates the establishment of MV persistence in neuroblastoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the role of a specific miRNA in MV persistence.

  14. High Antioxidant Activity Facilitates Maintenance of Cell Division in Leaves of Drought Tolerant Maize Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Vasileva, Ivanina; Petrova, Alexandra S.; Holek, Anna; Mariën, Joachim; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the impact of drought on growth regulation in leaves of 13 maize varieties with different drought sensitivity and geographic origins (Western Europe, Egypt, South Africa) and the inbred line B73. Combining kinematic analysis of the maize leaf growth zone with biochemical measurements at a high spatial resolution allowed us to examine the correlation between the regulation of the cellular processes cell division and elongation, and the molecular redox-regulation in response to drought. Moreover, we demonstrated differences in the response of the maize lines to mild and severe levels of water deficit. Kinematic analysis indicated that drought tolerant lines experienced less impact on leaf elongation rate due to a smaller reduction of cell production, which, in turn, was due to a smaller decrease of meristem size and number of cells in the leaf meristem. Clear differences in growth responses between the groups of lines with different geographic origin were observed in response to drought. The difference in drought tolerance between the Egyptian hybrids was significantly larger than between the European and South-African hybrids. Through biochemical analyses, we investigated whether antioxidant activity in the growth zone, contributes to the drought sensitivity differences. We used a hierarchical clustering to visualize the patterns of lipid peroxidation, H2O2 and antioxidant concentrations, and enzyme activities throughout the growth zone, in response to stress. The results showed that the lines with different geographic region used different molecular strategies to cope with the stress, with the Egyptian hybrids responding more at the metabolite level and African and the European hybrids at the enzyme level. However, drought tolerance correlated with both, higher antioxidant levels throughout the growth zone and higher activities of the redox-regulating enzymes CAT, POX, APX, and GR specifically in leaf meristems. These findings provide evidence for a link

  15. Effects of brevetoxins on murine myeloma SP2/O cells: Aberrant cellular division

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, T.K.; Derby, M.; Martin, D.F.; Wright, S.D.; Dao, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Massive deaths of manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) during the red tide seasons have been attributed to brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly Ptychodiscus breve and Gymnodinium breve). Although these toxins have been found in macrophages and lymphocytes in the lung, liver, and secondary lymphoid tissues of these animals, the molecular mechanisms of brevetoxicosis have not yet been identified. To investigate the effects of brevetoxins on immune cells, a murine myeloma cell line (SP2/O) was used as a model for in vitro studies. By adding brevetoxins to cultures of the SP2/O cells at concentrations ranging from 20 to 600 ng/ml, an apparent increase in proliferation was observed at around 2 hours post challenge as compared to the unchallenged cell cultures. This was followed by a drop in cell number at around 3 hours, suggesting an aberrant effect of brevetoxins on cellular division, the cells generated at 2 hours being apparently short-lived. In situ immunochemical staining of the SP2/O cells at 1 and 2 hour post challenge showed an accumulation of the toxins in the nucleus. A 21-kDa protein was subsequently isolated from the SP2/O cells as having brevetoxin-binding properties, and immunologically identified as p21, a nuclear factor known to down-regulate cellular proliferation through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases. These data are the first on a possible effect of brevetoxins on the cell cycle via binding to p21, a phenomenon that needs to be further investigated and validated in normal immune cells.

  16. Dynamic single-cell NAD(P)H measurement reveals oscillatory metabolism throughout the E. coli cell division cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Heinemann, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Recent work has shown that metabolism between individual bacterial cells in an otherwise isogenetic population can be different. To investigate such heterogeneity, experimental methods to zoom into the metabolism of individual cells are required. To this end, the autofluoresence of the redox cofactors NADH and NADPH offers great potential for single-cell dynamic NAD(P)H measurements. However, NAD(P)H excitation requires UV light, which can cause cell damage. In this work, we developed a method for time-lapse NAD(P)H imaging in single E. coli cells. Our method combines a setup with reduced background emission, UV-enhanced microscopy equipment and optimized exposure settings, overall generating acceptable NAD(P)H signals from single cells, with minimal negative effect on cell growth. Through different experiments, in which we perturb E. coli's redox metabolism, we demonstrated that the acquired fluorescence signal indeed corresponds to NAD(P)H. Using this new method, for the first time, we report that intracellular NAD(P)H levels oscillate along the bacterial cell division cycle. The developed method for dynamic measurement of NAD(P)H in single bacterial cells will be an important tool to zoom into metabolism of individual cells.

  17. Role of cell division and self-propulsion in self-organization of 2D cell co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Moumita; Dey, Supravat; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin

    Self-organization of cells is a key process in developmental and cancer biology. The differential adhesion hypothesis (DAH), which assumes cells as equilibrium liquid droplets and relates the self-assembly of cells to differences in inter-cellular adhesiveness, has been very successful in explaining cellular organization during morphogenesis where neighboring cells have the same non-equilibrium properties (motility, proliferation rate). However, recently it has been experimentally shown that for a co-culture of two different cell types proliferating at different rates, the resulting spatial morphologies cannot be explained using the DAH alone. Motivated by this, we develop and study a two-dimensional model of a cell co-culture that includes cell division and self-propulsion in addition to cell-cell adhesion, and systemically study how cells with significantly different adhesion, motility, and proliferation rate dynamically organize themselves in a spatiotemporal and context-dependent manner. Our results may help to understand how differential equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties cooperate and compete leading to different morphologies during tumor development, with important consequences for invasion and metastasis

  18. Sites and Regulation of Polyamine Catabolism in the Tobacco Plant. Correlations with Cell Division/Expansion, Cell Cycle Progression, and Vascular Development1

    PubMed Central

    Paschalidis, Konstantinos A.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2005-01-01

    We previously gave a picture of the homeostatic characteristics of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis and conjugation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plant organs during development. In this work, we present the sites and regulation of PA catabolism related to cell division/expansion, cell cycle progression, and vascular development in the tobacco plant. Diamine oxidase (DAO), PA oxidase (PAO), peroxidases (POXs), and putrescine N-methyltransferase expressions follow temporally and spatially discrete patterns in shoot apical cells, leaves (apical, peripheral, and central regions), acropetal and basipetal petiole regions, internodes, and young and old roots in developing plants. DAO and PAO produce hydrogen peroxide, a plant signal molecule and substrate for POXs. Gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses reveal that amine oxidases in developing tobacco tissues precede and overlap with nascent nuclear DNA and also with POXs and lignification. In mature and old tissues, flow cytometry indicates that amine oxidase and POX activities, as well as pao gene and PAO protein levels, coincide with G2 nuclear phase and endoreduplication. In young versus the older roots, amine oxidases and POX expression decrease with parallel inhibition of G2 advance and endoreduplication, whereas putrescine N-methyltransferase dramatically increases. In both hypergeous and hypogeous tissues, DAO and PAO expression occurs in cells destined to undergo lignification, suggesting a different in situ localization. DNA synthesis early in development and the advance in cell cycle/endocycle are temporally and spatially related to PA catabolism and vascular development. PMID:16040649

  19. LexA Binds to Transcription Regulatory Site of Cell Division Gene ftsZ in Toxic Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takashi; Morimoto, Daichi; Sako, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Takashi

    2018-05-17

    Previously, we showed that DNA replication and cell division in toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa are coordinated by transcriptional regulation of cell division gene ftsZ and that an unknown protein specifically bound upstream of ftsZ (BpFz; DNA-binding protein to an upstream site of ftsZ) during successful DNA replication and cell division. Here, we purified BpFz from M. aeruginosa strain NIES-298 using DNA-affinity chromatography and gel-slicing combined with gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of BpFz was identified as TNLESLTQ, which was identical to that of transcription repressor LexA from NIES-843. EMSA analysis using mutant probes showed that the sequence GTACTAN 3 GTGTTC was important in LexA binding. Comparison of the upstream regions of lexA in the genomes of closely related cyanobacteria suggested that the sequence TASTRNNNNTGTWC could be a putative LexA recognition sequence (LexA box). Searches for TASTRNNNNTGTWC as a transcriptional regulatory site (TRS) in the genome of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 showed that it was present in genes involved in cell division, photosynthesis, and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis. Considering that BpFz binds to the TRS of ftsZ during normal cell division, LexA may function as a transcriptional activator of genes related to cell reproduction in M. aeruginosa, including ftsZ. This may be an example of informality in the control of bacterial cell division.

  20. Committing to cell division may be clue to cancer cell growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a new study in Nature, CCR researchers describe, for the first time, how a cell commits to dividing during the cell cycle. Since cancer cells divide when they should not, targeting this pathway might stop their inappropriate growth.

  1. ALIX and ESCRT-III Coordinately Control Cytokinetic Abscission during Germline Stem Cell Division In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Eikenes, Åsmund H.; Malerød, Lene; Christensen, Anette Lie; Steen, Chloé B.; Mathieu, Juliette; Nezis, Ioannis P.; Liestøl, Knut; Huynh, Jean-René; Stenmark, Harald; Haglund, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC) division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo. PMID:25635693

  2. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Noc3 Is Essential for Ribosome Biogenesis and Cell Division but Not DNA Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Houchens, Christopher R.; Perreault, Audrey; Bachand, François; Kelly, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication is preceded by the assembly of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) at chromosomal origins of DNA replication. Pre-RC assembly requires the essential DNA replication proteins ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 to load the MCM DNA helicase onto chromatin. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Noc3 (ScNoc3), an evolutionarily conserved protein originally implicated in 60S ribosomal subunit trafficking, has been proposed to be an essential regulator of DNA replication that plays a direct role during pre-RC formation in budding yeast. We have cloned Schizosaccharomyces pombe noc3+ (Spnoc3+), the S. pombe homolog of the budding yeast ScNOC3 gene, and functionally characterized the requirement for the SpNoc3 protein during ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression, and DNA replication in fission yeast. We showed that fission yeast SpNoc3 is a functional homolog of budding yeast ScNoc3 that is essential for cell viability and ribosome biogenesis. We also showed that SpNoc3 is required for the normal completion of cell division in fission yeast. However, in contrast to the proposal that ScNoc3 plays an essential role during DNA replication in budding yeast, we demonstrated that fission yeast cells do enter and complete S phase in the absence of SpNoc3, suggesting that SpNoc3 is not essential for DNA replication in fission yeast. PMID:18606828

  3. Moving Maryland Forward: Sharpen the Focus for 2020. The Division of Special Education/Early Intervention Services (DSE/EIS) Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    With this Strategic Plan, the Division of Special Education/ Early Intervention Services recommits to "Moving Maryland Forward"--introduced in 2013. With the shifting in the national, State, and local education landscape, Maryland has revisited the initial Plan to sharpen the steadfast focus to narrow the gaps for children with…

  4. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON THE EXPRESSION OF CELL CYCLE PROTEINS AND EARLY SIGNALING EVENTS IN PRIMARY HUMAN KERATINOCYTES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Arsenicals on the Expression of Cell Cycle Proteins and Early Signaling Events in Primary Human Keratinocytes.

    Mudipalli, A, Owen R. D. and R. J. Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711.

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is a m...

  5. Quantitative phase imaging of cell division in yeast cells and E.coli using digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Digital holographic microscope (DHM) is an emerging quantitative phase imaging technique with unique imaging scales and resolutions leading to multitude of applications. DHM is promising as a novel investigational and applied tool for cell imaging, studying the morphology and real time dynamics of cells and a number of related applications. The use of numerical propagation and computational digital optics offer unique flexibility to tune the depth of focus, and compensate for image aberrations. In this work, we report imaging the dynamics of cell division in E.coli and yeast cells using a DHM platform. We demonstrate 3-D and depth imaging as well as reconstruction of phase profiles of E.coli and yeast cells using the system. We record a digital hologram of E.coli and yeast cells and reconstruct the image using Fresnel propagation algorithm. We also use aberration compensation algorithms for correcting the aberrations that are introduced by the microscope objective in the object path using linear least square fitting techniques. This work demonstrates the strong potential of a DHM platform in 3-D live cell imaging, fast clinical quantifications and pathological applications.

  6. Absence of the Polar Organizing Protein PopZ Results in Reduced and Asymmetric Cell Division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Matthew; Aliashkevich, Alena; Salisbury, Anne K.; Cava, Felipe; Bowman, Grant R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at midcell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth-promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A. tumefaciens. Consistent with previous observations, we observe that PopZ localizes specifically to the growth pole in wild-type cells. Despite the striking localization pattern of PopZ, we find the absence of the protein does not impair polar elongation or cause major changes in the peptidoglycan composition. Instead, we observe an atypical cell length distribution, including minicells, elongated cells, and cells with ectopic poles. Most minicells lack DNA, suggesting a defect in chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the canonical cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA are misplaced, leading to asymmetric sites of cell constriction. Together, these data suggest that PopZ plays an important role in the regulation of chromosome segregation and cell division. IMPORTANCE A. tumefaciens is a bacterial plant pathogen and a natural genetic engineer. However, very little is known about the spatial and temporal regulation of cell wall biogenesis that leads to polar growth in this bacterium. Understanding the molecular basis of A. tumefaciens growth may allow for the development of innovations to prevent disease or to promote growth during biotechnology applications. Finally, since many closely related plant and animal pathogens exhibit polar growth, discoveries in A. tumefaciens may be broadly applicable for devising antimicrobial strategies. PMID:28630123

  7. (1) The Relationship of Protein Expression and Cell Division, (2) 3D Imaging of Cells Using Digital Holography, and (3) General Chemistry Enrollment at University of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 1: The role of cell division in protein expression is important to understand in order to guide the development of better nonviral gene delivery materials that can transport DNA to the nucleus with high efficiency for a variety of cell types, particularly when nondividing cells are targets of gene therapy. We evaluated the relationship…

  8. Niche recycling through division-independent egress of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Ooi, A.G. Lisa; Rossi, Derrick J.; Bryder, David; Weissman, Irving L.

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to reside in discrete niches through stable adhesion, yet previous studies have suggested that host HSCs can be replaced by transplanted donor HSCs, even in the absence of cytoreductive conditioning. To explain this apparent paradox, we calculated, through cell surface phenotyping and transplantation of unfractionated blood, that ∼1–5% of the total pool of HSCs enters into the circulation each day. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) feeding experiments demonstrated that HSCs in the peripheral blood incorporate BrdU at the same rate as do HSCs in the bone marrow, suggesting that egress from the bone marrow to the blood can occur without cell division and can leave behind vacant HSC niches. Consistent with this, repetitive daily transplantations of small numbers of HSCs administered as new niches became available over the course of 7 d led to significantly higher levels of engraftment than did large, single-bolus transplantations of the same total number of HSCs. These data provide insight as to how HSC replacement can occur despite the residence of endogenous HSCs in niches, and suggest therapeutic interventions that capitalize upon physiological HSC egress. PMID:19887396

  9. Increased leaf mesophyll porosity following transient retinoblastoma-related protein silencing is revealed by microcomputed tomography imaging and leads to a system-level physiological response to the altered cell division pattern

    PubMed Central

    Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Pajor, Radoslaw; Lehmeier, Christoph; Pérez-Bueno, Marísa; Bauch, Marion; Sloan, Jen; Osborne, Colin; Rolfe, Stephen; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha; Fleming, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between cell division and growth in plants is complex. Although altered expression of cell-cycle genes frequently leads to altered organ growth, there are many examples where manipulation of the division machinery leads to a limited outcome at the level of organ form, despite changes in constituent cell size. One possibility, which has been under-explored, is that altered division patterns resulting from manipulation of cell-cycle gene expression alter the physiology of the organ, and that this has an effect on growth. We performed a series of experiments on retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), a well characterized regulator of the cell cycle, to investigate the outcome of altered cell division on leaf physiology. Our approach involved combination of high-resolution microCT imaging and physiological analysis with a transient gene induction system, providing a powerful approach for the study of developmental physiology. Our investigation identifies a new role for RBR in mesophyll differentiation that affects tissue porosity and the distribution of air space within the leaf. The data demonstrate the importance of RBR in early leaf development and the extent to which physiology adapts to modified cellular architecture resulting from altered cell-cycle gene expression. PMID:24118480

  10. Heterogeneity, Cell Biology and Tissue Mechanics of Pseudostratified Epithelia: Coordination of Cell Divisions and Growth in Tightly Packed Tissues.

    PubMed

    Strzyz, P J; Matejcic, M; Norden, C

    2016-01-01

    Pseudostratified epithelia (PSE) are tightly packed proliferative tissues that are important precursors of the development of diverse organs in a plethora of species, invertebrate and vertebrate. PSE consist of elongated epithelial cells that are attached to the apical and basal side of the tissue. The nuclei of these cells undergo interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM) which leads to all mitotic events taking place at the apical surface of the epithelium. In this review, we discuss the intricacies of proliferation in PSE, considering cell biological, as well as the physical aspects. First, we summarize the principles governing the invariability of apical nuclear migration and apical cell division as well as the importance of apical mitoses for tissue proliferation. Then, we focus on the mechanical and structural features of these tissues. Here, we discuss how the overall architecture of pseudostratified tissues changes with increased cell packing. Lastly, we consider possible mechanical cues resulting from these changes and their potential influence on cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Model-Based Analysis of Arabidopsis Leaf Epidermal Cells Reveals Distinct Division and Expansion Patterns for Pavement and Guard Cells1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Asl, Leila Kheibarshekan; Dhondt, Stijn; Boudolf, Véronique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Beeckman, Tom; Inzé, Dirk; Govaerts, Willy; De Veylder, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    To efficiently capture sunlight for photosynthesis, leaves typically develop into a flat and thin structure. This development is driven by cell division and expansion, but the individual contribution of these processes is currently unknown, mainly because of the experimental difficulties to disentangle them in a developing organ, due to their tight interconnection. To circumvent this problem, we built a mathematic model that describes the possible division patterns and expansion rates for individual epidermal cells. This model was used to fit experimental data on cell numbers and sizes obtained over time intervals of 1 d throughout the development of the first leaf pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The parameters were obtained by a derivative-free optimization method that minimizes the differences between the predicted and experimentally observed cell size distributions. The model allowed us to calculate probabilities for a cell to divide into guard or pavement cells, the maximum size at which it can divide, and its average cell division and expansion rates at each point during the leaf developmental process. Surprisingly, average cell cycle duration remained constant throughout leaf development, whereas no evidence for a maximum cell size threshold for cell division of pavement cells was found. Furthermore, the model predicted that neighboring cells of different sizes within the epidermis expand at distinctly different relative rates, which could be verified by direct observations. We conclude that cell division seems to occur independently from the status of cell expansion, whereas the cell cycle might act as a timer rather than as a size-regulated machinery. PMID:21693673

  12. Effects of Student Teams-Achievement Divisions Cooperative Learning with Models on Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaçöp, Ataman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Student Teams-Achievement Divisions cooperative learning with models on academic achievements of undergraduate university students attending classes in which the electrochemical cells. The sample of research was comprised of 70 students from first class of science teacher education program…

  13. Structure-function analysis of the extracellular domain of the pneumococcal cell division site positioning protein MapZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Jean, Nicolas L.; Guinot, Mégane; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Laguri, Cédric; Bougault, Catherine M.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Grangeasse, Christophe; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Accurate placement of the bacterial division site is a prerequisite for the generation of two viable and identical daughter cells. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the positive regulatory mechanism involving the membrane protein MapZ positions precisely the conserved cell division protein FtsZ at the cell centre. Here we characterize the structure of the extracellular domain of MapZ and show that it displays a bi-modular structure composed of two subdomains separated by a flexible serine-rich linker. We further demonstrate in vivo that the N-terminal subdomain serves as a pedestal for the C-terminal subdomain, which determines the ability of MapZ to mark the division site. The C-terminal subdomain displays a patch of conserved amino acids and we show that this patch defines a structural motif crucial for MapZ function. Altogether, this structure-function analysis of MapZ provides the first molecular characterization of a positive regulatory process of bacterial cell division.

  14. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  15. Toxin Kid uncouples DNA replication and cell division to enforce retention of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Belén; Nair, Radhika; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Preston, Mark A; Agu, Chukwuma A; Wang, Xindan; Bernal, Juan A; Sherratt, David J; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2014-02-18

    Worldwide dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is facilitated by plasmids that encode postsegregational killing (PSK) systems. These produce a stable toxin (T) and a labile antitoxin (A) conditioning cell survival to plasmid maintenance, because only this ensures neutralization of toxicity. Shortage of antibiotic alternatives and the link of TA pairs to PSK have stimulated the opinion that premature toxin activation could be used to kill these recalcitrant organisms in the clinic. However, validation of TA pairs as therapeutic targets requires unambiguous understanding of their mode of action, consequences for cell viability, and function in plasmids. Conflicting with widespread notions concerning these issues, we had proposed that the TA pair kis-kid (killing suppressor-killing determinant) might function as a plasmid rescue system and not as a PSK system, but this remained to be validated. Here, we aimed to clarify unsettled mechanistic aspects of Kid activation, and of the effects of this for kis-kid-bearing plasmids and their host cells. We confirm that activation of Kid occurs in cells that are about to lose the toxin-encoding plasmid, and we show that this provokes highly selective restriction of protein outputs that inhibits cell division temporarily, avoiding plasmid loss, and stimulates DNA replication, promoting plasmid rescue. Kis and Kid are conserved in plasmids encoding multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including extended spectrum β-lactamases, for which therapeutic options are scarce, and our findings advise against the activation of this TA pair to fight pathogens carrying these extrachromosomal DNAs.

  16. Toxin Kid uncouples DNA replication and cell division to enforce retention of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Belén; Nair, Radhika; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Preston, Mark A.; Agu, Chukwuma A.; Wang, Xindan; Bernal, Juan A.; Sherratt, David J.; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is facilitated by plasmids that encode postsegregational killing (PSK) systems. These produce a stable toxin (T) and a labile antitoxin (A) conditioning cell survival to plasmid maintenance, because only this ensures neutralization of toxicity. Shortage of antibiotic alternatives and the link of TA pairs to PSK have stimulated the opinion that premature toxin activation could be used to kill these recalcitrant organisms in the clinic. However, validation of TA pairs as therapeutic targets requires unambiguous understanding of their mode of action, consequences for cell viability, and function in plasmids. Conflicting with widespread notions concerning these issues, we had proposed that the TA pair kis-kid (killing suppressor-killing determinant) might function as a plasmid rescue system and not as a PSK system, but this remained to be validated. Here, we aimed to clarify unsettled mechanistic aspects of Kid activation, and of the effects of this for kis-kid–bearing plasmids and their host cells. We confirm that activation of Kid occurs in cells that are about to lose the toxin-encoding plasmid, and we show that this provokes highly selective restriction of protein outputs that inhibits cell division temporarily, avoiding plasmid loss, and stimulates DNA replication, promoting plasmid rescue. Kis and Kid are conserved in plasmids encoding multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including extended spectrum β-lactamases, for which therapeutic options are scarce, and our findings advise against the activation of this TA pair to fight pathogens carrying these extrachromosomal DNAs. PMID:24449860

  17. Architecture of the ring formed by the tubulin homologue FtsZ in bacterial cell division

    PubMed Central

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Tsim, Matthew; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Membrane constriction is a prerequisite for cell division. The most common membrane constriction system in prokaryotes is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ, whose filaments in E. coli are anchored to the membrane by FtsA and enable the formation of the Z-ring and divisome. The precise architecture of the FtsZ ring has remained enigmatic. In this study, we report three-dimensional arrangements of FtsZ and FtsA filaments in C. crescentus and E. coli cells and inside constricting liposomes by means of electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography. In vivo and in vitro, the Z-ring is composed of a small, single-layered band of filaments parallel to the membrane, creating a continuous ring through lateral filament contacts. Visualisation of the in vitro reconstituted constrictions as well as a complete tracing of the helical paths of the filaments with a molecular model favour a mechanism of FtsZ-based membrane constriction that is likely to be accompanied by filament sliding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04601.001 PMID:25490152

  18. Strigolactones Inhibit Caulonema Elongation and Cell Division in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Beate; Proust, Hélène; Belcram, Katia; Labrune, Cécile; Boyer, François-Didier; Rameau, Catherine; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In vascular plants, strigolactones (SLs) are known for their hormonal role and for their role as signal molecules in the rhizosphere. SLs are also produced by the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which they act as signaling factors for controlling filament extension and possibly interaction with neighboring individuals. To gain a better understanding of SL action at the cellular level, we investigated the effect of exogenously added molecules (SLs or analogs) in moss growth media. We used the previously characterized Ppccd8 mutant that is deficient in SL synthesis and showed that SLs affect moss protonema extension by reducing caulonema cell elongation and mainly cell division rate, both in light and dark conditions. Based on this effect, we set up bioassays to examine chemical structure requirements for SL activity in moss. The results suggest that compounds GR24, GR5, and 5-deoxystrigol are active in moss (as in pea), while other analogs that are highly active in the control of pea branching show little activity in moss. Interestingly, the karrikinolide KAR1, which shares molecular features with SLs, did not have any effect on filament growth, even though the moss genome contains several genes homologous to KAI2 (encoding the KAR1 receptor) and no canonical homologue to D14 (encoding the SL receptor). Further studies should investigate whether SL signaling pathways have been conserved during land plant evolution. PMID:24911649

  19. Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petrásek, Zdenek; Hoege, Carsten; Mashaghi, Alireza; Ohrt, Thomas; Hyman, Anthony A; Schwille, Petra

    2008-12-01

    The development and differentiation of complex organisms from the single fertilized egg is regulated by a variety of processes that all rely on the distribution and interaction of proteins. Despite the tight regulation of these processes with respect to temporal and spatial protein localization, exact quantification of the underlying parameters, such as concentrations and distribution coefficients, has so far been problematic. Recent experiments suggest that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on a single molecule level in living cells has great promise in revealing these parameters with high precision. The optically challenging situation in multicellular systems such as embryos can be ameliorated by two-photon excitation, where scattering background and cumulative photobleaching is limited. A more severe problem is posed by the large range of molecular mobilities observed at the same time, as standard FCS relies strongly on the presence of mobility-induced fluctuations. In this study, we overcame the limitations of standard FCS. We analyzed in vivo polarity protein PAR-2 from eggs of Caenorhabditis elegans by beam-scanning FCS in the cytosol and on the cortex of C. elegans before asymmetric cell division. The surprising result is that the distribution of PAR-2 is largely uncoupled from the movement of cytoskeletal components of the cortex. These results call for a more systematic future investigation of the different cortical elements, and show that the FCS technique can contribute to answering these questions, by providing a complementary approach that can reveal insights not obtainable by other techniques.

  20. Microgravity Effecs During Fertilization, Cell Division, Development, and Calcium Metabolism in Sea Urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. For long-term exposure to space it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms for altered physiological functions. Fundamental occurrences in cell biology which are likely to depend on gravity include cytoskeletal dynamics, chromatin and centrosome cycling, and ion immobilization. These events can be studied during fertilization and embryogenesis within invertebrate systems. We have chosen the sea urchin system to study the effects of microgravity on cytoskeletal processes and calcium metabolism during fertilization, cell division, development, and embryogenesis. Experiments during an aircraft parabolic flight (KC-135) demonstrated: (1) the viability of sea urchin eggs prior to fertilization, (2) the suitability of our specimen containment system, (3) the feasibility of fertilization in a reduced gravity environment (which was achieved during 25 seconds of reduced gravity under parabolic flight conditions). Two newly developed pieces of spaceflight hardware made further investigations possible on a spaceflight (STS-77); (1) the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), and (2) the Fertilization Syringe Unit (FSU). The Canadian Space Agency developed ARF to conduct aquatic spaceflight experiments requiring controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, illumination, and fixation at predetermined time points. It contained a control centrifuge which simulated the 1 g environment of earth during spaceflight. The FSU was developed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) by the Bionetics Corporation specifically to enable the crew to perform sea urchin fertilization operations in space.

  1. Investigating the Molecular Mechanism of TSO1 Function in Arabidopsis cell division and meristem development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongchi Liu

    2004-10-01

    Unlike animals, plants are constantly exposed to environmental mutagens including ultraviolet light and reactive oxygen species. Further, plant cells are totipotent with highly plastic developmental programs. An understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of plants to monitor and repair its DNA and to eliminate damaged cells are of great importance. Previously we have identified two genes, TSO1 and TSO2, from a flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these two genes cause callus-like flowers, fasciated shoot apical meristems, and abnormal cell division, indicating that TSO1 and TSO2 may encode important cell cycle regulators. Previous funding from DOE led to themore » molecular cloning of TSO1, which was shown to encode a novel nuclear protein with two CXC domains suspected to bind DNA. This DOE grant has allowed us to characterize and isolate TSO2 that encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR comprises two large subunits (R1) an d two small subunits (R2), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair. Previous studies in yeast and mammals indicated that defective RNR often led to cell cycle arrest, growth retardation and p53-dependent apoptosis while abnormally elevated RNR activities led to higher mutation rates. Subsequently, we identified two additional R2 genes, R2A and R2B in the Arabidopsis genome. Using reverse genetics, mutations in R2A and R2B were isolated, and double and triple mutants among the three R2 genes (TSO2, R2A and R2B) were constructed and analyzed. We showed that Arabidopsis tso2 mutants, with reduced dNTP levels, were more sensitive to UV-C. While r2a or r2b single mutants did not exhibit any phenotypes, tso2 r2b double mutants were embryonic lethal and tso2 r2a double mutants were seedling lethal indicating redundant functions among the three R2 genes. Furthermore, tso2 r2a double mutants exhibited increased DNA dam

  2. Radmis, a Novel Mitotic Spindle Protein that Functions in Cell Division of Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Yumoto, Takahito; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Sugitani-Yoshida, Reiko; Ueda, Shuichi; Sakakibara, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dynamics of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are crucial for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but its regulatory factors are not fully understood. By differential subtractive screening with NSPCs versus their differentiated progenies, we identified the radmis (radial fiber and mitotic spindle)/ckap2l gene, a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP) enriched in NSPCs. Radmis is a putative substrate for the E3-ubiquitin ligase, anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), and is degraded via the KEN box. Radmis was highly expressed in regions of active neurogenesis throughout life, and its distribution was dynamically regulated during NSPC division. In embryonic and perinatal brains, radmis localized to bipolar mitotic spindles and radial fibers (basal processes) of dividing NSPCs. As central nervous system development proceeded, radmis expression was lost in most brain regions, except for several neurogenic regions. In adult brain, radmis expression persisted in the mitotic spindles of both slowly-dividing stem cells and rapid amplifying progenitors. Overexpression of radmis in vitro induced hyper-stabilization of microtubules, severe defects in mitotic spindle formation, and mitotic arrest. In vivo gain-of-function using in utero electroporation revealed that radmis directed a reduction in NSPC proliferation and a concomitant increase in cell cycle exit, causing a reduction in the Tbr2-positive basal progenitor population and shrinkage of the embryonic subventricular zone. Besides, radmis loss-of-function by shRNAs induced the multipolar mitotic spindle structure, accompanied with the catastrophe of chromosome segregation including the long chromosome bridge between two separating daughter nuclei. These findings uncover the indispensable role of radmis in mitotic spindle formation and cell-cycle progression of NSPCs. PMID:24260314

  3. Patterns of oriented cell division during the steady-state morphogenesis of the body column in hydra.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Bode, P M; Bode, H R

    1995-12-01

    In an adult hydra, the tissue of the body column is in a dynamic state. The epithelial cells of both layers are constantly in the mitotic cycle. As the tissue expands, it is continuously displaced along the body axis in either an apical or basal direction, but not in a circumferential direction. Using a modified whole mount method we examined the orientation of mitotic spindles to determine what role the direction of cell division plays in axial displacement. Surprisingly, the direction of cell division was found to differ in the two epithelial layers. In the ectoderm it was somewhat biased in an axial direction. In the endoderm it was strongly biased in a circumferential direction. For both layers, the directional biases occurred throughout the length of the body column, with some regional variation in its extent. As buds developed into adults, the bias in each layer increased from an almost random distribution to the distinctly different orientations of the adult. Thus, to maintain the observed axial direction of tissue displacement, rearrangement of the epithelial cells of both layers must occur continuously in the adult as well as in developing animals. How the locomotory and contractile behavior of the muscle processes of the epithelial cells may effect changes in cell shape, and thereby influence the direction of cell division in each layer, is discussed.

  4. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K.

  5. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K. PMID:25831267

  6. Patterns of cell division, DNA base compositions, and fine structures of some radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria found in food

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.W.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Representative highly radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A), Pseudomonas radiora, Micrococcus radiodurans, and Micrococcus radiophilus exhibited a wide variety of division systems and cell wall characteristics. However, the more resistant M-A possessed unusually thick cell walls, indicating a possible role of the cell wall in radiation resistance in the M-A. Thick septation was present in most of the bacteria studied, but was absent in P. radiora, thus excluding this as a necessity for high resistance. Reliable determination of the number of division planes of the M-A for use as a taxonomic criterion was achieved by the direct observation of dividing cells. The highlymore » resistant M-A were found to divide in multiple planes and had base compositions of 54.0 to 57.5%, unlike typical Moraxella and/or Acinetobacter species. The taxonomic position of most highly resistant bacteria remains unclear.« less

  7. In tobacco BY-2 cells xyloglucan oligosaccharides alter the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Lien; Perrotta, Lara; Acosta, Alexis; Orellana, Esteban; Spadafora, Natasha; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Beatrice M; Albani, Diego; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Francis, Dennis; Rogers, Hilary J

    2014-10-01

    Xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) are breakdown products of XGs, the most abundant hemicelluloses of the primary cell walls of non-Poalean species. Treatment of cell cultures or whole plants with XGOs results in accelerated cell elongation and cell division, changes in primary root growth, and a stimulation of defence responses. They may therefore act as signalling molecules regulating plant growth and development. Previous work suggests an interaction with auxins and effects on cell wall loosening, however their mode of action is not fully understood. The effect of an XGO extract from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) on global gene expression was therefore investigated in tobacco BY-2 cells using microarrays. Over 500 genes were differentially regulated with similar numbers and functional classes of genes up- and down-regulated, indicating a complex interaction with the cellular machinery. Up-regulation of a putative XG endotransglycosylase/hydrolase-related (XTH) gene supports the mechanism of XGO action through cell wall loosening. Differential expression of defence-related genes supports a role for XGOs as elicitors. Changes in the expression of genes related to mitotic control and differentiation also support previous work showing that XGOs are mitotic inducers. XGOs also affected expression of several receptor-like kinase genes and transcription factors. Hence, XGOs have significant effects on expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

  8. Emp is a component of the nuclear matrix of mammalian cells and undergoes dynamic rearrangements during cell division

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Shashi; Kumar, Ajay; Soni, Shivani

    2006-04-21

    Emp, originally detected in erythroblastic islands, is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues suggesting a functionality not limited to hematopoiesis. To study the function of Emp in non-hematopoietic cells, an epitope-tagged recombinant human Emp was expressed in HEK cells. Preliminary studies revealed that Emp partitioned into both the nuclear and Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions in approximately a 4:1 ratio. In this study, we report investigations of Emp in the nucleus. Sequential extractions of interphase nuclei showed that recombinant Emp was present predominantly in the nuclear matrix. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Emp was present in typical nuclear speckles enriched withmore » the spliceosome assembly factor SC35 and partially co-localized with actin staining. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down assays confirmed the apparent close association of Emp with nuclear actin. During mitosis, Emp was detected at the mitotic spindle/spindle poles, as well as in the contractile ring during cytokinesis. These results suggest that Emp undergoes dynamic rearrangements within the nuclear architecture that are correlated with cell division.« less

  9. Emp is a component of the nuclear matrix of mammalian cells and undergoes dynamic rearrangements during cell division.

    PubMed

    Bala, Shashi; Kumar, Ajay; Soni, Shivani; Sinha, Sudha; Hanspal, Manjit

    2006-04-21

    Emp, originally detected in erythroblastic islands, is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues suggesting a functionality not limited to hematopoiesis. To study the function of Emp in non-hematopoietic cells, an epitope-tagged recombinant human Emp was expressed in HEK cells. Preliminary studies revealed that Emp partitioned into both the nuclear and Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions in approximately a 4:1 ratio. In this study, we report investigations of Emp in the nucleus. Sequential extractions of interphase nuclei showed that recombinant Emp was present predominantly in the nuclear matrix. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Emp was present in typical nuclear speckles enriched with the spliceosome assembly factor SC35 and partially co-localized with actin staining. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down assays confirmed the apparent close association of Emp with nuclear actin. During mitosis, Emp was detected at the mitotic spindle/spindle poles, as well as in the contractile ring during cytokinesis. These results suggest that Emp undergoes dynamic rearrangements within the nuclear architecture that are correlated with cell division.

  10. The simulation model of growth and cell divisions for the root apex with an apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata.

    PubMed

    Piekarska-Stachowiak, Anna; Nakielski, Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to seed plants, the roots of most ferns have a single apical cell which is the ultimate source of all cells in the root. The apical cell has a tetrahedral shape and divides asymmetrically. The root cap derives from the distal division face, while merophytes derived from three proximal division faces contribute to the root proper. The merophytes are produced sequentially forming three sectors along a helix around the root axis. During development, they divide and differentiate in a predictable pattern. Such growth causes cell pattern of the root apex to be remarkably regular and self-perpetuating. The nature of this regularity remains unknown. This paper shows the 2D simulation model for growth of the root apex with the apical cell in application to Azolla pinnata. The field of growth rates of the organ, prescribed by the model, is of a tensor type (symplastic growth) and cells divide taking principal growth directions into account. The simulations show how the cell pattern in a longitudinal section of the apex develops in time. The virtual root apex grows realistically and its cell pattern is similar to that observed in anatomical sections. The simulations indicate that the cell pattern regularity results from cell divisions which are oriented with respect to principal growth directions. Such divisions are essential for maintenance of peri-anticlinal arrangement of cell walls and coordinated growth of merophytes during the development. The highly specific division program that takes place in merophytes prior to differentiation seems to be regulated at the cellular level.

  11. The Utilization during Mitotic Cell Division of Loci Controlling Meiotic Recombination and Disjunction in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Bruce S.; Carpenter, Adelaide T. C.; Ripoll, P.

    1978-01-01

    To inquire whether the loci identified by recombination-defective and disjunction-defective meiotic mutants in Drosophila are also utilized during mitotic cell division, the effects of 18 meiotic mutants (representing 13 loci) on mitotic chromosome stability have been examined genetically. To do this, meiotic-mutant-bearing flies heterozygous for recessive somatic cell markers were examined for the frequencies and types of spontaneous clones expressing the cell markers. In such flies, marked clones can arise via mitotic recombination, mutation, chromosome breakage, nondisjunction or chromosome loss, and clones from these different origins can be distinguished. In addition, meiotic mutants at nine loci have been examined for their effects on sensitivity to killing by UV and X rays.—Mutants at six of the seven recombination-defective loci examined (mei-9, mei-41, c(3)G, mei-W68, mei-S282, mei-352, mei-218) cause mitotic chromosome instability in both sexes, whereas mutants at one locus (mei-218) do not affect mitotic chromosome stability. Thus many of the loci utilized during meiotic recombination also function in the chromosomal economy of mitotic cells.—The chromosome instability produced by mei-41 alleles is the consequence of chromosome breakage, that of mei-9 alleles is primarily due to chromosome breakage and, to a lesser extent, to an elevated frequency of mitotic recombination, whereas no predominant mechanism responsible for the instability caused by c(3)G alleles is discernible. Since these three loci are defective in their responses to mutagen damage, their effects on chromosome stability in nonmutagenized cells are interpreted as resulting from an inability to repair spontaneous lesions. Both mei-W68 and mei-S282 increase mitotic recombination (and in mei-W68, to a lesser extent, chromosome loss) in the abdomen but not the wing. In the abdomen, the primary effect on chromosome stability occurs during the larval period when the abdominal histoblasts

  12. A quantitative approach to the study of cell shapes and interactions during early chordate embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tassy, Olivier; Daian, Fabrice; Hudson, Clare; Bertrand, Vincent; Lemaire, Patrick

    2006-02-21

    The prospects of deciphering the genetic program underlying embryonic development were recently boosted by the generation of large sets of precisely organized quantitative molecular data. In contrast, although the precise arrangement, interactions, and shapes of cells are crucial for the fulfilment of this program, their description remains coarse and qualitative. To bridge this gap, we developed a generic software, 3D Virtual Embryo, to quantify the geometry and interactions of cells in interactive three-dimensional embryo models. We applied this approach to early ascidian embryos, chosen because of their simplicity and their phylogenetic proximity to vertebrates. We generated a collection of 19 interactive ascidian embryos between the 2- and 44-cell stages. We characterized the evolution with time, and in different cell lineages, of the volume of cells and of eight mathematical descriptors of their geometry, and we measured the surface of contact between neighboring blastomeres. These analyses first revealed that early embryonic blastomeres adopt a surprising variety of shapes, which appeared to be under strict and dynamic developmental control. Second, we found novel asymmetric cell divisions in the posterior vegetal lineages, which gave birth to sister cells with different fates. Third, during neural induction, differences in the area of contact between individual competent animal cells and inducing vegetal blastomeres appeared important to select the induced cells. In addition to novel insight into both cell-autonomous and inductive processes controlling early ascidian development, we establish a generic conceptual framework for the quantitative analysis of embryo geometry that can be applied to other model organisms.

  13. Solution structure and interactions of the Escherichia coli cell division activator protein CedA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ho An; Simpson, Peter; Huyton, Trevor; Roper, David; Matthews, Stephen

    2005-05-10

    CedA is a protein that is postulated to be involved in the regulation of cell division in Escherichia coli and related organisms; however, little biological data about its possible mode of action are available. Here we present a three-dimensional structure of this protein as determined by NMR spectroscopy. The protein is made up of four antiparallel beta-strands, an alpha-helix, and a large unstructured stretch of residues at the N-terminus. It shows structural similarity to a family of DNA-binding proteins which interact with dsDNA via a three-stranded beta-sheet, suggesting that CedA may be a DNA-binding protein. The putative binding surface of CedA is predominantly positively charged with a number of basic residues surrounding a groove largely dominated by aromatic residues. NMR chemical shift perturbations and gel-shift experiments performed with CedA confirm that the protein binds dsDNA, and its interaction is mediated primarily via the beta-sheet.

  14. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  15. Nucleoid Condensation and Cell Division in Escherichia coli MX74T2 ts52 After Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, David R.; Carbonell, Augustina; Haga, Juli Y.

    1973-01-01

    The reorganization of the bacterial nucleoid of an Escherichia coli mutant, MX74T2 ts52, was studied by electron microscopy after protein synthesis inhibition by using whole mounts of cell ghosts, ultrathin-sectioning, and freeze-etching. The bacterial nucleoid showed two morphological changes after chloramphenicol addition: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) localization and DNA condensation. DNA localization was observed 10 min after chloramphenicol addition; the DNA appeared as a compact, solid mass. DNA condensation was observed at 25 min; the nucleoid appeared as a cytoplasm-filled sphere, often opened at one end. Ribosomes were observed in the center. Giant nucleoids present in some mutant filaments showed fused, spherical nucleoids arranged linearly, suggesting that the tertiary structure of the nucleoid reflects the number of replicated genomes. Inhibitors which directly or indirectly blocked protein synthesis and caused DNA condensation were chloramphenicol, puromycin, amino acid starvation, rifampicin, or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. All inhibitors that caused cell division in the mutant also caused condensation, although some inhibitors caused condensation without cell division. Nucleoid condensation appears to be related to chromosome structure rather than to DNA segregation upon cell division. Images PMID:4580561

  16. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Kadhim, Munira

    2016-01-01

    An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. To investigate GI induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes, human fibroblast cells, and human mammary epithelial cells to high energy protons and Fe ions. In addition, we also investigated GI in bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice, by analyzing cell survival and chromosome aberrations in the cells after multiple cell divisions. Results analyzed so far from the experiments indicated different sensitivities to charged particles between CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mouse strains, suggesting that there are two main types of response to irradiation: 1) responses associated with survival of damaged cells and 2) responses associated with the induction of non-clonal chromosomal instability in the surviving progeny of stem cells. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. Our results with different cell types demonstrated different RBE values between different cell types and between early and late chromosomal damages. This study also attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  17. The polarity protein Baz forms a platform for the centrosome orientation during asymmetric stem cell division in the Drosophila male germline.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayu; Venkei, Zsolt G; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2015-03-20

    Many stem cells divide asymmetrically in order to balance self-renewal with differentiation. The essence of asymmetric cell division (ACD) is the polarization of cells and subsequent division, leading to unequal compartmentalization of cellular/extracellular components that confer distinct cell fates to daughter cells. Because precocious cell division before establishing cell polarity would lead to failure in ACD, these two processes must be tightly coupled; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In Drosophila male germline stem cells, ACD is prepared by stereotypical centrosome positioning. The centrosome orientation checkpoint (COC) further serves to ensure ACD by preventing mitosis upon centrosome misorientation. In this study, we show that Bazooka (Baz) provides a platform for the correct centrosome orientation and that Baz-centrosome association is the key event that is monitored by the COC. Our work provides a foundation for understanding how the correct cell polarity may be recognized by the cell to ensure productive ACD.

  18. Ruthenium red-induced bundling of bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Santra, Manas Kumar; Beuria, Tushar K; Banerjee, Abhijit; Panda, Dulal

    2004-06-18

    The assembly of FtsZ plays a major role in bacterial cell division, and it is thought that the assembly dynamics of FtsZ is a finely regulated process. Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on microtubule polymerization, we found that a substoichiometric concentration of ruthenium red strongly increased the light-scattering signal of FtsZ assembly. Further, sedimentable polymer mass was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the presence of 2 and 10 microm ruthenium red, respectively. In addition, ruthenium red strongly reduced the GTPase activity and prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that 4-10 microm of ruthenium red produced thick bundles of FtsZ polymers. The significant increase in the light-scattering signal and pelletable polymer mass in the presence of ruthenium red seemed to be due to the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments into larger polymers rather than the actual increase in the level of polymeric FtsZ. Furthermore, ruthenium red was found to copolymerize with FtsZ, and the copolymerization of substoichiometric amounts of ruthenium red with FtsZ polymers promoted cooperative assembly of FtsZ that produced large bundles. Calcium inhibited the binding of ruthenium red to FtsZ. However, a concentration of calcium 1000-fold higher than that of ruthenium red was required to produce similar effects on FtsZ assembly. Ruthenium red strongly modulated FtsZ polymerization, suggesting the presence of an important regulatory site on FtsZ and suggesting that a natural ligand, which mimics the action of ruthenium red, may regulate the assembly of FtsZ in bacteria.

  19. Non-linear Min protein interactions generate harmonics that signal mid-cell division in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James C.; Angstmann, Christopher N.; Duggin, Iain G.

    2017-01-01

    The Min protein system creates a dynamic spatial pattern in Escherichia coli cells where the proteins MinD and MinE oscillate from pole to pole. MinD positions MinC, an inhibitor of FtsZ ring formation, contributing to the mid-cell localization of cell division. In this paper, Fourier analysis is used to decompose experimental and model MinD spatial distributions into time-dependent harmonic components. In both experiment and model, the second harmonic component is responsible for producing a mid-cell minimum in MinD concentration. The features of this harmonic are robust in both experiment and model. Fourier analysis reveals a close correspondence between the time-dependent behaviour of the harmonic components in the experimental data and model. Given this, each molecular species in the model was analysed individually. This analysis revealed that membrane-bound MinD dimer shows the mid-cell minimum with the highest contrast when averaged over time, carrying the strongest signal for positioning the cell division ring. This concurs with previous data showing that the MinD dimer binds to MinC inhibiting FtsZ ring formation. These results show that non-linear interactions of Min proteins are essential for producing the mid-cell positioning signal via the generation of second-order harmonic components in the time-dependent spatial protein distribution. PMID:29040283

  20. Identification of functional interactome of a key cell division regulatory protein CedA of E.coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is compromised in DnaAcos mutant Escherichia coli cells that results in filamentous cell morphology. This is countered by over-expression of CedA protein that induces cytokinesis and thus, regular cell morphology is regained; however via an unknown mechanism. To understand the process systematically, exact role of CedA should be deciphered. Protein interactions are crucial for functional organization of a cell and their identification helps in revealing exact function(s) of a protein and its binding partners. Thus, this study was intended to identify CedA binding proteins (CBPs) to gain more clues of CedA function. We isolated CBPs by pull down assay using purified recombinant CedA and identified nine CBPs by mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS), viz. PDHA1, RL2, DNAK, LPP, RPOB, G6PD, GLMS, RL3 and YBCJ. Based on CBPs identified, we hypothesize that CedA plays a crucial and multifaceted role in cell cycle regulation and specific pathways in which CedA participates may include transcription and energy metabolism. However, further validation through in-vitro and in-vivo experiments is necessary. In conclusion, identification of CBPs may help us in deciphering mechanism of CedA mediated cell division during chromosomal DNA over-replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  2. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde derivatives as inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sheng, Juzheng; Huang, Guihua; Ma, Ruixin; Yin, Fengxin; Song, Di; Zhao, Can; Ma, Shutao

    2015-06-05

    In an attempt to discover potential antibacterial agents against the increasing bacterial resistance, novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against nine significant pathogens using broth microdilution method, and their cell division inhibitory activity against four representative strains. In the in vitro antibacterial activity, the newly synthesized compounds generally displayed better efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 than the others. In particular, compounds 3, 8 and 10 exerted superior or comparable activity to all the reference drugs. In the cell division inhibitory activity, all the compounds showed the same trend as their in vitro antibacterial activity, exhibiting better activity against S. aureus ATCC25923 than the other strains. Additionally, compounds 3, 6, 7 and 8 displayed potent cell division inhibitory activity with an MIC value of below 1 μg/mL, over 256-fold better than all the reference drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Early transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of CD8+ T cell differentiation revealed by single-cell RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Kakaradov, Boyko; Arsenio, Janilyn; Widjaja, Christella E.; He, Zhaoren; Aigner, Stefan; Metz, Patrick J.; Yu, Bingfei; Wehrens, Ellen J.; Lopez, Justine; Kim, Stephanie H.; Zuniga, Elina I.; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Chang, John T.; Yeo, Gene W.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY During microbial infection, responding CD8+ T lymphocytes differentiate into heterogeneous subsets that together provide immediate and durable protection. To elucidate the dynamic transcriptional changes that underlie this process, we applied a single-cell RNA sequencing approach and analyzed individual CD8+ T lymphocytes sequentially throughout the course of a viral infection in vivo. Our analyses revealed a striking transcriptional divergence among cells that had undergone their first division and identified previously unknown molecular determinants controlling CD8+ T lymphocyte fate specification. These findings suggest a model of terminal effector cell differentiation initiated by an early burst of transcriptional activity and subsequently refined by epigenetic silencing of transcripts associated with memory lymphocytes, highlighting the power and necessity of single-cell approaches. PMID:28218746

  4. The Asymmetric Cell Division Regulators Par3, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 Are Not Essential for Erythroid Development or Enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Wölwer, Christina B.; Gödde, Nathan; Pase, Luke B.; Elsum, Imogen A.; Lim, Krystle Y. B.; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Walkley, Carl R.; Ellis, Sarah; Ohno, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Russell, Sarah M.; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2017-01-01

    Erythroid enucleation is the process by which the future red blood cell disposes of its nucleus prior to entering the blood stream. This key event during red blood cell development has been likened to an asymmetric cell division (ACD), by which the enucleating erythroblast divides into two very different daughter cells of alternate molecular composition, a nucleated cell that will be removed by associated macrophages, and the reticulocyte that will mature to the definitive erythrocyte. Here we investigated gene expression of members of the Par, Scribble and Pins/Gpsm2 asymmetric cell division complexes in erythroid cells, and functionally tested their role in erythroid enucleation in vivo and ex vivo. Despite their roles in regulating ACD in other contexts, we found that these polarity regulators are not essential for erythroid enucleation, nor for erythroid development in vivo. Together our results put into question a role for cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in erythroid enucleation. PMID:28095473

  5. Rate and topography of peptidoglycan synthesis during cell division in Escherichia coli: Concept of a leading edge

    SciTech Connect

    Wientjes, F.B.; Nanninga, N.

    1989-06-01

    The rate at which the peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli is synthesized during the division cycle was studied with two methods. One method involved synchronization of E. coli MC4100 lysA cultures by centrifugal elutriation and subsequent pulse-labeling of the synchronously growing cultures with (meso-{sup 3}H)diaminopimelic acid (({sup 3}H)Dap). The second method was autoradiography of cells pulse-labeled with ({sup 3}H)Dap. It was found that the peptidoglycan is synthesized at a more or less exponentially increasing rate during the division cycle with a slight acceleration in this rate as the cells start to constrict. Apparently, polar cap formation requires synthesis of extra surfacemore » components, presumably to accommodate for a change in the surface-to-volume ratio. Furthermore, it was found that the pool size of Dap was constant during the division cycle. Close analysis of the topography of ({sup 3}H)Dap incorporation at the constriction site revealed that constriction proceeded by synthesis of peptidoglycan at the leading edge of the invaginating cell envelope. During constriction, no reallocation of incorporation occurred, i.e., the incorporation at the leading edge remained high throughout the process of constriction. Impairment of penicillin-binding protein 3 by mutation or by the specific {beta}-lactam antibiotic furazlocillin did not affect ({sup 3}H)Dap incorporation during initiation of constriction. However, the incorporation at the constriction site was inhibited in later stages of the constriction process. It is concluded that during division at least two peptidoglycan-synthesizing systems are operating sequentially.« less

  6. THE MECHANISM OF 5-AMINOURACIL-INDUCED SYNCHRONY OF CELL DIVISION IN VI CIA FABA ROOT MERISTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Prensky, Wolf; Smith, Harold H.

    1965-01-01

    Cessation of mitosis was brought about in Vicia faba roots incubated for 24 hours in the thymine analogue, 5-aminouracil. Recovery of mitotic activity began 8 hours after removal from 5-aminouracil and reached a peak at 15 hours. If colchicine was added 4 hours before the peak of mitoses, up to 80 per cent of all cells accumulated in mitotic division stages. By use of single and double labeling techniques, it was shown that synchrony of cell divisions resulted from depression in the rate of DNA synthesis by 5-aminouracil, which brought about an accumulation of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Treatment with 5-aminouracil may have also caused a delay in the rate of exit of cells from the G2 period. It appeared to have no effect on the duration of the G1 period. When roots were removed from 5-aminouracil, DNA synthesis resumed in all cells in the S phase. Although thymidine antagonized the effects of 5-aminouracil, an exogenous supply of it was not necessary for the resumption of DNA synthesis, as shown by incorporation studies with tritiated deoxycytidine. PMID:19866644

  7. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell -Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell -Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...tumor cells from mouse blood by depleting the sample of white blood cells (WBCs). Furthermore, the RNA profile of these cells can be assessed by

  8. Chromosome segregation drives division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    van Raaphorst, Renske; Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2017-07-18

    Accurate spatial and temporal positioning of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ is key for proper bacterial cell division. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an oval-shaped, symmetrically dividing opportunistic human pathogen lacking the canonical systems for division site control (nucleoid occlusion and the Min-system). Recently, the early division protein MapZ was identified and implicated in pneumococcal division site selection. We show that MapZ is important for proper division plane selection; thus, the question remains as to what drives pneumococcal division site selection. By mapping the cell cycle in detail, we show that directly after replication both chromosomal origin regions localize to the future cell division sites, before FtsZ. Interestingly, Z-ring formation occurs coincidently with initiation of DNA replication. Perturbing the longitudinal chromosomal organization by mutating the condensin SMC, by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated chromosome cutting, or by poisoning DNA decatenation resulted in mistiming of MapZ and FtsZ positioning and subsequent cell elongation. Together, we demonstrate an intimate relationship between DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and division site selection in the pneumococcus, providing a simple way to ensure equally sized daughter cells.

  9. CedA is a novel Escherichia coli protein that activates the cell division inhibited by chromosomal DNA over-replication.

    PubMed

    Katayama, T; Takata, M; Sekimizu, K

    1997-11-01

    We isolated and characterized a new gene related to the control of cell division regulation in Escherichia coli. At 30 degrees C, the dnaAcos mutant causes over-replication of the chromosome, and colony formation is inhibited. We found that, at this temperature, the dnaAcos cells form filaments; therefore, septum formation is inhibited. This inhibition was independent of SfiA, an inhibitor of the septum-forming protein, FtsZ. To identify factors involved in this pathway of inhibition, we isolated seven multicopy suppressors for the cold-sensitive phenotype of the dnaAcos mutant. One of these proved to be a previously unknown gene, which we named cedA. This gene encoded a 12 kDa protein and resided at 38.9min on the E. coli genome map. A multicopy supply of the cedA gene to the dnaAcos cells did not repress over-replication of the chromosome but did stimulate cell division of the host, the result being growth of cells with an abnormally elevated chromosomal copy number. Therefore, the expression level of the cedA gene seems to be important for inhibiting cell division of the dnaAcos mutant at 30 degrees C. We propose that over-replication of the chromosome activates a pathway for inhibiting cell division and that the cedA gene modulates this division control. In the dnaA+ background, cedA also seems to affect cell division.

  10. Parenchymatous cell division characterizes the fungal cortex of some common foliose lichens.

    PubMed

    Sanders, William B; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Lichen-forming fungi produce diverse vegetative tissues, some closely resembling those of plants. Yet it has been repeatedly affirmed that none is a true parenchyma, in which cellular compartments are subdivided from all adjacent neighbors by cross walls adjoining older cross walls. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we tested this assumption by examining patterns of septum formation in the parenchyma-like cortex of three lichens of different phylogenetic affinities: Sticta canariensis , Leptogium cyanescens , and Endocarpon pusillum . In the cortex of all three lichens, new septa adjoined perpendicularly or obliquely to previous septa. Septal walls possessed an electron-transparent core (median) layer covered on both sides by layers of intermediate electron density. At septal junctures, the core layer of the newer septum was not continuous with that of the older septum. Amorphous, electron-dense material often became deposited in the core region of older septal walls, and the septum gradually delaminated along its median into what could then be recognized as the distinct walls of neighboring cells. However, cells maintained continuity at pores, where adjacent remnants of the electron-transparent core layer suggested septal partition rather than secondary establishment of a lateral wall connection via anastomosis. Although fungal tissues first arise by the coalescence of filaments early in lichen ontogeny, the mature cortical tissues of some lichens are comparable to true parenchyma in the unrestricted orientation of their septal cross walls and the resulting ontogenetic relationship among neighboring cell compartments. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Composition and dynamics of the nucleolinus, a link between the nucleolus and cell division apparatus in surf clam (Spisula) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Alliegro, Mark C; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-02-24

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718-13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism.

  12. Composition and Dynamics of the Nucleolinus, a Link between the Nucleolus and Cell Division Apparatus in Surf Clam (Spisula) Oocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Alliegro, Mark C.; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718–13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism. PMID:22219192

  13. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    SciTech Connect

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  14. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  15. Colocalization of cell division proteins FtsZ and FtsA to cytoskeletal structures in living Escherichia coli cells by using green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaolan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Margolin, William

    1996-01-01

    In the current model for bacterial cell division, FtsZ protein forms a ring that marks the division plane, creating a cytoskeletal framework for the subsequent action of other proteins such as FtsA. This putative protein complex ultimately generates the division septum. Herein we report that FtsZ and FtsA proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) colocalize to division-site ring-like structures in living bacterial cells in a visible space between the segregated nucleoids. Cells with higher levels of FtsZ–GFP or with FtsA–GFP plus excess wild-type FtsZ were inhibited for cell division and often exhibited bright fluorescent spiral tubules that spanned the length of the filamentous cells. This suggests that FtsZ may switch from a septation-competent localized ring to an unlocalized spiral under some conditions and that FtsA can bind to FtsZ in both conformations. FtsZ–GFP also formed nonproductive but localized aggregates at a higher concentration that could represent FtsZ nucleation sites. The general domain structure of FtsZ–GFP resembles that of tubulin, since the C terminus of FtsZ is not required for polymerization but may regulate polymerization state. The N-terminal portion of Rhizobium FtsZ polymerized in Escherichia coli and appeared to copolymerize with E. coli FtsZ, suggesting a degree of interspecies functional conservation. Analysis of several deletions of FtsA–GFP suggests that multiple segments of FtsA are important for its localization to the FtsZ ring. PMID:8917533

  16. Inhibition of Cell Survival by Curcumin Is Associated with Downregulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20) in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Xue, Ying-bo; Li, Hang; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Zhi-wei; Tan, Shi-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors in the United States. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, has been reported to exert its antitumor activity in pancreatic cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of curcumin-mediated tumor suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we explore whether curcumin exhibits its anti-cancer function through inhibition of oncoprotein cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that curcumin inhibited cell growth, enhanced apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest and retarded cell invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that curcumin significantly inhibited the expression of Cdc20 in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that overexpression of Cdc20 enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, and abrogated the cytotoxic effects induced by curcumin in pancreatic cancer cells. Consistently, downregulation of Cdc20 promoted curcumin-mediated anti-tumor activity. Therefore, our findings indicated that inhibition of Cdc20 by curcumin could be useful for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:28165402

  17. Inhibition of Cell Survival by Curcumin Is Associated with Downregulation of Cell Division Cycle 20 (Cdc20) in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Xue, Ying-Bo; Li, Hang; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Tan, Shi-Sheng

    2017-02-04

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors in the United States. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, has been reported to exert its antitumor activity in pancreatic cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of curcumin-mediated tumor suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we explore whether curcumin exhibits its anti-cancer function through inhibition of oncoprotein cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that curcumin inhibited cell growth, enhanced apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest and retarded cell invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that curcumin significantly inhibited the expression of Cdc20 in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that overexpression of Cdc20 enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, and abrogated the cytotoxic effects induced by curcumin in pancreatic cancer cells. Consistently, downregulation of Cdc20 promoted curcumin-mediated anti-tumor activity. Therefore, our findings indicated that inhibition of Cdc20 by curcumin could be useful for the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients.

  18. CbtA toxin of Escherichia coli inhibits cell division and cell elongation via direct and independent interactions with FtsZ and MreB.

    PubMed

    Heller, Danielle M; Tavag, Mrinalini; Hochschild, Ann

    2017-09-01

    The toxin components of toxin-antitoxin modules, found in bacterial plasmids, phages, and chromosomes, typically target a single macromolecule to interfere with an essential cellular process. An apparent exception is the chromosomally encoded toxin component of the E. coli CbtA/CbeA toxin-antitoxin module, which can inhibit both cell division and cell elongation. A small protein of only 124 amino acids, CbtA, was previously proposed to interact with both FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that is essential for cell division, and MreB, an actin homolog that is essential for cell elongation. However, whether or not the toxic effects of CbtA are due to direct interactions with these predicted targets is not known. Here, we genetically separate the effects of CbtA on cell elongation and cell division, showing that CbtA interacts directly and independently with FtsZ and MreB. Using complementary genetic approaches, we identify the functionally relevant target surfaces on FtsZ and MreB, revealing that in both cases, CbtA binds to surfaces involved in essential cytoskeletal filament architecture. We show further that each interaction contributes independently to CbtA-mediated toxicity and that disruption of both interactions is required to alleviate the observed toxicity. Although several other protein modulators are known to target FtsZ, the CbtA-interacting surface we identify represents a novel inhibitory target. Our findings establish CbtA as a dual function toxin that inhibits both cell division and cell elongation via direct and independent interactions with FtsZ and MreB.

  19. CbtA toxin of Escherichia coli inhibits cell division and cell elongation via direct and independent interactions with FtsZ and MreB

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Danielle M.; Tavag, Mrinalini

    2017-01-01

    The toxin components of toxin-antitoxin modules, found in bacterial plasmids, phages, and chromosomes, typically target a single macromolecule to interfere with an essential cellular process. An apparent exception is the chromosomally encoded toxin component of the E. coli CbtA/CbeA toxin-antitoxin module, which can inhibit both cell division and cell elongation. A small protein of only 124 amino acids, CbtA, was previously proposed to interact with both FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that is essential for cell division, and MreB, an actin homolog that is essential for cell elongation. However, whether or not the toxic effects of CbtA are due to direct interactions with these predicted targets is not known. Here, we genetically separate the effects of CbtA on cell elongation and cell division, showing that CbtA interacts directly and independently with FtsZ and MreB. Using complementary genetic approaches, we identify the functionally relevant target surfaces on FtsZ and MreB, revealing that in both cases, CbtA binds to surfaces involved in essential cytoskeletal filament architecture. We show further that each interaction contributes independently to CbtA-mediated toxicity and that disruption of both interactions is required to alleviate the observed toxicity. Although several other protein modulators are known to target FtsZ, the CbtA-interacting surface we identify represents a novel inhibitory target. Our findings establish CbtA as a dual function toxin that inhibits both cell division and cell elongation via direct and independent interactions with FtsZ and MreB. PMID:28931012

  20. Uhrf1 controls the self-renewal versus differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells by epigenetically regulating the cell-division modes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingyao; Chen, Xufeng; Song, Guangrong; Zhang, Jiali; Liu, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are able to both self-renew and differentiate. However, how individual HSC makes the decision between self-renewal and differentiation remains largely unknown. Here we report that ablation of the key epigenetic regulator Uhrf1 in the hematopoietic system depletes the HSC pool, leading to hematopoietic failure and lethality. Uhrf1-deficient HSCs display normal survival and proliferation, yet undergo erythroid-biased differentiation at the expense of self-renewal capacity. Notably, Uhrf1 is required for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns of erythroid-specific genes during HSC division. The expression of these genes is enhanced in the absence of Uhrf1, which disrupts the HSC-division modes by promoting the symmetric differentiation and suppressing the symmetric self-renewal. Moreover, overexpression of one of the up-regulated genes, Gata1, in HSCs is sufficient to phenocopy Uhrf1-deficient HSCs, which show impaired HSC symmetric self-renewal and increased differentiation commitment. Taken together, our findings suggest that Uhrf1 controls the self-renewal versus differentiation of HSC through epigenetically regulating the cell-division modes, thus providing unique insights into the relationship among Uhrf1-mediated DNA methylation, cell-division mode, and HSC fate decision. PMID:27956603

  1. Cell directional migration and oriented division on three-dimensional laser-induced periodic surface structures on polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Ohlin, Christian A; Lu, Qinghua; Hu, Jun

    2008-05-01

    The extracellular matrix in animal tissues usually provides a three-dimensional structural support to cells in addition to performing various other important functions. In the present study, wavy submicrometer laser-irradiated periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were produced on a smooth polystyrene film by polarized laser irradiation with a wavelength of 266 nm. Rat C6 glioma cells exhibited directional migration and oriented division on laser-irradiated polystyrene, which was parallel to the direction of LIPSS. However, rat C6 glioma cells on smooth polystyrene moved in a three-step invasion cycle, with faster migration speed than that on laser-irradiated polystyrene. In addition, focal adhesions examined by immunostaining focal adhesion kinase in human epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells were punctuated on smooth polystyrene, whereas dash-like on laser-irradiated polystyrene. We hypothesized that LIPSS on laser-irradiated polystyrene acted as an anisotropic and persistent mechanical stimulus to guide cell anisotropic spreading, migration and division through focal adhesions.

  2. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  3. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Tank, Jigna G.; Thaker, Vrinda S.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed. PMID:24955358

  4. Protecting the Force? A Historical Perspective on the Operational Effect of the Division Protection Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    A. Buckingham , Jr., Operation Ranch Hand: The Air Forces and Herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971, p. 161. 56 Albert J. Mauroni, America’s...throughout Iraq. The problem that then faced divisions: what to do with all this newly acquired terrain? Falling in on former Iraqi regime palaces

  5. Acetyl phosphate and the phosphorylation of OmpR are involved in the regulation of the cell division rate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Prüss, B M

    1998-09-01

    Carbon sources that can be converted to acetate were added to the growth medium of Escherichia coli wild-type cells. Cells responded with an increased cell division rate. The addition of acetate also caused a decreased synthesis of flagella. Mutants in phosphotransacetylase, which are incapable of synthesizing acetyl phosphate, and mutants in the osmoregulator OmpR divided at a lower rate than did wild-type cells. The mutants did not increase their cell division rate upon the addition of serine, as observed for wild-type cells. These data are consistent with the idea that the previously described effect of serine upon the cell division rate is mediated by acetyl phosphate and phosphorylation of OmpR.

  6. A specific role for the ZipA protein in cell division: stabilization of the FtsZ protein.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cell division protein FtsZ is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of the bitopic membrane protein ZipA and the cytoplasmic protein FtsA. Although the presence of both ZipA and FtsA is strictly indispensable for cell division, an FtsA gain-of-function mutant FtsA* (R286W) can bypass the ZipA requirement for cell division. This observation casts doubts on the role of ZipA and its need for cell division. Maxicells are nucleoid-free bacterial cells used as a whole cell in vitro system to probe protein-protein interactions without the need of protein purification. We show that ZipA protects FtsZ from the ClpXP-directed degradation observed in E. coli maxicells and that ZipA-stabilized FtsZ forms membrane-attached spiral-like structures in the bacterial cytoplasm. The overproduction of the FtsZ-binding ZipA domain is sufficient to protect FtsZ from degradation, whereas other C-terminal ZipA partial deletions lacking it are not. Individual overproduction of the proto-ring component FtsA or its gain-of-function mutant FtsA* does not result in FtsZ protection. Overproduction of FtsA or FtsA* together with ZipA does not interfere with the FtsZ protection. Moreover, neither FtsA nor FtsA* protects FtsZ when overproduced together with ZipA mutants lacking the FZB domain. We propose that ZipA protects FtsZ from degradation by ClpP by making the FtsZ site of interaction unavailable to the ClpX moiety of the ClpXP protease. This role cannot be replaced by either FtsA or FtsA*, suggesting a unique function for ZipA in proto-ring stability.

  7. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    PubMed

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum.

  8. Stochastic loss and gain of symmetric divisions in the C. elegans epidermis perturbs robustness of stem cell number

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Dimitris; Koneru, Sneha L.; Mestek Boukhibar, Lamia; Gritti, Nicola; Ghose, Ritobrata; Appleford, Peter J.; Doitsidou, Maria; Woollard, Alison; van Zon, Jeroen S.; Poole, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems are subject to inherent stochasticity. Nevertheless, development is remarkably robust, ensuring the consistency of key phenotypic traits such as correct cell numbers in a certain tissue. It is currently unclear which genes modulate phenotypic variability, what their relationship is to core components of developmental gene networks, and what is the developmental basis of variable phenotypes. Here, we start addressing these questions using the robust number of Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal stem cells, known as seam cells, as a readout. We employ genetics, cell lineage tracing, and single molecule imaging to show that mutations in lin-22, a Hes-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, increase seam cell number variability. We show that the increase in phenotypic variability is due to stochastic conversion of normally symmetric cell divisions to asymmetric and vice versa during development, which affect the terminal seam cell number in opposing directions. We demonstrate that LIN-22 acts within the epidermal gene network to antagonise the Wnt signalling pathway. However, lin-22 mutants exhibit cell-to-cell variability in Wnt pathway activation, which correlates with and may drive phenotypic variability. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to study phenotypic trait variance in tractable model organisms using unbiased mutagenesis screens. PMID:29108019

  9. Cell division and turgor mediate enhanced plant growth in Arabidopsis plants treated with the bacterial signalling molecule lumichrome.

    PubMed

    Pholo, Motlalepula; Coetzee, Beatrix; Maree, Hans J; Young, Philip R; Lloyd, James R; Kossmann, Jens; Hills, Paul N

    2018-05-17

    Transcriptomic analysis indicates that the bacterial signalling molecule lumichrome enhances plant growth through a combination of enhanced cell division and cell enlargement, and possibly enhances photosynthesis. Lumichrome (7,8 dimethylalloxazine), a novel multitrophic signal molecule produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria, has previously been shown to elicit growth promotion in different plant species (Phillips et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:12275-12280, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.22.12275 , 1999). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this plant growth promotion remain obscure. Global transcript profiling using RNA-seq suggests that lumichrome enhances growth by inducing genes impacting on turgor driven growth and mitotic cell cycle that ensures the integration of cell division and expansion of developing leaves. The abundance of XTH9 and XPA4 transcripts was attributed to improved mediation of cell-wall loosening to allow turgor-driven cell enlargement. Mitotic CYCD3.3, CYCA1.1, SP1L3, RSW7 and PDF1 transcripts were increased in lumichrome-treated Arabidopsis thaliana plants, suggesting enhanced growth was underpinned by increased cell differentiation and expansion with a consequential increase in biomass. Synergistic ethylene-auxin cross-talk was also observed through reciprocal over-expression of ACO1 and SAUR54, in which ethylene activates the auxin signalling pathway and regulates Arabidopsis growth by both stimulating auxin biosynthesis and modulating the auxin transport machinery to the leaves. Decreased transcription of jasmonate biosynthesis and responsive-related transcripts (LOX2; LOX3; LOX6; JAL34; JR1) might contribute towards suppression of the negative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) such as chlorophyll loss and decreases in RuBisCO and photosynthesis. This work contributes towards a deeper understanding of how lumichrome enhances plant growth and development.

  10. Direct interaction of FtsZ and MreB is required for septum synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andrew K; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-07-03

    How bacteria coordinate cell growth with division is not well understood. Bacterial cell elongation is controlled by actin-MreB while cell division is governed by tubulin-FtsZ. A ring-like structure containing FtsZ (the Z ring) at mid-cell attracts other cell division proteins to form the divisome, an essential protein assembly required for septum synthesis and cell separation. The Z ring exists at mid-cell during a major part of the cell cycle without contracting. Here, we show that MreB and FtsZ of Escherichia coli interact directly and that this interaction is required for Z ring contraction. We further show that the MreB-FtsZ interaction is required for transfer of cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes from the lateral to the mature divisome, allowing cells to synthesise the septum. Our observations show that bacterial cell division is coupled to cell elongation via a direct and essential interaction between FtsZ and MreB.

  11. Direct interaction of FtsZ and MreB is required for septum synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Andrew K; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    How bacteria coordinate cell growth with division is not well understood. Bacterial cell elongation is controlled by actin–MreB while cell division is governed by tubulin–FtsZ. A ring-like structure containing FtsZ (the Z ring) at mid-cell attracts other cell division proteins to form the divisome, an essential protein assembly required for septum synthesis and cell separation. The Z ring exists at mid-cell during a major part of the cell cycle without contracting. Here, we show that MreB and FtsZ of Escherichia coli interact directly and that this interaction is required for Z ring contraction. We further show that the MreB–FtsZ interaction is required for transfer of cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes from the lateral to the mature divisome, allowing cells to synthesise the septum. Our observations show that bacterial cell division is coupled to cell elongation via a direct and essential interaction between FtsZ and MreB. PMID:23756461

  12. Pathogenic Chlamydia Lack a Classical Sacculus but Synthesize a Narrow, Mid-cell Peptidoglycan Ring, Regulated by MreB, for Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Packiam, Mathanraj; Hsu, Yen-Pang; Tekkam, Srinivas; Hall, Edward; Rittichier, Jonathan T.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael; Brun, Yves V.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall is a peptide cross-linked glycan polymer essential for bacterial division and maintenance of cell shape and hydrostatic pressure. Bacteria in the Chlamydiales were long thought to lack PG until recent advances in PG labeling technologies revealed the presence of this critical cell wall component in Chlamydia trachomatis. In this study, we utilize bio-orthogonal D-amino acid dipeptide probes combined with super-resolution microscopy to demonstrate that four pathogenic Chlamydiae species each possess a ≤ 140 nm wide PG ring limited to the division plane during the replicative phase of their developmental cycles. Assembly of this PG ring is rapid, processive, and linked to the bacterial actin-like protein, MreB. Both MreB polymerization and PG biosynthesis occur only in the intracellular form of pathogenic Chlamydia and are required for cell enlargement, division, and transition between the microbe’s developmental forms. Our kinetic, molecular, and biochemical analyses suggest that the development of this limited, transient, PG ring structure is the result of pathoadaptation by Chlamydia to an intracellular niche within its vertebrate host. PMID:27144308

  13. Pathogenic Chlamydia Lack a Classical Sacculus but Synthesize a Narrow, Mid-cell Peptidoglycan Ring, Regulated by MreB, for Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Liechti, George; Kuru, Erkin; Packiam, Mathanraj; Hsu, Yen-Pang; Tekkam, Srinivas; Hall, Edward; Rittichier, Jonathan T; VanNieuwenhze, Michael; Brun, Yves V; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2016-05-01

    The peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall is a peptide cross-linked glycan polymer essential for bacterial division and maintenance of cell shape and hydrostatic pressure. Bacteria in the Chlamydiales were long thought to lack PG until recent advances in PG labeling technologies revealed the presence of this critical cell wall component in Chlamydia trachomatis. In this study, we utilize bio-orthogonal D-amino acid dipeptide probes combined with super-resolution microscopy to demonstrate that four pathogenic Chlamydiae species each possess a ≤ 140 nm wide PG ring limited to the division plane during the replicative phase of their developmental cycles. Assembly of this PG ring is rapid, processive, and linked to the bacterial actin-like protein, MreB. Both MreB polymerization and PG biosynthesis occur only in the intracellular form of pathogenic Chlamydia and are required for cell enlargement, division, and transition between the microbe's developmental forms. Our kinetic, molecular, and biochemical analyses suggest that the development of this limited, transient, PG ring structure is the result of pathoadaptation by Chlamydia to an intracellular niche within its vertebrate host.

  14. SSD1, which encodes a plant-specific novel protein, controls plant elongation by regulating cell division in rice.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kenji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Plant height is one of the most important traits in crop improvement. Therefore revealing the mechanism of plant elongation and controlling plant height in accordance with breeding object is important. In this study we analyzed a novel dwarf mutant, ssd1, of which phenotype is different from typical GA- or BR-related dwarf phenotype. ssd1 exhibits pleiotropic defects in elongation of various organs such as stems, roots, leaves, and flowers. ssd1 also shows abnormal cell files and shapes, which suggests defects of normal cell division in the mutant. Map-based cloning and complementation test demonstrated that the dwarf phenotype in ssd1 mutant was caused by insertion of retrotransposon in a gene, which encodes plant-specific protein with unknown biochemical function. A BLAST search revealed that SSD1-like genes exist in diverse plant species, including monocots and dicots, but not fern and moss. Our results demonstrate that SSD1 controls plant elongation by controlling cell division in higher plants.

  15. Comprehensive single cell-resolution analysis of the role of chromatin regulators in early C. elegans embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Angela V; Jelier, Rob; Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Zimmerman, Timo; Meijering, Erik; Lehner, Ben

    2015-02-15

    Chromatin regulators are widely expressed proteins with diverse roles in gene expression, nuclear organization, cell cycle regulation, pluripotency, physiology and development, and are frequently mutated in human diseases such as cancer. Their inhibition often results in pleiotropic effects that are difficult to study using conventional approaches. We have developed a semi-automated nuclear tracking algorithm to quantify the divisions, movements and positions of all nuclei during the early development of Caenorhabditis elegans and have used it to systematically study the effects of inhibiting chromatin regulators. The resulting high dimensional datasets revealed that inhibition of multiple regulators, including F55A3.3 (encoding FACT subunit SUPT16H), lin-53 (RBBP4/7), rba-1 (RBBP4/7), set-16 (MLL2/3), hda-1 (HDAC1/2), swsn-7 (ARID2), and let-526 (ARID1A/1B) affected cell cycle progression and caused chromosome segregation defects. In contrast, inhibition of cir-1 (CIR1) accelerated cell division timing in specific cells of the AB lineage. The inhibition of RNA polymerase II also accelerated these division timings, suggesting that normal gene expression is required to delay cell cycle progression in multiple lineages in the early embryo. Quantitative analyses of the dataset suggested the existence of at least two functionally distinct SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex activities in the early embryo, and identified a redundant requirement for the egl-27 and lin-40 MTA orthologs in the development of endoderm and mesoderm lineages. Moreover, our dataset also revealed a characteristic rearrangement of chromatin to the nuclear periphery upon the inhibition of multiple general regulators of gene expression. Our systematic, comprehensive and quantitative datasets illustrate the power of single cell-resolution quantitative tracking and high dimensional phenotyping to investigate gene function. Furthermore, the results provide an overview of the functions of essential

  16. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  17. Partial genome assembly for a candidate division OP11 single cell from an anoxic spring (Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha H; Blainey, Paul C; Quake, Stephen R; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2011-11-01

    Members of candidate division OP11 are widely distributed in terrestrial and marine ecosystems, yet little information regarding their metabolic capabilities and ecological role within such habitats is currently available. Here, we report on the microfluidic isolation, multiple-displacement-amplification, pyrosequencing, and genomic analysis of a single cell (ZG1) belonging to candidate division OP11. Genome analysis of the ∼270-kb partial genome assembly obtained showed that it had no particular similarity to a specific phylum. Four hundred twenty-three open reading frames were identified, 46% of which had no function prediction. In-depth analysis revealed a heterotrophic lifestyle, with genes encoding endoglucanase, amylopullulanase, and laccase enzymes, suggesting a capacity for utilization of cellulose, starch, and, potentially, lignin, respectively. Genes encoding several glycolysis enzymes as well as formate utilization were identified, but no evidence for an electron transport chain was found. The presence of genes encoding various components of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis indicates a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. The partial genome also provides evidence for antibiotic resistance (β-lactamase, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase), as well as antibiotic production (bacteriocin) and extracellular bactericidal peptidases. Multiple mechanisms for stress response were identified, as were elements of type I and type IV secretion systems. Finally, housekeeping genes identified within the partial genome were used to demonstrate the OP11 affiliation of multiple hitherto unclassified genomic fragments from multiple database-deposited metagenomic data sets. These results provide the first glimpse into the lifestyle of a member of a ubiquitous, yet poorly understood bacterial candidate division.

  18. Genetic analysis of indefinite division in human cells: Evidence for a cell senescence-related gene(s) on human chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Ning; Ledbetter, D.H.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-07-01

    Earlier studies had demonstrated that fusion of normal with immortal human cells yielded hybrids having limited division potential. This indicated that the phenotype of limited proliferation (cellular senescence) is dominant and that immortal cells result from recessive changes in normal growth-regulatory genes. In additional studies, the authors exploited the fact that the immortal phenotype is recessive and, by fusing various immortal human cell lines with each other, identified four complementation groups for indefinite division. Assignment of cell lines to specific groups allowed us to take a focused approach to identify the chromosomes and genes involved in growth regulation that havemore » been modified in immortal cells. They report here that introduction of a normal human chromosome 4 into three immortal cell lines (HeLa, J82, T98G) assigned to complementation group B resulted in loss of proliferation and reversal of the immortal phenotype. No effect on the proliferation potential of cell lines representative of the other complementation groups was observed. This result suggests that a gene(s) involved in cellular senescence and normal growth regulation resides on chromosome 4.« less

  19. The influence of arachidonic acid metabolites on cell division in the intestinal epithelium and in colonic tumors.

    PubMed

    Petry, F M; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1984-09-01

    Various metabolites of arachidonic acid are now known to influence cell division. In this paper the effects on cell proliferation of arachidonic acid, some inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and some analogs of arachidonic acid metabolites is described. The epithelial cell proliferation rate in the jejunum, in the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Administration of arachidonic acid resulted in retardation of cell proliferation in each of the tissues examined. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Flurbiprofen) prevented this effect of arachidonic acid in the jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, but not in colonic crypts. In contrast, inhibitors of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (Benoxaprofen and BW755c) prevented the effect of arachidonic acid in the colonic crypts and reduced its effect on colonic tumours but did not alter its effect on the jejunum. An inhibitor of thromoboxane A2 synthetase (U51,605) was also able to prevent the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on colonic tumors. Treatment with 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 inhibited cell proliferation in jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, as did a thromboxane A2 mimicking agent, U46619. Nafazatrom, an agent that stimulates prostacyclin synthesis and inhibits lypoxygenase, promoted cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts and colonic crypts, but inhibited cell proliferation in colonic tumours.

  20. A Genetic Screen for Mutations Affecting Cell Division in the Arabidopsis thaliana Embryo Identifies Seven Loci Required for Cytokinesis

    DOE PAGES

    Gillmor, C. Stewart; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.; Sieber, Patrick; ...

    2016-01-08

    Cytokinesis in plants involves the formation of unique cellular structures such as the phragmoplast and the cell plate, both of which are required to divide the cell after nuclear division. In order to isolate genes that are involved in de novo cell wall formation, we performed a large-scale, microscope-based screen for Arabidopsis mutants that severely impair cytokinesis in the embryo. We recovered 35 mutations that form abnormally enlarged cells with multiple, often polyploid nuclei and incomplete cell walls. These mutants represent seven genes, four of which have previously been implicated in phragmoplast or cell plate function. Mutations in two locimore » show strongly reduced transmission through the haploid gametophytic generation. Molecular cloning of both corresponding genes reveals that one is represented by hypomorphic alleles of the kinesin-5 gene RADIALLY SWOLLEN 7 (homologous to tobacco kinesin-related protein TKRP125), and that the other gene corresponds to the Arabidopsis FUSED ortholog TWO-IN-ONE (originally identified based on its function in pollen development). No mutations that completely abolish the formation of cross walls in diploid cells were found. Lastly, our results support the idea that cytokinesis in the diploid and haploid generations involve similar mechanisms.« less

  1. A Genetic Screen for Mutations Affecting Cell Division in the Arabidopsis thaliana Embryo Identifies Seven Loci Required for Cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gillmor, C. Stewart; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.; Sieber, Patrick

    Cytokinesis in plants involves the formation of unique cellular structures such as the phragmoplast and the cell plate, both of which are required to divide the cell after nuclear division. In order to isolate genes that are involved in de novo cell wall formation, we performed a large-scale, microscope-based screen for Arabidopsis mutants that severely impair cytokinesis in the embryo. We recovered 35 mutations that form abnormally enlarged cells with multiple, often polyploid nuclei and incomplete cell walls. These mutants represent seven genes, four of which have previously been implicated in phragmoplast or cell plate function. Mutations in two locimore » show strongly reduced transmission through the haploid gametophytic generation. Molecular cloning of both corresponding genes reveals that one is represented by hypomorphic alleles of the kinesin-5 gene RADIALLY SWOLLEN 7 (homologous to tobacco kinesin-related protein TKRP125), and that the other gene corresponds to the Arabidopsis FUSED ortholog TWO-IN-ONE (originally identified based on its function in pollen development). No mutations that completely abolish the formation of cross walls in diploid cells were found. Lastly, our results support the idea that cytokinesis in the diploid and haploid generations involve similar mechanisms.« less

  2. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data

  3. WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX4 (WOX4)-like genes regulate cambial cell division activity and secondary growth in Populus trees.

    PubMed

    Kucukoglu, Melis; Nilsson, Jeanette; Zheng, Bo; Chaabouni, Salma; Nilsson, Ove

    2017-07-01

    Plant secondary growth derives from the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cell divisions in the cambium are regulated by the transcription factor WOX4, a key target of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (ESR)-RELATED 41 (CLE41) signaling pathway. However, function of the WOX4-like genes in plants that are dependent on a much more prolific secondary growth, such as trees, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of WOX4 and CLE41 homologs for stem secondary growth in Populus trees. In Populus, PttWOX4 genes are specifically expressed in the cambial region during vegetative growth, but not after growth cessation and during dormancy, possibly involving a regulation by auxin. In PttWOX4a/b RNAi trees, primary growth was not affected whereas the width of the vascular cambium was severely reduced and secondary growth was greatly diminished. Our data show that in Populus trees, PttWOX4 genes control cell division activity in the vascular cambium, and hence growth in stem girth. This activity involves the positive regulation of PttWOX4a/b through PttCLE41-related genes. Finally, expression profiling suggests that the CLE41 signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved program for the regulation of vascular cambium activity between angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Structural and functional characterizations of SsgB, a conserved activator of developmental cell division in morphologically complex actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A Mieke; Morse, Andrew T; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J; Trame, Christine B; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2009-09-11

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 A resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic "whirly" single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

  5. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2009-01-01

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic “whirly” single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners. PMID:19567872

  6. Digital holographic microscopy long-term and real-time monitoring of cell division and changes under simulated zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Zhe; Shang, Peng; Xiao, Wen

    2012-05-07

    The long-term and real-time monitoring the cell division and changes of osteoblasts under simulated zero gravity condition were succeed by combing a digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with a superconducting magnet (SM). The SM could generate different magnetic force fields in a cylindrical cavity, where the gravitational force of biological samples could be canceled at a special gravity position by a high magnetic force. Therefore the specimens were levitated and in a simulated zero gravity environment. The DHM was modified to fit with SM by using single mode optical fibers and a vertically-configured jig designed to hold specimens and integrate optical device in the magnet's bore. The results presented the first-phase images of living cells undergoing dynamic divisions and changes under simulated zero gravity environment for a period of 10 hours. The experiments demonstrated that the SM-compatible DHM setup could provide a highly efficient and versatile method for research on the effects of microgravity on biological samples.

  7. Identification of proteins likely to be involved in morphogenesis, cell division, and signal transduction in Planctomycetes by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Jogler, Christian; Waldmann, Jost; Huang, Xiaoluo; Jogler, Mareike; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Mascher, Thorsten; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Members of the Planctomycetes clade share many unusual features for bacteria. Their cytoplasm contains membrane-bound compartments, they lack peptidoglycan and FtsZ, they divide by polar budding, and they are capable of endocytosis. Planctomycete genomes have remained enigmatic, generally being quite large (up to 9 Mb), and on average, 55% of their predicted proteins are of unknown function. Importantly, proteins related to the unusual traits of Planctomycetes remain largely unknown. Thus, we embarked on bioinformatic analyses of these genomes in an effort to predict proteins that are likely to be involved in compartmentalization, cell division, and signal transduction. We used three complementary strategies. First, we defined the Planctomycetes core genome and subtracted genes of well-studied model organisms. Second, we analyzed the gene content and synteny of morphogenesis and cell division genes and combined both methods using a "guilt-by-association" approach. Third, we identified signal transduction systems as well as sigma factors. These analyses provide a manageable list of candidate genes for future genetic studies and provide evidence for complex signaling in the Planctomycetes akin to that observed for bacteria with complex life-styles, such as Myxococcus xanthus.

  8. The effect of automobile exhaust particulates on cell viability, plating efficiency and cell division of mammalian tissue culture cells.

    PubMed

    Seemayer, N H; Hadnagy, W; Tomingas, R

    1987-03-01

    Extract of particulate matter (EPM) of gasoline engine exhaust induced only a slight loss of cell viability of mouse macrophages (line IC-21) in vitro, while a strong dose-dependent reduction of plating efficiency of human cell line A-549 and of Syrian hamster line 14-1b occurred. Cytological investigations of exposed macrophages of line IC-21 revealed an increase in the mitotic index from 1.5% of control values up to 14.6% at the highest tested concentration of EPM. Mitotic arrest is based almost exclusively on C-type mitoses occurring dose-dependently in the presence of EPM. Results indicate disturbances of the spindle apparatus in the presence of EPM.

  9. Regulation of transcription of the cell division gene ftsA during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Gholamhoseinian, A; Shen, Z; Wu, J J; Piggot, P

    1992-01-01

    Three distinct 5' ends of ftsA mRNA were identified by S1 mapping and by primer extension analysis. These are thought to represent three transcription start sites. The transcripts from the downstream and upstream sites were detected throughout growth. The transcript from the middle site was not detected during exponential growth but was detected within 30 min of the start of sporulation, when it was the predominant transcript. Insertion of a cat cassette in the middle promoter, ftsAp2 (p2), did not affect vegetative growth but prevented postexponential symmetrical division and spore formation. Transcription from p2 was dependent on RNA polymerase containing sigma H, and promoter p2 resembled the consensus sigma H promoter. Transcription from p2 did not require expression of the spo0A, spo0B, spo0E, spo0F, or spo0K loci. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated that ftsA is cotranscribed with the adjacent ftsZ gene. Multiple promoters provide a mechanism by which essential vegetative genes can be subjected to sporulation control independent of control during vegetative growth. In the case of ftsA,Z, the promoters provide a mechanism to permit septum formation in conditions of nutrient depletion that might be expected to shut down the vegetative division machinery. Images PMID:1624452

  10. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  11. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Panoli, Aneesh; Martin, Maria Victoria; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Simon, Marissa; Neff, Christina; Swarup, Ranjan; Bellido, Andrés; Yuan, Li; Pagnussat, Gabriela C.; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2) are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development. PMID:25970627

  12. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Panoli, Aneesh; Martin, Maria Victoria; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Simon, Marissa; Neff, Christina; Swarup, Ranjan; Bellido, Andrés; Yuan, Li; Pagnussat, Gabriela C; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2) are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.

  13. The Early Development of Australian Radio Astronomy: The Role of the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics Field Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    During the period 1946-1961 Australia was one of the world's leading nations in radio astronomy and played a key role in its development. Much of the research was carried out at a number of different field stations and associated remote sites situated in or near Sydney which were maintained by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. The best-known of these were Dover Heights, Dapto, Fleurs, Hornsby Valley and Potts Hill. At these and other field stations a succession of innovative radio telescopes was erected, and these were used by a band of young scientists—mainly men with engineering qualifications—to address a wide range of research issues, often with outstanding success.

  14. Streptococcus suis DivIVA Protein Is a Substrate of Ser/Thr Kinase STK and Involved in Cell Division Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hua; Fan, Weiwei; Li, Chaolong; Wu, Qianqian; Hou, Hongfen; Hu, Dan; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Changjun; Cao, Xiangrong; Shao, Zhu-Qing; Pan, Xiuzhen

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent that causes severe infections. Recent studies have reported a eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinase (STK) gene and characterized its role in the growth and virulence of different S. suis 2 strains. In the present study, phosphoproteomic analysis was adopted to identify substrates of the STK protein. Seven proteins that were annotated to participate in different cell processes were identified as potential substrates, which suggests the pleiotropic effects of stk on S. suis 2 by targeting multiple pathways. Among them, a protein characterized as cell division initiation protein (DivIVA) was further investigated. In vitro analysis demonstrated that the recombinant STK protein directly phosphorylates threonine at amino acid position 199 (Thr-199) of DivIVA. This effect could be completely abolished by the T199A mutation. To determine the specific role of DivIVA in growth and division, a divIVA mutant was constructed. The ΔdivIVA strain exhibited impaired growth and division, including lower viability, enlarged cell mass, asymmetrical division caused by aberrant septum, and extremely weak pathogenicity in a mouse infection model. Collectively, our results reveal that STK regulates the cell growth and virulence of S. suis 2 by targeting substrates that are involved in different biological pathways. The inactivation of DivIVA leads to severe defects in cell division and strongly attenuates pathogenicity, thereby indicating its potential as a molecular drug target against S. suis. PMID:29616196

  15. Dynamic distribution of the SecA and SecY translocase subunits and septal localization of the HtrA surface chaperone/protease during Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 cell division.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ho-Ching Tiffany; Keen, Susan K; Sham, Lok-To; Wayne, Kyle J; Winkler, Malcolm E

    2011-01-01

    The Sec translocase pathway is the major route for protein transport across and into the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Previous studies reported that the SecA translocase ATP-binding subunit and the cell surface HtrA protease/chaperone formed a single microdomain, termed "ExPortal," in some species of ellipsoidal (ovococcus) Gram-positive bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes. To investigate the generality of microdomain formation, we determined the distribution of SecA and SecY by immunofluorescent microscopy in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), which is an ovococcus species evolutionarily distant from S. pyogenes. In the majority (≥ 75%) of exponentially growing cells, S. pneumoniae SecA (SecA (Spn)) and SecY (Spn) located dynamically in cells at different stages of division. In early divisional cells, both Sec subunits concentrated at equators, which are future sites of constriction. Further along in division, SecA(Spn) and SecY(Spn) remained localized at mid-cell septa. In late divisional cells, both Sec subunits were hemispherically distributed in the regions between septa and the future equators of dividing cells. In contrast, the HtrA (Spn) homologue localized to the equators and septa of most (> 90%) dividing cells, whereas the SrtA(Spn) sortase located over the surface of cells in no discernable pattern. This dynamic pattern of Sec distribution was not perturbed by the absence of flotillin family proteins, but was largely absent in most cells in early stationary phase and in cls mutants lacking cardiolipin synthase. These results do not support the existence of an ExPortal microdomain in S. pneumoniae. Instead, the localization of the pneumococcal Sec translocase depends on the stage of cell division and anionic phospholipid content. Two patterns of Sec translocase distribution, an ExPortal microdomain in certain ovococcus-shaped species like Streptococcus pyogenes and a spiral pattern in rod-shaped species like Bacillus subtilis, have

  16. Mathematical models of tissue stem and transit target cell divisions and the risk of radiation- or smoking-associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with “spontaneous” processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7–96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0–16.0. Very few cancers, generally <0.5%, arise from mutations occurring solely in stem cells rather than in a combination of stem and transit cells. However, for cancers with 2 or 3 critical mutations, a substantial proportion of cancers, in some cases 100%, have at least one mutation derived from a mutated stem cell. Little difference is made to relative risks if competing processes of

  17. Mathematical models of tissue stem and transit target cell divisions and the risk of radiation- or smoking-associated cancer.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P; Hendry, Jolyon H

    2017-02-01

    There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with "spontaneous" processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7-96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0-16.0. Very few cancers, generally <0.5%, arise from mutations occurring solely in stem cells rather than in a combination of stem and transit cells. However, for cancers with 2 or 3 critical mutations, a substantial proportion of cancers, in some cases 100%, have at least one mutation derived from a mutated stem cell. Little difference is made to relative risks if competing processes of

  18. Mathematical Model of Naive T Cell Division and Survival IL-7 Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joseph; Coles, Mark; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of the peripheral naive T cell population to study the change in human naive T cell numbers from birth to adulthood, incorporating thymic output and the availability of interleukin-7 (IL-7). The model is formulated as three ordinary differential equations: two describe T cell numbers, in a resting state and progressing through the cell cycle. The third is introduced to describe changes in IL-7 availability. Thymic output is a decreasing function of time, representative of the thymic atrophy observed in aging humans. Each T cell is assumed to possess two interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) signaling thresholds: a survival threshold and a second, higher, proliferation threshold. If the IL-7R signaling strength is below its survival threshold, a cell may undergo apoptosis. When the signaling strength is above the survival threshold, but below the proliferation threshold, the cell survives but does not divide. Signaling strength above the proliferation threshold enables entry into cell cycle. Assuming that individual cell thresholds are log-normally distributed, we derive population-average rates for apoptosis and entry into cell cycle. We have analyzed the adiabatic change in homeostasis as thymic output decreases. With a parameter set representative of a healthy individual, the model predicts a unique equilibrium number of T cells. In a parameter range representative of persistent viral or bacterial infection, where naive T cell cycle progression is impaired, a decrease in thymic output may result in the collapse of the naive T cell repertoire.

  19. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Zupan, John R.; Cameron, Todd A.; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes. PMID:23674672

  20. Rituximab does not reset defective early B cell tolerance checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Nicolas; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Cantaert, Tineke; Herold, Kevan C.; Meffre, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients show abnormalities in early B cell tolerance checkpoints, resulting in the accumulation of large numbers of autoreactive B cells in their blood. Treatment with rituximab, an anti-CD20 mAb that depletes B cells, has been shown to preserve β cell function in T1D patients and improve other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it remains largely unknown how anti–B cell therapy thwarts autoimmunity in these pathologies. Here, we analyzed the reactivity of Abs expressed by single, mature naive B cells from 4 patients with T1D before and 52 weeks after treatment to determine whether rituximab resets early B cell tolerance checkpoints. We found that anti–B cell therapy did not alter the frequencies of autoreactive and polyreactive B cells, which remained elevated in the blood of all patients after rituximab treatment. Moreover, the limited proliferative history of autoreactive B cells after treatment revealed that these clones were newly generated B cells and not self-reactive B cells that had escaped depletion and repopulated the periphery through homeostatic expansion. We conclude that anti–B cell therapy may provide a temporary dampening of autoimmune processes through B cell depletion. However, repletion with autoreactive B cells may explain the relapse that occurs in many autoimmune patients after anti–B cell therapy. PMID:26642366

  1. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  2. Division of labour between Myc and G1 cyclins in cell cycle commitment and pace control.

    PubMed

    Dong, Peng; Maddali, Manoj V; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Thélot, François; Nevins, Joseph R; Mathey-Prevot, Bernard; You, Lingchong

    2014-09-01

    A body of evidence has shown that the control of E2F transcription factor activity is critical for determining cell cycle entry and cell proliferation. However, an understanding of the precise determinants of this control, including the role of other cell-cycle regulatory activities, has not been clearly defined. Here, recognizing that the contributions of individual regulatory components could be masked by heterogeneity in populations of cells, we model the potential roles of individual components together with the use of an integrated system to follow E2F dynamics at the single-cell level and in real time. These analyses reveal that crossing a threshold amplitude of E2F accumulation determines cell cycle commitment. Importantly, we find that Myc is critical in modulating the amplitude, whereas cyclin D/E activities have little effect on amplitude but do contribute to the modulation of duration of E2F activation, thereby affecting the pace of cell cycle progression.

  3. Judgement on "hit or non-hit" of CHO cells exposed to accelerated heavy-ions (Fe- or Ar-ions) using division delay and CR-39 plastics as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Mehnati, P; Yatagai, F; Tsuzuki, T; Hanaoka, F; Sasaki, H

    2001-03-01

    the cell population in order to calculate the fraction of cells receiving at least a single-hit in the cell nucleus (130 micron 2 in average size). From this calculation we determined that 80% of the cells had a single hit to their nuclei by a heavy-ion which induced such early cellular responses as division delay. Our finding in the experiments using CR-39 plastics as a detector for hit-sites further supported the idea that the hit lethality of a cell is related to heavy-ion traversal through its nucleus. This study indicates the possible usefulness of both the division delay and CR-39 plastic methods for evaluating the biological effects of heavy-ions, especially when these two methods are combined.

  4. Arsenite inhibits mitotic division and perturbs spindle dynamics in HeLa S3 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, S C; Lee, T C

    1998-05-01

    Arsenical compounds, known to be human carcinogens, were shown to disturb cell cycle progression and induce cytogenetic alterations in a variety of cell systems. We report here that a 24 h treatment of arsenite induced mitotic accumulation in human cell lines. HeLa S3 and KB cells were most susceptible: 35% of the total cell population was arrested at the mitotic stage after treatment with 5 microM sodium arsenite in HeLa S3 cells and after 10 microM in KB cells. Under a microscope, we observed abnormal mitotic figures in arsenite-arrested mitotic cells, including deranged chromosome congression, elongated polar distance of mitotic spindle, and enhanced microtubule immunofluorescence. The spindle microtubules of arsenite-arrested mitotic cells were more resistant to nocodazole-induced dissolution than those of control mitotic cells. According to turbidity assay, arsenite at concentrations below 100 microM significantly enhanced polymerization of tubulins. Since spindle dynamics play a crucial role in mitotic progression, our results suggest that arsenite-induced mitotic arrest may be due to arsenite's effects on attenuation of spindle dynamics.

  5. Exposure to Sub-lethal 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Arrests Cell Division and Alters Cell Surface Properties in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Supriya V; Kamencic, Belma; Körnig, André; Shahina, Zinnat; Dahms, Tanya E S

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a robust, easily adaptable and culturable bacterium in vitro , and a model bacterium for studying the impact of xenobiotics in the environment. We have used correlative atomic force - laser scanning confocal microscopy (AFM-LSCM) to characterize the mechanisms of cellular response to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). One of the most extensively used herbicides world-wide, 2,4-D is known to cause hazardous effects in diverse non-target organisms. Sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D caused DNA damage in E. coli WM1074 during short exposure periods which increased significantly over time. In response to 2,4-D, FtsZ and FtsA relocalized within seconds, coinciding with the complete inhibition of cell septation and cell elongation. Exposure to 2,4-D also resulted in increased activation of the SOS response. Changes to cell division were accompanied by concomitant changes to surface roughness, elasticity and adhesion in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study describing the mechanistic details of 2,4-D at sub-lethal levels in bacteria. Our study suggests that 2,4-D arrests E. coli cell division within seconds after exposure by disrupting the divisome complex, facilitated by dissipation of membrane potential. Over longer exposures, 2,4-D causes filamentation as a result of an SOS response to oxidative stress induced DNA damage.

  6. Exposure to Sub-lethal 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Arrests Cell Division and Alters Cell Surface Properties in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Supriya V.; Kamencic, Belma; Körnig, André; Shahina, Zinnat; Dahms, Tanya E. S.

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a robust, easily adaptable and culturable bacterium in vitro, and a model bacterium for studying the impact of xenobiotics in the environment. We have used correlative atomic force – laser scanning confocal microscopy (AFM-LSCM) to characterize the mechanisms of cellular response to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). One of the most extensively used herbicides world-wide, 2,4-D is known to cause hazardous effects in diverse non-target organisms. Sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D caused DNA damage in E. coli WM1074 during short exposure periods which increased significantly over time. In response to 2,4-D, FtsZ and FtsA relocalized within seconds, coinciding with the complete inhibition of cell septation and cell elongation. Exposure to 2,4-D also resulted in increased activation of the SOS response. Changes to cell division were accompanied by concomitant changes to surface roughness, elasticity and adhesion in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study describing the mechanistic details of 2,4-D at sub-lethal levels in bacteria. Our study suggests that 2,4-D arrests E. coli cell division within seconds after exposure by disrupting the divisome complex, facilitated by dissipation of membrane potential. Over longer exposures, 2,4-D causes filamentation as a result of an SOS response to oxidative stress induced DNA damage. PMID:29472899

  7. Early T-cell activation biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Nelly; Hivroz, Claire

    2009-01-01

    The T-cell is one of the main players in the mammalian immune response. It ensures antigen recognition at the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a complex and highly sensitive and specific process, in which the encounter of the T-cell receptor with the agonist peptide associated with the major histocompatibility complex triggers T-cell activation. While signaling pathways have been elucidated in increasing detail, the mechanism of TCR triggering remains highly controversial despite active research published in the past 10 years. In this paper, we present a short overview of pending questions on critical initial events associated with T-cell triggering. In particular, we examine biophysical approaches already in use, as well as future directions. We suggest that the most recent advances in fluorescence super-resolution imaging, coupled with the new classes of genetic fluorescent probes, will play an important role in elucidation of the T-cell triggering mechanism. Beyond this aspect, we predict that exploration of mechanical cues in the triggering process will provide new clues leading to clarification of the entire mechanism. PMID:20514131

  8. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S; De La Torre, Carola M; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G; Grundler, Florian M W

    2015-10-13

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction.

  9. Gibberellin Produced in the Cotyledon Is Required for Cell Division during Tissue Reunion in the Cortex of Cut Cucumber and Tomato Hypocotyls1

    PubMed Central

    Asahina, Masashi; Iwai, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Kamada, Hiroshi; Satoh, Shinobu

    2002-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls were cut to one-half of their diameter transversely, and morphological and histochemical analyses of the process of tissue reunion in the cortex were performed. Cell division in the cortex commenced 3 d after cutting, and the cortex was nearly fully united within 7 d. 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine labeling experiments indicate that nDNA synthesis occurred during this process. In addition, specific accumulation of pectic substances was observed in the cell wall of attached cells in the reunion region of the cortex. Cell division during tissue reunion was strongly inhibited when the cotyledon was removed. This inhibition was reversed by applying gibberellin (GA, 10−4 m GA3) to the apical tip of the cotyledon-less plant. Supporting this observation, cell division in the cortex was inhibited by treatment of the cotyledon with 10−4 m uniconazole-P (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis), and this inhibition was also reversed by simultaneous application of GA. In contrast to the essential role of cotyledon, normal tissue reunion in cut hypocotyls was still observed when the shoot apex was removed. The requirement of GA for tissue reunion in cut hypocotyls was also evident in the GA-deficient gib-1 mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Our results suggest that GA, possibly produced in cotyledons, is essential for cell division in reuniting cortex of cut hypocotyls. PMID:12011351

  10. In vitro-in vivo activity relationship of substituted benzimidazole cell division inhibitors with activity against Mycobacteria tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, Susan E.; Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Structure based drug design was used to develop a compound library of novel 2,5,6- and 2,5,7-trisubstituted benzimidazoles. Three structural analogs, SB-P1G10, SB-P8B2 and SB-P3G2 were selected from this library based on previous studies for advanced study. In vitro studies revealed that SB-P8B2 and SB-P3G2 had sigmoidal kill-curves while in contrast SB-P1G10 showed a narrow zonal susceptibility. The in vitro studies also demonstrated that exposure to SB-P8B2 or SB-P3G2 was bactericidal, while SB-P1G10 treatment never resulted in complete killing. The dose curves for the three compounds against clinical isolates were comparable to their respective dose curves in the laboratory strain of M. tuberculosis. SB-P8B2 and SB-P3G2 exhibited antibacterial activity against non-replicating bacilli under low oxygen conditions. SB-P3G2 and SB-P1G10 were assessed in acute short-term animal models of tuberculosis, which showed that SB-P3G2 treatment demonstrated activity against M. tuberculosis. Together, these studies reveal an in vitro- in vivo relationship of the 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles that serves as a criterion for advancing this class of cell division inhibitors into more resource intensive in vivo efficacy models such as the long-term murine model of tuberculosis and Pre-IND PK/PD studies. Specifically, these studies are the first demonstration of efficacy and an in vitro–in vivo activity relationship for 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles. The in vivo activity presented in this manuscript substantiates this class of cell division inhibitors as having potency and efficacy against M. tuberculosis. PMID:24746463

  11. Suppression of cell division by pKi-67 antisense-RNA and recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Duchrow, M; Schmidt, M H; Zingler, M; Anemüller, S; Bruch, H P; Broll, R

    2001-01-01

    The human antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (pKi-67) is a human nuclear protein strongly associated with cell proliferation and found in all tissues studied. It is widely used as a marker of proliferating cells, yet its function is unknown. To investigate its function we suppressed pKi-67 expression by antisense RNA and overexpressed a partial structure of pKi-67 in HeLa cells. A BrdU-incorporation assay showed a significant decrease in DNA synthesis after antisense inhibition. Cell cycle analysis indicated a higher proportion of cells in G1 phase and a lower proportion of cells in S phase while the number of G(2)/M phase cells remained constant. Overexpression of a recombinant protein encoding three of the repetitive elements from exon 13 of pKi-67 had a similar effect to that obtained by antisense inhibition. The similarity of the effect of expressing 'Ki-67 repeats' and pKi-67 antisense RNA could be explained by a negative effect on the folding of the endogenous protein in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore excessive self-association of pKi-67 via the repeat structure could inhibit its nuclear transport, preventing it from getting to its presumptive site of action. We conclude that the Ki-67 protein has an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is mediated in part by its repetitive elements. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Expression of genomic AtCYCD2;1 in Arabidopsis induces cell division at smaller cell sizes: implications for the control of plant growth.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruhu; John, Peter Crook Lloyd

    2007-07-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CYCD2;1 gene introduced in genomic form increased cell formation in the Arabidopsis root apex and leaf, while generating full-length mRNA, raised CDK/CYCLIN enzyme activity, reduced G1-phase duration, and reduced size of cells at S phase and division. Other cell cycle genes, CDKA;1, CYCLIN B;1, and the cDNA form of CYCD2;1 that produced an aberrantly spliced mRNA, produced smaller or zero increases in CDK/CYCLIN activity and did not increase the number of cells formed. Plants with a homozygous single insert of genomic CYCD2;1 grew with normal morphology and without accelerated growth of root or shoot, not providing evidence that cell formation or CYCLIN D2 controls growth of postembryonic vegetative tissues. At the root apex, cells progressed normally from meristem to elongation, but their smaller size enclosed less growth and a 40% reduction in final size of epidermal and cortical cells was seen. Smaller elongated cell size inhibited endoreduplication, indicating a cell size requirement. Leaf cells were also smaller and more numerous during proliferation and epidermal pavement and palisade cells attained 59% and 69% of controls, whereas laminas reached normal size. Autonomous control of expansion was therefore not evident in abundant cell types that formed tissues of root or leaf. Cell size was reduced by a greater number formed in a tissue prior to cell and tissue expansion. Initiation and termination of expansion did not correlate with cell dimension or number and may be determined by tissue-wide signals acting across cellular boundaries.

  13. Identification of Wnt Pathway Target Genes Regulating the Division and Differentiation of Larval Seam Cells and Vulval Precursor Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Krause, Michael W; Chen, Weiping; Brodigan, Thomas M; Correa-Mendez, Margarita; Eisenmann, David M

    2015-06-05

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, regulating numerous processes including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Wnt ligand binding leads to stabilization of the transcriptional effector β-catenin and upregulation of target gene expression to mediate a cellular response. During larval development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnt/β-catenin pathways act in fate specification of two hypodermal cell types, the ventral vulval precursor cells (VPCs) and the lateral seam cells. Because little is known about targets of the Wnt signaling pathways acting during larval VPC and seam cell differentiation, we sought to identify genes regulated by Wnt signaling in these two hypodermal cell types. We conditionally activated Wnt signaling in larval animals and performed cell type-specific "mRNA tagging" to enrich for VPC and seam cell-specific mRNAs, and then used microarray analysis to examine gene expression compared to control animals. Two hundred thirty-nine genes activated in response to Wnt signaling were identified, and we characterized 50 genes further. The majority of these genes are expressed in seam and/or vulval lineages during normal development, and reduction of function for nine genes caused defects in the proper division, fate specification, fate execution, or differentiation of seam cells and vulval cells. Therefore, the combination of these techniques was successful at identifying potential cell type-specific Wnt pathway target genes from a small number of cells and at increasing our knowledge of the specification and behavior of these C. elegans larval hypodermal cells. Copyright © 2015 Gorrepati et al.

  14. C. elegans GATA factors EGL-18 and ELT-6 function downstream of Wnt signaling to maintain the progenitor fate during larval asymmetric divisions of the seam cells.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Thompson, Kenneth W; Eisenmann, David M

    2013-05-01

    The C. elegans seam cells are lateral epithelial cells arrayed in a single line from anterior to posterior that divide in an asymmetric, stem cell-like manner during larval development. These asymmetric divisions are regulated by Wnt signaling; in most divisions, the posterior daughter in which the Wnt pathway is activated maintains the progenitor seam fate, while the anterior daughter in which the Wnt pathway is not activated adopts a differentiated hypodermal fate. Using mRNA tagging and microarray analysis, we identified the functionally redundant GATA factor genes egl-18 and elt-6 as Wnt pathway targets in the larval seam cells. EGL-18 and ELT-6 have previously been shown to be required for initial seam cell specification in the embryo. We show that in larval seam cell asymmetric divisions, EGL-18 is expressed strongly in the posterior seam-fated daughter. egl-18 and elt-6 are necessary for larval seam cell specification, and for hypodermal to seam cell fate transformations induced by ectopic Wnt pathway overactivation. The TCF homolog POP-1 binds a site in the egl-18 promoter in vitro, and this site is necessary for robust seam cell expression in vivo. Finally, larval overexpression of EGL-18 is sufficient to drive expression of a seam marker in other hypodermal cells in wild-type animals, and in anterior hypodermal-fated daughters in a Wnt pathway-sensitized background. These data suggest that two GATA factors that are required for seam cell specification in the embryo independently of Wnt signaling are reused downstream of Wnt signaling to maintain the progenitor fate during stem cell-like divisions in larval development.

  15. C. elegans GATA factors EGL-18 and ELT-6 function downstream of Wnt signaling to maintain the progenitor fate during larval asymmetric divisions of the seam cells

    PubMed Central

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Eisenmann, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The C. elegans seam cells are lateral epithelial cells arrayed in a single line from anterior to posterior that divide in an asymmetric, stem cell-like manner during larval development. These asymmetric divisions are regulated by Wnt signaling; in most divisions, the posterior daughter in which the Wnt pathway is activated maintains the progenitor seam fate, while the anterior daughter in which the Wnt pathway is not activated adopts a differentiated hypodermal fate. Using mRNA tagging and microarray analysis, we identified the functionally redundant GATA factor genes egl-18 and elt-6 as Wnt pathway targets in the larval seam cells. EGL-18 and ELT-6 have previously been shown to be required for initial seam cell specification in the embryo. We show that in larval seam cell asymmetric divisions, EGL-18 is expressed strongly in the posterior seam-fated daughter. egl-18 and elt-6 are necessary for larval seam cell specification, and for hypodermal to seam cell fate transformations induced by ectopic Wnt pathway overactivation. The TCF homolog POP-1 binds a site in the egl-18 promoter in vitro, and this site is necessary for robust seam cell expression in vivo. Finally, larval overexpression of EGL-18 is sufficient to drive expression of a seam marker in other hypodermal cells in wild-type animals, and in anterior hypodermal-fated daughters in a Wnt pathway-sensitized background. These data suggest that two GATA factors that are required for seam cell specification in the embryo independently of Wnt signaling are reused downstream of Wnt signaling to maintain the progenitor fate during stem cell-like divisions in larval development. PMID:23633508

  16. Inhibition of Cell Division and DNA Replication Impair Mouse-Naïve Pluripotency Exit.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Ariel; Vazquez Echegaray, Camila; Solari, Claudia; Cosentino, María Soledad; Martyn, Iain; Deglincerti, Alessia; Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Ruzo, Albert; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Brivanlou, Ali; Guberman, Alejandra

    2017-09-01

    The cell cycle has gained attention as a key determinant for cell fate decisions, but the contribution of DNA replication and mitosis in stem cell differentiation has not been extensively studied. To understand if these processes act as "windows of opportunity" for changes in cell identity, we established synchronized cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells as they exit the ground state of pluripotency. We show that initial transcriptional changes in this transition do not require passage through mitosis and that conversion to primed pluripotency is linked to lineage priming in the G1 phase. Importantly, we demonstrate that impairment of DNA replication severely blocks transcriptional switch to primed pluripotency, even in the absence of p53 activity induced by the DNA damage response. Our data suggest an important role for DNA replication during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, which could shed light on why pluripotent cells are only receptive to differentiation signals during G1, that is, before the S phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Wnt Pathway Target Genes Regulating the Division and Differentiation of Larval Seam Cells and Vulval Precursor Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Krause, Michael W.; Chen, Weiping; Brodigan, Thomas M.; Correa-Mendez, Margarita; Eisenmann, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, regulating numerous processes including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Wnt ligand binding leads to stabilization of the transcriptional effector β-catenin and upregulation of target gene expression to mediate a cellular response. During larval development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnt/β-catenin pathways act in fate specification of two hypodermal cell types, the ventral vulval precursor cells (VPCs) and the lateral seam cells. Because little is known about targets of the Wnt signaling pathways acting during larval VPC and seam cell differentiation, we sought to identify genes regulated by Wnt signaling in these two hypodermal cell types. We conditionally activated Wnt signaling in larval animals and performed cell type–specific "mRNA tagging" to enrich for VPC and seam cell–specific mRNAs, and then used microarray analysis to examine gene expression compared to control animals. Two hundred thirty-nine genes activated in response to Wnt signaling were identified, and we characterized 50 genes further. The majority of these genes are expressed in seam and/or vulval lineages during normal development, and reduction of function for nine genes caused defects in the proper division, fate specification, fate execution, or differentiation of seam cells and vulval cells. Therefore, the combination of these techniques was successful at identifying potential cell type–specific Wnt pathway target genes from a small number of cells and at increasing our knowledge of the specification and behavior of these C. elegans larval hypodermal cells. PMID:26048561

  18. T-cell stimuli independently sum to regulate an inherited clonal division fate

    PubMed Central

    Marchingo, J. M.; Prevedello, G.; Kan, A.; Heinzel, S.; Hodgkin, P. D.; Duffy, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of antigen and costimulation, T cells undergo a characteristic response of expansion, cessation and contraction. Previous studies have revealed that population-level reproducibility is a consequence of multiple clones exhibiting considerable disparity in burst size, highlighting the requirement for single-cell information in understanding T-cell fate regulation. Here we show that individual T-cell clones resulting from controlled stimulation in vitro are strongly lineage imprinted with highly correlated expansion fates. Progeny from clonal families cease dividing in the same or adjacent generations, with inter-clonal variation producing burst-size diversity. The effects of costimulatory signals on individual clones sum together with stochastic independence; therefore, the net effect across multiple clones produces consistent, but heterogeneous population responses. These data demonstrate that substantial clonal heterogeneity arises through differences in experience of clonal progenitors, either through stochastic antigen interaction or by differences in initial receptor sensitivities. PMID:27869196

  19. Targeting cell division: Small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ GTPase perturb cytokinetic ring assembly and induce bacterial lethality

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Romberg, Laura; Mets, Rebecca B.; Hebert, Alan M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Kirschner, Marc W.; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata

    2004-01-01

    FtsZ, the ancestral homolog of eukaryotic tubulins, is a GTPase that assembles into a cytokinetic ring structure essential for cell division in prokaryotic cells. Similar to tubulin, purified FtsZ polymerizes into dynamic protofilaments in the presence of GTP; polymer assembly is accompanied by GTP hydrolysis. We used a high-throughput protein-based chemical screen to identify small molecules that target assembly-dependent GTPase activity of FtsZ. Here, we report the identification of five structurally diverse compounds, named Zantrins, which inhibit FtsZ GTPase either by destabilizing the FtsZ protofilaments or by inducing filament hyperstability through increased lateral association. These two classes of FtsZ inhibitors are reminiscent of the antitubulin drugs colchicine and Taxol, respectively. We also show that Zantrins perturb FtsZ ring assembly in Escherichia coli cells and cause lethality to a variety of bacteria in broth cultures, indicating that FtsZ antagonists may serve as chemical leads for the development of new broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Our results illustrate the utility of small-molecule chemical probes to study FtsZ polymerization dynamics and the feasibility of FtsZ as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:15289600

  20. Early events governing memory CD8+ T-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obar, Joshua J; Lefrançois, Leo

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the regulation of the CD8(+) T-cell response and how protective memory cells are generated has been intensely studied. It is now appreciated that a naive CD8(+) T cell requires at least three signals to mount an effective immune response: (i) TCR triggering, (ii) co-stimulation and (iii) inflammatory cytokines. Only recently have we begun to understand the molecular integration of those signals and how early events regulate the fate decisions of the responding CD8(+) T cells. This review will discuss the recent findings about both the extracellular and intracellular factors that regulate the destiny of responding CD8(+) T cells.

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion: A Joint Position Statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Today an ever-increasing number of infants and young children with and without disabilities play, develop, and learn together in a variety of places--homes, early childhood programs, neighborhoods, and other community-based settings. The notion that young children with disabilities and their families are full members of the community reflects…

  2. [Specification of cell destiny in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo].

    PubMed

    Schierenberg, E

    1997-02-01

    Embryogenesis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been described completely on a cell-by-cell basis and found to be essentially invariant. With this knowledge in hands, micromanipulated embryos and mutants have been analyzed for cell lineage defects and the distribution of specific gene products. The results challenge the classical view of cell-autonomous development in nematodes and indicate that the early embryo of C. elegans is a highly dynamic system. A network of inductive events between neighboring cells is being revealed, which is necessary to assign different developmental programs to blastomeres. In those cases where molecules involved in these cell-cell interactions have been identified, homologies to cell surface receptors, ligands and transcription factors found in other systems have become obvious.

  3. Violated Wishes About Division of Childcare Labor Predict Early Coparenting Process During Stressful and Nonstressful Family Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Khazan, Inna; McHale, James P; Decourcey, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that expectant parents overestimate the extent to which fathers will take part in the "work" of parenting, with mothers often becoming disenchanted when these expectations are violated following the baby's arrival. In this study, we examine the role of violated wishes concerning childcare involvement in accounting for variability in maternal and paternal marital satisfaction, and in early coparenting behavior as assessed during family-interaction sessions. The results indicate possible negative effects of violated wishes on the enacted family process and confirm previous findings regarding the effects of marital satisfaction. In addition, we uncovered differences in the way that violated maternal wishes are related to coparenting during playful and mildly stressful family interactions.

  4. Violated Wishes About Division of Childcare Labor Predict Early Coparenting Process During Stressful and Nonstressful Family Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Khazan, Inna; Mchale, James P.; Decourcey, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that expectant parents overestimate the extent to which fathers will take part in the “work” of parenting, with mothers often becoming disenchanted when these expectations are violated following the baby’s arrival. In this study, we examine the role of violated wishes concerning childcare involvement in accounting for variability in maternal and paternal marital satisfaction, and in early coparenting behavior as assessed during family-interaction sessions. The results indicate possible negative effects of violated wishes on the enacted family process and confirm previous findings regarding the effects of marital satisfaction. In addition, we uncovered differences in the way that violated maternal wishes are related to coparenting during playful and mildly stressful family interactions. PMID:19768138

  5. Sporulation-specific cell division defects in ylmE mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor are rescued by additional deletion of ylmD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Hoskisson, Paul A; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2018-05-09

    Cell division during the reproductive phase of the Streptomyces life-cycle requires tight coordination between synchronous formation of multiple septa and DNA segregation. One remarkable difference with most other bacterial systems is that cell division in Streptomyces is positively controlled by the recruitment of FtsZ by SsgB. Here we show that deletion of ylmD (SCO2081) or ylmE (SCO2080), which lie in operon with ftsZ in the dcw cluster of actinomycetes, has major consequences for sporulation-specific cell division in Streptomyces coelicolor. Electron and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that ylmE mutants have a highly aberrant phenotype with defective septum synthesis, and produce very few spores with low viability and high heat sensitivity. FtsZ-ring formation was also highly disturbed in ylmE mutants. Deletion of ylmD had a far less severe effect on sporulation. Interestingly, the additional deletion of ylmD restored sporulation to the ylmE null mutant. YlmD and YlmE are not part of the divisome, but instead localize diffusely in aerial hyphae, with differential intensity throughout the sporogenic part of the hyphae. Taken together, our work reveals a function for YlmD and YlmE in the control of sporulation-specific cell division in S. coelicolor, whereby the presence of YlmD alone results in major developmental defects.

  6. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…

  7. Functional analysis of CedA based on its structure: residues important in binding of DNA and RNA polymerase and in the cell division regulation

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshito; Fujisaki, Naoki; Miyoshi, Takanori; Watanabe, Noriko; Katayama, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    DnaAcos, a mutant of the initiator DnaA, causes overinitiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli, resulting in inhibition of cell division. CedA was found to be a multi-copy suppressor which represses the dnaAcos inhibition of cell division. However, functional mechanism of CedA remains elusive except for previously indicated possibilities in binding to DNA and RNA polymerase. In this study, we searched for the specific sites of CedA in binding of DNA and RNA polymerase and in repression of cell division inhibition. First, DNA sequence to which CedA preferentially binds was determined. Next, the several residues and β4 region in CedA C-terminal domain was suggested to specifically interact with the DNA. Moreover, we found that the flexible N-terminal region was required for tight binding to longer DNA as well as interaction with RNA polymerase. Based on these results, several cedA mutants were examined in ability for repressing dnaAcos cell division inhibition. We found that the N-terminal region was dispensable and that Glu32 in the C-terminal domain was required for the repression. These results suggest that CedA has multiple roles and residues with different functions are positioned in the two regions. PMID:26400504

  8. Functional analysis of CedA based on its structure: residues important in binding of DNA and RNA polymerase and in the cell division regulation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshito; Fujisaki, Naoki; Miyoshi, Takanori; Watanabe, Noriko; Katayama, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    DnaAcos, a mutant of the initiator DnaA, causes overinitiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli, resulting in inhibition of cell division. CedA was found to be a multi-copy suppressor which represses the dnaAcos inhibition of cell division. However, functional mechanism of CedA remains elusive except for previously indicated possibilities in binding to DNA and RNA polymerase. In this study, we searched for the specific sites of CedA in binding of DNA and RNA polymerase and in repression of cell division inhibition. First, DNA sequence to which CedA preferentially binds was determined. Next, the several residues and β4 region in CedA C-terminal domain was suggested to specifically interact with the DNA. Moreover, we found that the flexible N-terminal region was required for tight binding to longer DNA as well as interaction with RNA polymerase. Based on these results, several cedA mutants were examined in ability for repressing dnaAcos cell division inhibition. We found that the N-terminal region was dispensable and that Glu32 in the C-terminal domain was required for the repression. These results suggest that CedA has multiple roles and residues with different functions are positioned in the two regions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  10. Ashwagandha supplementation enhances ovarian tumoricidal activity of NK cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is a fatal malignancy of women with highest case to death ratio among gynecological cancers. OVCA differs from other malignancies that it mainly disseminates locally in the peritoneal and abdominal cavity. Thus, factors in tumor microenvironment play critical roles in tumor progression as well as prevention of OVCA metastasis. Innate immune cells are

  11. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  12. Culturally relevant inquiry-based laboratory module implementations in upper-division genetics and cell biology teaching laboratories.

    PubMed

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, María; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Vélez, Ana; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students' interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of laboratory research in the undergraduate teaching laboratory using a culturally relevant approach to engage students. Laboratory modules were implemented in upper-division genetics and cell biology courses using cassava as the central theme. Students were asked to bring cassava samples from their respective towns, which allowed them to compare their field-collected samples against known lineages from agricultural stations at the end of the implementation. Assessment of content and learning perceptions revealed that our novel approach allowed students to learn while engaged in characterizing Puerto Rican cassava. In two semesters, based on the percentage of students who answered correctly in the premodule assessment for content knowledge, there was an overall improvement of 66% and 55% at the end in the genetics course and 24% and 15% in the cell biology course. Our proposed pedagogical model enhances students' professional competitiveness by providing students with valuable research skills as they work on a problem to which they can relate.

  13. Culturally Relevant Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module Implementations in Upper-Division Genetics and Cell Biology Teaching Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, María; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Vélez, Ana; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A.

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students’ interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of laboratory research in the undergraduate teaching laboratory using a culturally relevant approach to engage students. Laboratory modules were implemented in upper-division genetics and cell biology courses using cassava as the central theme. Students were asked to bring cassava samples from their respective towns, which allowed them to compare their field-collected samples against known lineages from agricultural stations at the end of the implementation. Assessment of content and learning perceptions revealed that our novel approach allowed students to learn while engaged in characterizing Puerto Rican cassava. In two semesters, based on the percentage of students who answered correctly in the premodule assessment for content knowledge, there was an overall improvement of 66% and 55% at the end in the genetics course and 24% and 15% in the cell biology course. Our proposed pedagogical model enhances students’ professional competitiveness by providing students with valuable research skills as they work on a problem to which they can relate. PMID:21885825

  14. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  15. Domain-swapping analysis of FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ, bitopic membrane proteins essential for cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, L M; Weiss, D S; Beckwith, J

    1997-01-01

    FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ are three membrane proteins required for assembly of the division septum in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Cells lacking any of these three proteins form long, aseptate filaments that eventually lyse. FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ are not homologous but have similar overall structures: a small cytoplasmic domain, a single membrane-spanning segment (MSS), and a large periplasmic domain that probably encodes the primary functional activities of these proteins. The periplasmic domain of FtsI catalyzes transpeptidation and is involved in the synthesis of septal peptidoglycan. The precise functions of FtsL and FtsQ are not known. To ask whether the cytoplasmic domain and MSS of each protein serve only as a membrane anchor or have instead a more sophisticated function, we have used molecular genetic techniques to swap these domains among the three Fts proteins and one membrane protein not involved in cell division, MalF. In the cases of FtsI and FtsL, replacement of the cytoplasmic domain and/or MSS resulted in the loss of the ability to support cell division. For FtsQ, MSS swaps supported cell division but cytoplasmic domain swaps did not. We discuss several potential interpretations of these results, including that the essential domains of FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ have a role in regulating the localization and/or activity of these proteins to ensure that septum formation occurs at the right place in the cell and at the right time during the division cycle. PMID:9260951

  16. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakao, Yukinori; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Nakao, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yousuke; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Sakakura, Noriaki; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Background Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) located in the left upper division. Methods We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy) with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako’s method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station. Results We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women). Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC. Conclusions Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC. PMID:26247881

  17. [Analysis of the Effect of Non-phacoemulsification Cataract Operation on Corneal Endothelial Cell Nucleus Division].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zufeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effect of non-phacoemulsification cataract operation in two different patterns of nucleus delivery on the quantity and morphology of corneal endothelial cells and postoperative visual acuity. Forty patients diagnosed with cataract underwent cataract surgery and were assigned into the direct nuclear delivery and semi-nuclear delivery groups. Lens density was measured and divided into the hard and soft lenses according to Emery-little lens nucleus grading system. Non-phacoemulsification cataract operation was performed. At 3 d after surgery, the quantity and morphology of corneal endothelium were counted and observed under corneal endothelial microscope. During 3-month postoperative follow-up, the endothelial cell loss rate, morphological changes and visual acuity were compared among four groups. Corneal endothelial cell loss rate in the direct delivery of hard nucleus group significantly differed from those in the other three groups before and 3 months after operation (P < 0.01), whereas no statistical significance was found among the direct delivery of soft nucleus, semi-delivery of hard nucleus and semi-delivery soft nucleus groups (all P > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative 2-d visual acuity did not differ between the semi-delivery of hard nucleus and direct delivery of soft nucleus groups (P = 0.49), significantly differed from those in the semi-delivery of soft nucleus (P = 0.03) and direct delivery of hard nucleus groups (P = 0.14). Visual acuity at postoperative four months did not differ among four groups (P = 0.067). During non-phacoemulsification cataract surgery, direct delivery of hard nucleus caused severe injury to corneal endothelium and semi-delivery of soft nucleus yielded mild corneal endothelial injury. Slight corneal endothelial injury exerted no apparent effect upon visual acuity and corneal endothelial morphology at three months after surgery.

  18. An early history of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Golstein, Pierre; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2018-04-16

    After 60 years of intense fundamental research into T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we have gained a detailed knowledge of the cells involved, specific recognition mechanisms and post-recognition perforin-granzyme-based and FAS-based molecular mechanisms. What could not be anticipated at the outset was how discovery of the mechanisms regulating the activation and function of cytotoxic T cells would lead to new developments in cancer immunotherapy. Given the profound recent interest in therapeutic manipulation of cytotoxic T cell responses, it is an opportune time to look back on the early history of the field. This Timeline describes how the early findings occurred and eventually led to current therapeutic applications.

  19. Live Cell Imaging of the Nascent Inactive X Chromosome during the Early Differentiation Process of Naive ES Cells towards Epiblast Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guyochin, Aurélia; Maenner, Sylvain; Chu, Erin Tsi-Jia; Hentati, Asma; Attia, Mikael; Avner, Philip; Clerc, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome. PMID:25546018

  20. Peripheral self-reactivity regulates antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses and cell division under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Swee, Lee Kim; Tan, Zhen Wei; Sanecka, Anna; Yoshida, Nagisa; Patel, Harshil; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-11-01

    T-cell identity is established by the expression of a clonotypic T-cell receptor (TCR), generated by somatic rearrangement of TCRα and β genes. The properties of the TCR determine both the degree of self-reactivity and the repertoire of antigens that can be recognized. For CD8 T cells, the relationship between TCR identity-hence reactivity to self-and effector function(s) remains to be fully understood and has rarely been explored outside of the H-2 b haplotype. We measured the affinity of three structurally distinct CD8 T-cell-derived TCRs that recognize the identical H-2 L d -restricted epitope, derived from the Rop7 protein of Toxoplasma gondii We used CD8 T cells obtained from mice generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer as the closest approximation of primary T cells with physiological TCR rearrangements and TCR expression levels. First, we demonstrate the common occurrence of secondary rearrangements in endogenously rearranged loci. Furthermore, we characterized and compared the response of Rop7-specific CD8 T-cell clones upon Toxoplasma gondii infection as well as effector function and TCR signalling upon antigenic stimulation in vitro Antigen-independent TCR cross-linking in vitro uncovered profound intrinsic differences in the effector functions between T-cell clones. Finally, by assessing the degree of self-reactivity and comparing the transcriptomes of naive Rop7 CD8 T cells, we show that lower self-reactivity correlates with lower effector capacity, whereas higher self-reactivity is associated with enhanced effector function as well as cell cycle entry under physiological conditions. Altogether, our data show that potential effector functions and basal proliferation of CD8 T cells are set by self-reactivity thresholds. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Revealing the micromechanics driving cellular division: optical manipulation of force-bearing substructure in mitotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Matthew; Preece, Daryl; Duquette, Michelle; Forer, Arthur; Berns, Michael

    2017-08-01

    During the anaphase stage of mitosis, a motility force transports genetic material in the form of chromosomes to the poles of the cell. Chromosome deformations during anaphase transport have largely been attributed to viscous drag force, however LaFountain et. al. found that a physical tether connects separating chromosome ends in crane-fly spermatocytes such that a backwards tethering force elongates the separating chromosomes. In the presented study laser microsurgery was used to deduce the mechanistic basis of chromosome elongation in rat-kangaroo cells. In half of tested chromosome pairs, laser microsurgery between separating chromosome ends reduced elongation by 7+/-3% suggesting a source of chromosome strain independent of viscous drag. When microsurgery was used to sever chromosomes during transport, kinetochore attached fragments continued poleward travel while half of end fragments traveled towards the opposite pole and the remaining fragments either did not move or segregated to the proper pole. Microsurgery directed between chromosome ends always ceased cross-polar fragment travel suggesting the laser severed a physical tether transferring force to the fragment. Optical trapping of fragments moving towards the opposite pole estimates an upper boundary on the tethering force of 1.5 pN.

  2. Characterization and Evolution of Cell Division and Cell Wall Synthesis Genes in the Bacterial Phyla Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes and Phylogenetic Comparison with rRNA Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pilhofer, Martin; Rappl, Kristina; Eckl, Christina; Bauer, Andreas Peter; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Petroni, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    In the past, studies on the relationships of the bacterial phyla Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, and Verrucomicrobia using different phylogenetic markers have been controversial. Investigations based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses suggested a relationship of the four phyla, showing the branching order Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia/Lentisphaerae. Phylogenetic analyses of 23S rRNA genes in this study also support a monophyletic grouping and their branching order—this grouping is significant for understanding cell division, since the major bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is absent from members of two of the phyla Chlamydiae and Planctomycetes. In Verrucomicrobia, knowledge about cell division is mainly restricted to the recent report of ftsZ in the closely related genera Prosthecobacter and Verrucomicrobium. In this study, genes of the conserved division and cell wall (dcw) cluster (ddl, ftsQ, ftsA, and ftsZ) were characterized in all verrucomicrobial subdivisions (1 to 4) with cultivable representatives (1 to 4). Sequence analyses and transcriptional analyses in Verrucomicrobia and genome data analyses in Lentisphaerae suggested that cell division is based on FtsZ in all verrucomicrobial subdivisions and possibly also in the sister phylum Lentisphaerae. Comprehensive sequence analyses of available genome data for representatives of Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes strongly indicate that their last common ancestor possessed a conserved, ancestral type of dcw gene cluster and an FtsZ-based cell division mechanism. This implies that Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae may have shifted independently to a non-FtsZ-based cell division mechanism after their separate branchings from their last common ancestor with Verrucomicrobia. PMID:18310338

  3. Overproduction of individual gas vesicle proteins perturbs flotation, antibiotic production and cell division in the enterobacterium Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    PubMed

    Monson, Rita E; Tashiro, Yosuke; Salmond, George P C

    2016-09-01

    Gas vesicles are intracellular proteinaceous organelles that facilitate bacterial colonization of static water columns. In the enterobacterium Serratia sp. ATCC 39006, gas vesicle formation requires the proteins GvpA1, GvpF1, GvpG, GvpA2, GvpK, GvpA3, GvpF2 and GvpF3 and the three gas vesicle regulatory proteins GvrA, GvrB and GvrC. Deletion of gvpC alters gas vesicle robustness and deletion of gvpN or gvpV results in small bicone vesicles. In this work, we assessed the impacts on gas vesicle formation when each of these 14 essential proteins was overexpressed. Overproduction of GvpF1, GvpF2, GvrA, GvrB or GvrC all resulted in significantly reduced gas vesicle synthesis. Perturbations in gas vesicle formation were also observed when GvpV and GvpA3 were in excess. In addition to impacts on gas vesicle formation, overproduction of GvrA or GvrB led to elevated biosynthesis of the tripyrrole pigment, prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite of increasing medical interest due to its antimalarial and anticancer properties. Finally, when GvpG was overexpressed, gas vesicles were still produced, but the cells exhibited a growth defect. Further analysis showed that induction of GvpG arrested cell growth and caused a drop in viable count, suggesting a possible physiological role for this protein linking gas vesicle biogenesis and binary fission. These combined results demonstrate that the stoichiometry of individual gas vesicle proteins is crucially important for controlled organelle morphogenesis and flotation and provides evidence for the first link between gas vesicle assembly and cell division, to our knowledge.

  4. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK.

    PubMed

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-08-22

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Early evolution of radial glial cells in Bilateria

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Anett; Beckers, Patrick; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Ulbricht, Elke; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Kuhrt, Heidrun; Hausen, Harald; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Bilaterians usually possess a central nervous system, composed of neurons and supportive cells called glial cells. Whereas neuronal cells are highly comparable in all these animals, glial cells apparently differ, and in deuterostomes, radial glial cells are found. These particular secretory glial cells may represent the archetype of all (macro) glial cells and have not been reported from protostomes so far. This has caused controversial discussions of whether glial cells represent a homologous bilaterian characteristic or whether they (and thus, centralized nervous systems) evolved convergently in the two main clades of bilaterians. By using histology, transmission electron microscopy, immunolabelling and whole-mount in situ hybridization, we show here that protostomes also possess radial glia-like cells, which are very likely to be homologous to those of deuterostomes. Moreover, our antibody staining indicates that the secretory character of radial glial cells is maintained throughout their various evolutionary adaptations. This implies an early evolution of radial glial cells in the last common ancestor of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. Furthermore, it suggests that an intraepidermal nervous system—composed of sensory cells, neurons and radial glial cells—was probably the plesiomorphic condition in the bilaterian ancestor. PMID:28724733

  6. Interplay between CedA, rpoB and double stranded DNA: A step towards understanding CedA mediated cell division in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2018-02-01

    Cell division is compromised in DnaAcos mutant E. coli cells due to chromosome over-replication. In these cells, CedA acts as a regulatory protein and initiates cell division by a hitherto unknown mechanism. CedA, a double stranded DNA binding protein, interacts with various subunits of RNA polymerase complex, including rpoB. To reveal how this concert between CedA, rpoB and DNA brings about cell division in E. coli, we performed biophysical and in silico analysis and obtained mechanistic insights. Interaction between CedA and rpoB was shown by circular dichroism spectrometry and in silico docking experiments. Further, CedA and rpoB were allowed to interact individually to a selected DNA and their binding was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding constants of these interactions as determined by BioLayer Interferometry clearly show that rpoB binds to DNA with higher affinity (K D2 =<1.0E-12M) as compared to CedA (K D2 =9.58E-09M). These findings were supported by docking analysis where 12 intermolecular H-bonds were formed in rpoB-DNA complex as compared to 4 in CedA-DNA complex. Based on our data we propose that in E. coli cells chromosome over-replication signals CedA to recruit rpoB to specific DNA site(s), which initiates transcription of cell division regulatory elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  8. [Causal mechanisms of nuclear movement and division during early cleavage stages in the egg of a gall midge,Wachtliella persicariae L.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rainer

    1973-03-01

    Between each mitotic cycle, the cleavage nuclei ofWachtliella move over long distances, thus populating the ooplasm within a short time. Besides being shifted passively by flowing pulses of the ooplasm, thenuclei are also migrating actively. The active movements are accompanied by such oscillations of yolk particles as are known from the eggs of other insects, too. For a closer analysis of these "quivering movements" the inseminated eggs werepressed, either totally or partially, reducing their smaller diameters to ooplasmic layers of 30 μm or between 12 and 4 μm, respectively. Along with the experimental reduction of the radius of the curvature at the egg surface, there is anincreased tendency of cell membrane formation, resulting in anearly total cleavage already at the 2-nuclei-stage. Furthermore, theinitial region of cleavage (= initial region of quivering movements)may be shifted to a site free from nuclei; the initial region even may becomesplit up into two, one near each of the egg's poles. Yet, in flattened eggs, division and migration activities of the nuclei are not prevented. Untreated as well as flattened eggs have been analysed by means of time-lapse motion pictures taken either by the phase contrast or by the differential interference contrast method, using apochromatic objectives of maximum resolution, combined with an inverted microscope.According to the rhythm of the cleavage divisions,waves of irregular quivering movements spread from the initial region(s) of cleavage throughout the whole egg space. They are composed of irregular oscillations of yolk particles, probably caused by the effect of actively shortening, dynamic elements irregularly spread within the ooplasm. The presence ofcleavage nuclei obviously exerts a kind ofregulative effect: Shortly before such a wave of quivering movements reaches a metaphasic cleavage energide, regular oscillations and approximations of yolk particles are visible in the surroundings of the nucleus. The

  9. Intracellular crowding effects on the self-association of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Lamis; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah

    2014-12-15

    The dimerization rate of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is strongly affected by the intracellular crowding. Yet the complexity of the intracellular environment makes it difficult to investigate via all-atom molecular dynamics or other detailed theoretical methods. We study the crowding effect on FtsZ dimerization which is the first step of an oligomerization process that results in more elaborate supramolecular structures. In particular, we consider the effect of intracellular crowding on the reaction rates, and their dependence on the different concentrations of crowding agents. We achieved this goal by using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation techniques and a modified post-processing approach in which we decompose the rate constant in crowded media as a product of the rate constant in the dilute solution times a factor that incorporates the crowding effect. The latter factor accounts for the diffusion reduction and crowder induced energy. In addition we include the crowding effects on water viscosity in the BD simulations of crowded media. We finally show that biomolecular crowding has a considerable effect on the FtsZ dimerization by increasing the dimerization rate constant from 2.6×10(7)M(-1)s(-1) in the absence of crowders to 1.0×10(8)M(-1)s(-1) at crowding level of 0.30. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping Flexibility and the Assembly Switch of Cell Division Protein FtsZ by Computational and Mutational Approaches*♦

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Galiano, Antonio J.; Buey, Rubén M.; Cabezas, Marta; Andreu, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular switch for nucleotide-regulated assembly and disassembly of the main prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ is unknown despite the numerous crystal structures that are available. We have characterized the functional motions in FtsZ with a computational consensus of essential dynamics, structural comparisons, sequence conservation, and networks of co-evolving residues. Employing this information, we have constructed 17 mutants, which alter the FtsZ functional cycle at different stages, to modify FtsZ flexibility. The mutant phenotypes ranged from benign to total inactivation and included increased GTPase, reduced assembly, and stabilized assembly. Six mutations clustering at the long cleft between the C-terminal β-sheet and core helix H7 deviated FtsZ assembly into curved filaments with inhibited GTPase, which still polymerize cooperatively. These mutations may perturb the predicted closure of the C-terminal domain onto H7 required for switching between curved and straight association modes and for GTPase activation. By mapping the FtsZ assembly switch, this work also gives insight into FtsZ druggability because the curved mutations delineate the putative binding site of the promising antibacterial FtsZ inhibitor PC190723. PMID:20472561

  11. Calculations of binding affinity between C8-substituted GTP analogs and the bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Hritz, Jozef; Läppchen, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    The FtsZ protein is a self-polymerizing GTPase that plays a central role in bacterial cell division. Several C8-substituted GTP analogs are known to inhibit the polymerization of FtsZ by competing for the same binding site as its endogenous activating ligand GTP. Free energy calculations of the relative binding affinities to FtsZ for a set of five C8-substituted GTP analogs were performed. The calculated values agree well with the available experimental data, and the main contribution to the free energy differences is determined to be the conformational restriction of the ligands. The dihedral angle distributions around the glycosidic bond of these compounds in water are known to vary considerably depending on the physicochemical properties of the substituent at C8. However, within the FtsZ protein, this substitution has a negligible influence on the dihedral angle distributions, which fall within the narrow range of −140° to −90° for all investigated compounds. The corresponding ensemble average of the coupling constants 3J(C4,H1′) is calculated to be 2.95 ± 0.1 Hz. The contribution of the conformational selection of the GTP analogs upon binding was quantified from the corresponding populations. The obtained restraining free energy values follow the same trend as the relative binding affinities to FtsZ, indicating their dominant contribution. PMID:20559630

  12. Cdc45 (cell division cycle protein 45) guards the gate of the Eukaryote Replisome helicase stabilizing leading strand engagement

    PubMed Central

    Petojevic, Tatjana; Pesavento, James J.; Costa, Alessandro; Liang, Jingdan; Wang, Zhijun; Berger, James M.; Botchan, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication licensing is now understood to be the pathway that leads to the assembly of double hexamers of minichromosome maintenance (Mcm2–7) at origin sites. Cell division control protein 45 (Cdc45) and GINS proteins activate the latent Mcm2–7 helicase by inducing allosteric changes through binding, forming a Cdc45/Mcm2-7/GINS (CMG) complex that is competent to unwind duplex DNA. The CMG has an active gate between subunits Mcm2 and Mcm5 that opens and closes in response to nucleotide binding. The consequences of inappropriate Mcm2/5 gate actuation and the role of a side channel formed between GINS/Cdc45 and the outer edge of the Mcm2–7 ring for unwinding have remained unexplored. Here we uncover a novel function for Cdc45. Cross-linking studies trace the path of the DNA with the CMG complex at a fork junction between duplex and single strands with the bound CMG in an open or closed gate conformation. In the closed state, the lagging strand does not pass through the side channel, but in the open state, the leading strand surprisingly interacts with Cdc45. Mutations in the recombination protein J fold of Cdc45 that ablate this interaction diminish helicase activity. These data indicate that Cdc45 serves as a shield to guard against occasional slippage of the leading strand from the core channel. PMID:25561522

  13. Cell division requires a direct link between microtubule-bound RacGAP and Anillin in the contractile ring.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Stephen L; Ebrahimi, Saman; Milverton, Joanne; Jones, Whitney M; Bejsovec, Amy; Saint, Robert

    2008-01-08

    The mitotic microtubule array plays two primary roles in cell division. It acts as a scaffold for the congression and separation of chromosomes, and it specifies and maintains the contractile-ring position. The current model for initiation of Drosophila and mammalian cytokinesis [1-5] postulates that equatorial localization of a RhoGEF (Pbl/Ect2) by a microtubule-associated motor protein complex creates a band of activated RhoA [6], which subsequently recruits contractile-ring components such as actin, myosin, and Anillin [1-3]. Equatorial microtubules are essential for continued constriction, but how they interact with the contractile apparatus is unknown. Here, we report the first direct molecular link between the microtubule spindle and the actomyosin contractile ring. We find that the spindle-associated component, RacGAP50C, which specifies the site of cleavage [1-5], interacts directly with Anillin, an actin and myosin binding protein found in the contractile ring [7-10]. Both proteins depend on this interaction for their localization. In the absence of Anillin, the spindle-associated RacGAP loses its association with the equatorial cortex, and cytokinesis fails. These results account for the long-observed dependence of cytokinesis on the continual presence of microtubules at the cortex.

  14. Mapping flexibility and the assembly switch of cell division protein FtsZ by computational and mutational approaches.

    PubMed

    Martín-Galiano, Antonio J; Buey, Rubén M; Cabezas, Marta; Andreu, José M

    2010-07-16

    The molecular switch for nucleotide-regulated assembly and disassembly of the main prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ is unknown despite the numerous crystal structures that are available. We have characterized the functional motions in FtsZ with a computational consensus of essential dynamics, structural comparisons, sequence conservation, and networks of co-evolving residues. Employing this information, we have constructed 17 mutants, which alter the FtsZ functional cycle at different stages, to modify FtsZ flexibility. The mutant phenotypes ranged from benign to total inactivation and included increased GTPase, reduced assembly, and stabilized assembly. Six mutations clustering at the long cleft between the C-terminal beta-sheet and core helix H7 deviated FtsZ assembly into curved filaments with inhibited GTPase, which still polymerize cooperatively. These mutations may perturb the predicted closure of the C-terminal domain onto H7 required for switching between curved and straight association modes and for GTPase activation. By mapping the FtsZ assembly switch, this work also gives insight into FtsZ druggability because the curved mutations delineate the putative binding site of the promising antibacterial FtsZ inhibitor PC190723.

  15. A Trisubstituted Benzimidazole Cell Division Inhibitor with Efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, Susan E.; Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Carreau, Alexandra; Goullieux, Laurent; Lagrange, Sophie; Vermet, Hélèn; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Trisubstituted benzimidazoles have demonstrated potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Previously, a library of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles was constructed for high throughput screening, and compounds were identified that exhibited potency against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates, and were not toxic to Vero cells. A new series of 2-cyclohexyl-5-acylamino-6-N, N-dimethylaminobenzimidazoles derivatives has been developed based on SAR studies. Screening identified compounds with potency against M. tuberculosis. A lead compound from this series, SB-P17G-A20, was discovered to have an MIC of 0.16 µg/mL and demonstrated efficacy in the TB murine acute model of infection based on the reduction of bacterial load in the lungs and spleen by 1.73±0.24 Log10 CFU and 2.68±Log10 CFU, respectively, when delivered at 50 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP) twice daily (bid). The activity of SB-P17G-A20 was determined to be concentration dependent and to have excellent stability in mouse and human plasma, and liver microsomes. Together, these studies demonstrate that SB-P17G-A20 has potency against M. tuberculosis clinical strains with varying susceptibility and efficacy in animal models of infection, and that trisubstituted benzimidazoles continue to be a platform for the development of novel inhibitors with efficacy. PMID:24736743

  16. Contribution of the Pmra Promoter to Expression of Genes in the Escherichia coli mra Cluster of Cell Envelope Biosynthesis and Cell Division Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Ayala, Juan; Bouhss, Ahmed; van Heijenoort, Jean; Parquet, Claudine; Hara, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a promoter for the essential gene ftsI, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli, was precisely localized 1.9 kb upstream from this gene, at the beginning of the mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes (H. Hara, S. Yasuda, K. Horiuchi, and J. T. Park, J. Bacteriol. 179:5802–5811, 1997). Disruption of this promoter (Pmra) on the chromosome and its replacement by the lac promoter (Pmra::Plac) led to isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-dependent cells that lysed in the absence of inducer, a defect which was complemented only when the whole region from Pmra to ftsW, the fifth gene downstream from ftsI, was provided in trans on a plasmid. In the present work, the levels of various proteins involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and cell division were precisely determined in cells in which Pmra::Plac promoter expression was repressed or fully induced. It was confirmed that the Pmra promoter is required for expression of the first nine genes of the mra cluster: mraZ (orfC), mraW (orfB), ftsL (mraR), ftsI, murE, murF, mraY, murD, and ftsW. Interestingly, three- to sixfold-decreased levels of MurG and MurC enzymes were observed in uninduced Pmra::Plac cells. This was correlated with an accumulation of the nucleotide precursors UDP–N-acetylglucosamine and UDP–N-acetylmuramic acid, substrates of these enzymes, and with a depletion of the pool of UDP–N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, resulting in decreased cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Moreover, the expression of ftsZ, the penultimate gene from this cluster, was significantly reduced when Pmra expression was repressed. It was concluded that the transcription of the genes located downstream from ftsW in the mra cluster, from murG to ftsZ, is also mainly (but not exclusively) dependent on the Pmra promoter. PMID:9721276

  17. New insights into human primordial germ cells and early embryonic development from single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Otte, Jörg; Wruck, Wasco; Adjaye, James

    2017-08-01

    Human preimplantation developmental studies are difficult to accomplish due to associated ethical and moral issues. Preimplantation cells are rare and exist only in transient cell states. From a single cell, it is very challenging to analyse the origination of the heterogeneity and complexity inherent to the human body. However, recent advances in single-cell technology and data analysis have provided new insights into the process of early human development and germ cell specification. In this Review, we examine the latest single-cell datasets of human preimplantation embryos and germ cell development, compare them to bulk cell analyses, and interpret their biological implications. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Asymmetric segregation of the double-stranded RNA binding protein Staufen2 during mammalian neural stem cell divisions promotes lineage progression.

    PubMed

    Kusek, Gretchen; Campbell, Melissa; Doyle, Frank; Tenenbaum, Scott A; Kiebler, Michael; Temple, Sally

    2012-10-05

    Asymmetric cell divisions are a fundamental feature of neural development, and misregulation can lead to brain abnormalities or tumor formation. During an asymmetric cell division, molecular determinants are segregated preferentially into one daughter cell to specify its fate. An important goal is to identify the asymmetric determinants in neural progenitor cells, which could be tumor suppressors or inducers of specific neural fates. Here, we show that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein Stau2 is distributed asymmetrically during progenitor divisions in the developing mouse cortex, preferentially segregating into the Tbr2(+) neuroblast daughter, taking with it a subset of RNAs. Knockdown of Stau2 stimulates differentiation and overexpression produces periventricular neuronal masses, demonstrating its functional importance for normal cortical development. We immunoprecipitated Stau2 to examine its cargo mRNAs, and found enrichment for known asymmetric and basal cell determinants, such as Trim32, and identified candidates, including a subset involved in primary cilium function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymmetric Segregation of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Protein Staufen2 during Mammalian Neural Stem Cell Divisions Promotes Lineage Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kusek, Gretchen; Campbell, Melissa; Doyle, Frank; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Kiebler, Michael; Temple, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Summary Asymmetric cell divisions are a fundamental feature of neural development, and misregulation can lead to brain abnormalities or tumor formation. During an asymmetric cell division, molecular determinants are segregated preferentially into one daughter cell to specify its fate. An important goal is to identify the asymmetric determinants in neural progenitor cells, which could be tumor suppressors or inducers of specific neural fates. Here we show that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein Stau2 is distributed asymmetrically during progenitor divisions in the developing mouse cortex, preferentially segregating into the Tbr2+ neuroblast daughter, taking with it a sub-set of RNAs. Knockdown of Stau2 stimulates differentiation and over-expression produces periventricular neuronal masses, demonstrating its functional importance for normal cortical development. We immunoprecipitated Stau2 to examine its cargo mRNAs, and found enrichment for known asymmetric and basal cell determinants, such as Trim32, and identified novel candidates, including a subset involved in primary cilium function. PMID:22902295

  20. YneA, an SOS-induced inhibitor of cell division in Bacillus subtilis, is regulated posttranslationally and requires the transmembrane region for activity.

    PubMed

    Mo, Allison H; Burkholder, William F

    2010-06-01

    Cell viability depends on the stable transmission of genetic information to each successive generation. Therefore, in the event of intrinsic or extrinsic DNA damage, it is important that cell division be delayed until DNA repair has been completed. In Bacillus subtilis, this is accomplished in part by YneA, an inhibitor of division that is induced as part of the SOS response. We sought to gain insight into the mechanism by which YneA blocks cell division and the processes involved in shutting off YneA activity. Our data suggest that YneA is able to inhibit daughter cell separation as well as septum formation. YneA contains a LysM peptidoglycan binding domain and is predicted to be exported. We established that the YneA signal peptide is rapidly cleaved, resulting in secretion of YneA into the medium. Mutations within YneA affect both the rate of signal sequence cleavage and the activity of YneA. YneA does not stably associate with the cell wall and is rapidly degraded by extracellular proteases. Based on these results, we hypothesize that exported YneA is active prior to signal peptide cleavage and that proteolysis contributes to the inactivation of YneA. Finally, we identified mutations in the transmembrane segment of YneA that abolish the ability of YneA to inhibit cell division, while having little or no effect on YneA export or stability. These data suggest that protein-protein interactions mediated by the transmembrane region may be required for YneA activity.

  1. YneA, an SOS-Induced Inhibitor of Cell Division in Bacillus subtilis, Is Regulated Posttranslationally and Requires the Transmembrane Region for Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Allison H.; Burkholder, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Cell viability depends on the stable transmission of genetic information to each successive generation. Therefore, in the event of intrinsic or extrinsic DNA damage, it is important that cell division be delayed until DNA repair has been completed. In Bacillus subtilis, this is accomplished in part by YneA, an inhibitor of division that is induced as part of the SOS response. We sought to gain insight into the mechanism by which YneA blocks cell division and the processes involved in shutting off YneA activity. Our data suggest that YneA is able to inhibit daughter cell separation as well as septum formation. YneA contains a LysM peptidoglycan binding domain and is predicted to be exported. We established that the YneA signal peptide is rapidly cleaved, resulting in secretion of YneA into the medium. Mutations within YneA affect both the rate of signal sequence cleavage and the activity of YneA. YneA does not stably associate with the cell wall and is rapidly degraded by extracellular proteases. Based on these results, we hypothesize that exported YneA is active prior to signal peptide cleavage and that proteolysis contributes to the inactivation of YneA. Finally, we identified mutations in the transmembrane segment of YneA that abolish the ability of YneA to inhibit cell division, while having little or no effect on YneA export or stability. These data suggest that protein-protein interactions mediated by the transmembrane region may be required for YneA activity. PMID:20400548

  2. Cell division inhibitors with efficacy equivalent to isoniazid in the acute murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection model

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, Susan E.; Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Carreau, Alexandra; Goullieux, Laurent; Lagrange, Sophie; Vermet, Hélène; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The increasing number of clinical strains resistant to one or more of the front-line TB drugs complicates the management of this disease. To develop next-generation benzimidazole-based FtsZ inhibitors with improved efficacy, we employed iterative optimization strategies based on whole bacteria potency, bactericidal activity, plasma and metabolic stability and in vivo efficacy studies. Methods Candidate benzimidazoles were evaluated for potency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and select clinical strains, toxicity against Vero cells and compound stability in plasma and liver microsomes. The efficacy of lead compounds was assessed in the acute murine M. tuberculosis infection model via intraperitoneal and oral routes. Results MICs of SB-P17G-A33, SB-P17G-A38 and SB-P17G-A42 for M. tuberculosis H37Rv and select clinical strains were 0.18–0.39 mg/L. SB-P17G-A38 and SB-P17G-A42 delivered at 50 mg/kg twice daily intraperitoneally or orally demonstrated efficacy in reducing the bacterial load by 5.7–6.3 log10 cfu in the lungs and 3.9–5.0 log10 cfu in the spleen. SB-P17G-A33 delivered at 50 mg/kg twice daily intraperitoneally or orally also reduced the bacterial load by 1.7–2.1 log10 cfu in the lungs and 2.5–3.4 log10 cfu in the spleen. Conclusions Next-generation benzimidazoles with excellent potency and efficacy against M. tuberculosis have been developed. This is the first report on benzimidazole-based FtsZ inhibitors showing an equivalent level of efficacy to isoniazid in an acute murine M. tuberculosis infection model. PMID:26245639

  3. Fighting Divisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-01

    secure several passes in the Vosges Mountains. It hadn’t been committed to battle long before it learned a severe lesson in what war can be like at its...for the first time enough material on every one of our divisions to give the average citizen a brief idea of where each has been and what each has...considered both the advisability and desirability of immediately releasing accounts of impressive battle achievements to Ameri- can citizens at home so

  4. Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Handling Equipment Data Collection and Analysis: 2015 Report, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Progress Report (December 2015) Material Handling Equipment Data Collection and Analysis: 2015 Review, DOE Technical Report (March 2015) 2014 Forklift and Backup Power Data Collection and Analysis: 2014 Report, DOE

  5. Proinflammatory T Cell Status Associated with Early Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Hengesch, Xenia; Leenen, Fleur A D; Schritz, Anna; Sias, Krystel; Schaan, Violetta K; Mériaux, Sophie B; Schmitz, Stephanie; Bonnemberger, Fanny; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2017-12-15

    Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the ELA immune phenotype. The present investigation tested cell-specific immune differences in relationship to the ELA immune phenotype, altered stress parameters, and health behaviors in individuals with ELA ( n = 42) and those without a history of ELA (control, n = 73). Relative number and activation status (CD25, CD69, HLA-DR, CD11a, CD11b) of monocytes, NK cells, B cells, T cells, and their main subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. ELA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of CD69 + CD8 + T cells ( p = 0.022), increased numbers of HLA-DR + CD4 and HLA-DR + CD8 T cells ( p < 0.001), as well as increased numbers of CD25 + CD8 + T cells ( p = 0.036). ELA also showed a trend toward higher numbers of CCR4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + CD4 T cells. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Although several aspects of the ELA immune phenotype were related to increased activation markers, neither stress nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Thus, the state of immune activation in ELA does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Correlations between radiation-induced double strand breaks, cell division delay, and cyclin-dependent signaling in x-irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariveau, Mickael J.

    2005-07-01

    Molecular responses to radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are mediated by the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX which forms identifiable gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSB. This event is thought to be linked with the down-regulation of signaling proteins contributing to the checkpoints regulating cell cycle progression and, vis-a-vis , the induction of cell division delay. However, it is unclear whether this division delay is directly related to the number of DSB (gamma-H2AX foci) sustained by an irradiated cell and, if so, whether this number drives cells into cell cycle delay or apoptosis. For this reason, studies were conducted in the immortalized NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell in order to establish correlations between the temporal appearance of the gamma-H2AX foci (a DSB) and the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin E, A, B1, and their cyclin kinase inhibitor, p21. Cell cycle kinetics and flow cytometry were used to establish radiation-induced division delay over a dose range of 1--6 Gy where a mitotic delay of 2.65 min/cGy was established. Correlations between the expression of cyclin E, A, B1, p21, and the generation of DSB were established in NIH/3T3 cells exposed to 2 or 4 Gy x-irradiation. The data suggest that the G1/S and S phase delay (cyclin E and cyclin A protein levels) are dependent on the dose of radiation while the G2/M (cyclin B1 protein levels) delay is dependent on the quantity of DSB sustained by the irradiated cell.

  7. Parental Involvement and Spousal Satisfaction with Division of Early Childcare in Turkish Families with Normal Children and Children with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgun, Ozkan; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    In this low-income Turkish sample, parents reported on father and mother division of childcare labor and satisfaction with division. Regardless of whether they were rearing typical or atypical children, mothers reported a higher level of involvement than fathers in every domain of childcare. In general, both mothers and fathers reported slight…

  8. Mps1 inhibitors synergise with low doses of taxanes in promoting tumour cell death by enhancement of errors in cell division.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Rita R; Linder, Simon; Song, Ji-Ying; Vaarting, Chantal; Boon, Ute; Pritchard, Colin E J; Velds, Arno; Huijbers, Ivo J; van Tellingen, Olaf; Jonkers, Jos; Medema, René H

    2018-05-08

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a common trait of cancer characterised by the continuous gain and loss of chromosomes during mitosis. Excessive levels of CIN can suppress tumour growth, providing a possible therapeutic strategy. The Mps1/TTK kinase has been one of the prime targets to explore this concept, and indeed Mps1 inhibitors synergise with the spindle poison docetaxel in inhibiting the growth of tumours in mice. To investigate how the combination of docetaxel and a Mps1 inhibitor (Cpd-5) promote tumour cell death, we treated mice transplanted with BRCA1 -/- ;TP53 -/- mammary tumours with docetaxel and/or Cpd-5. The tumours were analysed regarding their histopathology, chromosome segregation errors, copy number variations and cell death to understand the mechanism of action of the drug combination. The enhanced efficacy of combining an Mps1 inhibitor with clinically relevant doses of docetaxel is associated with an increase in multipolar anaphases, aberrant nuclear morphologies and cell death. Tumours treated with docetaxel and Cpd-5 displayed more genomic deviations, indicating that chromosome stability is affected mostly in the combinatorial treatment. Our study shows that the synergy between taxanes and Mps1 inhibitors depends on increased errors in cell division, allowing further optimisation of this treatment regimen for cancer therapy.

  9. Resolving early mesoderm diversification through single-cell expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Scialdone, Antonio; Tanaka, Yosuke; Jawaid, Wajid; Moignard, Victoria; Wilson, Nicola K; Macaulay, Iain C; Marioni, John C; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-07-14

    In mammals, specification of the three major germ layers occurs during gastrulation, when cells ingressing through the primitive streak differentiate into the precursor cells of major organ systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, as numbers of gastrulating cells are very limited. In the mouse embryo at embryonic day 6.5, cells located at the junction between the extra-embryonic region and the epiblast on the posterior side of the embryo undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and ingress through the primitive streak. Subsequently, cells migrate, either surrounding the prospective ectoderm contributing to the embryo proper, or into the extra-embryonic region to form the yolk sac, umbilical cord and placenta. Fate mapping has shown that mature tissues such as blood and heart originate from specific regions of the pre-gastrula epiblast, but the plasticity of cells within the embryo and the function of key cell-type-specific transcription factors remain unclear. Here we analyse 1,205 cells from the epiblast and nascent Flk1(+) mesoderm of gastrulating mouse embryos using single-cell RNA sequencing, representing the first transcriptome-wide in vivo view of early mesoderm formation during mammalian gastrulation. Additionally, using knockout mice, we study the function of Tal1, a key haematopoietic transcription factor, and demonstrate, contrary to previous studies performed using retrospective assays, that Tal1 knockout does not immediately bias precursor cells towards a cardiac fate.

  10. Resolving Early Mesoderm Diversification through Single Cell Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nicola K.; Macaulay, Iain C.; Marioni, John C.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Summary In mammals, specification of the three major germ layers occurs during gastrulation, when cells ingressing through the primitive streak differentiate into the precursor cells of major organ systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, as numbers of gastrulating cells are very limited. In the E6.5 mouse embryo, cells located at the junction between the extra-embryonic region and the epiblast on the posterior side of the embryo undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ingress through the primitive streak (PS). Subsequently, cells migrate, either surrounding the prospective ectoderm contributing to the embryo proper, or into the extra-embryonic region to form the yolk sac (YS), umbilical cord and placenta. Fate mapping has shown that mature tissues such as blood and heart originate from specific regions of the pre-gastrula epiblast1 but the plasticity of cells within the embryo and the function of key cell type-specific transcription factors remain unclear. Here we analyse 1,205 cells from the epiblast and nascent Flk1+ mesoderm of gastrulating mouse embryos using single cell RNA-sequencing, representing the first transcriptome-wide in vivo view of early mesoderm formation during mammalian gastrulation. Additionally, using knock-out mice, we study the function of Tal1, a key hematopoietic transcription factor (TF), and demonstrate, contrary to previous studies performed using retrospective assays2,3, that Tal1 knock out does not immediately bias precursor cells towards a cardiac fate. PMID:27383781

  11. Alfalfa Mob1-like proteins are involved in cell proliferation and are localized in the cell division plane during cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Citterio, Sandra; Piatti, Simonetta; Albertini, Emidio

    2006-04-15

    Mps-one-binder (Mob) proteins play a crucial role in yeast cytokinesis. After cloning two Mob1-like genes, MsMob1-A and MsMob1-B from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) we show that, although they are constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods, their transcripts and proteins are mostly produced in actively proliferating tissues. A polyclonal antibody specifically raised against MsMob1 proteins was used for immunolocalization studies in synchronized root tip cells. The subcellular localization of MsMob1-like proteins is demonstrated to be cell cycle-regulated. Cytoplasmic localization is faint and diffused during G{sub 1} and S. It becomes concentrated in punctuate and fibrillar structures in G{submore » 2} as well as M phase. At the stage of cytokinesis, the protein is found at the emerging cell plate marking the progressive formation of the septum. Mob1 proteins partially co-localize with microtubules structures functionally related to the spindles and important for cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. The MsMob1 expression cannot rescue the lethality of the yeast mob1 mutant, suggesting that interaction of Mob1 proteins with their effectors may be species-specific. Localization of Mob1 proteins in the inner layer of the root cap indicates an additional function for this class of proteins in plants, which is likely related to the onset of programmed cell death.« less

  12. Influence of salinomycin treatment on division and movement of individual cancer cells cultured in normoxia or hypoxia evaluated with time-lapse digital holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kamlund, Sofia; Strand, Daniel; Janicke, Birgit; Alm, Kersti; Oredsson, Stina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most studies on new cancer drugs are based on population-derived data, where the absence of response of a small population may pass unnoticed. Thus, individual longitudinal tracking of cells is important for the future development of efficient cancer treatments. We have used digital holographic microscopy to track individual JIMT-1 human breast cancer cells and L929 mouse fibroblast cultivated in normoxia or hypoxia. In addition, JIMT-1 cells were treated with salinomycin, a cancer stem cell targeting compound. Three-day time-lapse movies were captured and individual cells were analysed with respect to cell division (cell cycle length) and cell movement. Comparing population-doubling time derived from population-based growth curves and individual cell cycle time data from time-lapse movies show that the former hide a sub-population of dividing cells. Salinomycin treatment increased the motility of cells, however, this motility did not result in an increased distant migration i.e. the cells increased their local movement. MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed similar motility behaviour as salinomycin-treated JIMT-1 cells. We suggest that combining features, such as motility and migration, can be used to distinguish cancer cells with mesenchymal (JIMT-1) and epithelial (MCF-7) features. The data clearly emphasize the importance of longitudinal cell tracking to understand the biology of individual cells under different conditions. PMID:28933990

  13. Neuregulin 1 Type II-ErbB Signaling Promotes Cell Divisions Generating Neurons from Neural Progenitor Cells in the Developing Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomomi; Sato, Fuminori; Kamezaki, Aosa; Sakaguchi, Kazuya; Tanigome, Ryoma; Kawakami, Koichi; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    Post-mitotic neurons are generated from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) at the expense of their proliferation. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neuron production temporally and spatially should impact on the size and shape of the brain. While transcription factors such as neurogenin1 (neurog1) and neurod govern progression of neurogenesis as cell-intrinsic mechanisms, recent studies show regulatory roles of several cell-extrinsic or intercellular signaling molecules including Notch, FGF and Wnt in production of neurons/neural progenitor cells from neural stem cells/radial glial cells (NSCs/RGCs) in the ventricular zone (VZ). However, it remains elusive how production of post-mitotic neurons from neural progenitor cells is regulated in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). Here we show that newborn neurons accumulate in the basal-to-apical direction in the optic tectum (OT) of zebrafish embryos. While neural progenitor cells are amplified by mitoses in the apical ventricular zone, neurons are exclusively produced through mitoses of neural progenitor cells in the sub-basal zone, later in the sub-ventricular zone, and accumulate apically onto older neurons. This neurogenesis depends on Neuregulin 1 type II (NRG1-II)-ErbB signaling. Treatment with an ErbB inhibitor, AG1478 impairs mitoses in the sub-ventricular zone of the optic tectum. Removal of AG1478 resumes sub-ventricular mitoses without precedent mitoses in the apical ventricular zone prior to basal-to-apical accumulation of neurons, suggesting critical roles of ErbB signaling in mitoses for post-mitotic neuron production. Knockdown of NRG1-II impairs both mitoses in the sub-basal/sub-ventricular zone and the ventricular zone. Injection of soluble human NRG1 into the developing brain ameliorates neurogenesis of NRG1-II-knockdown embryos, suggesting a conserved role of NRG1 as a cell-extrinsic signal. From these results, we propose that NRG1-ErbB signaling stimulates cell divisions generating neurons from

  14. Clonal mature adipocyte production of proliferative-competent daughter cells requires lipid export prior to cell division

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous in vitro observations have been published to show that mature adipocytes may resume proliferation and begin to populate the adipofibroblast fraction or form other cell types. In the present study, we evaluated clonal cultures of mature pig-derived adipocytes as they began to reestablish the...

  15. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  16. Hydroxychavicol, a key ingredient of Piper betle induces bacterial cell death by DNA damage and inhibition of cell division.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepti; Narayanamoorthy, Shwetha; Gamre, Sunita; Majumdar, Ananda Guha; Goswami, Manish; Gami, Umesh; Cherian, Susan; Subramanian, Mahesh

    2018-05-20

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and there is an urgent need to augment the arsenal against pathogenic bacteria. The emergence of different drug resistant bacteria is threatening human lives to be pushed towards the pre-antibiotic era. Botanical sources remain a vital source of diverse organic molecules that possess antibacterial property as well as augment existing antibacterial molecules. Piper betle, a climber, is widely used in south and south-east Asia whose leaves and nuts are consumed regularly. Hydroxychavicol (HC) isolated from Piper betle has been reported to possess antibacterial activity. It is currently not clear how the antibacterial activity of HC is manifested. In this investigation we show HC generates superoxide in E. coli cells. Antioxidants protected E. coli against HC induced cell death while gshA mutant was more sensitive to HC than wild type. DNA damage repair deficient mutants are hypersensitive to HC and HC induces the expression of DNA damage repair genes that repair oxidative DNA damage. HC treated E. coli cells are inhibited from growth and undergo DNA condensation. In vitro HC binds to DNA and cleaves it in presence of copper. Our data strongly indicates HC mediates bacterial cell death by ROS generation and DNA damage. Damage to iron sulfur proteins in the cells contribute to amplification of oxidative stress initiated by HC. Further HC is active against a number of Gram negative bacteria isolated from patients with a wide range of clinical symptoms and varied antibiotic resistance profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single microfilaments mediate the early steps of microtubule bundling during preprophase band formation in onion cotyledon epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Kajimura, Naoko; Takaoka, Akio; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Staehelin, L. Andrew; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The preprophase band (PPB) is a cytokinetic apparatus that determines the site of cell division in plants. It originates as a broad band of microtubules (MTs) in G2 and narrows to demarcate the future division site during late prophase. Studies with fluorescent probes have shown that PPBs contain F-actin during early stages of their development but become actin depleted in late prophase. Although this suggests that actins contribute to the early stages of PPB formation, how actins contribute to PPB-MT organization remains unsolved. To address this question, we used electron tomography to investigate the spatial relationship between microfilaments (MFs) and MTs at different stages of PPB assembly in onion cotyledon epidermal cells. We demonstrate that the PPB actins observed by fluorescence microscopy correspond to short, single MFs. A majority of the MFs are bound to MTs, with a subset forming MT-MF-MT bridging structures. During the later stages of PPB assembly, the MF-mediated links between MTs are displaced by MT-MT linkers as the PPB MT arrays mature into tightly packed MT bundles. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the primary function of actins during PPB formation is to mediate the initial bundling of the PPB MTs. PMID:27053663

  18. Dictyostelium cell death: early emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells.

    PubMed

    Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L; Golstein, Pierre

    2003-03-31

    Cell death in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell death, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell death, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of "paddle" cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell death process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent death indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell death pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells.

  19. Learning cell biology as a team: a project-based approach to upper-division cell biology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular and molecular biology of the disease, and recent research focused on understanding the cellular mechanisms of the disease process. To support effective teamwork and to help students develop collaboration skills useful for their future careers, we provide training in working in small groups. A final poster presentation, held in a public forum, summarizes what students have learned throughout the quarter. Although student satisfaction with the course is similar to that of standard lecture-based classes, a project-based class offers unique benefits to both the student and the instructor.

  20. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-J{kappa}/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +}, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +} are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code formore » nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG{sup A}/{sub G}GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11{sup +} is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.« less

  1. Forward Genetic Dissection of Biofilm Development by Fusobacterium nucleatum: Novel Functions of Cell Division Proteins FtsX and EnvC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenggang; Al Mamun, Abu Amar Mohamed; Luong, Truc Thanh; Hu, Bo; Gu, Jianhua; Lee, Ju Huck; D'Amore, Melissa; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-04-24

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a key member of the human oral biofilm. It is also implicated in preterm birth and colorectal cancer. To facilitate basic studies of fusobacterial virulence, we describe here a versatile transposon mutagenesis procedure and a pilot screen for mutants defective in biofilm formation. Out of 10 independent biofilm-defective mutants isolated, the affected genes included the homologs of the Escherichia coli cell division proteins FtsX and EnvC, the electron transport protein RnfA, and four proteins with unknown functions. Next, a facile new gene deletion method demonstrated that nonpolar, in-frame deletion of ftsX or envC produces viable bacteria that are highly filamentous due to defective cell division. Transmission electron and cryo-electron microscopy revealed that the Δ ftsX and Δ envC mutant cells remain joined with apparent constriction, and scanning electron microscopy (EM) uncovered a smooth cell surface without the microfolds present in wild-type cells. FtsX and EnvC proteins interact with each other as well as a common set of interacting partners, many with unknown function. Last, biofilm development is altered when cell division is blocked by MinC overproduction; however, unlike the phenotypes of Δ ftsX and Δ envC mutants, a weakly adherent biofilm is formed, and the wild-type rugged cell surface is maintained. Therefore, FtsX and EnvC may perform novel functions in Fusobacterium cell biology. This is the first report of an unbiased approach to uncover genetic determinants of fusobacterial biofilm development. It points to an intriguing link among cytokinesis, cell surface dynamics, and biofilm formation, whose molecular underpinnings remain to be elucidated. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the virulence mechanisms and associated factors in F. nucleatum , due mainly to the lack of convenient genetic tools for this organism. We employed two efficient genetic strategies to identify F. nucleatum biofilm-defective mutants

  2. Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase PstP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Necessary for Accurate Cell Division and Survival of Pathogen*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aditya K.; Arora, Divya; Singh, Lalit K.; Gangwal, Aakriti; Sajid, Andaleeb; Molle, Virginie; Singh, Yogendra; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatases play vital roles in phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling. Although there are 11 serine/threonine protein kinases in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, only one serine/threonine phosphatase, PstP, has been identified. Although PstP has been biochemically characterized and multiple in vitro substrates have been identified, its physiological role has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the impact of PstP on cell growth and survival of the pathogen in the host. Overexpression of PstP led to elongated cells and partially compromised survival. We find that depletion of PstP is detrimental to cell survival, eventually leading to cell death. PstP depletion results in elongated multiseptate cells, suggesting a role for PstP in regulating cell division events. Complementation experiments performed with PstP deletion mutants revealed marginally compromised survival, suggesting that all of the domains, including the extracellular domain, are necessary for complete rescue. On the other hand, the catalytic activity of PstP is absolutely essential for the in vitro growth. Mice infection experiments establish a definitive role for PstP in pathogen survival within the host. Depletion of PstP from established infections causes pathogen clearance, indicating that the continued presence of PstP is necessary for pathogen survival. Taken together, our data suggest an important role for PstP in establishing and maintaining infection, possibly via the modulation of cell division events. PMID:27758870

  3. ZapE Is a Novel Cell Division Protein Interacting with FtsZ and Modulating the Z-Ring Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marteyn, Benoit S.; Karimova, Gouzel; Fenton, Andrew K.; Gazi, Anastasia D.; West, Nicholas; Touqui, Lhousseine; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Betton, Jean-Michel; Poyraz, Oemer; Ladant, Daniel; Gerdes, Kenn; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cell division requires the formation of a mature divisome complex positioned at the midcell. The localization of the divisome complex is determined by the correct positioning, assembly, and constriction of the FtsZ ring (Z-ring). Z-ring constriction control remains poorly understood and (to some extent) controversial, probably due to the fact that this phenomenon is transient and controlled by numerous factors. Here, we characterize ZapE, a novel ATPase found in Gram-negative bacteria, which is required for growth under conditions of low oxygen, while loss of zapE results in temperature-dependent elongation of cell shape. We found that ZapE is recruited to the Z-ring during late stages of the cell division process and correlates with constriction of the Z-ring. Overexpression or inactivation of zapE leads to elongation of Escherichia coli and affects the dynamics of the Z-ring during division. In vitro, ZapE destabilizes FtsZ polymers in an ATP-dependent manner. PMID:24595368

  4. Acquired initiating mutations in early hematopoietic cells of CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Damm, Frederik; Mylonas, Elena; Cosson, Adrien; Yoshida, Kenichi; Della Valle, Véronique; Mouly, Enguerran; Diop, M'boyba; Scourzic, Laurianne; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Davi, Frederick; Lambert, Jérôme; Gautheret, Daniel; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sutton, Laurent; Dessen, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Akashi, Koichi; Vainchenker, William; Mercher, Thomas; Droin, Nathalie; Ogawa, Seishi; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Bernard, Olivier A

    2014-09-01

    Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  6. Dendritic cells modulate burn wound healing by enhancing early proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vinish, Monika; Cui, Weihua; Stafford, Eboni; Bae, Leon; Hawkins, Hal; Cox, Robert; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Adequate wound healing is vital for burn patients to reduce the risk of infections and prolonged hospitalization. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells that release cytokines and are central for the activation of innate and acquired immune responses. Studies have showed their presence in human burn wounds; however, their role in burn wound healing remains to be determined. This study investigated the role of DCs in modulating healing responses within the burn wound. A murine model of full-thickness contact burns was used to study wound healing in the absence of DCs (CD11c promoter-driven diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice) and in a DC-rich environment (using fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, FL- a DC growth factor). Wound closure was significantly delayed in DC-deficient mice and was associated with significant suppression of early cellular proliferation, granulation tissue formation, wound levels of TGFβ1 and formation of CD31+ vessels in healing wounds. In contrast, DC enhancement significantly accelerated early wound closure, associated with increased and accelerated cellular proliferation, granulation tissue formation, and increased TGFβ1 levels and CD31+ vessels in healing wounds. We conclude that DCs play an important role in the acceleration of early wound healing events, likely by secreting factors that trigger the proliferation of cells that mediate wound healing. Therefore, pharmacological enhancement of DCs may provide a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing of burn wounds. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  7. Affinity of antigen encounter and other early B-cell signals determine B-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Micah J; Erickson, Loren D; Gleeson, Michael W; Noelle, Randolph J

    2010-01-01

    Three possible effector fates await the naïve follicular B cell following antigen stimulation in thymus-dependent reactions. Short-lived plasma cells produce an initial burst of germline-encoded protective antibodies, and long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells arise from the germinal center and function to enhance and sustain the humoral immune response. The inherent B-cell receptor affinity of naïve follicular B cells and the contribution of other early B-cell signals pre-determines the pattern of transcription factor expression and the differentiation path taken by these cells. High initial B-cell receptor affinity shunts naïve follicular B-cell clones towards the short-lived plasma cell fate, whereas modest-affinity clones are skewed towards a plasma cell fate and low-affinity clones are recruited into the germinal center and are selected for both long-lived plasma cells and memory B cell pathways. In the germinal center reaction, increased levels of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-4 drive the molecular program that dictates differentiation into the long-lived plasma cell phenotype but has no impact on the memory B cell compartment. We hypothesize that graded interferon regulatory factor-4 levels driven by signals to B cells, including B-cell receptor signal strength, are responsible for this branch point in the B-cell terminal differentiation pathway. PMID:17433651

  8. Dissecting the role of conformational change and membrane binding by the bacterial cell division regulator MinE in the stimulation of MinD ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Saud H; Cloutier, Adam D; McLeod, Laura J; Foo, Alexander C Y; Damry, Adam M; Goto, Natalie K

    2017-12-15

    The bacterial cell division regulators MinD and MinE together with the division inhibitor MinC localize to the membrane in concentrated zones undergoing coordinated pole-to-pole oscillation to help ensure that the cytokinetic division septum forms only at the mid-cell position. This dynamic localization is driven by MinD-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, stimulated by interactions with MinE's anti-MinCD domain. This domain is buried in the 6-β-stranded MinE "closed" structure, but is liberated for interactions with MinD, giving rise to a 4-β-stranded "open" structure through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that MinE-membrane interactions induce a structural change into a state resembling the open conformation. However, MinE mutants lacking the MinE membrane-targeting sequence stimulated higher ATP hydrolysis rates than the full-length protein, indicating that binding to MinD is sufficient to trigger this conformational transition in MinE. In contrast, conformational change between the open and closed states did not affect stimulation of ATP hydrolysis rates in the absence of membrane binding, although the MinD-binding residue Ile-25 is critical for this conformational transition. We therefore propose an updated model where MinE is brought to the membrane through interactions with MinD. After stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, MinE remains bound to the membrane in a state that does not catalyze additional rounds of ATP hydrolysis. Although the molecular basis for this inhibited state is unknown, previous observations of higher-order MinE self-association may explain this inhibition. Overall, our findings have general implications for Min protein oscillation cycles, including those that regulate cell division in bacterial pathogens. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The cell wall and cell division gene cluster in the Mra operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning, production, and purification of active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Azzolina, B A; Yuan, X; Anderson, M S; El-Sherbeini, M

    2001-04-01

    We have cloned the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell wall biosynthesis and cell division gene cluster that corresponds to the mra operon in the 2-min region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The organization of the two chromosomal regions in P. aeruginosa and E. coli is remarkably similar with the following gene order: pbp3/pbpB, murE, murF, mraY, murD, ftsW, murG, murC, ddlB, ftsQ, ftsA, ftsZ, and envA/LpxC. All of the above P. aeruginosa genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA with very small, if any, intragenic regions, indicating that these genes may constitute a single operon. All five amino acid ligases, MurC, MurD, MurE, MurF, and DdlB, in addition to MurG and MraY were cloned in expression vectors. The four recombinant P. aeruginosa Mur ligases, MurC, MurD, MurE, and MurF were overproduced in E. coli and purified as active enzymes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Cell Division in genus Corynebacterium: protein-protein interaction and molecular docking of SepF and FtsZ in the understanding of cytokinesis in pathogenic species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alberto F; Folador, Edson L; Gomide, Anne C P; Goes-Neto, Aristóteles; Azevedo, Vasco A C; Wattam, Alice R

    2018-02-15

    The genus Corynebacterium includes species of great importance in medical, veterinary and biotechnological fields. The genus-specific families (PLfams) from PATRIC have been used to observe conserved proteins associated to all species. Our results showed a large number of conserved proteins that are associated with the cellular division process. Was not observe in our results other proteins like FtsA and ZapA that interact with FtsZ. Our findings point that SepF overlaps the function of this proteins explored by molecular docking, protein-protein interaction and sequence analysis. Transcriptomic analysis showed that these two (Sepf and FtsZ) proteins can be expressed in different conditions together. The work presents novelties on molecules participating in the cell division event, from the interaction of FtsZ and SepF, as new therapeutic targets.

  11. Fine-tuning of actin dynamics by the HSPB8-BAG3 chaperone complex facilitates cytokinesis and contributes to its impact on cell division.

    PubMed

    Varlet, Alice Anaïs; Fuchs, Margit; Luthold, Carole; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques; Lavoie, Josée N

    2017-07-01

    The small heat shock protein HSPB8 and its co-chaperone BAG3 are proposed to regulate cytoskeletal proteostasis in response to mechanical signaling in muscle cells. Here, we show that in dividing cells, the HSPB8-BAG3 complex is instrumental to the accurate disassembly of the actin-based contractile ring during cytokinesis, a process required to allow abscission of daughter cells. Silencing of HSPB8 markedly decreased the mitotic levels of BAG3 in HeLa cells, supporting its crucial role in BAG3 mitotic functions. Cells depleted of HSPB8 were delayed in cytokinesis, remained connected via a disorganized intercellular bridge, and exhibited increased incidence of nuclear abnormalities that result from failed cytokinesis (i.e., bi- and multi-nucleation). Such phenotypes were associated with abnormal accumulation of F-actin at the intercellular bridge of daughter cells at telophase. Remarkably, the actin sequestering drug latrunculin A, like the inhibitor of branched actin polymerization CK666, normalized F-actin during cytokinesis and restored proper cell division in HSPB8-depleted cells, implicating deregulated actin dynamics as a cause of abscission failure. Moreover, this HSPB8-dependent phenotype could be corrected by rapamycin, an autophagy-promoting drug, whereas it was mimicked by drugs impairing lysosomal function. Together, the results further support a role for the HSPB8-BAG3 chaperone complex in quality control of actin-based structure dynamics that are put under high tension, notably during cell cytokinesis. They expand a so-far under-appreciated connection between selective autophagy and cellular morphodynamics that guide cell division.

  12. RBE of Energetic Iron Ions for the Induction of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Hada, Megumi; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Numerous published studies have reported the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for chromosome aberrations induced by charged particles of different LET. The RBE for chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed ex vivo has been suggested to show a similar relationship as the quality factor for cancer induction. Therefore, increased chromosome aberrations in the astronauts' white blood cells post long-duration missions are used to determine the biological doses from exposures to space radiation. However, the RBE value is known to be very different for different types of cancer. Previously, we reported that, even though the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions, the RBE was significantly reduced after multiple cell divisions post irradiation. To test the hypothesis that RBE values for chromosome aberrations are cell type dependent, and different between early and late damages, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, and human mammary epithelial cells in vitro to various charged particles. Chromosome aberrations were quantified using the samples collected at first mitosis post irradiation for initial damages, and the samples collected after multiple generations for the remaining or late arising aberrations. Results of the study suggested that the effectiveness of high-LET charged particles for late chromosome aberrations may be cell type dependent, even though the RBE values are similar for early damages.

  13. Brief Report: Interleukin-17A-Dependent Asymmetric Stem Cell Divisions Are Increased in Human Psoriasis: A Mechanism Underlying Benign Hyperproliferation.

    PubMed

    Charruyer, Alexandra; Fong, Stephen; Vitcov, Giselle G; Sklar, Samuel; Tabernik, Leah; Taneja, Monica; Caputo, Melinda; Soeung, Catherine; Yue, Lili; Uchida, Yoshi; Arron, Sarah T; Horton, Karen M; Foster, Robert D; Sano, Shigetoshi; North, Jeffrey P; Ghadially, Ruby

    2017-08-01

    The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell (SC) divisions is key to tissue homeostasis, and dysregulation of this balance has been shown in cancers. We hypothesized that the balance between asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) and symmetric cell divisions (SCDs) would be dysregulated in the benign hyperproliferation of psoriasis. We found that, while SCDs were increased in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (human and murine), ACDs were increased in the benign hyperproliferation of psoriasis (human and murine). Furthermore, while sonic hedgehog (linked to human cancer) and pifithrinα (p53 inhibitor) promoted SCDs, interleukin (IL)-1α and amphiregulin (associated with benign epidermal hyperproliferation) promoted ACDs. While there was dysregulation of the ACD:SCD ratio, no change in SC frequency was detected in epidermis from psoriasis patients, or in human keratinocytes treated with IL-1α or amphiregulin. We investigated the mechanism whereby immune alterations of psoriasis result in ACDs. IL17 inhibitors are effective new therapies for psoriasis. We found that IL17A increased ACDs in human keratinocytes. Additionally, studies in the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mouse model revealed that ACDs in