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Sample records for early cerebral ischemic

  1. Predictors of early infection in cerebral ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Wmr; Al-Anwar, A D; Kamel, A E; Aidaros, M A

    2016-01-01

    Infection is the most common complication of stroke. To determine the risk factors and predictors of post-stroke infection (PSI), which developed within 7 days from the onset of acute ischemic stroke. The study included 60 ischemic stroke patients admitted in the Neurology Department of Zagazig University, Egypt, who were subdivided into: [Non Stroke Associated Infection group (nSAI); 30 patients having stroke without any criteria of infection within 7 days from the onset and Stroke Associated Infection group (SAI); 30 patients having stroke with respiratory tract infection (RTI) or urinary tract infection within 7 days], in addition to 30 healthy sex and age-matching subjects as control. All the patients had a detailed history taking, thorough clinical general and neurological examination, laboratory tests (Urine analysis & urine culture, blood sugar, lipid profile and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10), a chest radiography to assess RTI and brain computed tomography (CT) to exclude the hemorrhagic stroke and to confirm the ischemic stroke. SAI patients were found to be significantly older with higher baseline blood glucose level. Also the number of patients with tube feeding, lower conscious level, more stroke severity and more large size infarcts were significantly higher in SAI patients. There was a significant elevation in the IL-10, a significant decrease in the TNF-α and a significant decrease in the TNF-α/ IL-10 ratio, in the SAI group. The baseline serum level of IL-10 ≥ 14.5 pg/ ml and size of infarct area > 3.5 cm3 were found to be the independent predictors of PSI. Patients with older age, tube feeding, lower conscious level, worse baseline stroke severity, large cerebral infarcts in CT scan, and increased IL-10 serum level were more susceptible to infection. The baseline serum level of IL-10 ≥ 14.5 pg/ ml and the size of infarct area > 3.5 cm3 were the independent predictors of PSI.

  2. Predictors of early infection in cerebral ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, WMR; Al-Anwar, AD; Kamel, AE; Aidaros, MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection is the most common complication of stroke. Aim: To determine the risk factors and predictors of post-stroke infection (PSI), which developed within 7 days from the onset of acute ischemic stroke. Subjects: The study included 60 ischemic stroke patients admitted in the Neurology Department of Zagazig University, Egypt, who were subdivided into: [Non Stroke Associated Infection group (nSAI); 30 patients having stroke without any criteria of infection within 7 days from the onset and Stroke Associated Infection group (SAI); 30 patients having stroke with respiratory tract infection (RTI) or urinary tract infection within 7 days], in addition to 30 healthy sex and age-matching subjects as control. Methods: All the patients had a detailed history taking, thorough clinical general and neurological examination, laboratory tests (Urine analysis & urine culture, blood sugar, lipid profile and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10), a chest radiography to assess RTI and brain computed tomography (CT) to exclude the hemorrhagic stroke and to confirm the ischemic stroke. Results: SAI patients were found to be significantly older with higher baseline blood glucose level. Also the number of patients with tube feeding, lower conscious level, more stroke severity and more large size infarcts were significantly higher in SAI patients. There was a significant elevation in the IL-10, a significant decrease in the TNF-α and a significant decrease in the TNF-α/ IL-10 ratio, in the SAI group. The baseline serum level of IL-10 ≥ 14.5 pg/ ml and size of infarct area > 3.5 cm3 were found to be the independent predictors of PSI. Conclusion: Patients with older age, tube feeding, lower conscious level, worse baseline stroke severity, large cerebral infarcts in CT scan, and increased IL-10 serum level were more susceptible to infection. The baseline serum level of IL-10 ≥ 14.5 pg/ ml and the size of infarct area > 3.5 cm3 were the

  3. Early superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Huh, Pil-Woo; Kim, Dal-Soo; Yoo, Do-Sung; Lee, Tae-Gyu; Cho, Kyoung-Suok

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects and safety of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis in the early stage after an acute ischemic event and the improvement of present symptoms in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic occlusive disease with stroke/stroke in progress. From 2006 to 2010, 20 patients (15 males and five females) with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease were treated with an STA-MCA bypass. All of the patients presented with an acute ischemic stroke or stroke in progress despite maximal medical treatment. The patients underwent an STA-MCA bypass within 7 days from symptom onset. The clinical outcome and hemodynamic study of the 20 patients were preoperatively and postoperatively investigated. A pooled analysis was performed, and the results were compared with those obtained from other delayed STA-MCA bypass studies. Among the 20 patients who underwent an early STA-MCA bypass, fourteen (70%) patients achieved a good functional outcome (mRS 0, n=3; mRS 1, n=9; mRS 2, n=2). Prior to surgery, the mean basal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVR) in the symptomatic hemisphere were 37.3±4.3 ml/100 g/min and -1.68±2.9%. The mean basal rCBF and CVR had significantly increased postoperatively, and no reperfusion-induced hemorrhage had occurred. In the pooled analysis, no significant differences were observed in the clinical outcome (P=0.328) or in the incidence of postoperative complications (P=0.516) between patients who underwent an early STA-MCA bypass and in patients who underwent a delayed STA-MCA bypass in previous studies. In this study, which consisted of 20 carefully selected patients with acute ischemic stroke, an early STA-MCA bypass was safely and effectively performed, and in some cases, an early STA-MCA bypass resulted in rapid neurological improvement. An early STA-MCA bypass was beneficial in select patients who had acute ischemic stroke with imaging evidence of a small

  4. Prediction of early neurological deterioration using diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging in hyperacute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arenillas, Juan F; Rovira, Alex; Molina, Carlos A; Grivé, Elisenda; Montaner, Joan; Alvarez-Sabín, José

    2002-09-01

    Early neurological deterioration (END) occurs in approximately one third of all ischemic stroke patients and is associated with a poor outcome. Our study sought to assess the value of ultra-early MRI in the prediction of END in stroke patients. Between August 1999 and November 2001, 38 stroke patients with a proven middle cerebral artery (MCA) or intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion on MR angiography underwent perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 6 hours after onset, and 30 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Control DWI and MR angiography were performed between days 3 and 5. Cranial CT was performed to rule out hemorrhagic transformation. Vascular risk factors, temperature, blood pressure, glycemia, and blood count were assessed on admission. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were obtained at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. At the same time points, transcranial Doppler (TCD) examinations were conducted to assess arterial recanalization. END was defined as an increase in the NIHSS score >4. A logistic regression model was applied to detect independent predictors of END. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the relationship between infarct growth and duration of vessel occlusion. Initial MR angiography showed an occlusion of intracranial ICA in 7 patients (23.3%), of proximal MCA in 14 (46.6%), and of distal MCA in the remaining 9 (30%). A PWI-DWI mismatch >20% was observed in 28 patients (93.3%). END occurred in 7 patients (23.3%). Baseline NIHSS score (P=0.05), proximal site of occlusion (P=0.002), initial DWI (P=0.002) and PWI (P=0.003) volumes, and reduced PWI-DWI mismatch (P=0.038) were associated with END in the univariate analysis. Only hyperacute DWI volume remained as a predictor of END when a logistic regression model was applied (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% CI, 2.31 to 57.10; P=0.0028). A receiver operator characteristic curve identified a cutoff point of DWI >89 cm(3

  5. Ischemic brain injury in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    van Veluw, Susanne J; Greenberg, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common form of cerebral small vessel disease and an important risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment. While the majority of research has focused on the hemorrhagic manifestation of CAA, its ischemic manifestations appear to have substantial clinical relevance as well. Findings from imaging and pathologic studies indicate that ischemic lesions are common in CAA, including white-matter hyperintensities, microinfarcts, and microstructural tissue abnormalities as detected with diffusion tensor imaging. Furthermore, imaging markers of ischemic disease show a robust association with cognition, independent of age, hemorrhagic lesions, and traditional vascular risk factors. Widespread ischemic tissue injury may affect cognition by disrupting white-matter connectivity, thereby hampering communication between brain regions. Challenges are to identify imaging markers that are able to capture widespread microvascular lesion burden in vivo and to further unravel the etiology of ischemic tissue injury by linking structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities to their underlying pathophysiology and histopathology. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ischemic brain injury in CAA will be a key step toward new interventions to improve long-term cognitive outcomes for patients with CAA. PMID:25944592

  6. εPKC confers acute tolerance to cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Rachel; Sun, Guo-Hua; Yenari, Midori A.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2008-01-01

    In response to mild ischemic stress, the brain elicits endogenous survival mechanisms to protect cells against a subsequent lethal ischemic stress, referred to as ischemic tolerance. The molecular signals that mediate this protection are thought to involve the expression and activation of multiple kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC). Here we demonstrate that εPKC mediates cerebral ischemic tolerance in vivo. Systemic delivery of ψεRACK, an εPKC-selective peptide activator, confers neuroprotection against a subsequent cerebral ischemic event when delivered immediately prior to stroke. In addition, activation of εPKC by ψεRACK treatment decreases vascular tone in vivo, as demonstrated by a reduction in microvascular cerebral blood flow. Here we demonstrate the role of acute and transient εPKC in early cerebral tolerance in vivo and suggest that extra-parenchymal mechanisms, such as vasoconstriction, may contribute to the conferred protection. PMID:18586397

  7. Endogenous Agmatine Induced by Ischemic Preconditioning Regulates Ischemic Tolerance Following Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jae Young; Jung, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Won Taek; Huh, Seung Kon

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain. After cerebral ischemia, brain edema and infarct volume were significantly reduced in the IP group. The level of agmatine was increased before and during ischemic injury and remained elevated in the early reperfusion phase in the IP group compared to the experimental control (EC) group. During IP, the level of plasma agmatine was increased in the early phase of IP, but that of liver agmatine was abruptly decreased. However, the level of agmatine was definitely increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere of brain during the IP. IP also increased the expression of ADC—the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of endogenous agmatine—before, during, and after ischemic injury. In addition, ischemic injury increased endogenous ADC expression in the EC group. The expression of nNOS was reduced in the I/R injured brain in the IP group. These results suggest that endogenous increased agmatine may be a component of the ischemic tolerance response that is induced by IP. Agmatine may have a pivotal role in endogenous ischemic tolerance. PMID:29302205

  8. Early Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation: Effect of Anticoagulation and Its Timing: The RAF Study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Bubba, Valentina; Silvestri, Ilenia; Lees, Kennedy R

    2015-08-01

    The best time for administering anticoagulation therapy in acute cardioembolic stroke remains unclear. This prospective cohort study of patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation, evaluated (1) the risk of recurrent ischemic event and severe bleeding; (2) the risk factors for recurrence and bleeding; and (3) the risks of recurrence and bleeding associated with anticoagulant therapy and its starting time after the acute stroke. The primary outcome of this multicenter study was the composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack, symptomatic systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding and major extracranial bleeding within 90 days from acute stroke. Of the 1029 patients enrolled, 123 had 128 events (12.6%): 77 (7.6%) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism, 37 (3.6%) symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and 14 (1.4%) major extracranial bleeding. At 90 days, 50% of the patients were either deceased or disabled (modified Rankin score ≥3), and 10.9% were deceased. High CHA2DS2-VASc score, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large ischemic lesion and type of anticoagulant were predictive factors for primary study outcome. At adjusted Cox regression analysis, initiating anticoagulants 4 to 14 days from stroke onset was associated with a significant reduction in primary study outcome, compared with initiating treatment before 4 or after 14 days: hazard ratio 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.30-0.93). About 7% of the patients treated with oral anticoagulants alone had an outcome event compared with 16.8% and 12.3% of the patients treated with low molecular weight heparins alone or followed by oral anticoagulants, respectively (P=0.003). Acute stroke in atrial fibrillation patients is associated with high rates of ischemic recurrence and major bleeding at 90 days. This study has observed that high CHA2DS2-VASc score, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large ischemic lesions, and type of anticoagulant administered

  9. Cerebral collaterals and collateral therapeutics for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Winship, Ian R

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral collaterals are vascular redundancies in the cerebral circulation that can partially maintain blood flow to ischemic tissue when primary conduits are blocked. After occlusion of a cerebral artery, anastomoses connecting the distal segments of the MCA with distal branches of the ACA and PCA (known as leptomeningeal or pial collaterals) allow for partially maintained blood flow in the ischemic penumbra and delay or prevent cell death. However, collateral circulation varies dramatically between individuals, and collateral extent is significant predictor of stroke severity and recanalization rate. Collateral therapeutics attempt to harness these vascular redundancies by enhancing blood flow through pial collaterals to reduce ischemia and brain damage after cerebral arterial occlusion. While therapies to enhance collateral flow remain relatively nascent neuroprotective strategies, experimental therapies including inhaled NO, transient suprarenal aortic occlusion, and electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic sphenopalatine ganglion show promise as collateral therapeutics with the potential to improve treatment of acute ischemic stroke. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hemodilution increases cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    SciT

    Vorstrup, S.; Andersen, A.; Juhler, M.

    1989-07-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow in 10 consecutive, but selected, patients with acute ischemic stroke (less than 48 hours after onset) before and after hemodilution. Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and emission tomography, and only patients with focal hypoperfusion in clinically relevant areas were included. Hemodilution was done according to the hematocrit level: for a hematocrit greater than or equal to 42%, 500 ml whole blood was drawn and replaced by the same volume of dextran 40; for a hematocrit between 37% and 42%, only 250 ml whole blood was drawn and replaced by 500 cc ofmore » dextran 40. Mean hematocrit was reduced by 16%, from 46 +/- 5% (SD) to 39 +/- 5% (SD) (p less than 0.001). Cerebral blood flow increased in both hemispheres by an average of 20.9% (p less than 0.001). Regional cerebral blood flow increased in the ischemic areas in all cases, on an average of 21.4 +/- 12.0% (SD) (p less than 0.001). In three patients, a significant redistribution of flow in favor of the hypoperfused areas was observed, and in six patients, the fractional cerebral blood flow increase in the hypoperfused areas was of the same magnitude as in the remainder of the brain. In the last patient, cerebral blood flow increased relatively less in the ischemic areas. Our findings show that cerebral blood flow increases in the ischemic areas after hemodilution therapy in stroke patients. The marked regional cerebral blood flow increase seen in some patients could imply an improved oxygen delivery to the ischemic tissue.« less

  11. Cerebral Autoregulation in Hypertension and Ischemic Stroke: A Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Liu, Ruen; Travis, Olivia K; Roman, Richard J; Fan, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Aging and chronic hypertension are associated with dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle, endothelial cells, and neurovascular coupling. These dysfunctions induce impaired myogenic response and cerebral autoregulation, which diminish the protection of cerebral arterioles to the cerebral microcirculation from elevated pressure in hypertension. Chronic hypertension promotes cerebral focal ischemia in response to reductions in blood pressure that are often seen in sedentary elderly patients on antihypertensive therapy. Cerebral autoregulatory dysfunction evokes Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) leakage, allowing the circulating inflammatory factors to infiltrate the brain to activate glia. The impaired cerebral autoregulation-induced inflammatory and ischemic injury could cause neuronal cell death and synaptic dysfunction which promote cognitive deficits. In this brief review, we summarize the pathogenesis and signaling mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation in hypertension and ischemic stroke-induced cognitive deficits, and discuss our new targets including 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), Gamma-Adducin (Add3) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that may contribute to the altered cerebral vascular function. PMID:29333537

  12. Pharmacokinetic Study of Piracetam in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Pankaj; Dash, Debabrata; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion. After 24 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion or 22 h of reperfusion, piracetam was administered for pharmacokinetic, brain penetration, and pharmacological experiments. In pharmacokinetic study, blood samples were collected at different time points after 200-mg/kg (oral) and 75-mg/kg (intravenous) administration of piracetam through right external jugular vein cannulation. In brain penetration study, the cerebrospinal fluid, systemic blood, portal blood, and brain samples were collected at pre-designated time points after 200-mg/kg oral administration of piracetam. In a separate experiment, the pharmacological effect of the single oral dose of piracetam in middle cerebral artery occlusion was assessed at a dose of 200 mg/kg. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam including area under curve (AUC 0-24 ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ), time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t max ), elimination half-life (t 1/2 ), volume of distribution (V z ), total body clearance, mean residence time, and bioavailability were found to be similar in ischemic stroke condition except for brain penetration. Piracetam exposure (AUC 0-2 ) in brain and CSF were found to be 2.4- and 3.1-fold higher, respectively, in ischemic stroke compared to control rats. Piracetam significantly reduced infarct volume by 35.77% caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam in the ischemic stroke model except for

  13. Effects of ischemic stroke on dynamics of cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Hu, Kun; Stanley, Eugene; Novak, Vera

    2004-03-01

    Cerebral vasoregulation involves several complex mechanisms adapting blood flow to fluctuations of systemic blood pressure (BP). Autonomic BP and metabolic vasoregulation are impaired after stroke and cerebral blood flow depends on systemic BP. To probe the mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation we study levels of nonlinear synchronization between cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and peripheral BP. We quantify the instantaneous phase of each signal employing analytic signal approach and Hilbert transform. As a marker of synchronization, we introduce a measure of cross-correlation between the instantaneous phase increments of the BFV and BP signals at different time lags. We have studied 12 subjects with minor chronic ischemic stroke and 11 matched normotensive controls (age<65years). BFV and BP of these subjects are continuously recorded during supine baseline, head-up tilt, hyperventilation and CO2 rebreathing. For control subjects we find significant synchronization between cerebral BFV and peripheral BP only for short time lags of up to 5-6 seconds, suggesting a rapid return to a steady cerebral blood flow after initial blood pressure perturbations. In contrast, for stroke subjects BFV/BP we find enhanced synchronization over longer time lags of up to 20 seconds, suggesting entrainment of cerebral blood flow velocity by slow vasomotor rhythms. These findings suggest that cerebral vasoregulation is impaired and cerebral blood flow follows the fluctuations of systemic BP in a synchronous manner. Our analysis shows that cerebral autoregulation is impaired in 10 out of the 12 stroke subjects, which is typically difficult to diagnose with conventional methods. Thus, our novel synchronization approach offers a new tool sensitive for evaluation of changes in the dynamics of cerebral autoregulation under stroke.

  14. Nicotine and estrogen synergistically exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Raval, A P; Hirsch, N; Dave, K R; Yavagal, D R; Bramlett, H; Saul, I

    2011-05-05

    The greater incidence of myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and ischemic stroke among women who smoke and use oral contraception (OC) compared to women who do not smoke and who do or do not use OC may be due in part to how nicotine influences endocrine function in women. For example, we recently demonstrated that chronic exposure to nicotine, the addictive agent in tobacco smoke responsible for the elevated risk of cardiac arrest, abolishes the endogenous or exogenous 17β-estradiol-conferred protection of the hippocampus against global cerebral ischemia (a potential outcome of cardiac arrest) in naive or ovariectomized female rats. In the current study we examined the hypotheses that (1) a synergistic deleterious effect of nicotine plus oral contraceptives exacerbates post-ischemic hippocampal damage in female rats, and (2) nicotine directly inhibits estrogen-mediated intracellular signaling in the hippocampus. To test first hypothesis and to simulate smoking behavior-induced nicotine levels in the human body, we implanted osmotic pumps containing nicotine in the female rats for 16 days. Furthermore, we mimicked the use of oral contraceptives in females by administering oral contraceptives orally to the rat. Rats exposed to either nicotine alone or in combination with oral contraceptives were subjected to an episode of cerebral ischemia and the resultant brain damage was quantified. These results showed for the first time that nicotine with oral contraceptives did indeed exacerbate post-ischemic CA1 damage as compared to nicotine alone in naive female rats. In ex vivo hippocampal slice cultures, we found that nicotine alone or with 17β-estradiol directly hinders estrogen receptors-mediated phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP element binding protein, a process required for neuronal survival and also exacerbates ischemic damage. Thus, nicotine can affect the outcome of cerebral ischemia by influencing brain endocrine function directly rather than through indirect

  15. Racial Difference in Cerebral Microbleed Burden among Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahjouei, Shima; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Singh, Mantinderpreet; McCormack, Michael; Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Nariman; Goyal, Nitin; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Zand, Ramin

    2017-11-01

    Data on the epidemiology of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) among patients with ischemic stroke are limited. This study compared the number, associated factors, and topography of CMBs between African American and Caucasian ischemic stroke patients in the Mid-South United States. We evaluated consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to our tertiary stroke center, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, in a two-year period. We analyzed T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images for the number, location, and topography of CMBs, as well as patients' demographic and clinical information. Among 760 ischemic stroke patients who were included (mean age was 62.1 ± 13.9 years, 51.4% men), 450 (59.2%) were African American. In comparison with Caucasians, African Americans were about five years younger (P = .000) and had a higher rate of hypertension (80.9% vs. 74.5%, P = .036). Similarly, African Americans had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = .001). There was no significant difference between African-Americans and Caucasians in terms of CMBs presence and location. African Americans had a higher number of CMBs in comparison with Caucasians, but the difference was not significant. African Americans were more likely to have CMBs ≥5 (P = .047). Although African American stroke patients had a higher rate of large confluent white matter lesions, there was no significant racial difference regarding the rate and severity of deep white matter lesions. We did not observe any differences between African American and Caucasian patients with ischemic stroke patients regarding the presence, number, and location of CMBs. However, our results suggested that the prevalence of multiple CMBs (CMBs ≥5) might be higher among African American stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related reduction of cerebral ischemic preconditioning: myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Della-Morte, David; Cacciatore, Francesco; Salsano, Elisa; Pirozzi, Gilda; Genio, Maria Teresa Del; D’Antonio, Iole; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Guadagni, Fiorella; Rundek, Tatjana; Abete, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries for people older than 65 years of age. The reasons are still unclear. A reduction of endogenous mechanisms against ischemic insults has been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The “cerebral” ischemic preconditioning mechanism is characterized by a brief episode of ischemia that renders the brain more resistant against subsequent longer ischemic events. This ischemic tolerance has been shown in numerous experimental models of cerebral ischemia. This protective mechanism seems to be reduced with aging both in experimental and clinical studies. Alterations of mediators released and/or intracellular pathways may be responsible for age-related ischemic preconditioning reduction. Agents able to mimic the “cerebral” preconditioning effect may represent a new powerful tool for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the elderly. In this article, animal and human cerebral ischemic preconditioning, its age-related difference, and its potential therapeutical applications are discussed. PMID:24204128

  17. Chronic kidney disease and poor outcomes in ischemic stroke: is impaired cerebral autoregulation the missing link?

    PubMed

    Castro, Pedro; Azevedo, Elsa; Rocha, Isabel; Sorond, Farzaneh; Serrador, Jorge M

    2018-03-02

    Chronic kidney disease increases stroke incidence and severity but the mechanisms behind this cerebro-renal interaction are mostly unexplored. Since both vascular beds share similar features, microvascular dysfunction could be the possible missing link. Therefore, we examined the relationship between renal function and cerebral autoregulation in the early hours post ischemia and its impact on outcome. We enrolled 46 ischemic strokes (middle cerebral artery). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by transfer function (coherence, phase and gain) of spontaneous blood pressure oscillations to blood flow velocity within 6 h from symptom-onset. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and white matter lesions (WML) were collected from computed tomography performed at presentation and 24 h. Outcome was evaluated with modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. High gain (less effective autoregulation) was correlated with lower eGFR irrespective of infarct side (p < 0.05). Both lower eGFR and higher gain correlated with WML grade (p < 0.05). Lower eGFR and increased gain, alone and in combination, progressively reduced the odds of a good functional outcome [ipsilateral OR = 4.39 (CI95% 3.15-25.6), p = 0.019; contralateral OR = 8.15 (CI95% 4.15-15.6), p = 0.002] and increased risk of HT [ipsilateral OR = 3.48 (CI95% 0.60-24.0), p = 0.132; contralateral OR = 6.43 (CI95% 1.40-32.1), p = 0.034]. Lower renal function correlates with less effective dynamic cerebral autoregulation in acute ischemic stroke, both predicting a bad outcome. The evaluation of serum biomarkers of renal dysfunction could have interest in the future for assessing cerebral microvascular risk and relationship with stroke complications.

  18. Cerebral Vascular Disease and Neurovascular Injury in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoming; De Silva, T. Michael; Chen, Jun; Faraci, Frank M.

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of cerebrovascular disease are among the leading health issues worldwide. Large and small cerebral vessel disease can trigger stroke and contribute to the vascular component of other forms of neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Both forms of vascular disease are driven by diverse risk factors, with hypertension as the leading contributor. Despite the importance of neurovascular disease and subsequent injury following ischemic events, fundamental knowledge in these areas lag behind our current understanding of neuroprotection and vascular biology in general. The goal of this review is to address select key structural and functional changes in the vasculature that promote hypoperfusion and ischemia, while also affecting the extent of injury and effectiveness of therapy. In addition, as damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the major consequences of ischemia, we discuss cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying ischemia-induced changes in BBB integrity and function, including alterations in endothelial cells and the contribution of pericytes, immune cells, and matrix metalloproteinases. Identification of cell types, pathways, and molecules that control vascular changes before and after ischemia may result in novel approaches to slow the progression of cerebrovascular disease and lessen both the frequency and impact of ischemic events. PMID:28154097

  19. Cerebral Vascular Disease and Neurovascular Injury in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; De Silva, T Michael; Chen, Jun; Faraci, Frank M

    2017-02-03

    The consequences of cerebrovascular disease are among the leading health issues worldwide. Large and small cerebral vessel disease can trigger stroke and contribute to the vascular component of other forms of neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Both forms of vascular disease are driven by diverse risk factors, with hypertension as the leading contributor. Despite the importance of neurovascular disease and subsequent injury after ischemic events, fundamental knowledge in these areas lag behind our current understanding of neuroprotection and vascular biology in general. The goal of this review is to address select key structural and functional changes in the vasculature that promote hypoperfusion and ischemia, while also affecting the extent of injury and effectiveness of therapy. In addition, as damage to the blood-brain barrier is one of the major consequences of ischemia, we discuss cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying ischemia-induced changes in blood-brain barrier integrity and function, including alterations in endothelial cells and the contribution of pericytes, immune cells, and matrix metalloproteinases. Identification of cell types, pathways, and molecules that control vascular changes before and after ischemia may result in novel approaches to slow the progression of cerebrovascular disease and lessen both the frequency and impact of ischemic events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate protects against cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Hosoi, Toru; Okuma, Yasunobu; Kaneko, Masayuki; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2004-10-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid that has been used for treatment of urea cycle disorders in children, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia. It has been demonstrated recently that 4-PBA can act as a chemical chaperone by reducing the load of mutant or mislocated proteins retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) under conditions associated with cystic fibrosis and liver injury. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of 4-PBA on cerebral ischemic injury. Pre- or post-treatment with 4-PBA at therapeutic doses attenuated infarction volume, hemispheric swelling, and apoptosis and improved neurological status in a mouse model of hypoxia-ischemia. Moreover, 4-PBA suppressed ER-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein induction, and caspase-12 activation. In neuroblastoma neuro2a cells, 4-PBA reduced caspase-12 activation, DNA fragmentation, and cell death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. It protected against ER stress-induced but not mitochondria-mediated cell death. Additionally, 4-PBA inhibited the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in primary cultured glial cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation. These results indicate that 4-PBA could protect against cerebral ischemia through inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis and inflammation. Therefore, the multiple actions of 4-PBA may provide a strong effect in treatment of cerebral ischemia, and its use as a chemical chaperone would provide a novel approach for the treatment of stroke.

  1. Progressive Ischemic Stroke due to Thyroid Storm-Associated Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Natsumi; Hiraoka, Eiji; Hoshino, Masataka; Deshpande, Gautam A.; Sawada, Kana; Norisue, Yasuhiro; Tsukuda, Jumpei; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 49 Final Diagnosis: Cerebral venous thrombosis Symptoms: Altered mental state • weakness in limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but fatal complication of hyperthyroidism that is induced by the hypercoagulable state of thyrotoxicosis. Although it is frequently difficult to diagnose CVT promptly, it is important to consider it in the differential diagnosis when a hyperthyroid patient presents with atypical neurologic symptoms. Care Report: A 49-year-old Japanese female with unremarkable medical history came in with thyroid storm and multiple progressive ischemic stroke identified at another hospital. Treatment for thyroid storm with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, and potassium iodide-iodine was started and MR venography was performed on hospital day 3 for further evaluation of her progressive ischemic stroke. The MRI showed CVT, and anticoagulation therapy, in addition to the anti-thyroid agents, was initiated. The patient’s thyroid function was successfully stabilized by hospital day 10 and further progression of CVT was prevented. Conclusions: Physicians should consider CVT when a patient presents with atypical course of stroke or with atypical MRI findings such as high intensity area in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping. Not only is an early diagnosis and initiation of anticoagulation important, but identifying and treating the underlying disease is essential to avoid the progression of CVT. PMID:28228636

  2. Radon inhalation protects against transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo; Takata, Yuji; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kawabe, Atsushi; Kumashiro, Masayuki; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2014-10-01

    Although brain disorders are not the main indication for radon therapy, our previous study suggested that radon inhalation therapy might mitigate brain disorders. In this study, we assessed whether radon inhalation protects against transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils. Gerbils were treated with inhaled radon at a concentration of 2,000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h. After radon inhalation, transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. Results showed that transient global cerebral ischemia induced neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1, and the number of damaged neurons was significantly increased compared with control. However, radon treatment inhibited ischemic damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the radon-treated gerbil brain was significantly higher than that in sham-operated gerbils. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activates antioxidative function, especially SOD, thereby inhibiting transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils.

  3. Klotho upregulation contributes to the neuroprotection of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Fang-Yi; Shi, Meng-Qi; Zhou, Hong-Jing; Liu, Dong-Ling; Sang, Na; Du, Jun-Rong

    2018-02-05

    Klotho, an aging-suppressor gene, encodes a protein that potentially acts as a neuroprotective factor. Our previous studies showed that ligustilide minimizes the cognitive dysfunction and brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to investigate whether klotho is involved in the protective effects of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arterial occlusion. Neurobehavioral tests as well as Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B staining were used to evaluate the protective effects of ligustilide in cerebral ischemia, and Western blotting and ELISA approaches were used to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Administration of ligustilide prevented the development of neurological deficits and reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region and the caudate putamen after cerebral ischemia. The protective effects were associated with inhibition of the RIG-I/NF-κB p65 and Akt/FoxO1 pathways and with prevention of inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain. Further, downregulation of klotho could attenuate the neuroprotection of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury. Ligustilide exerted neuroprotective effects in mice after cerebral ischemia by regulating anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant signaling pathways. Furthermore, klotho upregulation contributes to the neuroprotection of LIG against cerebral ischemic injury. These results indicated that ligustilide may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative cerebral blood volume as a marker of durable tissue-at-risk viability in hyperacute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Cortijo, Elisa; Calleja, Ana Isabel; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Mulero, Patricia; Pérez-Fernández, Santiago; Reyes, Javier; Muñoz, Ma Fe; Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Selection of best responders to reperfusion therapies could be aided by predicting the duration of tissue-at-risk viability, which may be dependant on collateral circulation status. We aimed to identify the best predictor of good collateral circulation among perfusion computed tomography (PCT) parameters in middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke and to analyze how early MCA response to intravenous thrombolysis and PCT-derived markers of good collaterals interact to determine stroke outcome. We prospectively studied patients with acute MCA ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis who underwent PCT before treatment showing a target mismatch profile. Collateral status was assessed using a PCT source image-based score. PCT maps were quantitatively analyzed. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow, and Tmax were calculated within the hypoperfused volume and in the equivalent region of unaffected hemisphere. Occluded MCAs were monitored by transcranial Duplex to assess early recanalization. Main outcome variables were brain hypodensity volume and modified Rankin scale score at day 90. One hundred patients with MCA ischemic stroke imaged by PCT received intravenous thrombolysis, and 68 met all inclusion criteria. A relative CBV (rCBV) >0.93 emerged as the only predictor of good collaterals (odds ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-55.9; P=0.001). Early MCA recanalization was associated with better long-term outcome and lower infarct volume in patients with rCBV<0.93, but not in patients with high rCBV. None of the patients with rCBV<0.93 achieved good outcome in absence of early recanalization. High rCBV was the strongest marker of good collaterals and may characterize durable tissue-at-risk viability in hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke.

  5. Optimized retrograde cerebral perfusion reduces ischemic energy depletion.

    PubMed

    Oda, Teiji; Kimura, Tetsuhiro; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Fujise, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) provides minimal capillary flow; however, the extent to which RCP can provide aerobic metabolic support is unknown. We evaluated whether perfusate composition optimization for RCP would preserve brain energy metabolism during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) at 20 degrees C in rats. Three types of perfusates were prepared: hemoglobin-free saline, rat red blood cells, and artificial blood substitute (liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin); perfusates were made hypertonic, cooled to 20 degrees C, and oxygenated and CO(2) was administered (pH-stat management). Circulatory arrest was induced in 24 pH-stat-ventilated Wistar rats that had been surface cooled to 20 degrees C; 18 were assigned to the RCP group in which one of the three ( n = 6 each) perfusates was administered via the maxillary vein, and 6 received no perfusion. In two similarly surface-cooled rats (controls), brains were excised when the temperature reached 20 degrees C. After 20 min of RCP or HCA, brains were excised and immediately frozen; brain high-energy phosphates, adenosine, and water content were measured. The liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin perfusate preserved levels of brain tissue adenosine triphosphates and energy charge, but not significantly better than rat red blood cells. Both maintained significantly higher levels than perfusion with oxygenated saline or hypothermic circulatory arrest alone ( P = 0.0419-0.0001), under which regimes high-energy phosphates and energy charge declined to similar low values. RCP with hypertonic solution prevented brain edema. RCP with optimized composition perfusate (pH-stat, hypertonic rat red blood cells or liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin) reduced ischemic energy depletion during 20 min of HCA at 20 degrees C in rats.

  6. Sex, Aging, and Preexisting Cerebral Ischemic Disease in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Acker, Michael A.; Bilello, Michel; Melhem, Elias R.; Stambrook, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have a high frequency of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions, the presence of which appears to predict cognitive sequelae. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis (AS) incur an exceptionally high risk for perioperative cerebral ischemia. The extreme risk in this subgroup may arise from the preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. We tested the hypotheses that increasing age, female sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS are predictive of the severity of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions. Methods A total of 95 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were imaged on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanners to obtain multimodal image sets which were used for the automatic segmentation of cerebral lesion volume. The dependence of lesion volume upon age, sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS were tested. Results The results demonstrate a strong correlation between aging, female sex, and white matter and ischemia-like lesion volume in patients with aortic stenosis. Conclusions Women and those of advanced age presenting for aortic valve replacement for AS may incur a particularly high risk for postoperative neurologic sequelae due to an exceptional preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:20868818

  7. A Correlational Study on Cerebral Microbleeds and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Fang; Gao, Hao-Yuan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Zhuan; Li, Juan; Ning, Fang-Bo; Zhang, Xin-Na; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Yu, Ai-Ling; Guo, Yan-Yong; Sun, Bao-Liang

    2018-05-11

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between cerebral microbleeds and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke treated in a hospital in China from 2016 to 2017 were enrolled in the study. Based on the results from susceptibility-weighted imaging, the patients were divided into cerebral microbleed and noncerebral microbleed groups. The degree of carotid atherosclerosis was assessed with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMB) and Crouse score of carotid plaque. The details of patients' demographic information, cerebrovascular disease-related risk factors, carotid atherosclerosis indices, cerebral microbleed distribution, and grading were recorded, compared, and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis of the 198 patients showed that CIMB and Crouse score were significantly correlated with the occurrence of cerebral microbleeds. The CIMB thickening group (P = .03) and the plaque group (P = .01) were more susceptible to cerebral microbleeds. In the distribution of cerebral microbleed sites, Crouse scores were the highest in the mixed group and showed a statistically significant difference (P < .01). As the degree of carotid atherosclerosis increased, the average number of cerebral microbleeds also increased (P < .01). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the carotid atherosclerosis indices showed a statistically significant difference. The CIMB value combined with the Crouse score was the best indicator (P < .01). In patients with ischemic stroke, cerebral microbleeds are closely related to carotid atherosclerosis. Active control of carotid atherosclerosis is important to prevent cerebral microbleeds in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Progressive Ischemic Stroke due to Thyroid Storm-Associated Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Natsumi; Hiraoka, Eiji; Hoshino, Masataka; Deshpande, Gautam A; Sawada, Kana; Norisue, Yasuhiro; Tsukuda, Jumpei; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2017-02-23

    BACKGROUND Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but fatal complication of hyperthyroidism that is induced by the hypercoagulable state of thyrotoxicosis. Although it is frequently difficult to diagnose CVT promptly, it is important to consider it in the differential diagnosis when a hyperthyroid patient presents with atypical neurologic symptoms. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old Japanese female with unremarkable medical history came in with thyroid storm and multiple progressive ischemic stroke identified at another hospital. Treatment for thyroid storm with beta-blocker, glucocorticoid, and potassium iodide-iodine was started and MR venography was performed on hospital day 3 for further evaluation of her progressive ischemic stroke. The MRI showed CVT, and anticoagulation therapy, in addition to the anti-thyroid agents, was initiated. The patient's thyroid function was successfully stabilized by hospital day 10 and further progression of CVT was prevented. CONCLUSIONS Physicians should consider CVT when a patient presents with atypical course of stroke or with atypical MRI findings such as high intensity area in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping. Not only is an early diagnosis and initiation of anticoagulation important, but identifying and treating the underlying disease is essential to avoid the progression of CVT.

  9. Cerebral Microbleeds and the Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy).

    PubMed

    Puy, Laurent; De Guio, François; Godin, Ophélia; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent data suggest that microbleeds may also predict the risk of incident ischemic stroke. However, these results were observed in elderly individuals undertaking various medications and for whom causes of microbleeds and ischemic stroke may differ. We aimed to test the relationship between the presence of microbleeds and incident stroke in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy)-a severe monogenic small vessel disease known to be responsible for both highly prevalent microbleeds and a high incidence of ischemic stroke in young patients. We assessed microbleeds on baseline MRI in all 378 patients from the Paris-Munich cohort study. Incident ischemic strokes were recorded during 54 months. Survival analyses were used to test the relationship between microbleeds and incident ischemic stroke. Three hundred sixty-nine patients (mean age, 51.4±11.4 years) were followed-up during a median time of 39 months (interquartile range, 19 months). The risk of incident ischemic stroke was higher in patients with microbleeds than in patients without (35.8% versus 19.6%, hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.01; P =0.009). These results persisted after adjustment for history of ischemic stroke, age, sex, vascular risk factors, and antiplatelet agents use (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.26; P =0.02). The presence of microbleeds is an independent risk marker of incident ischemic stroke in CADASIL, emphasizing the need to carefully interpret MRI data. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Early Initiation of Anticoagulation with Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients after Transient Ischemic Attack or Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Macha, Kosmas; Volbers, Bastian; Bobinger, Tobias; Kurka, Natalia; Breuer, Lorenz; Huttner, Hagen B; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are increasingly used for secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke. While DOACs are associated with a long-term reduced risk of intracranial hemorrhage compared to vitamin K antagonists, pivotal trials avoided the very early period after stroke and few data exist on early initiation of DOAC therapy post stroke. We retrospectively analyzed data from our prospective database of all consecutive transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation treated with DOACs during hospital stay. As per our institutional treatment algorithm for patients with cardioembolic ischemia DOACs are started immediately in TIA and minor stroke (group 1), within days 3-5 in patients with infarcts affecting one third or less of the middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery, or the posterior cerebral artery territories (group 2) as well as in infratentorial stroke (group 3) and after 1-2 weeks in patients with large infarcts (>⅓MCA territory, group 4). We investigated baseline characteristics, time to initiation of DOAC therapy after symptom onset, and hemorrhagic complications. In 243 included patients, administration of DOAC was initiated 40.5 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 23.0-65.5) after stroke onset in group 1 (n = 41) and after 76.7 hours (IQR 48.0-134.0), 108.4 hours (IQR 67.3-176.4), and 161.8 hours (IQR 153.9-593.8) in groups 2-4 (n = 170, 28, and 4), respectively. Two cases of asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (.8%) and 1 case of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (.4%) were observed, both in group 2. No severe safety issues were observed in early initiation of DOACs for secondary prevention after acute stroke in our in-patient cohort. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impaired cerebral autoregulation and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Massaro, An N; Govindan, R B; Vezina, Gilbert; Chang, Taeun; Andescavage, Nickie N; Wang, Yunfei; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Metzler, Marina; Harris, Kari; du Plessis, Adre J

    2015-08-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation may contribute to secondary injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Continuous, noninvasive assessment of cerebral pressure autoregulation can be achieved with bedside near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and systemic mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) monitoring. This study aimed to evaluate whether impaired cerebral autoregulation measured by NIRS-MAP monitoring during therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming relates to outcome in 36 newborns with HIE. Spectral coherence analysis between NIRS and MAP was used to quantify changes in the duration [pressure passivity index (PPI)] and magnitude (gain) of cerebral autoregulatory impairment. Higher PPI in both cerebral hemispheres and gain in the right hemisphere were associated with neonatal adverse outcomes [death or detectable brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), P < 0.001]. NIRS-MAP monitoring of cerebral autoregulation can provide an ongoing physiological biomarker that may help direct care in perinatal brain injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. [Identification of early irreversible damage area in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Guo, Y

    2000-02-01

    To observe the early neuron ischemic damage in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion with histostaining methods of argyrophil III (AG III), Toludine blue(TB), and H&E, and to make out the 'separating line' between the areas of reversible and irreversible early ischemic damage. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: pseudo-surgical, blank-control, O2R0(occluded for 2 hours and reperfused for 0 hour), O2R0.5, O2R2, O2R4, O2R24. There were 6 rats in each group. Rats in experimental groups were suffered focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through a nylon suture method. After a special processor for tissue manage, the brain were coronal sectioned and stained with H&E, TB, and AG III. The area where dark neurons dwell in (ischemic core) were calculated with image analysis system. The success rate of ischemic model for this experiment is 90%. After being stained with argyrophil III method, normal neurons appear yellow or pale brown, which is hardly distinguished from the pale brown background. The ischemic neuron stained black, and has collapsed body and "corkscrew-like" axon or dentries, which were broken to some extent. The neuropil in the dark neurons dwelt area appears gray or pale black, which is apparently different from the pale brown neighborhood area. The distribution of dark neurons in cortex varies according to different layers, and has a character of columnar form. The dark neurons present as early as 2 hours ischemia without reperfusion with AG III method. AG III stain could selectively display early ischemic neurons, the area dwelt by dark neurons represent early ischemic core. Dark neuron is possibly the irreversibly damaged neuron. Identification of dark neurons could be helpful in the discrimination between early ischemic center and penumbra.

  13. Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Shohami, Esther; Kindy, Mark S

    2012-03-14

    The resin of Boswellia species is a major anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for centuries to treat various conditions including injuries and inflammatory conditions. Incensole acetate (IA), a major constituent of this resin, has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation and concomitant inflammation, as well as the neurological deficit following head trauma. Here, we show that IA protects against ischemic neuronal damage and reperfusion injury in mice, attenuating the inflammatory nature of ischemic damage. IA given post-ischemia, reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological activities in the mouse model of ischemic injury in a dose dependent fashion. The protection from damage was accompanied by inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-β expression, as well as NF-κB activation following injury. In addition, IA is shown to have a therapeutic window of treatment up to 6h after ischemic injury. Finally, the protective effects of IA were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels as determined by the TRPV3 deficient mice and channel blocker studies. This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of IA may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for ischemic and reperfusion injury, and as a tool in the ongoing research of mechanisms for neurological damage. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Severe Cerebral Vasospasm and Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke After Intrathecal Cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Tibussek, Daniel; Natesirinilkul, Rungrote; Sun, Lisa R; Wasserman, Bruce A; Brandão, Leonardo R; deVeber, Gabrielle

    2016-02-01

    We report on 2 patients who developed widespread cerebral vasospasm and arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) after application of intrathecal (IT) cytarabine. In a 3-year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), left leg weakness, hyperreflexia, and clonus were noted 4 days after her first dose of IT cytarabine during the induction phase of her chemotherapy. Cerebral MRI revealed multiple acute cerebral ischemic infarcts and widespread cerebral vasospasm. A 5-year-old girl complained of right arm and leg pain and began limping 11 days after IT cytarabine. Symptoms progressed to right dense hemiplegia, left gaze deviation, headache, and speech arrest. MRI revealed 2 large cortical areas of diffusion restriction in the right frontal and left parietal lobes. Cerebral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed irregular narrowing affecting much of the intracranial arterial circulation. Although the first child fully recovered from her neurologic symptoms, the second patient had persistent hemiplegia on follow-up. Including this report, there are now 4 pediatric ALL cases of severe cerebral vasospasm and AIS in the context of IT cytarabine administration, strongly suggesting a true association. Differential diagnosis and management issues are discussed. Along with the more widespread use of MRI and MRA, the true frequency of this severe adverse effect will become clearer in future. For any child with neurologic symptoms within hours or days of receiving IT cytarabine, a low threshold for cerebral imaging with MRI and MRA is recommended. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Delayed treatment with ADAMTS13 ameliorates cerebral ischemic injury without hemorrhagic complication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Irie, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Sano, Kazunori; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Yuta; Satho, Tomomitsu; Fujioka, Masayuki; Muroi, Carl; Matsuo, Koichi; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Futagami, Kojiro; Mishima, Kenichi

    2015-10-22

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke. However, delayed tPA treatment increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage and can result in exacerbation of nerve injury. ADAMTS13, a von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, has a protective effect against ischemic brain injury and may reduce bleeding risk by cleaving VWF. We examined whether ADAMTS13 has a longer therapeutic time window in ischemic stroke than tPA in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). ADAMTS13 (0.1mg/kg) or tPA (10mg/kg) was administered i.v., immediately after reperfusion of after 2-h or 4-h MCAO for comparison of the therapeutic time windows in ischemic stroke. Infarct volume, hemorrhagic volume, plasma high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) levels and cerebral blood flow were measured 24h after MCAO. Both ADAMTS13 and tPA improved the infarct volume without hemorrhagic complications in 2-h MCAO mice. On the other hand, ADAMTS13 reduced the infarct volume and plasma HMGB1 levels, and improved cerebral blood flow without hemorrhagic complications in 4-h MCAO mice, but tPA was not effective and these animals showed massive intracerebral hemorrhage. These results indicated that ADAMTS13 has a longer therapeutic time window in ischemic stroke than tPA, and ADAMTS13 may be useful as a new therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intake of antioxidants and B vitamins is inversely associated with ischemic stroke and cerebral atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hansaem; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Yun, Jin A; Kim, Ji-Myung; Song, Tae-Jin; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yong-Jae

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to examine relationships between dietary habits and intakes of antioxidants and B vitamins and the risk of ischemic stroke, and to compare dietary factors according to the presence of cerebral artery atherosclerosis and stroke subtypes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 147 patients and 144 control subjects were recruited consecutively in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Sixty participants each in the case and control groups were included in analyses after 1:1 frequency matching. In addition, 117 acute ischemic stroke patients were classified into subtypes according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) guidelines. Dietary intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire composed of 111 food items and plasma lipid and homocysteine levels were analyzed. RESULTS When compared with control subjects, stroke patients had unfavorable dietary behaviors and lower intakes of fruits (73.1 ± 83.2 g vs. 230.9 ± 202.1 g, P < 0.001), vegetables (221.1 ± 209.0 g vs. 561.7 ± 306.6 g, P < 0.001), and antioxidants, including vitamins C, E, B6, β-carotene, and folate. The intakes of fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, and folate were inversely associated with the risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for confounding factors. Intakes of vegetables, vitamins C, B6, B12, and folate per 1,000 kcal were lower in ischemic stroke with cerebral atherosclerosis than in those without. Overall vitamin B12 intake per 1,000 kcal differed according to the TOAST classification (P = 0.004), but no differences among groups existed based on the post-hoc test. CONCLUSIONS When compared with control subjects, ischemic stroke patients, particularly those with cerebral atherosclerosis, had unfavorable dietary intake, which may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. These results indicate that proper dietary recommendations are important for the prevention of ischemic stroke. PMID:27698959

  17. Intake of antioxidants and B vitamins is inversely associated with ischemic stroke and cerebral atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hansaem; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Yun, Jin A; Kim, Ji-Myung; Song, Tae-Jin; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Yuri

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine relationships between dietary habits and intakes of antioxidants and B vitamins and the risk of ischemic stroke, and to compare dietary factors according to the presence of cerebral artery atherosclerosis and stroke subtypes. A total of 147 patients and 144 control subjects were recruited consecutively in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Sixty participants each in the case and control groups were included in analyses after 1:1 frequency matching. In addition, 117 acute ischemic stroke patients were classified into subtypes according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) guidelines. Dietary intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire composed of 111 food items and plasma lipid and homocysteine levels were analyzed. When compared with control subjects, stroke patients had unfavorable dietary behaviors and lower intakes of fruits (73.1 ± 83.2 g vs. 230.9 ± 202.1 g, P < 0.001), vegetables (221.1 ± 209.0 g vs. 561.7 ± 306.6 g, P < 0.001), and antioxidants, including vitamins C, E, B 6 , β-carotene, and folate. The intakes of fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, and folate were inversely associated with the risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for confounding factors. Intakes of vegetables, vitamins C, B 6 , B 12 , and folate per 1,000 kcal were lower in ischemic stroke with cerebral atherosclerosis than in those without. Overall vitamin B 12 intake per 1,000 kcal differed according to the TOAST classification ( P = 0.004), but no differences among groups existed based on the post-hoc test. When compared with control subjects, ischemic stroke patients, particularly those with cerebral atherosclerosis, had unfavorable dietary intake, which may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. These results indicate that proper dietary recommendations are important for the prevention of ischemic stroke.

  18. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Early Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zheng; Li, Chun; Manuel, Morganne L.; Yuan, Shuai; Kevil, Christopher G.; McCarter, Kimberly D.; Lu, Wei; Sun, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We determined the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) in cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and early BBB disruption following ischemic stroke. A cranial window was prepared over the left frontal, parietal and temporal cortex in mice. Transient focal cerebral Ischemia was induced by directly ligating the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for two hours. Regional vascular response and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during ischemia and reperfusion were measured in real time. Early BBB disruption was assessed by Evans Blue (EB) and sodium fluorescein (Na-F) extravasation at 3 hours of reperfusion. Topical treatment with DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor for cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)) and aspartate (ASP, inhibitor for cysteine aminotransferase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (CAT/3-MST)), but not O-(Carboxymethyl)hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (CHH, an inhibitor for cystathionine β-synthase (CBS)), abolished postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and prevented EB and Na-F extravasation. CSE knockout (CSE-/-) reduced postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia but only inhibited Na-F extravasation. An upregulated CBS was found in cerebral cortex of CSE-/- mice. Topical treatment with CHH didn’t further alter postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia, but prevented EB extravasation in CSE-/- mice. In addition, L-cysteine-induced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production similarly increased in ischemic side cerebral cortex of control and CSE-/- mice. Our findings suggest that endogenous production of H2S by CSE and CAT/3-MST during reperfusion may be involved in postischemic cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and play an important role in early BBB disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:25695633

  19. Risk Factors and Cognitive Relevance of Cortical Cerebral Microinfarcts in Patients With Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaolu; van Veluw, Susanne J; Wong, Adrian; Liu, Wenyan; Shi, Lin; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Yunyun; Lau, Alexander; Biessels, Geert Jan; Mok, Vincent C T

    2016-10-01

    It was recently demonstrated that cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) can be detected in vivo using 3.0 tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and the longitudinal cognitive consequence of cortical CMIs on 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging, in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A total of 231 patients undergoing 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging were included. Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to evaluate global cognitive functions and cognitive domains (memory, language, and attention visuospatial and executive functions). Cognitive changes were represented by the difference in Montreal Cognitive Assessment score between baseline and 28-month after stroke/transient ischemic attack. The cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cortical CMIs and cognitive functions were explored using ANCOVA and regression models. Cortical CMIs were observed in 34 patients (14.7%), including 13 patients with acute (hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging) and 21 with chronic CMIs (isointense on diffusion-weighted imaging). Atrial fibrillation was a risk factor for all cortical CMIs (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-14.9; P=0.007). Confluent white matter hyperintensities was associated with chronic CMIs (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-7.8; P=0.047). The presence of cortical CMIs at baseline was associated with worse visuospatial functions at baseline and decline over 28-month follow-up (β=0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-1.0; P=0.008, adjusting for brain atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, and microbleeds). Cortical CMIs are a common finding in patients with stroke/transient ischemic attack. Associations between CMI with atrial fibrillation and white matter hyperintensities suggest that these lesions have a heterogeneous cause, involving microembolism and cerebral small vessel disease. CMI seemed to preferentially impact visuospatial functions as assessed by a

  20. Frequency of Atrial Septal Aneurysms in Patients with Cerebral Ischemic Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agmon, Yoram; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Meissner, Irene; Gentile, Federico; Whisnant, Jack P.; Sicks, JoRean D.; O'Fallon, W. Michael; Covalt, Jody L.; Wiebers, David O.; Seward, James B.

    1999-01-01

    Background-Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a putative risk factor for cardioembolism. However, the frequency of ASA in the general population has not been adequately determined. Therefore, the frequency in patients with cerebral ischemic events, compared with the frequency in the general population, is poorly defined. We sought to determine the frequency of ASA in the general population and to compare the frequency of ASA in patients with cerebral ischemic events with the frequency in the general population. Methods and Results-The frequency of ASA in the population was determined in 363 subjects, a sample of the participants in the Stroke Prevention: Assessment of Risk in a Community study (control subjects), and was compared with the frequency in 355 age- and sex-matched patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography in search of a cardiac source of embolism after a focal cerebral ischemic event. The proportion with ASA was 7.9% in patients versus 2.2% in control subjects (P=0.002; odds ratio of ASA, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.64 to 8.13, in patients versus control subjects). Patent foramen ovale (PFO) was detected with contrast injections in 56% of subjects with ASA. The presence of ASA predicted the presence of PFO (odds ratio of PFO, 4.57; 95% CI, 2.18 to 9.57, in subjects with versus those without ASA). In 86% of subjects with ASA and cerebral ischemia, transesophageal echocardiography did not detect an alternative source of cardioembolism other than an associated PFO. Conclusions-The prevalence of ASA based on this population-based study is 2.2%. The frequency of ASA is relatively higher in patients evaluated with transesophageal echocardiography after a cerebral ischemic event. ASA is frequently associated with PFO, suggesting paradoxical embolism as a mechanism of cardioembolism. In patients with cerebral ischemia and ASA, ASA (with or without PFO) commonly is the only potential cardioembolic source detected with transesophageal echocardiography.

  1. A novel atherothrombotic model of ischemic stroke induced by injection of collagen into the cerebral vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Schunke, Kathryn J.; Toung, Thomas K.; Zhang, Jian; Pathak, Arvind P.; Xu, Jiadi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Koehler, Raymond C.; Faraday, Nauder

    2017-01-01

    Background Most ischemic strokes in humans are caused by ruptured arterial atheroma, which activate platelets and produce thrombi that occlude cerebral vessels. Methods To simulate these events, we threaded a catheter through the internal carotid artery toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA) orifice and injected collagen directly into the cerebral circulation of male C57Bl/6 mice and Wistar rats. Results Laser-Doppler flowmetry demonstrated reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) of ~80% in mice and ~60% in rats. CBF spontaneously increased but remained depressed after catheter withdrawal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that ipsilateral CBF was reduced at 3 h after collagen injection and markedly improved at 48 h. Micro-computed tomography revealed reduced blood vessel density in the ipsilateral MCA territory at 3 h. Gross examination of excised brains revealed thrombi within ipsilateral cerebral arteries at 3 h, but not 24 h, after collagen injection. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that platelets and fibrinogen/fibrin were major components of these thrombi at both macrovascular and microvascular levels. Cerebral infarcts comprising ~30% of hemispheric volume and neurobehavioral deficits were observed 48 h after ischemic injury in both mice and rats. Comparison with existing methods Collagen injection caused brain injury that was similar in magnitude and variability to mechanical MCA occlusion or injection of a pre-formed clot; however, alterations in CBF and the mechanism of vascular occlusion were more consistent with clinical ischemic stroke. Conclusion This novel rodent model of ischemic stroke has pathophysiologic characteristics consistent with clinical atherothrombotic stroke, is technically feasible, and creates reproducible brain injury. PMID:25314906

  2. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm 3 absolute mean difference; p < 0.001) and higher chance of good functional outcome (OR 4.58, p < 0.001). Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p < 0.001) and lateral (+19.2%; p = 0.016) MCA territory compared to pretreatment during MCA occlusion. Safety indicators were treatment-related mortality and cardiorespiratory effects. The highest efficacy and safety profile was observed for HDT. Our findings suggest that acute modulation of cerebral collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  3. Transcranial diffuse optical monitoring of microvascular cerebral hemodynamics after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirak, Peyman; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Dinia, Lavinia; Carrera, David; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke is to reestablish the blood flow to the ischemic region of the brain. However, currently, the local cerebral hemodynamics (microvascular) is almost entirely inaccessible for stroke clinicians at the patient bed-side, and the recanalization of the major cerebral arteries (macrovascular) is the only available measure to evaluate the therapy, which does not always reflect the local conditions. Here we report the case of an ischemic stroke patient whose microvascular cerebral blood flow and oxygenation were monitored by a compact hybrid diffuse optical monitor during thrombolytic therapy. This monitor combined diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy. The reperfusion assessed by hybrid diffuse optics temporally correlated with the recanalization of the middle cerebral artery (assessed by transcranial-Doppler) and was in agreement with the patient outcome. This study suggests that upon further investigation, diffuse optics might have a potential for bed-side acute stroke monitoring and therapy guidance by providing hemodynamics information at the microvascular level.

  4. Transcranial diffuse optical monitoring of microvascular cerebral hemodynamics after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zirak, Peyman; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Dinia, Lavinia; Carrera, David; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke is to reestablish the blood flow to the ischemic region of the brain. However, currently, the local cerebral hemodynamics (microvascular) is almost entirely inaccessible for stroke clinicians at the patient bed-side, and the recanalization of the major cerebral arteries (macrovascular) is the only available measure to evaluate the therapy, which does not always reflect the local conditions. Here we report the case of an ischemic stroke patient whose microvascular cerebral blood flow and oxygenation were monitored by a compact hybrid diffuse optical monitor during thrombolytic therapy. This monitor combined diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy. The reperfusion assessed by hybrid diffuse optics temporally correlated with the recanalization of the middle cerebral artery (assessed by transcranial-Doppler) and was in agreement with the patient outcome. This study suggests that upon further investigation, diffuse optics might have a potential for bed-side acute stroke monitoring and therapy guidance by providing hemodynamics information at the microvascular level.

  5. MORIN MITIGATES OXIDATIVE STRESS, APOPTOSIS AND INFLAMMATION IN CEREBRAL ISCHEMIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanrong; Li, Yanke; Xu, Huali; Li, Gang; Ma, Yunxia; Pang, Yu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Morin is a flavanoid which exhibits potent antioxidant activity in various oxidative stress related diseases. The current study was attempted to scrutinize the preclinical bio-efficacy of morin on focal ischemia. Methods: The animal model of focal cerebral ischemic injury was done by midbrain carotid artery occlusion (MCAO) method, followed by Morin (30mg/kg) administration for seven days. Results: The outcome of the study showed that treatment with morin displayed positive effects in reducing the focal cerebral ischemia. This effect was evident with the improvements in neurological deficits, reduction in MDA content and elevation of antioxidant levels (SOD, GSH and Gpx). Furthermore, protein expression of Bax and caspase-3 were effectively down-regulated, whilst the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly elevated. On the other hand, the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced in focal cerebral ischemic rats upon morin intervention. Conclusion: Thus, the beneficial effects of morin on cerebral ischemia assault may result from the reduction of oxidative stress, inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation. The neuroprotective effects of morin supplement may serve as potent adjuvant in the amelioration of ischemic stroke. PMID:28573251

  6. Paradigms and mechanisms of inhalational anesthetics mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailian; Li, Peiying; Xu, Na; Zhu, Ling; Cai, Mengfei; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability and cognitive dysfunction. The high mortality and disability of cerebral ischemic stroke is urging the health providers, including anesthesiologists and other perioperative professioners, to seek effective protective strategies, which are extremely limited, especially for those perioperative patients. Intriguingly, several commonly used inhalational anesthetics are recently suggested to possess neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. This review introduces multiple paradigms of inhalational anesthetic treatments that have been investigated in the setting of cerebral ischemia, such as preconditioning, proconditioning and postconditioning with a variety of inhalational anesthetics. The pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these inhalational anesthetics-afforded neuroprotection against stroke are also discussed in detail, including the common pathways shared by most of the inhalational anesthetic paradigms, such as anti-excitotoxicity, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. There are also distinct mechanisms involved in specific paradigms, such as preserving blood brain barrier integrity, regulating cerebral blood flow and catecholamine release. The ready availability of these inhalational anesthetics bedside and renders them a potentially translatable stroke therapy attracting great efforts for understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Paradigms and mechanisms of inhalational anesthetics mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailian; Li, Peiying; Xu, Na; Zhu, Ling; Cai, Mengfei; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability and cognitive dysfunction. The high mortality and disability of cerebral ischemic stroke is urging the health providers, including anesthesiologists and other perioperative professioners, to seek effective protective strategies, which are extremely limited, especially for those perioperative patients. Intriguingly, several commonly used inhalational anesthetics are recently suggested to possess neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. This review introduces multiple paradigms of inhalational anesthetic treatments that have been investigated in the setting of cerebral ischemia, such as preconditioning, proconditioning and postconditioning with a variety of inhalational anesthetics. The pleiotropic mechanisms underlying these inhalational anesthetics-afforded neuroprotection against stroke are also discussed in detail, including the common pathways shared by most of the inhalational anesthetic paradigms, such as anti-excitotoxicity, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. There are also distinct mechanisms involved in specific paradigms, such as preserving blood brain barrier integrity, regulating cerebral blood flow and catecholamine release. The ready availability of these inhalational anesthetics bedside and renders them a potentially translatable stroke therapy attracting great efforts for understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:28217291

  8. Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jonathan P; Fryer, Tim D; Smielewski, Peter; Rice, Kenneth; Clark, John C; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K

    2004-02-01

    Whereas postmortem ischemic damage is common in head injury, antemortem demonstration of ischemia has proven to be elusive. Although 15O positron emission tomography may be useful in this area, the technique has traditionally analyzed data within regions of interest (ROIs) to improve statistical accuracy. In head injury, such techniques are limited because of the lack of a priori knowledge regarding the location of ischemia, coexistence of hyperaemia, and difficulty in defining ischemic cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) levels. We report a novel method for defining disease pathophysiology following head injury. Voxel-based approaches are used to define the distribution of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) across the entire brain; the standard deviation of this distribution provides a measure of the variability of OEF. These data are also used to integrate voxels above a threshold OEF value to produce an ROI based upon coherent physiology rather than spatial contiguity (the ischemic brain volume; IBV). However, such approaches may suffer from poor statistical accuracy, particularly in regions with low blood flow. The magnitude of these errors has been assessed in modeling experiments using the Hoffman brain phantom and modified control datasets. We conclude that this technique is a valid and useful tool for quantifying ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury.

  9. Rapid resolution of brain ischemic hypoxia after cerebral revascularization in moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Torne, Ramon; Noguer, Montserrat; Lorenzo-Bosquet, Carles; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2015-03-01

    In moyamoya disease (MMD), cerebral revascularization is recommended in patients with recurrent or progressive ischemic events and associated reduced cerebral perfusion reserve. Low-flow bypass with or without indirect revascularization is generally the standard surgical treatment. Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2) with polarographic Clark-type probes in cerebral artery bypass surgery for MMD-induced chronic cerebral ischemia has not yet been described. To describe basal brain tissue oxygenation in MMD patients before revascularization as well as the immediate changes produced by the surgical procedure using intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring. Between October 2011 and January 2013, all patients with a diagnosis of MMD were intraoperatively monitored. Cerebral oxygenation status was analyzed based on the Ptio2/PaO2 ratio. Reference thresholds of PtiO2/PaO2 had been previously defined as below 0.1 for the lower reference threshold (hypoxia) and above 0.35 for the upper reference threshold (hyperoxia). Before STA-MCA bypass, all patients presented a situation of severe tissue hypoxia confirmed by a PtiO2/PaO2 ratio <0.1. After bypass, all patients showed a rapid and sustained increase in PtiO2, which reached normal values (PtiO2/PaO2 ratio between 0.1 and 0.35). One patient showed an initial PtiO2 improvement followed by a decrease due to bypass occlusion. After repeat anastomosis, the patient's PtiO2 increased again and stabilized. Direct anastomosis quickly improves cerebral oxygenation, immediately reducing the risk of ischemic stroke in both pediatric and adult patients. Intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring is a very reliable tool to verify the effectiveness of this revascularization procedure.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of water-soluble Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on cerebral ischemic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zi-Yi; Tang, Yu-Ping; Xiang, Jun; Wua, Pin; Jin, Hui-Ming; Wang, Zhong; Mori, Masao; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2010-08-19

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of water-soluble Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) on cerebral ischemic injury in rats, and to explore the involved mechanisms. Two models [middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cultured rat cortical neurons] were employed to mimic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage, in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Cerebral infarct area was measured by tetrazolium staining, and neurological functional deficits were assessed at 24h after I/R. Neuronal apoptosis was studied by Nissl staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Neuronal injury was assessed by morphological examination using phase-contrast microscopy and quantified by measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, cell viability was measured by sodium 3'-1- (phenylaminocarbonyl)-3, 4-tetrazolium-bis (4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid (XTT) reduction. Neuronal apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, and electron microscopy was used to study morphological changes of neurons. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation and Bcl-2, Bax protein expression were determined by western blot analysis. Oral administration of GLPS (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) significantly reduced cerebral infarct area, attenuated neurological functional deficits, and reduced neuronal apoptosis in ischemic cortex. In OGD model, GLSP (0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml) effectively reduced neuronal cell death and relieved cell injury. Moreover, GLPS decreased the percentage of apoptotic neurons, relieved neuronal morphological damage, suppressed overexpression of active caspases-3, -8 and -9 and Bax, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Our findings indicate that GLPS protects against cerebral ischemic injury by inhibiting apoptosis by downregulating caspase-3 activation and modulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Application of diffusion tensor imaging in judging infarction time of acute ischemic cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenyu; Chen, Fei; Yao, Lizheng; Dong, Congsong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Haicun; Zhang, Zhiping; Yang, Naizhong; Zhang, Mingsheng; Dai, Yinggui

    2015-08-18

    To evaluate the clinical application value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in judging infarction time phase of acute ischemic cerebral infarction. To retrospective analysis DTI images of 52 patients with unilateral acute ischemic cerebral infarction (hyper-acute, acute and sub-acute) from the Affiliated Yancheng Hospital of Southeast University Medical College, which diagnosed by clinic and magnetic resonance imaging. Set the regions of interest (ROIs) of infarction lesions, brain tissue close to infarction lesions and corresponding contra (contralateral normal brain tissue) on DTI parameters mapping of fractional anisotropy (FA), volume ratio anisotropy (VRA), average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) and exponential attenuation (Exat), record the parameters values of ROIs and calculate the relative parameters value of infarction lesion to contra. Meanwhile, reconstruct the DTT images based on the seed points (infarction lesion and contra). The study compared each parameter value of infarction lesions, brain tissue close to infarction lesions and corresponding contra, also analysed the differences of relative parameters values in different infarction time phases. The DTT images of acute ischemic cerebral infarction in each time phase could show the manifestation of fasciculi damaged. The DCavg value of cerebral infarction lesions was lower and the Exat value was higher than contra in each infarction time phase (P<0.05). The FA and VRA value of cerebral infarction lesions were reduced than contra only in acute and sub-acute infarction (P<0.05). The FA, VRA and Exat value of brain tissue close to infarction lesions were increased and DCavg value was decreased than contra in hyper-acute infarction (P<0.05). There were no statistic differences of FA, VRA, DCavg and Exat value of brain tissue close to infarction lesions in acute and sub-acute infarction. The relative FA and VRA value of infarction lesion to contra gradually

  12. Effect of ischemic cerebral volume changes on behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyden, P D; Lonzo, L M; Nunez, S Y; Dockstader, T; Mathieu-Costello, O; Zivin, J A

    1997-08-01

    Ischemia causes long-term effects on brain volume and neurologic function but the relationship between the two is poorly characterized. We studied the relationships between brain volume and three measures of rodent behavior after cerebral ischemia was induced by injecting several thousand microspheres into the internal carotid arteries of rats. Forty eight hours later, each subject was rated using a global neurologic rating scale. Several weeks later, the subjects were tested for open field activity and visual spatial learning. Post-mortem we measured the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and estimated the volume densities of cortex, white matter, hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, ventricle, and visible infarction. Ischemia caused significant impairment, as measured by the global rating scale; the probability of an abnormal rating was correlated with the number of microspheres trapped in the brains. Visual spatial learning was significantly impaired by ischemia, but this deficit was independent of the count of microspheres, whether the subject was abnormal at 48 h, and whether the left or right hemisphere was embolized. Cerebral hemisphere volume was reduced from 430 mm3 to 376 mm3 (P < 0.05). The cortex was reduced from 22 to 19% of cerebrum (P < 0.05) and the white matter compartment was reduced to similar degree. The lesion volume was 6% of cerebrum, comparable to that seen with other ischemia methods. The global outcome rating was significantly related to total cerebral volume, but not to volume changes in any single compartment. On the other hand, visual spatial learning was significantly influenced by volume changes in the cortex and white matter, but not by the topography of the visible infarctions. Open field activity was not altered by infarction. Our data suggests that the total volume of brain tissue lost to infarction may partially determine global neurological rating independently of the topography of the volume loss. Integrative functions such as

  13. Risk of hemorrhage in ischemic stroke and its relationship with cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Damla; Ozturk Tan, Ozlem; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Midi, Ipek

    2018-05-01

    Stroke is an important public health problem in most countries. Therefore, the treatment of stroke and its complications is important. Intracerebral hemorrhage is one of the complications of ischemic stroke. This study aimed to investigate the risk of hemorrhage in patients with acute ischemic stroke and prospectively study its relationship with cerebral microbleeds (MBs) using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) that is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Those who underwent treatment with tissue plasminogen activator were excluded. The patients were analyzed according to their risk factors for stroke and their relationship with intracerebral hemorrhage. A total of 148 patients were included. Of these, 41 (28%) had hemorrhages in the ischemic area. The mean waist circumferences, left atrium diameter, and heart rate in these patients were higher than those in patients without hemorrhage. MBs were detected in 66 patients (44.6%) using SWI, and there was no significant relationship with the presence of hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhages were significantly associated with the volume and localization of infarcts. Intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with acute ischemic stroke within the first 7 days after stroke onset was related to their waist circumference as well as the volume and localization of the infarct. However, there was no relationship found between the risk of hemorrhage and MBs using SWI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Bilaterally Impaired after Unilateral Acute Ischemic Stroke?

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Tian, Ge; Lin, Wenhua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Leung, Thomas; Mok, Vincent; Liu, Jia; Chen, Xiangyan; Wong, Ka Sing

    2017-05-01

    Whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired focally in the affected hemisphere or bilaterally in both the affected and nonaffected hemispheres after ischemic stroke remains controversial. We therefore investigated the pattern of dCA in acute ischemic stroke patients with different subtypes. Sixty acute ischemic stroke patients with unilateral anterior circulation infarct [30 with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), 13 with small vessel disease (SVD), and 17 with coexisting LAA and SVD] and 16 healthy controls were enrolled. Spontaneous arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity fluctuations in both bilateral middle cerebral arteries using transcranial Doppler were recorded over 10 minutes. Transfer function analysis was applied to obtain autoregulatory parameters, autoregulation index (ARI), phase difference (PD), and gain. PD was significantly lower on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides in the LAA group (ipsilateral, 30.74 degrees; contralateral, 29.17 degrees) and the coexisting LAA and SVD group (20.23 degrees; 13.10 degrees) than that in healthy controls (left side, 51.66 degrees; right side, 58.48 degrees) (all P < .05), but there were no significant differences between the 2 sides when compared with each other in all groups. However, in the coexisting LAA and SVD group, phase on both sides was significantly lower when compared with that in the LAA and SVD groups, respectively. The results of ARI were consistent with the findings in PD. The results indicate that dCA is bilaterally impaired in acute ischemic patients with LAA, and the coexisting SVD may aggravate the bilateral impairment of dCA. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcranial Doppler and cerebral augmentation in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Saqqur, Maher; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Butcher, Ken; Khan, Khurshid; Emery, Derek; Manawadu, Dulka; Derksen, Carol; Schwindt, Brenda; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-07-01

    Collateral flow augmentation using partial aortic occlusion may improve cerebral perfusion in acute stroke. We assessed the effect of partial aortic occlusion on arterial flow velocities of acute stroke patients. Patients with neurological deficits following thrombolysis were treated with partial aortic occlusion. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) was used to measure arterial flow velocities at baseline, before and during balloon inflation. The augmented mean flow velocity (MFV), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity flow percentages (aMFV%, aPSV%, aEDV%) were calculated and compared based on outcome. Of 11 patients, 3 did not have a temporal window and thus were excluded from our analysis. Six of the remaining 8 patients had middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions; the final 2 had terminal internal carotid artery (TICA) occlusions. Three of these 8 patients had good outcome at 90 days (mRS < 3). Before intra-aortic balloon inflation (IABI), the mean affected artery MFV was 23 ± 11 cm/s; during the procedure it was 26 ± 12 cm/s (P = .2). Mean affected artery PSV at baseline and during balloon inflation were 37 ± 16 and 46 ± 23, respectively (P = .1). Mean augmented affected artery MFV% in patients with good long-term outcome was 65.4 ± 46, while the result in those with poor outcome was -3.7 ± 21 (P = .03). Three patients developed anterior cross-filling, and of these 2 had good long-term outcome. TCD monitoring of patients treated with IABI may help in predicting outcome in this novel device. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. [Results of thrombolyses procedures in acute ischemic cerebral stroke realized in Kraków 2004-2007--Grant Ministry of Science and Information].

    PubMed

    Popiela, Tadeusz J; Urbanik, Andrzej; Słowik, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    To lower the number of complications of acute cerebral ischemic stroke and to reduce the time of rehabilitation in these patients it is necessary to induce treatment within the first 3 hours of the onset of the stroke. Early intervention however, is possible only in cases with the confirm localized ischemic focus visualized in one of the diagnostic imaging methods. The most widespread is CT, hovewer the first symptoms of ischemic stroke can be seen not beforel2 hours of the onset. The study evaluated the effectiveness of early diagnostics of ischemic stroke using perfusion CT (pCT) with subsequent intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis. The patients with ischemic stroke confirmed by pCT and qualified to thrombolysis in the first 3 hours of the onset of the stroke were randomly selected to intravenous or intra-arterial thrmobolysis. Those, who were 3 to 6 hours of the onset of the stroke were qualified to intra-arterial thrombolysis. A study group consisted of 377 patients hospitalized due to ischemic stroke. Of these pCT was performed in 76 cases, intravenous thrombolysis in 4 and intra-arterial thrombolysis in 2. Clinical condition substantially improved in 3 patients. Obtained results indicate the necessity to introduce pCT to the routine diagnostics of the acute ischemic stroke. A small number of patients eligible for thrombolysis does not allow to compare the effectiveness of intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis, however the project allowed to work out the efficient system of diagnostics and treatment of the acute ischemic stroke in the area of Krakow based on the standards used in the European countries.

  17. Early Recanalization Postintravenous Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke with Large Vessel Occlusion: A Digital Subtraction Angiography Study.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yi-Ting; Mitchell, Peter; Churilov, Leonid; Dowling, Richard; Dong, Qiang; Yan, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate early recanalization postintravenous (i.v.) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusion (LVO). We performed baseline CT angiography to identify LVO in AIS. Recanalization pre- and post-intra-arterial therapy (IAT) was categorized to none, partial, and global recanalization (GR). Modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 3 months was considered a favorable outcome. Among 1610 patients with AIS, 286 received IV t-PA. Of these, 55 patients with LVO were included. The median time from IV t-PA to DSA was 120 min (interquartile range, 79-152). Recanalization post-IV t-PA was observed in seven patients (12.7%). By occlusion sites, the recanalization rates were as follows: extracranial internal carotid artery 2 of 14 (14.3%); intracranial internal carotid artery 3 of 24 (12.5%); M1 of middle cerebral artery 3 of 39 (7.7%); M2 of middle cerebral artery 1 of 40 (2.5%); vertebral artery 0 of 4; and basilar artery 0 of 7. GR post-IAT was associated with favorable outcomes (odds ratio: 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-48.0; P = 0.014). Early recanalization assessed by DSA post-IV t-PA is rarely observed in acute ischemic stroke patients with LVO. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Suppresses Cell Apoptosis in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiping; Gui, Qunfeng; Hui, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jian; Ding, Lianshu; Sun, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Huaqun

    2017-01-01

    Background We desired to observe the changes of transforming growth factor-β1/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein (TGF-β1/Smad3) signaling pathway in the hippocampus region of cerebral ischemic stroke rats so that the effects of this pathway on nerve cells can be investigated. Material/Methods The ischemic stroke models were built by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 inhibitors were injected into rat models while TGF-β1, TGF-β1 siRNA, Smad3, and Smad3 siRNA were transfected into cells. Infarct sizes were measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, while the apoptosis rate of cells were calculated by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining. Levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, and Bcl-2 were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical, and Western blot analysis. Results The expressions of TGF-β1/Smad3 signal pathway were significantly increased in both model rats and BV2 cells, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated (P<0.05). The TGF-β1/Smad3 signal pathway exhibited protective effects, including the down-regulation of infarction size in cerebral tissues and the down-regulation of apoptosis rate of BV2 cells by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.05). In addition, these effects could be antagonized by the corresponding inhibitors and siRNA (P<0.05). Conclusions The TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway was up-regulated once cerebral ischemic stroke was simulated. TGF-β1 may activate the expression of Bcl-2 via Smad3 to suppress the apoptosis of neurons. PMID:28110342

  19. Effects of noninvasive facial nerve stimulation in the dog middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Borsody, Mark K; Yamada, Chisa; Bielawski, Dawn; Heaton, Tamara; Castro Prado, Fernando; Garcia, Andrea; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Sacristan, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    Facial nerve stimulation has been proposed as a new treatment of ischemic stroke because autonomic components of the nerve dilate cerebral arteries and increase cerebral blood flow when activated. A noninvasive facial nerve stimulator device based on pulsed magnetic stimulation was tested in a dog middle cerebral artery occlusion model. We used an ischemic stroke dog model involving injection of autologous blood clot into the internal carotid artery that reliably embolizes to the middle cerebral artery. Thirty minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the geniculate ganglion region of the facial nerve was stimulated for 5 minutes. Brain perfusion was measured using gadolinium-enhanced contrast MRI, and ATP and total phosphate levels were measured using 31P spectroscopy. Separately, a dog model of brain hemorrhage involving puncture of the intracranial internal carotid artery served as an initial examination of facial nerve stimulation safety. Facial nerve stimulation caused a significant improvement in perfusion in the hemisphere affected by ischemic stroke and a reduction in ischemic core volume in comparison to sham stimulation control. The ATP/total phosphate ratio showed a large decrease poststroke in the control group versus a normal level in the stimulation group. The same stimulation administered to dogs with brain hemorrhage did not cause hematoma enlargement. These results support the development and evaluation of a noninvasive facial nerve stimulator device as a treatment of ischemic stroke.

  20. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy during and after therapeutic hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Aggarwal, Alpna; Lin, Pei-Yi; Rosa Fortuno, C; Fenoglio, Angela; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Soul, Janet S; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Grant, P Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are associated with complex changes of blood flow and metabolism. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is effective in reducing the extent of brain injury, but it remains uncertain how TH affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. Ten neonates undergoing TH for HIE and seventeen healthy controls were recruited from the NICU and the well baby nursery, respectively. A combination of frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) systems was used to non-invasively measure cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic variables at the bedside. Results showed that cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i) and CBF indices (CBFi) in neonates with HIE during TH were significantly lower than post-TH and age-matched control values. Also, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) were significantly higher in neonates with HIE during TH compared with age-matched control neonates. Post-TH CBV was significantly decreased compared with values during TH whereas SO2 remained unchanged after the therapy. Thus, FDNIRS–DCS can provide information complimentary to SO2 and can assess individual cerebral metabolic responses to TH. Combined FDNIRS–DCS parameters improve the understanding of the underlying physiology and have the potential to serve as bedside biomarkers of treatment response and optimization. PMID:24064492

  1. Neuronal PirB Upregulated in Cerebral Ischemia Acts as an Attractive Theranostic Target for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Jing; Cai, Tingting; Du, Jiawei; Chen, Jinpeng; Li, Ping; Shen, Yuqing; Zhang, Aifeng; Fu, Bo; Gao, Xueren; Miao, Fenqin; Zhang, Jianqiong; Teng, Gaojun

    2018-01-29

    Ischemic stroke is a complex disease with multiple etiologies and clinical manifestations. Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), which is originally thought to function exclusively in the immune system, is now also known to be expressed by neurons. A growing number of studies indicate that PirB can inhibit neurite outgrowth and restrict neuronal plasticity. The aim of the study is to investigate whether PirB can be an attractive theranostic target for ischemic stroke. First, we investigated the spatial-temporal expression of PirB in multiple ischemic stroke models, including transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, photothrombotic cerebral cortex ischemia, and the neuronal oxygen glucose deprivation model. Then, anti-PirB immunoliposome nanoprobe was developed by thin-film hydration method and investigated its specific targeting in vitro and in vivo. Finally, soluble PirB ectodomain (sPirB) protein delivered by polyethylene glycol-modified nanoliposome was used as a therapeutic reagent for ischemic stroke by blocking PirB binding to its endogenous ligands. These results showed that PirB was significantly upregulated after cerebral ischemic injury in ischemic stroke models. Anti-PirB immunoliposome nanoprobe was successfully developed and specifically bound to PirB in vitro. There was accumulation of anti-PirB immunoliposome nanoprobe in the ischemic hemisphere in vivo. Soluble PirB ectodomains remarkably improved ischemic stroke model recovery by liposomal delivery system. These data indicated that PirB was a significant element in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, PirB may act as a novel theranostic target for ischemic stroke. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Predictors of cerebral venous thrombosis and arterial ischemic stroke in young Asian women.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Kaul, Subhash; Menon, Bindu; Gunaratne, Padma; Malik, Abdul; Mehmood, Kauser; Ahmed, Shahzad; Awan, Safia; Mehndiratta, M M

    2012-11-01

    The management and outcome of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may be different from that of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Clinically differentiating the 2 diseases on clinical grounds may be difficult. The main objective of this study was to identify predictors differentiating CVT from AIS in a large cohort of young Asian women, based on risk factors and investigations. Twelve centers in 8 Asian countries participated. Women aged 15-45 years were included if they had a diagnosis of first-ever symptomatic AIS or CVT confirmed by brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Patients with head trauma, cerebral contusions, intracranial hemorrhage, and subarachnoid or subdural hemorrhage were excluded. Data, including demographic data, risk factor assessment, neuroimaging studies, blood tests, and cardiac studies, were collected by retrospective and then prospective chart review between January 2001 and July 2008. Outcome was based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at admission, discharge, and latest follow-up. A total of 958 patients (204 with CVT and 754 with AIS) were included in the study. Age under 36 years, anemia, pregnancy or postpartum state, and presence of hemorrhagic infarcts on computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging were significant predictors of CVT on univariate analysis. Age over 36 years, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, recent myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram abnormalities, and blood glucose level >150 mg/dL were strong predictors of AIS. On multivariate analysis, postpartum state and hemorrhagic infarct were the strongest predictors of CVT (P < .001). Mortality was comparable in the 2 patient groups. Prognosis was significantly better for patients with CVT than for those with AIS (mRS score 0-2, 74% v 46%; P < .001). There was no difference in outcome between patients with obstetric and nonobstetric CVT. Our data indicate that in young Asian women, predictors of CVT

  3. Laboratory effect on platelet activity within 24 h of the first 300-mg oral dose of aspirin given in hospital during the acute phase of ischemic cerebral events.

    PubMed

    Richard, S; Toussaint-Hacquard, M; Fay, R; Lacour, J C; Ducrocq, X; Lecompte, T

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin is the most commonly used antiplatelet treatment during the acute phase of cerebral ischemic events. It inhibits the production of thromboxane (TX) A(2), a powerful platelet activator. Despite this protection, early ischemic recurrences are frequent and considered clinical failures of this therapy. Only a few trials have focused on the use of antiplatelet therapy during this phase, and none has described the laboratory effect of the first dose of aspirin given after an ischemic cerebral event. However, this study may help clinicians to understand the mechanisms of early recurrences, and to design new therapeutic strategies, in particular for patients already treated with a daily dose of aspirin. We studied laboratory parameters of the first 300-mg oral dose of aspirin given within 48 h after an ischemic cerebral event. Two blood samples were taken from all of the patients: the first during the third hour following aspirin intake (T1) and the second during the twenty-fourth hour (T2). For patients already treated with a daily dose of aspirin, a supplementary sample was taken before aspirin intake (T0). Platelet reactivity was studied on the basis of serum TXB(2) levels, a metabolite of TXA(2), and light transmission aggregometry after stimulation of platelet-rich plasma by arachidonic acid and by two concentrations of collagen, i.e. 2 µg/ml (Col2), dependent on the TXA(2) pathway, and 20 µg/ml (Col20), independent of the TXA(2) pathway. Results with Col2 were related to results with Col20 (Col2/20 ratio) to limit the impact of variations induced by the effects of preanalytical conditions. Fifty patients were included. TXB(2) values (p < 0.001) and relative values of the Col2/20 ratio (p = 0.037) were significantly higher at T2 compared to T1. For patients already treated with aspirin, TXB(2) levels (p < 0.001) were significantly lower at T1 compared to T0, and the Col2/20 ratio tended to decrease (p = 0.096). Platelet reactivity recovers within 24 h

  4. Association Between Prolonged Seizures and Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction in Children With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Andrea; Bigi, Sandra; Laughlin, Suzanne; Parthasarathy, Sujatha; Sinclair, Adriane; Dirks, Peter; Pontigon, Ann Marie; Moharir, Mahendranath; Askalan, Rand; MacGregor, Daune; deVeber, Gabrielle

    2016-11-01

    Malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of stroke that is poorly understood in children. We studied the frequency, associated characteristics, and outcomes of this condition in children. Children, aged two months to 18 years with acute middle cerebral artery infarct diagnosed at our center between January 2005 and December 2012 were studied. Associations with malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome were sought, including age, seizures, neurological deficit severity (Pediatric National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Score), stroke etiology, fever, blood pressure, blood glucose, infarct location, infarct volume (modified pediatric Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score), and arterial occlusion. Death and neurological outcomes were determined. Among 66 children with middle cerebral artery stroke, 12 (18%) developed malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome, fatal in three. Prolonged seizures during the first 24 hours (odds ratio, 25.51; 95% confidence interval, 3.10 to 334.81; P = 0.005) and a higher Pediatric National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Score (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.45; P = 0.006) were independently associated with malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome. All children aged greater than two years with a Pediatric National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Score ≥8 and initial seizures ≥5 minutes duration developed malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome (100%). Malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome affects nearly one in five children with acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Children with higher Pediatric National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Scores and prolonged initial seizures are at greatly increased risk for malignant middle cerebral artery infarct syndrome. Children with middle cerebral artery infarcts warrant intensive neuroprotective management and close monitoring to enable

  5. Protective effect of zinc against ischemic neuronal injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Youji; Iida, Yasuhiko; Abe, Jun; Ueda, Masashi; Mifune, Masaki; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Ohta, Masayuki; Igarashi, Kazuo; Saito, Yutaka; Saji, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of vesicular zinc on ischemic neuronal injury. In cultured neurons, addition of a low concentration (under 100 microM) of zinc inhibited both glutamate-induced calcium influx and neuronal death. In contrast, a higher concentration (over 150 microM) of zinc decreased neuronal viability, although calcium influx was inhibited. These results indicate that zinc exhibits biphasic effects depending on its concentration. Furthermore, in cultured neurons, co-addition of glutamate and CaEDTA, which binds extra-cellular zinc, increased glutamate-induced calcium influx and aggravated the neurotoxicity of glutamate. In a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, the infarction volume, which is related to the neurotoxicity of glutamate, increased rapidly on the intracerebral ventricular injection of CaEDTA 30 min prior to occlusion. These results suggest that zinc released from synaptic vesicles may provide a protective effect against ischemic neuronal injury.

  6. [Essential thrombocythemia and cerebral ischemic accident: discussion of two cases].

    PubMed

    Alecu, C; Abraham, P; Ternisien, C; Enon, B; Saumet, J L

    1999-10-01

    Not only the total number of platelets but their normal or abnormal function are essential points to be analyzed in case of stroke associated with thrombocytemia. When possible the treatment of arterial episodes in thrombocytemia should not be surgical. Anti-platelet agents and the rigorous control of the different risk factors are warranted to limit the activation of abnormal platelets on early endothelial lesions and thereby limit the risk of recurrent accidents. We report two typical cases illustrating these different points.

  7. Acute lipophilicity-dependent effect of intravascular simvastatin in the early phase of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Pastori, C; Sala, G; Piazza, F; Ferrarese, C; Cattalini, A; de Curtis, M; Librizzi, L

    2011-05-01

    The acute effects of simvastatin lactone (lipophilic) and simvastatin acid (hydrophilic) on transient focal ischemia were assessed using the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion. This new model of cerebral ischemia allows the assessment of the very early phase of the ischemic process, with the functional preservation of the vascular and neuronal compartments and the blood-brain barrier (bbb). The middle cerebral artery was transiently tied for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Statins (nanomolar doses) were administered by intravascular continuous infusion starting 60 min before ischemia induction. Brain cortical activity and arterial vascular tone were continuously recorded. At the end of the experiment immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), expression of survival kinases (ERK and Akt) and total anti-oxidant capacity were assayed. Brains treated with simvastatin lactone showed i) reduced amplitude and delayed onset of ischemic depressions, ii) preservation of MAP-2 immunoreactivity, iii) activation of ERK signaling in the ischemic hemisphere and iv) increase in whole-brain anti-oxidant capacity. Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside activates Nrf2 and protects against cerebral ischemic injury

    SciT

    Jing, Xu; Ren, Dongmei; Wei, Xinbing

    Stroke is a complex disease that may involve oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway plays an important role in inducing phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins and thus has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection in stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine whether eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside (E7G), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect against cerebral ischemic injury and to understand the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in neuroprotection. In primary cultured astrocytes, E7G increased the nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced the expression of the Nrf2/ARE-dependentmore » genes. Exposure of astrocytes to E7G provided protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced oxidative insult. The protective effect of E7G was abolished by RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression. In vivo administration of E7G in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia significantly reduced the amount of brain damage and ameliorated neurological deficits. These data demonstrate that activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling by E7G is directly associated with its neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced ischemic injury and suggest that targeting the Nrf2/ARE pathway may be a promising approach for therapeutic intervention in stroke. - Highlights: • E7G activates Nrf2 in astrocytes. • E7G stimulates expression of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins in astrocytes. • E7G protects astrocytes against OGD-induced cell death and apoptosis. • The neuroprotective effect of E7G involves the Nrf2/ARE pathway. • E7G protects rats against cerebral ischemic injury.« less

  9. A pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in ischemic injury after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    SciT

    Miyanohara, Jun; Shirakawa, Hisashi, E-mail: shirakaw@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sanpei, Kazuaki

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel with high Ca{sup 2+} permeability, which functions as a polymodal nociceptor activated by heat, protons and several vanilloids, including capsaicin and anandamide. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, their pathophysiological roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in cerebral ischemic injury using a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice. For transient ischemia, the left MCA of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 60 min and reperfused at 1 and 2more » days after ischemia. We found that neurological and motor deficits, and infarct volumes in TRPV1-KO mice were lower than those of WT mice. Consistent with these results, intracerebroventricular injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (20 nmol), 30 min before the onset of ischemia attenuated neurological and motor deficits and improved infarct size without influencing cerebral blood flow in the occluded MCA territory. The protective effect of capsazepine on ischemic brain damage was not observed in TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice did not show any differences with respect to the increased number of Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, GFAP-positive astrocytes, and Gr1-positive neutrophils at 1 and 2 days after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, we conclude that brain TRPV1 channels are activated by ischemic stroke and cause neurological and motor deficits and infarction after brain ischemia. - Highlights: • We investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in transient ischemic brain damage in mice. • Neurological deficits and infarct volumes were lower in TRPV1-KO mice than in WT mice. • Injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, attenuated neurological deficits and improved infarct size. • No differences in astrocytic or microglial activation were observed between WT and TRPV1-KO

  10. Numerous Fusiform and Saccular Cerebral Aneurysms in Central Nervous System Lupus Presenting with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Shahram; Leon Guerrero, Christopher R; Gandhy, Shreya; Burger, Kathleen M; Sigounas, Dimitri

    2017-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in up to 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cerebral aneurysm formation is a rare complication of CNS lupus. The majority of these patients present with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a patient with an active SLE flare who presented with a recurrent ischemic stroke and was found to have numerous unruptured fusiform and saccular aneurysms in multiple vascular territories. He was treated with high-dose steroid and rituximab along with aspirin and blood pressure control for stroke prevention. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Buprenorphine does not aggravate ischemic neuronal injury in experimental focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yulug, Burak; Cam, Ertugrul; Yildiz, Aysegul; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2007-01-01

    Buprenorphine has been increasingly used as maintenance therapy in opioid dependence as an alternative to methadone and other pharmacological therapies. However, available data suggest increased risk of cerebrovascular events in opioid-dependent patients. Therefore, an opioid that provides safety with regard to neurological function should be considered by opioid-dependent patients. The evidence for the in vitro neurotoxic effects of buprenorphine is rapidly increasing. In order to clarify whether buprenorphine is also neurotoxic under the condition of cerebral ischemia in vivo, we applied an acute dose of buprenorphine in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Our study provides preclinical evidence for the usage of buprenorphine during the postoperative period following ischemic events as well as for the maintenance therapy of opioid-dependent patients wherein the risk of cerebrovascular events is increased.

  12. Ferulic acid prevents cerebral ischemic injury-induced reduction of hippocalcin expression.

    PubMed

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2013-07-01

    Intracellular calcium overload is a critical pathophysiological factor in ischemic injury. Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that buffers intracellular calcium levels and protects cells from apoptotic stimuli. Ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation activity. This study investigated whether ferulic acid contributes to hippocalcin expression during cerebral ischemia and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Rats were immediately treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100 mg/kg, i.v.) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brain tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO and followed by assessment of cerebral infarct. Ferulic acid reduced MCAO-induced infarct regions. A proteomics approach elucidated a decrease in hippocalcin in MCAO-operated animals, ferulic acid attenuates the injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid prevents the injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin. In cultured HT22 hippocampal cells, glutamate exposure increased the intracellular Ca(2+) levels, whereas ferulic acid attenuated this increase. Moreover, ferulic acid attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. These findings can suggest the possibility that ferulic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect through modulating hippocalcine expression and regulating intracellular calcium levels. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation Is Associated with Brain Atrophy and Worse Functional Status in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Mikio C.; Hu, Kun; Lo, Men-Tzung; Selim, Magdy; Olufsen, Mette S.; Novak, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired following stroke. However, the relationship between dCA, brain atrophy, and functional outcomes following stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether impairment of dCA is associated with atrophy in specific regions or globally, thereby affecting daily functions in stroke patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 33 subjects with chronic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 109 age-matched non-stroke subjects. dCA was assessed via the phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Brain tissue volumes were quantified from MRI. Functional status was assessed by gait speed, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), modified Rankin Scale, and NIH Stroke Score. Compared to the non-stroke group, stroke subjects showed degraded dCA bilaterally, and showed gray matter atrophy in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes ipsilateral to infarct. In stroke subjects, better dCA was associated with less temporal lobe gray matter atrophy on the infracted side ( = 0.029), faster gait speed ( = 0.018) and lower IADL score (0.002). Our results indicate that better dynamic cerebral perfusion regulation is associated with less atrophy and better long-term functional status in older adults with chronic ischemic infarctions. PMID:23071639

  14. Detection of Anterior Circulation Large Artery Occlusion in Ischemic Stroke Using Noninvasive Cerebral Oximetry.

    PubMed

    Flint, Alexander C; Bhandari, Shiv G; Cullen, Sean P; Reddy, Adhikari V; Hsu, Daniel P; Rao, Vivek A; Patel, Minal; Pombra, Jasmeen; Edwards, Nancy J; Chan, Sheila L

    2018-02-01

    Large artery occlusion (LAO) in ischemic stroke requires recognition and triage to an endovascular stroke treatment center. Noninvasive LAO detection is needed to improve triage. Prospective study to test whether noninvasive cerebral oximetry can detect anterior circulation LAO in acute stroke. Interhemispheric ΔBrSO 2 in LAO was compared with controls. In LAO stroke, mean interhemispheric ΔBrSO 2 was -8.3±5.8% (n=19), compared with 0.4±5.8% in small artery stroke (n=17), 0.4±6.0% in hemorrhagic stroke (n=14), and 0.2±7.5% in subjects without stroke (n=19) ( P <0.001). Endovascular stroke treatment reduced the ΔBrSO 2 in most LAO subjects (16/19). Discrimination of LAO at a -3% ΔBrSO 2 cut had 84% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Addition of the G-FAST clinical score (gaze-face-arm-speech- time) to the BrSO 2 measure had 84% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Noninvasive cerebral oximetry may help detect LAO in ischemic stroke, particularly when combined with a simple clinical scoring system. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Percutaneous Transluminal Cerebral Angioplasty and Stenting in Acute Vertebrobasilar Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nistri, M.; Mangiafico, S.; Cellerini, M.; Villa, G.; Mennonna, P.; Ammannati, F.; Giordano, G. P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary Reports of cerebral transluminal angioplasty and stenting in patients with vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke are scanty. Herein we report on the use of “monorail” coronary balloon angioplasty and stent balloon mounted catheters in two patients with acute vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke, focussing on the differences and possible advantages of the “monorail” technique in comparison with the “over-the-wire” technique. In both patients, the clinical picture was characterized by progressive brainstem symptoms followed by acute loss of consciousness related to an atherothrombotic occlusion and subocclusion of the dominant intracranial vertebral artery, respectively. In one patient, superselective thrombolytic therapy and balloon angioplasty resulted in a dissection flap at the vertebrobasilar junction. The latter was treated by successful deployment of a coronary stent. In the other patient, the subocclusive lesion was directly treated by angioplasty and stenting without thrombolytic therapy. The clinical outcome was poor for one patient (“locked in” syndrome) while the other had a complete clinical recovery. In acute atherothrombotic vertebrobasilar stroke transluminal cerebral angioplasty and stenting may be successfully performed allowing vessel recanalization. PMID:20594522

  16. Protective effects of alkaloid extract from Leonurus heterophyllus on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by middle cerebral ischemic injury (MCAO) in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yunshan; Song, Shuliang; Ji, Aiguo

    2011-07-15

    The neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia is a serious risk to stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of alkaloid extract from Leonurus heterophyllus (LHAE) on cerebral ischemic injury. After 24 h of reperfusion following ischemia for 2 h induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), some rats were intraperitoneally administered different doses of LHAE (3.6, 7.2, 14.4 mg/kg, respectively). Neurological examination was measured in all animals. Infarct volume, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, levels of nitrate/nitrite metabolite (NO) and apoptosis ratio of nerve fiber in brain were determined. The results showed that LHAE at 7.2 mg/kg or 14.4 mg/kg exerted significantly decreasing neurological deficit scores and reducing the infarct volume on rats with focal cerebral ischemic injury (p<0.05). At those dose, the MPO content were significantly decreased in ischemic brain as compared with model group (p<0.05). LHAE at 14.4 mg/kg significantly decreased the NO level compared with the model group (p<0.05). In addition, LHAE significantly decreased the apoptosis ratio of nerve fiber compared with the model group (p<0.05). This study suggests that LHAE may be used for treatment of ischemic stroke as a neuroprotective agent. Further studies are warranted to assess the efficacy and safety of LHAE in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral flow velocities during daily activities depend on blood pressure in patients with chronic ischemic infarctions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Vera; Hu, Kun; Desrochers, Laura; Novak, Peter; Caplan, Louis; Lipsitz, Lewis; Selim, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    Target blood pressure (BP) values for optimal cerebral perfusion after an ischemic stroke are still debated. We sought to examine the relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow velocities (BFVs) during daily activities. We studied 43 patients with chronic large vessel ischemic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory (aged 64.2+/-8.94 years; at 6.1+/-4.9 years after stroke) and 67 age-matched control subjects. BFVs in middle cerebral arteries were measured during supine baseline, sitting, standing, and tilt. A regression analysis and a dynamic phase analysis were used to quantify the BP-BFV relationship. The mean arterial pressure was similar between the groups (89+/-15 mm Hg). Baseline BFVs were lower by approximately 30% in the patients with stroke compared with the control subjects (P=0.0001). BFV declined further with postural changes and remained lower in the stroke group during sitting (P=0.003), standing (P=0.003), and tilt (P=0.002) as compared with the control group. Average BFVs on the stroke side were positively correlated with BP during baseline (R=0.54, P=0.0022, the slope 0.46 cm/s/mm Hg) and tilt (R=0.52, P=0.0028, the slope 0.40 cm/s/mm Hg). Regression analysis suggested that BFV may increase approximately 30% to 50% at mean BP >100 mm Hg. Orthostatic hypotension during the first minute of tilt or standing was independently associated with lower BFV on the stroke side (P=0.0008). Baseline BP-BFV phase shift derived from the phase analysis was smaller on the stroke side (P=0.0006). We found that BFVs are lower in patients with stroke and daily activities such as standing could induce hypoperfusion. BFVs increase with mean arterial pressure >100 mm Hg. Dependency of BFV on arterial pressure may have implications for BP management after stroke. Further prospective investigations are needed to determine the impact of these findings on functional recovery and strategies to improve perfusion pressure during daily activities after ischemic

  18. [Plasma metabonomics study of ischemic cerebral apoplexy rats treated with Tongsaimai pellets].

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiayu; A, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Wen, Hongmei; Wang, Aiyun; Di, Liuqing; Cao, Bei; Liu, Linsheng

    2012-04-01

    To observe abnormal metabolic changes caused by ischemic cerebral apoplexy and the regulating action of Tongsaimai pellets on abnormal metabolism by analyzing the change of small molecules in plasma of ischemic cerebral apoplexy rat. To find the potential biomarkers, and to explore metabolic mechanisms of Tongsaimai pellets. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion was established with electric coagulation, and rats were divided into 4 groups, model group, sham-operation group, Tongsaimai pellets group and positive control group. Tongsaimai pellets and positive control group were orally administrated by 13.2 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) of crude drugs and 32 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) of Nimodipine respectively, m odel and sham-operation group by equal volume of distilled water for a week. Plasma of model and sham-operation group were collected, and plasma of Tongsaimai pellets and positive control group were collected on the 1st, 3rd , 7th day after administration. Endogenous metabolites of four groups were determined with GC-MS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to analyze multivariate data and set up model, and T-test was used in significant statistical analysis. Compared with sham-operation group rats, pyruvic acid, taurine and hydroxyproline obviously increased in model group rats, while lactic acid, glyceric acid, aminomalonic acid, fructose, tryptophan and leucine significantly decreased, so these metabolites were potential metabolic biomarkers. These endogenous metabolites except taurine got restoration in Tongsaimai group rats. Abnormal metabolite level in plasma can be certainly recovered by Tongsaimai pellets, and the treatment of Tongsaimai pellets can be connected with the regulation of related metabolic pathways.

  19. Cerebral flow velocities during daily activities depend on blood pressure in patients with chronic ischemic infarctions

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Vera; Hu, Kun; Desrochers, Laura; Novak, Peter; Caplan, Louis; Lipsitz, Lewis; Selim, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    Background Target blood pressure (BP) values for optimal cerebral perfusion after an ischemic stroke are still debated. We sought to examine the relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow velocities (BFV) during daily activities. Methods We studied 43 patients with chronic large vessel ischemic infarctions in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory (aged 64.2±8.94 years; at 6.1±4.9 years after stroke), and 67 age-matched controls. BFV in MCAs were measured during supine baseline, sitting, standing and tilt. A regression analysis and a dynamic phase analysis were used to quantify BP-BFV relationship. Results The mean arterial pressure was similar between the groups (89±15 mmHg). Baseline BFV were lower by ~ 30% in the stroke patients compared to the controls (p=0.0001). BFV declined further with postural changes, and remained lower in the stroke group during sitting (p=0.003), standing (p=0.003) and tilt (p=0.002) as compared to the control group. Average BFV on the stroke side were positively correlated with BP during baseline (R=0.54, p=0.0022, the slope 0.46 cm/s/mm Hg) and tilt (R=0.52, p=0.0028, the slope 0.40 cm/s/mm Hg). Regression analysis suggested that BFV may increase ~ 30-50% at mean BP > 100 mmHg. Orthostatic hypotension during the first minute of tilt or standing was independently associated with lower BFV on the stroke side (p=0.0008). Baseline BP-BFV phase shift derived from the phase analysis was smaller on the stroke-side (p=0.0006). Conclusion We found that BFV are lower in stroke patients and daily activities such as standing could induce hypoperfusion. BFV increase with mean arterial pressure > 100 mmHg. Dependency of BFV on arterial pressure may have implications for BP management after stroke. Further prospective investigations are needed to determine the impact of these findings on functional recovery and strategies to improve perfusion pressure during daily activities after ischemic stroke. PMID:19959536

  20. Down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Yang-Mei; Zhu, Fei; Tang, Shi-Ting; Xiao, Ji-Dong; Li, Lv-Li; Lin, Xin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine whether the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in ischemic penumbra is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. An experimental model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and the changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the ischemic penumbra was examined by Enzyme Assay Kit. Extensive infarction was observed in the frontal and parietal cortical and subcortical areas at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 d and 7 d after tMCAO. Enzyme Assay analyses revealed the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was decreased in the ischemic penumbra of model rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham-operated rats, and reduced to its minimum at 48 h, while the infarct volume was enlarged gradually. In addition, accompanied by increased brain water content, apoptosis-related bcl-2 and Bax proteins, apoptotic index and neurologic deficits Longa scores, but fluctuated the ratio of bcl-2/Bax. Correlation analysis showed that the infarct volume, apoptotic index, neurologic deficits Longa scores and brain water content were negatively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity, while the ratio of bcl-2/Bax was positively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results suggest that down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury presumably through the imbalance ratio of bcl-2/Bax and neuronal apoptosis, and identify novel target for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention in cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:26722460

  1. Normobaric hyperoxia retards the evolution of ischemic brain tissue toward infarction in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Zhouyuan; Wang, Ting; Li, Weiping; Ren, Lijie; Huang, Shaonong; Liu, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen therapy has been long considered a logical therapy for ischemic stroke. Our previous studies showed that normobaric hyperoxia (normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), 95% O2 with 5% CO2) treatment during ischemia reduced ischemic neuronal death and cerebromicrovascular injury in animal stroke models. In this study, we studied the effects of NBO on the evolution of ischemic brain tissue to infarction in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given NBO (95% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) during 90-min filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO), followed by 3 or 22.5 h of reperfusion. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to evaluate the longitudinal evolution of tissue infarction. Results: In normoxic rats, MCA-supplied cortical and striatal tissue was infarcted after 90-min MCAO with 22.5 h of reperfusion. NBO-treated rats showed a 61.4% reduction in infarct size and tissue infarction mainly occurred in the ischemic striatum. When infarction was assessed at an earlier time point, i.e. at 3 h of reperfusion, normoxic rats showed significantly smaller but mature infarction (no TTC staining, white color), with the infarction mainly occurring in the striatum. Unexpectedly, NBO-treated rats only showed immature lesion (partially stained by TTC, light white color) in the ischemic striatum, indicating that NBO treatment also retarded the process of neuronal death in the ischemic core. Of note, NBO-preserved striatal tissue underwent infarction after prolonged reperfusion. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NBO treatment given during cerebral ischemia retards the evolution of ischemic brain tissue toward infarction and NBO-preserved cortical tissue survives better than NBO-preserved striatal tissue during the phase of reperfusion.

  2. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities predict early ischemic recurrence in TIA.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Tae Jung; Oh, Kyungmi; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) and early ischemic lesion recurrence (follow-up diffusion-weighted imaging [FU-DWI] [+]) in patients with lesion-negative TIA. We recruited consecutive patients with lesion-negative TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent follow-up MRI during the acute period. FVH was defined as a focal or serpentine high signal intensity on FLAIR images. Other potential confounders were adjusted to evaluate the relationship between FVH and FU-DWI (+). Furthermore, to compare clinical outcomes between the FU-DWI (+) and FU-DWI (-) groups, we assessed 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA. Among 392 patients with lesion-negative TIA, 82 patients had FU-DWI (+) on the follow-up MRI. In the multivariate analysis, FVH remained an independent predictor of FU-DWI (+) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45-9.29, p < 0.001). The time to initial MRI (aOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.33-0.70, p < 0.001) and intracranial atherosclerosis (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.10-3.92, p = 0.025) were also associated with FU-DWI (+), independent of FVH. In clinical outcomes, the FU-DWI (+) group showed more frequent 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke events than the FU-DWI (-) group (10.7% vs 3.1%, respectively, p = 0.007). FVH is associated with FU-DWI (+) in patients with lesion-negative TIA. As FU-DWI (+) frequently occurs during the acute period and has a subsequent worse outcome after discharge, additional radiologic or clinical markers for it are necessary. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic postconditioning-induced attenuation of cerebral ischemia-evoked behavioral deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been designed to pharmacologically investigate the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic postconditioning-induced reversal of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced behavioral dysfunction in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed in the present study to produce ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Short-term memory was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. The inclined beam walking test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced impaired short-term memory, motor co-ordination and lateral push response. Three episodes of carotid artery occlusion for a period of 10 s and reperfusion of 10 s (ischemic postconditioning) significantly prevented ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficit measured in terms of loss of short-term memory, motor coordination and lateral push response. Wortmannin (2 mg/kg, iv), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor given 10 min before ischemia attenuated the beneficial effects of ischemic postconditioning. It may be concluded that beneficial effects of ischemic postconditioning on global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits may involve activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-linked pathway.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons through maintaining calbindin D28k immunoreactivity following subsequent transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Hye; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Lee, Jae-Chul; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Bich-Na; Kim, Yang Hee; Hong, Seongkweon; Yan, Bing Chun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning elicited by a non-fatal brief occlusion of blood flow has been applied for an experimental therapeutic strategy against a subsequent fatal ischemic insult. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (2-minute transient cerebral ischemia) on calbindin D28k immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 area following a subsequent fatal transient ischemic insult (5-minute transient cerebral ischemia). A large number of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area died 4 days after 5-minute transient cerebral ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning reduced the death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area. Calbindin D28k immunoreactivity was greatly attenuated at 2 days after 5-minute transient cerebral ischemia and it was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning maintained calbindin D28k immunoreactivity after transient cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that ischemic preconditioning can attenuate transient cerebral ischemia-caused damage to the pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area through maintaining calbindin D28k immunoreactivity. PMID:28761424

  5. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  6. The role of the cerebral capillaries in acute ischemic stroke: the extended penumbra model.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Leif; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Mouridsen, Kim; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Jonsdottír, Kristjana Ýr; Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Aamand, Rasmus; Hjort, Niels; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Cai, Changsi; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Simonsen, Claus Z; Von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Modrau, Boris; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Riisgaard Ribe, Lars; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Dahlman, Martin Gervais; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salvador; Serena, Joaquín; Cho, Tae-Hee; Siemonsen, Susanne; Thomalla, Götz; Fiehler, Jens; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Andersen, Grethe

    2013-05-01

    The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is traditionally understood in relation to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, a recent reanalysis of the flow-diffusion equation shows that increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) can reduce the oxygen extraction efficacy in brain tissue for a given CBF. Changes in capillary morphology are typical of conditions predisposing to stroke and of experimental ischemia. Changes in capillary flow patterns have been observed by direct microscopy in animal models of ischemia and by indirect methods in humans stroke, but their metabolic significance remain unclear. We modeled the effects of progressive increases in CTTH on the way in which brain tissue can secure sufficient oxygen to meet its metabolic needs. Our analysis predicts that as CTTH increases, CBF responses to functional activation and to vasodilators must be suppressed to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation. Reductions in CBF, increases in CTTH, and combinations thereof can seemingly trigger a critical lack of oxygen in brain tissue, and the restoration of capillary perfusion patterns therefore appears to be crucial for the restoration of the tissue oxygenation after ischemic episodes. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of these findings for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of acute stroke.

  7. The role of the cerebral capillaries in acute ischemic stroke: the extended penumbra model

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Leif; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Mouridsen, Kim; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Jonsdottír, Kristjana Ýr; Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Aamand, Rasmus; Hjort, Niels; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Cai, Changsi; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Simonsen, Claus Z; Von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Modrau, Boris; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Riisgaard Ribe, Lars; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Dahlman, Martin Gervais; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salvador; Serena, Joaquín; Cho, Tae-Hee; Siemonsen, Susanne; Thomalla, Götz; Fiehler, Jens; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Andersen, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is traditionally understood in relation to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, a recent reanalysis of the flow-diffusion equation shows that increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) can reduce the oxygen extraction efficacy in brain tissue for a given CBF. Changes in capillary morphology are typical of conditions predisposing to stroke and of experimental ischemia. Changes in capillary flow patterns have been observed by direct microscopy in animal models of ischemia and by indirect methods in humans stroke, but their metabolic significance remain unclear. We modeled the effects of progressive increases in CTTH on the way in which brain tissue can secure sufficient oxygen to meet its metabolic needs. Our analysis predicts that as CTTH increases, CBF responses to functional activation and to vasodilators must be suppressed to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation. Reductions in CBF, increases in CTTH, and combinations thereof can seemingly trigger a critical lack of oxygen in brain tissue, and the restoration of capillary perfusion patterns therefore appears to be crucial for the restoration of the tissue oxygenation after ischemic episodes. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of these findings for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of acute stroke. PMID:23443173

  8. Automated cerebral infarct volume measurement in follow-up noncontrast CT scans of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Boers, A M; Marquering, H A; Jochem, J J; Besselink, N J; Berkhemer, O A; van der Lugt, A; Beenen, L F; Majoie, C B

    2013-08-01

    Cerebral infarct volume as observed in follow-up CT is an important radiologic outcome measure of the effectiveness of treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, manual measurement of CIV is time-consuming and operator-dependent. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a robust automated measurement of the CIV. The CIV in early follow-up CT images of 34 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke was segmented with an automated intensity-based region-growing algorithm, which includes partial volume effect correction near the skull, midline determination, and ventricle and hemorrhage exclusion. Two observers manually delineated the CIV. Interobserver variability of the manual assessments and the accuracy of the automated method were evaluated by using the Pearson correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, and Dice coefficients. The accuracy was defined as the correlation with the manual assessment as a reference standard. The Pearson correlation for the automated method compared with the reference standard was similar to the manual correlation (R = 0.98). The accuracy of the automated method was excellent with a mean difference of 0.5 mL with limits of agreement of -38.0-39.1 mL, which were more consistent than the interobserver variability of the 2 observers (-40.9-44.1 mL). However, the Dice coefficients were higher for the manual delineation. The automated method showed a strong correlation and accuracy with the manual reference measurement. This approach has the potential to become the standard in assessing the infarct volume as a secondary outcome measure for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment.

  9. Gene interference regulates aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with cerebral ischemic edema

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Lu, Hong; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mRNA interference on aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral edema, and diagnose the significance of diffusion-weighted MRI, we injected 5 μL shRNA- aquaporin-4 (control group) or siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution (1:800) (RNA interference group) into the rat right basal ganglia immediately before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 0.25 hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, diffusion-weighted MRI displayed a high signal; within 2 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient decreased markedly, aquaporin-4 expression increased rapidly, and intracellular edema was obviously aggravated; at 4 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slowly returned to control levels, aquaporin-4 expression slightly increased, and angioedema was observed. In the RNA interference group, during 0.25–6 hours after injection of siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slightly fluctuated and aquaporin-4 expression was upregulated; during 0.5–4 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher, while aquaporin-4 expression was significantly lower when compared with the control group, and intracellular edema was markedly reduced; at 0.25 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and aquaporin-4 expression were similar when compared with the control group; obvious angioedema remained at 6 hours. Pearson's correlation test results showed that aquaporin-4 expression was negatively correlated with the apparent diffusion coefficient (r = −0.806, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that upregulated aquaporin-4 expression is likely to be the main molecular mechanism of intracellular edema and may be the molecular basis for decreased relative apparent diffusion coefficient. Aquaporin-4 gene interference can effectively inhibit the upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression during the stage of intracellular edema with time

  10. Matrine attenuates focal cerebral ischemic injury by improving antioxidant activity and inhibiting apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, PENG; ZHOU, RU; ZHU, XIAO-YUN; HAO, YIN-JU; LI, NAN; WANG, JIE; NIU, YANG; SUN, TAO; LI, YU-XIANG; YU, JIAN-QIANG

    2015-01-01

    cerebral ischemic injury and that these effects are associated with its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. PMID:26135032

  11. Cerebral Microbleeds are an Independent Predictor of Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Intravenous Alteplase Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Nandakumar; Tasneem, Nudrat; Shaban, Amir; Dandapat, Sudeepta; Ahmed, Uzair; Policeni, Bruno; Olalde, Heena; Shim, Hyungsub; Samaniego, Edgar A; Pieper, Connie; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Leira, Enrique C; Adams, Harold P

    2018-05-01

    Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke. The objective of our study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, and imaging predictors on forecasting the risk of hemorrhagic transformation following treatment with rt-PA. We also evaluated the factors associated with cerebral microbleeds that increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 were included in the study if they received IV rt-PA, had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain on admission, and computed tomography or MRI of the brain at 24 (18-36) hours later to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic transformation. The clinical data, lipid levels, platelet count, MRI, and computed tomography images were retrospectively reviewed. The study included 366 patients, with mean age 67 ± 15 years; 46% were women and 88% were white. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 6 (interquartile range 3-15). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 87 (23.8%) patients and cerebral microbleeds were noted in 95 (25.9%). Patients with hemorrhagic transformation tended to be older, nonwhite, have atrial fibrillation, higher baseline NIHSS score, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and cerebral microbleeds and nonlacunar infarcts. Patients with cerebral microbleeds were more likely to be older, have hypertension, hyperlipidemia, previous history of stroke, and prior use of antithrombotics. On multivariate analysis race, NIHSS score, nonlacunar infarct, and presence of cerebral microbleeds were independently associated with hemorrhagic transformation following treatment with rt-PA. Presence of cerebral microbleeds is an independent predictor of hemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke following treatment with rt-PA. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The general consensus has been that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). We reviewed new observational studies that challenge this simple conclusion. Methods This was a review of observational studies of the association of premature or early menopause with stroke or IS published in English from 2006 through 2010. Results Three cohort studies showed an increased risk of all stroke in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy compared with women who conserved their ovaries before age 50 years. The increased risk of stroke was reduced by hormonal therapy (HT) in one of the studies, suggesting that estrogen deprivation is involved in the association. Four additional observational studies showed an association of all stroke or IS with the early onset of menopause or with a shorter lifespan of ovarian activity. In three of the seven studies, the association was restricted to IS. Age at menopause was more important than type of menopause (natural vs induced). Conclusions The findings from seven recent observational studies challenge the consensus that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for IS and can be reconciled by a unifying timing hypothesis. We hypothesize that estrogen is protective for IS before age 50 years and may become a risk factor for IS after age 50 years or, possibly, after age 60 years. These findings are relevant to women who experienced premature or early menopause, or to women considering prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of natural menopause. PMID:21993082

  13. [Sensitivity and specificity of the cerebral blood flow reactions to acupuncture in the newborn infants presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Filonenko, A V; Vasilenko, A M; Khan, M A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of acupuncture integrated into the standard therapy, the condition of cerebral blood flow, and other syndromes associated with cerebral ischemia in the newborn infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 131 pairs of puerperae and newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were divided into four treatment groups. 34 children of the first group were given standard therapy (control), in the second group comprised of 33 mothers and children the standard treatment was supplemented by acupuncture, the third group included only 32 mothers given the acupuncture treatment alone, and the fourth group contained only 32 newborn infants treated by acupuncture. Each course of acupuncture treatment consisted of five sessions. Sensitivity and specificity of cerebral blood flow reactions were determined based on the results of the ROC-analysis and the area under the curve before and after the treatment. The treatment with the use of acupuncture greatly improved the cerebrospinal hemodynamics (p < 0.05). Other symptoms, viz. sleep disorders, vegetative reactivity and excitability were significantly reduced. The ROC analysis confirmed the effectiveness of acupuncture as a tool for the treatment of the impaired cerebral blood flow in the newborn babies. The high level of sensitivity (84.4-94.8%) associated with good specificity makes it possible to distinguish between the true positive and true negative cases. Acupuncture integrated into the treatment of "mother-baby" pairs presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can be used to improve the initially low level of cerebral blood flow in neonates presenting with this condition.

  14. Physiological Ischemic Training Promotes Brain Collateral Formation and Improves Functions in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xiaoyue; Zheng, Yu; Hong, Xunning; Chen, Yan; Gu, Ping; Tang, Jinrong; Cheng, Hong; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Lu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effectiveness and mechanisms of physiological ischemic training (PIT) on brain cerebral collateral formation and functional recovery in patients with acute cerebral infarction. 20 eligible patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly assigned to either PIT group ( n  = 10) or Control group ( n  = 10). Both groups received 4 weeks of routine rehabilitation therapy, while an additional session of PIT, which consisted of 10 times of maximal voluntary isometric handgrip for 1 min followed by 1 min rest, was prescribed for patients in the PIT groups. Each patient was trained with four sections a day and 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and the short-form 36-item health survey questionnaire (SF-36) were applied for the evaluation of motor impairment, activity of daily living, and quality of life at the baseline and endpoint. MRI was applied to detect the collateral formation in the brain. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) number in plasma were also tested at the endpoint. Demographic data were consistent between experimental groups. At the endpoint, the scores of the FMA, MBI, and SF-36 were significantly higher than that at baseline. As compared to the Control group, the score of FMA and SF-36 in PIT group was significantly higher, while no significant difference was detected between groups in terms of MBI. Both groups had significantly higher cerebral blood flow (CBF) level at endpoint as compared to that at baseline. Moreover, the CBF level was even higher in the PIT group as compared to that in the Control group after 4 weeks of training. The same situations were also found in the plasma VEGF and EPCs assessment. In addition, positive correlations were found between FMA score and CBF level ( r  = 0.686, p  < 0.01), CBF level and VEGF concentration ( r  = 0.675, p  < 0.01), and

  15. Green tea polyphenols alleviate early BBB damage during experimental focal cerebral ischemia through regulating tight junctions and PKCalpha signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobai; Wang, Zhenhua; Wang, Ping; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yunhui; Xue, Yixue

    2013-07-21

    It has been supposed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have neuroprotective effects on brain damage after brain ischemia in animal experiments. Little is known regarding GTPs' protective effects against the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischemic stroke. We investigated the effects of GTPs on the expression of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1, and the corresponding cellular mechanisms involved in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. GTPs (400 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered by intragastric gavage twice a day for 30 days prior to MCAO. At different time points, the expression of claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, and PKCα signaling pathway in microvessel fragments of cerebral ischemic tissue were evaluated. GTPs reduced BBB permeability at 60 min and 120 min after ischemia as compared with the vehicle group. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that GTPs could reverse the opening of tight junction (TJ) barrier at 60 min and 120 min after MACO. The decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 in microvessel fragments of cerebral ischemic tissue were significantly prevented by treatment with GTPs at the same time points after ischemia in rats. Furthermore, GTPs could attenuate the increase in the expression levels of PKCα mRNA and protein caused by cerebral ischemia. These results demonstrate that GTPs may act as a potential neuroprotective agent against BBB damage at the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia through the regulation of TJ and PKCα signaling.

  16. Decreased oxygen saturation in asymmetrically prominent cortical veins in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuang; Utriainen, David; Tang, Jin; Kou, Zhifeng; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xuesong; Shen, Wen; Haacke, E Mark; Lu, Guangming

    2014-12-01

    Decreased oxygen saturation in asymmetrically prominent cortical veins (APCV) seen in ischemic stroke has been hypothesized to correlate with an increase of de-oxygenated hemoglobin. Our goal is to quantify magnetic susceptibility to define APCV by establishing a cutoff above which the deoxyhemoglobin levels are considered abnormal. A retrospective study was conducted on 26 patients with acute ischemic stroke in one cerebral hemisphere that exhibited APCV with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was used to calculate the magnetic susceptibility of the cortical veins. A paired t-test was used to compare the susceptibility of the cortical veins in the left and right hemispheres for healthy controls as well as in the contralateral hemisphere for stroke patients with APCV. The change in oxygen saturation in the APCV relative to the contralateral side was calculated after thresholding the susceptibility using the mean plus two standard deviations of the contralateral side for each individual. The thresholded susceptibility value of the APCVs in the stroke hemisphere was 254±48 ppb which was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that in the contralateral hemisphere (123±12 ppb) and in healthy controls (125±8 ppb). There was a decrease of oxygen saturation in the APCV ranging from 16% to 44% relative to the veins of the contralateral hemisphere. In conclusion, APCV seen in SWI correspond to reduced levels of oxygen saturation and these abnormal veins can be identified using a susceptibility threshold on the QSM data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutamate metabolism in cerebral mitochondria after ischemia and post-ischemic recovery during aging: relationships with brain energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried; Villa, Roberto Federico

    2018-05-20

    Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats. The maximum rates (V max ) of glutamate dehydrogenase (GlDH), glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were assayed in somatic mitochondria (FM) and in intra-synaptic "light" (LM) and "heavy" (HM) ones purified from cerebral cortex, distinguishing post- and pre-synaptic compartments. During ischemia, none of the enzymes were modified in adult animals. In aged ones, GOT was increased in FM and GlDH in HM, stimulating glutamate catabolism. During post-ischemic recovery, FM did not show modifications at both ages while, in intra-synaptic mitochondria of adult animals, glutamate catabolism was increased after 1 hour of recirculation and decreased after 48 and 72 hours, whereas it remained decreased up to 96 hours in aged rats. These results, with those previously published about Krebs' cycle and Electron Transport Chain (Villa et al., 2013. Neurochem. Int. 63, 765-781), demonstrate that: (i) V max of energy-linked enzymes are different in the various cerebral mitochondria, which (ii) respond differently to ischemia and post-ischemic recovery, also (iii) respect to aging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward fully automated processing of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI for acute ischemic cerebral stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsuh; Leira, Enrique C; Callison, Richard C; Ludwig, Bryan; Moritani, Toshio; Magnotta, Vincent A; Madsen, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    We developed fully automated software for dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) to efficiently and reliably derive critical hemodynamic information for acute stroke treatment decisions. Brain MR PWI was performed in 80 consecutive patients with acute nonlacunar ischemic stroke within 24h after onset of symptom from January 2008 to August 2009. These studies were automatically processed to generate hemodynamic parameters that included cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume, and the mean transit time (MTT). To develop reliable software for PWI analysis, we used computationally robust algorithms including the piecewise continuous regression method to determine bolus arrival time (BAT), log-linear curve fitting, arrival time independent deconvolution method and sophisticated motion correction methods. An optimal arterial input function (AIF) search algorithm using a new artery-likelihood metric was also developed. Anatomical locations of the automatically determined AIF were reviewed and validated. The automatically computed BAT values were statistically compared with estimated BAT by a single observer. In addition, gamma-variate curve-fitting errors of AIF and inter-subject variability of AIFs were analyzed. Lastly, two observes independently assessed the quality and area of hypoperfusion mismatched with restricted diffusion area from motion corrected MTT maps and compared that with time-to-peak (TTP) maps using the standard approach. The AIF was identified within an arterial branch and enhanced areas of perfusion deficit were visualized in all evaluated cases. Total processing time was 10.9+/-2.5s (mean+/-s.d.) without motion correction and 267+/-80s (mean+/-s.d.) with motion correction on a standard personal computer. The MTT map produced with our software adequately estimated brain areas with perfusion deficit and was significantly less affected by random noise of the PWI when compared with the TTP map. Results of image

  19. TIGAR contributes to ischemic tolerance induced by cerebral preconditioning through scavenging of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Tong-Tong; Song, Dan-Dan; Xia, Yun-Fei; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Sheng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Previous study showed that TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator) protected ischemic brain injury via enhancing pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) flux and preserving mitochondria function. This study was aimed to study the role of TIGAR in cerebral preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and isoflurane preconditioning (ISO) models were established in primary cultured cortical neurons and in mice. Both IPC and ISO increased TIGAR expression in cortical neurons. Preconditioning might upregulate TIGAR through SP1 transcription factor. Lentivirus mediated knockdown of TIGAR significantly abolished the ischemic tolerance induced by IPC and ISO. ISO also increased TIGAR in mouse cortex and hippocampus and alleviated subsequent brain ischemia-reperfusion injury, while the ischemic tolerance induced by ISO was eliminated with TIGAR knockdown in mouse brain. ISO increased the production of NADPH and glutathione (GSH), and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS), while TIGAR knockdown decreased GSH and NADPH production and increased the level of ROS. Supplementation of ROS scavenger NAC and PPP product NADPH effectively rescue the neuronal injury caused by TIGAR deficiency. Notably, TIGAR knockdown inhibited ISO-induced anti-apoptotic effects in cortical neurons. These results suggest that TIGAR participates in the cerebral preconditioning through reduction of ROS and subsequent cell apoptosis. PMID:27256465

  20. Deep cerebral microbleeds are negatively associated with HDL-C in elderly first-time ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Igase, Michiya; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Igase, Keiji; Yamashita, Shiro; Fujisawa, Mutsuo; Katagi, Ryosuke; Miki, Tetsuro

    2013-02-15

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted MRI gradient-echo have been associated with increased risk of cerebral infarction. We evaluated risk factors for these lesions in a cohort of first-time ischemic stroke patients. Presence of CMBs in consecutive first-time ischemic stroke patients was evaluated. The location of CMBs was classified by cerebral region as strictly lobar (lobar CMBs) and deep or infratentorial (deep CMBs). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the contribution of lipid profile to the presence of CMBs. One hundred and sixteen patients with a mean age of 70±10years were recruited. CMBs were present in 74 patients. The deep CMBs group had significantly lower HDL-C levels than those without CMBs. In univariable analysis, advanced periventricular hyperintensity grade (PVH>2) and decreased HDL-C were significantly associated with the deep but not the lobar CMB group. On logistic regression analysis, HDL-C (beta=-0.06, p=0.002) and PVH grade >2 (beta=3.40, p=0.005) were independent determinants of deep CMBs. Low HDL-C may be a risk factor of deep CMBs, including advanced PVH status, in elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke. Management of HDL-C levels might be a therapeutic target for the prevention of recurrence of stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of scutellarin against hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Hu, Li-Min; Wang, Shao-Xia; Wang, Yu-Lin; Shi, Fang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Li-Yuan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2011-12-31

    An increasing number of studies has indicated that hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury is partly mediated via oxidative stress. Recent researches have focused on searching for drug and herbal manipulations to protect against hypoxic-ischemic-induced oxidative cell damage. Scutellarin is a flavonoid derived from the Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) and has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, its precise mechanism, particularly its antioxidation mechanism, remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of scutellarin on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain damage in rats, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons. In vivo, intraperitoneal injections of scutellarin (20 and 60 mg/kg) improved the neurological score and diminished the percentage of brain infarct volume. At the same time, scutellarin significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) level in ischemic brain tissues, enhancing endogenous antioxidant activity. Moreover, pretreatment of scutellarin (25, 50 and 100 μM) protected neurons against lethal stimuli, decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in OGD-induced primary cortical neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the preventive and therapeutic potential of scutellarin in cerebral injury patients is, at least in part, ascribed to augmentation of cellular antioxidant defense capacity.

  2. Early versus delayed rehabilitation treatment in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke: proprioceptive or cognitive approach?

    PubMed

    Morreale, Manuela; Marchione, Pasquale; Pili, Antonio; Lauta, Antonella; Castiglia, Stefano F; Spallone, Aldo; Pierelli, Francesco; Giacomini, Patrizia

    2016-02-01

    Early/intensive mobilization may improve functional recovery after stroke but it is not clear which kind of "mobilization" is more effective. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and cognitive therapeutic exercise (CTE) are widespread applied in post-stroke rehabilitation but their efficacy and safety have not been systematically investigated. To compare PNF and CTE methods in a two different time setting (early versus standard approach) in order to evaluate different role of time and techniques in functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke. We designed a prospectical multicenter blinded interventional study of early versus standard approach with two different methods by means of both PNF and CTE. A discrete stroke-dedicated area for out-of-thrombolysis patients, connected with two different comprehensive stroke centres in two different catchment areas. Three hundred and forty consecutive stroke patient with first ever sub-cortical ischemic stroke in the mean cerebral artery (MCA) territory and contralateral hemiplegia admitted within 6 and 24 hours from symptoms onset. All patients were randomly assigned by means of a computer generated randomization sequence in blocks of 4 to one to the 4 interventional groups: early versus delayed rehabilitation programs with Kabat's schemes or Perfetti's technique. Patients in both delayed group underwent to a standard protocol in the acute phase. disability at 3-12 months. Disability measures: modified Rankin Score and Barthel Index. Safety outcome: immobility-related adverse events. Six-Minute Walking Test, Motricity Index, Mini-Mental State Examination, Beck Depression Inventory. Disability was not different between groups at 3 months but Barthel Index significantly changed between early versus delayed groups at 12 months (P=0.01). Six-Minute Walking Test (P=0.01) and Motricity Index in both upper (P=0.01) and lower limbs (P=0.001) increased in early versus delayed groups regardless rehabilitation schedule. A

  3. The role of KATP channels in cerebral ischemic stroke and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Vivian; Chen, Nai-hong; Sun, Hong-shuo; Feng, Zhong-ping

    2018-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, including the heart, pancreas and brain. KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. KATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone. Under pathophysiological conditions, KATP channels play cytoprotective role in cardiac myocytes and neurons during ischemia and/or hypoxia. KATP channel is a hetero-octameric complex, consisting of four pore-forming Kir6.x and four regulatory sulfonylurea receptor SURx subunits. These subunits are differentially expressed in various cell types, thus determining the sensitivity of the cells to specific channel modifiers. Sulfonylurea class of antidiabetic drugs blocks KATP channels, which are neuroprotective in stroke, can be one of the high stoke risk factors for diabetic patients. In this review, we discussed the potential effects of KATP channel blockers when used under pathological conditions related to diabetics and cerebral ischemic stroke. PMID:29671418

  4. Paeoniflorin, a Monoterpene Glycoside, Protects the Brain from Cerebral Ischemic Injury via Inhibition of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Huang; Huang, Mingqing; Huang, Mei; Chu, Kedan; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Shengnan; Que, Jinhua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a principal bioactive component, which exhibits many pharmacological effects, including protection against ischemic injury. This paper aimed to investigate the protective effect of PF both in vivo and in vitro. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat for 2 h, and different doses of PF or vehicle were administered 2 h after reperfusion. Rats were sacrificed after 7 days treatment of PF/vehicle. PF treatment for 7 days ameliorated MCAO-induced neurological deficit and decreased the infarct area. Further study demonstrated that PF inhibited the over-activation of astrocytes and apoptosis of neurons, and PF promoted up-regulation of neuronal specific marker neuron-specific nuclear (NeuN) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in brain. Moreover, NMDA-induced neuron apoptosis was employed. The in vitro study revealed that PF treatment protected against NMDA-induced cell apoptosis and neuronal loss via up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN, MAP-2 and Bcl-2 and the down-regulation Bax. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that PF produces its protective effect by inhibiting the over-activation of astrocytes, apoptosis of neurons and up-regulation of neuronal specific marker NeuN, MAP-2, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and down-regulation Bax. Our study reveals that PF may be a potential neuroprotective agent for stroke and can provide basic data for clinical use.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood-brain barrier damage in early ischemic stroke stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Jin, Xinchun; Liu, Ke J; Liu, Wenlan

    2012-02-29

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs early enough to be within the thrombolytic time window, and this early ischemic BBB damage is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation and thus emerging as a promising target for reducing the hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic stroke therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying early ischemic BBB damage remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the early molecular events of ischemic BBB damage using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. Exposure of bEND3 monolayer to OGD for 2 h significantly increased its permeability to FITC-labeled dextran and promoted the secretion of metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) and cytosolic translocation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1). This same OGD treatment also led to rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin and dissociation of claudin-5 from the cytoskeleton, which contributed to OGD-induced endothelial barrier disruption. Using selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor SB-3CT (2-[[(4-phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]methyl]-thiirane) or their neutralizing antibodies or Cav-1 siRNA, we found that MMP-2 was the major enzyme mediating OGD-induced occludin degradation, while Cav-1 was responsible for claudin-5 redistribution. The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Consistent with these in vitro findings, we observed fluorescence tracer extravasation, increased gelatinolytic activity, and elevated interstitial MMP-2 levels in ischemic subcortical tissue after 2 h MCAO. Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. These data indicate that cerebral ischemia initiates two rapid parallel processes, MMP-2-mediated occludin degradation and Cav-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution, to cause BBB disruption at early stroke stages relevant to acute thrombolysis.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood brain barrier damage in early ischemic stroke stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Jin, Xinchun; Liu, Ke J.; Liu, Wenlan

    2012-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs early enough to be within the thrombolytic time window, and this early ischemic BBB damage is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation and thus emerging as a promising target for reducing the hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic stroke therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying early ischemic BBB damage remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the early molecular events of ischemic BBB damage using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. Exposure of bEND3 monolayer to OGD for 2 h significantly increased its permeability to FITC-labeled dextran, and promoted the secretion of metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) and cytosolic translocation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1). This same OGD treatment also led to rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin and dissociation of claudin-5 from the cytoskeleton, which contributed to OGD-induced endothelial barrier disruption. Using selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor SB-3CT or their neutralizing antibodies or Cav-1 siRNA, we found that MMP-2 was the major enzyme mediating OGD-induced occludin degradation, while Cav-1 was responsible for claudin-5 redistribution. The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Consistent with these in vitro findings, we observed fluorescence tracer extravasation, increased gelatinolytic activity and elevated interstitial MMP-2 levels in ischemic subcortical tissue after 2-h MCAO. Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. These data indicate that cerebral ischemia initiates two rapid parallel processes, MMP-2-mediated occludin degradation and Cav-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution, to cause BBB disruption at early stroke stages relevant to acute thrombolysis. PMID:22378877

  7. Upregulation of Fibronectin and the α5β1 and αvβ3 Integrins on Blood Vessels within the Cerebral Ischemic Penumbra

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longxuan; Liu, Fudong; Welser-Alves, Jennifer V.; McCullough, Louise D.; Milner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Following focal cerebral ischemia, blood vessels in the ischemic border, or penumbra, launch an angiogenic response. In light of the critical role for fibronectin in angiogenesis, and the observation that fibronectin and its integrin receptors are strongly upregulated on angiogenic vessels in the hypoxic CNS, the aim of this study was to establish whether angiogenic vessels in the ischemic CNS also show this response. Focal cerebral ischemia was established in C57/Bl6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA:O), and brain tissue analyzed seven days following re-perfusion, a time at which angiogenesis is ongoing. Within the ischemic core, immunofluorescent (IF) studies demonstrated vascular expression of MECA-32, a marker of leaky cerebral vessels, and vascular breakdown, defined by loss of staining for the endothelial marker, CD31, and the vascular adhesion molecules, laminin, dystroglycan and α6 integrin. Within the ischemic penumbra, dual-IF with CD31 and Ki67 revealed the presence of proliferating endothelial cells, indicating ongoing angiogenesis. Significantly, vessels in the ischemic penumbra showed strong upregulation of fibronectin and the fibronectin receptors, α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins. Taken together with our recent finding that the α5β1 integrin plays an important role in promoting cerebral angiogenesis in response to hypoxia, these results suggest that stimulation of the fibronectin-α5β1 integrin signalling pathway may provide a novel approach to amplifying the intrinsic angiogenic response to cerebral ischemia. PMID:22056225

  8. Cortical spreading depression preconditioning mediates neuroprotection against ischemic stroke by inducing AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy in a rat cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pingping; Hou, Shuai; Zhu, Mingqin; Zhao, Mingming; Ouyang, Yibing; Feng, Jiachun

    2017-03-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD), based on its similarities with peri-infarct depolarization, is an ideal model for investigating transformation from the ischemic penumbra to infarct core. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a middle cerebral artery occlusion ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury model to determine whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent autophagy contributes to the neuroprotection of CSD preconditioning in rat cortex. In this study, we topically applied a pledget soaked in 1 mol/L KCl solution on rat cortex for 2 h to elicite CSD or 1 mol/L NaCl solution as a control. The results demonstrated that CSD preconditioning significantly decreased the infarct volume, neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis in the cortical penumbra of middle cerebral artery occlusion rats, which was inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 200 nmol). Furthermore, CSD increased the protein levels of the autophagy markers LC3-II, Beclin-1 and the p-AMPK (Thr 172 )/AMPK ratio at 12 h and decreased P62 and p-P70S6K (Thr 389 ). Moreover, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (20 mg/kg) down-regulated the LC3-II, p-AMPK (Thr 172 )/AMPK and ULK1 levels, up-regulated the P62 and p-P70S6K (Thr 389 ) levels induced by CSD. The neuroprotection of CSD is likely a result of AMPK-mediated autophagy activity and autophagy-induced neuronal cells apoptosis inhibition. These novel findings support a central role for AMPK and autophagy in CSD-induced ischemic tolerance. AMPK-mediated autophagy may represent a new target for stroke. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Hyperforin protects against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Pan, Xia; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Kang; Wang, Long

    2018-01-01

    Hyperforin, a pharmacologically active component of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and need to be fully elucidated. C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 72h. Hyperforin (0.5μg) was injected slowly into the right ventricle of WT mice 1, 24 and 48h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset. Here, we found that hyperforin treatment decreased the mRNA and protein expression of IL-17A at 72h after MCAO onset. Hyperforin reduced infarct volumes and increased neurologic scores accompanied by a decrease in microglial activation and a shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes in the peri-infarct striatum. Furthermore, we revealed that IL-17A was essential to the microglial activation in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. IL-17A knock-out (il-17a -/- ) or anti-IL-17 A monoclonal antibody treatment markedly decreased the microglial activation and induced a shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes of activated microglia. In addition, treatment with recombinant mouse IL-17A abolished the protective effects of hyperforin on acute ischemic brain injury, attenuated the inhibitory effects of hyperforin on the microglial activation, and inhibited the enhanced shift from M1 to M2 phenotypes mediated by hyperforin. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that hyperforin could protect against acute cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of interleukin-17A-mediated microglial activation and polarization of microglia to M2 phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Cerebral microbleeds and recurrent stroke risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack cohorts.

    PubMed

    Charidimou, Andreas; Kakar, Puneet; Fox, Zoe; Werring, David J

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and future stroke risk (including intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) in patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts with recent IS/transient ischemic attack. We critically appraised studies and calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects method, for ICH or recurrent IS, in patients with versus without CMBs. We pooled data from 10 cohorts, including 3067 patients. CMBs were associated with a significant increased risk of any recurrent stroke (OR, 2.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.70-2.98; P<0.0001), ICH (OR, 8.52; 95%CI, 4.23-17.18; P=0.007), and IS (OR, 1.55; 95%CI, 1.12-2.13; P<0.0001). When stratified by study population ethnicity (Asian versus Western [mainly white European]), the association of CMBs with ICH was significant for Asian cohorts (5 studies; n=1915; OR, 10.43; 95%CI, 4.59-23.72; P<0.0001) but borderline and of lower magnitude for Western cohorts (4 studies; n=885; OR, 3.87; 95%CI, 0.91-16.4; P=0.066). By contrast, there was a significant association of CMBs with recurrent IS in Western (3 studies; n=899) but not Asian cohorts (4 studies; n=1357; OR, 2.23; 95%CI, 1.29-3.85; P=0.004 compared with OR, 1.30; 95%CI, 0.88-1.93; P=0.192, respectively). There is consistent evidence of an increased risk of recurrent stroke after IS or transient ischemic attack in patients with CMBs. The risk for spontaneous ICH appears to be greater than the risk for recurrent IS. Our findings also suggest that the balance of risk for ICH versus IS differs between Asian and Western cohorts.

  11. The role of exogenous neural stem cells transplantation in cerebral ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lukui; Qiu, Rong; Li, Lushen; He, Dan; Lv, Haiqin; Wu, Xiaojing; Gu, Ning

    2014-11-01

    transplantation group. The Nissl dyeing showed that there was a large area of neuronal necrosis and apoptosis in the ischemia and PBS transplantation groups, and damage was mainly focused in the striatum. Degeneration and damage of nerve cells were significantly reduced in the NSCs transplantation group. The Tunel assay showed that the number of apoptosis-positive cells in the NSCs transplantation group was less than that in the PBS transplantation group at each time point. Double immunofluorescent labeling showed that the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells began at the third day, reaching the peak at the 7th day, and was significantly reduced at the 14th day in the SVZ. The number of BrdU/NeuN increased significantly in the NSCs transplantation group compared to that in the PBS transplantation group (P < 0.05). The number of BrdU/GFAP decreased significantly in the NSCs transplantation group compared to that of PBS transplantation group (P < 0.05). The number of BrdU/GFAP-positive cells in the striatum was observed to be much more in the PBS transplantation group than in the NSCs transplantation group. Both neurological deficits and coordination capacity of rats with cerebral ischemia were significantly improved via transplantation of the neural stem cells. In conclusion, transplantation of neural stem cells can therefore possibly promote the differentiation of endogenous NSCs into neurons and reduce their differentiation towards glial cells. Transplantation of the neural stem cells may also change the ischemic microenvironment of striatum, possibly inhibiting the proliferation of glial cells.

  12. Rapamycin decreased blood-brain barrier permeability in control but not in diabetic rats in early cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Kiss, Geza K; Mellender, Scott J; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2017-07-27

    Diabetes causes functional and structural changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been associated with glucose metabolism, diabetes, and altering BBB permeability. Since there is only a narrow therapeutic window (3h) for stroke victims, it is important to investigate BBB disruption in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. We compared the degree of BBB disruption in diabetic and in control rats at two hours of reperfusion after one hour of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion with or without inhibition of mTOR. Two weeks after streptozotocin ip to induce diabetes, MCA occlusion was performed. In half of the rats, an mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin was given for 2days before MCA occlusion. After one hour of MCA occlusion and two hours of the reperfusion, the transfer coefficient (K i ) of 14 C-α-aminoisobutyric acid was determined to quantify degree of BBB disruption. Ischemia-reperfusion increased the K i in the control animals. Streptozotocin increased the K i in the ischemic-reperfused (IR-C, +22%) as well as in the contralateral cortex (CC, +40%). Rapamycin decreased the K i in the IR-C (-32%) as well as in the CC (-26%) in the control rats. However, rapamycin did not affect K i in the IR-C or in the CC in the diabetic rats. Our data demonstrated a greater BBB disruption in diabetes in the ischemic as well as non-ischemic cortex even in the early stage of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and that acute administration of rapamycin did not significantly affect BBB permeability in diabetes. From our quantitative analysis of BBB disruption, the vulnerability of BBB in diabetes has been emphasized in the early stage of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and a less important role of the mTOR pathway is suggested in altering BBB permeability in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of ischemic preconditioning on PDGF-BB expression in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Yang Hee; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Cho, Geum-Sil; Shin, Bich-Na; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Seo, Jeong Yeol

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is induced by exposure to brief durations of transient ischemia, which results in ischemic tolerance to a subsequent longer or lethal period of ischemia. In the present study, the effects of IPC (2 min of transient cerebral ischemia) were examined on immunoreactivity of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and on neuroprotection in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following lethal transient cerebral ischemia (LTCI; 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia). IPC was subjected to a 2-min sublethal ischemia and a LTCI was given 5-min transient ischemia. The animals in all of the groups were given recovery times of 1, 2 and 5 days and change in PDGF-BB immunoreactivity was examined as was the neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus induced by LTCI. LTCI induced a significant loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region 5 days after LTCI, and significantly decreased PDGF-BB immunoreactivity in the CA1 pyramidal neurons from day 1 after LTCI. Conversely, IPC effectively protected the CA1 pyramidal neurons from LTCI and increased PDGF-BB immunoreactivity in the CA1 pyramidal neurons post-LTCI. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that LTCI significantly altered PDGF-BB immunoreactivity in pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, whereas IPC increased the immunoreactivity. These findings indicated that PDGF-BB may be associated with IPC-mediated neuroprotection. PMID:28627606

  14. Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) Model for Ischemic Stroke with Laser Doppler Flowmetry Guidance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Douglas J.; Afzal, Aqeela; Mocco, J

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in the world, with an estimated cost of near $70 billion in the United States in 20091,2. The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was developed by Koizumi4 in 1986 to simulate this impactful human pathology in the rat. A modification of the MCAO method was later presented by Longa3. Both techniques have been widely used to identify molecular mechanisms of brain injury resulting from ischemic stroke and potential therapeutic modalities5. This relatively noninvasive method in rats has been extended to use in mice to take advantage of transgenic and knockout strains6,7. To model focal cerebral ischemia, an intraluminal suture is advanced via the internal carotid artery to occlude the base of the MCA. Retracting the suture after a specified period of time mimics spontaneous reperfusion, but the suture can also be permanently retained. This video will be demonstrating the two major approaches for performing intraluminal MCAO procedure in mice in a stepwise fashion, as well as providing insights for potential drawbacks and pitfalls. The ischemic brain tissue will subsequently be stained by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate the extent of cerebral infarction8. PMID:21587164

  15. Bone marrow stromal cells promote neuroplasticity of cerebral ischemic rats via a phosphorylated CRMP2-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Ling; Dan, Qi-Qin; Lv, Qiang; Hu, Yue; Liu, Jia; Wang, Shu-Fen; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), an important protein involved in axonal growth and the maintenance of neuronal membrane integrity, has proved to be altered in nervous system diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the role of CRMP2 in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treating rats with cerebral ischemia. BMSCs were isolated from shaft of the femurs, tibiae, and humeri and were intra-carotid administrated immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) was conducted at 3, 7, 14dpo and the electrophysiologic evaluation was evaluated at 14dpo. Then all rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were harvested for RT-PCR, Western blot and Immunohistochemistry analysis. We found BMSCs treatment significantly improved the neurobehavioral performance impaired by ischemic brain injury, accompanied with the notably increasing levels of Synaptophysin (SYP) and Growth associated protein 43 (GAP43). We also found the protein level of phosphorylated CRMP2 (p-CRMP2) and phosphorylation-mediated protein including Glycogen synthase kinase 3 Beta (GSK3β), Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were dramatically downregulated in ischemic rats following BMSCs transplant. Furthermore, the GSK3β-mediated factors including neurotrophic and signaling factors were all significantly upregulated in BMSCs-treated group. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the neuroplasticity effect of BMSCs on cerebral ischemia may be associated with the phosphorylated modulation of CRMP2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in cerebral and visceral blood flow velocities in asphyxiated term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Pilvi; Lintrop, Mare; Talvik, Inga; Muug, Külli; Maipuu, Lea

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the Doppler blood flow velocity (BFV) in the cerebral and visceral arteries in asphyxiated term neonates. The BFV was measured in 47 asphyxiated and 37 healthy term neonates in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, internal carotid artery, celiac artery (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and renal artery (RA) up to the age of 60 to 149 days. At the age of 12 to 120 hours after asphyxia, the mean BFV had increased, and the resistive index (RI) had decreased (P < .05) in all cerebral arteries in neonates with severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) compared with the control group. In neonates with severe HIE, the mean BFV in the RA had significantly decreased at the age of 3 to 240 hours, and the RI had increased at the age of 24 to 240 hours, normalizing by the age of 21 to 59 days compared with the control group (P < .05). In the SMA, a decreased mean BFV was found in neonates with severe HIE compared with those with mild to moderate HIE only at the age of 24 to 36 hours. In neonates with mild to moderate HIE, the mean BFV had increased in the SMA and CA compared with the control group at the age of 2 to 11.9 hours. A severe alteration of the cerebral and visceral BFV takes place during the first days after asphyxia in neonates with different severities of HIE.

  17. Proteomic analysis of PSD-93 knockout mice following the induction of ischemic cerebral injury.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; Yang, Hui; Rong, Liangqun; Wei, Xiue; Li, Qingjie; Liu, Xiaomei; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Qingxiu

    2016-03-01

    Postsynaptic density protein-93 (PSD-93) is enriched in the postsynaptic density and is involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) triggered neurotoxicity through PSD-93/NMDAR/nNOS signaling pathway. In the present study, we found that PSD-93 deficiency reduced infarcted volume and neurological deficits induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in the mice. To identify novel targets of PSD-93 related neurotoxicity, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ) labeling and combined this labeling with on-line two-dimensional LC/MS/MS technology to elucidate the changes in protein expression in PSD-93 knockout mice following tMCAO. The proteomic data set consisted of 1892 proteins. Compared to control group, differences in expression levels in ischemic group >1.5-fold and <0.66-fold were considered as differential expression. A total of 104 unique proteins with differential abundance levels were identified, among which 17 proteins were selected for further validation. Gene ontology analysis using UniProt database revealed that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in diverse function such as synaptic transmission, neuronal neurotransmitter and ion transport, modification of organelle membrane components. Moreover, network analysis revealed that the interacting proteins were involved in the transport of synaptic vesicles, the integrity of synaptic membranes and the activation of the ionotropic glutamate receptors NMDAR1 and NMDAR2B. Finally, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that SynGAP, syntaxin-1A, protein kinase C β, and voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels were inhibited by ischemia-reperfusion. Identification of these proteins provides valuable clues to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the actions of PSD-93 in ischemia-reperfusion induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of ischemic cerebral lesions using 3.0-T diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance angiography after revascularization surgery for ischemic disease.

    PubMed

    Murai, Yasuo; Mizunari, Takayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Amano, Yasuo; Mizumura, Sunao; Komaba, Yuichi; Okubo, Seiji; Kobayashi, Shiro; Teramoto, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Cerebral revascularization surgery (CRS) is increasingly recognized as an important component in the treatment of complex cerebral vascular disease and tumors. CRS requires that the incidence of perioperative neurological complications should be minimized, because CRS for ischemic disease is often not the goal of treatment, but rather a prophylactic surgery. CRS carries the risk of focal postoperative neurological deficits. Little has been established concerning mechanisms of post-CRS ischemia. We used 3.0-T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to analyze the incidence and mechanism of ischemic lesions. We studied the anterior circulation territory after 20 CRS procedures involving 33 vascular anastomosis procedures (13 double anastomoses and 7 single anastomoses) in 12 men and 8 women between June 2007 and October 2011. The operations included single or double superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis to treat internal carotid artery/MCA occlusions or severe MCA stenosis. A combined STA-MCA anastomosis and indirect bypass were performed for moyamoya disease. Postoperative DWI and MRA were obtained in all patients between 24 and 96 h after surgery to detect thromboembolism, hypoperfusion, or procedural ischemic complications and vasospasms of the donor STA. Follow-up DWI and MRA were carried out 1.8±0.6 days after CRS (range, 1-4 days). Temporary occlusion time for anastomoses averaged 18.9 min (range, 16-32 min). Asymptomatic new hyperintensities occurred in the ipsilateral hemisphere of 2 patients on postoperative DWI (10% patients/6.0% anastomoses), and 1 moyamoya patient (5.0% patients/3.0% anastomoses) developed a symptomatic hyperintensity in the ipsilateral occipital lobe in response to the operation. Two abnormal small (<5 mm) cortical DWI lesions were caused by sacrifices of a small branch of the recipient MCA. This study is the first postoperative 3.0-T DWI study of

  19. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  20. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits post-ischemic NAD(+) degradation and dramatically ameliorates brain damage following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji H; Long, Aaron; Owens, Katrina; Kristian, Tibor

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential cofactor for multiple cellular metabolic reactions and has a central role in energy production. Brain ischemia depletes NAD(+) pools leading to bioenergetics failure and cell death. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is utilized by the NAD(+) salvage pathway enzyme, nicotinamide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) to generate NAD(+). Therefore, we examined whether NMN could protect against ischemic brain damage. Mice were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia and treated with NMN or vehicle at the start of reperfusion or 30min after the ischemic insult. At 2, 4, and 24h of recovery, the proteins poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR), hippocampal NAD(+) levels, and expression levels of NAD(+) salvage pathway enzymes were determined. Furthermore, animal's neurologic outcome and hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was assessed after six days of reperfusion. NMN (62.5mg/kg) dramatically ameliorated the hippocampal CA1 injury and significantly improved the neurological outcome. Additionally, the post-ischemic NMN treatment prevented the increase in PAR formation and NAD(+) catabolism. Since the NMN administration did not affect animal's temperature, blood gases or regional cerebral blood flow during recovery, the protective effect was not a result of altered reperfusion conditions. These data suggest that administration of NMN at a proper dosage has a strong protective effect against ischemic brain injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Early VEGF inhibition attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption in ischemic rat brains by regulating the expression of MMPs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Yi; Li, Chen-Long; Wang, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ling-Chao; Feng, Yan; Li, Rui-Yan; Li, Yong-Li; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion. Functional outcomes, BBB leakage, brain edema, microvessel numbers and the relative protein levels of VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, occludin and collagen-IV were then determined using neurological assessments, Evans Blue staining, brain water content, CD31 staining and western blotting. Treatment with RB‑222 at a dose of 5 and 10 µg significantly improved neurological functional outcomes and diminished infarct size, BBB leakage and brain edema compared with the MCAO and IgG groups at 24 h following reperfusion; 10 µg RB‑222 was more effective than a 5 µg dose of the antibody. In addition, RB‑222 reduced the number of immature microvessels, which subsequently attenuated BBB permeability. RB‑222 significantly repressed VEGF expression as well as decreased MMP‑2 and MMP‑9 expression. However, it enhanced occludin and collagen‑IV levels in the ischemic rat brain compared with the MCAO and IgG groups. Taken together, the results indicate that early inhibition of VEGF may have significant potential against cerebral ischemia, partly by regulating the expression of MMPs.

  2. The relation between cerebral blood flow velocities as measured by TCD and the incidence of delayed ischemic deficits. A prospective study after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jarus-Dziedzic, Katarzyna; Juniewicz, Henryk; Wroñski, Jerzy; Zub, Wojciech Leslaw; Kasper, Ekkehard; Gowacki, Mariusz; Mierzwa, Janusz

    2002-09-01

    Patients (n = 127) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were examined by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) in a prospective study to follow the time course of the posthemorrhagic blood flow velocity in both the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Results were analysed to reveal their relationship and predictive use with respect to the occurrence of delayed ischemic deficits. Mean flow velocities (MFV) higher than 120 cm sec(-1) in MCA and 90 cm sec(-1) in ACA were interpreted as indicative for significant vasospasm. In 20 of our 127 patients (16%) a delayed ischemic deficit (DID) was subsequently diagnosed clinically (DID+ group). Patients in the DID+ group can be characterized as those individuals who presented early during the observation period post-SAH with highest values of MFV, a faster increase and longer persistence of pathologically elevated MFV-values (exceeding 120 cm sec(-1) in MCA and 90 cm sec(-1) in ACA). They also show a greater difference in MFV-values if one compares the operated to the nonoperated side. Differences in MFV-values obtained in MCA or ACA were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for DID+ and DID- patients. The daily maximal increase of MFV was found between days 9 and 11 after SAH. In the DID+ group, the maximal MFV was 181 +/- 26 cm sec(-1) in MCA and 119 +/- 14 cm sec(-1) in ACA. In contrast to this, patients in the DID- group were found to present with MFV of 138 +/- 11 cm sec(-1) in MCA and 100 +/- 7 cm sec(-1) in ACA respectively. Delayed ischemic deficits appeared three times more often in DID+ patients than in patients with MFV < 120 cm sec(-1), if they showed a MFV > 120 cm sec(-1) in MCA. If pathological values were obtained in ACA, this ratio increases to about four times, if DID + patients presented with MFV > 90 cm sec(-1) versus patients with MFV < 90 cm sec(-1). Daily monitoring of vasospasm using TCD examination is thus helpful to identify patients at high risk for

  3. Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood–brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 and occludin disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Tuor, Ursula I; Zhao, Zonghang; Barber, Philip A

    2011-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists as to whether aging enhances the detrimental effects of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on vascular integrity of the ischemic brain. We hypothesized that tPA treatment would augment ischemic injury by causing increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) breakdown as determined by quantitative serial T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the transfer constant for gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) from blood to brain in aged (18 to 20 months) compared with young (3 to 4 months) Wistar rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion, mediated through the acute disassembly of claudin 5 and occludin. Increased T2 values over the first hour of postreperfusion were independently augmented following treatment with tPA (P<0.001) and aging (P<0.01), supporting a synergistic effect of tPA on the aged ischemic brain. Blood–brain barrier permeability for Gd-DTPA (KGd) was substantial following reperfusion in all animal groups and was exacerbated by tPA treatment in the elderly rat (P<0.001). The frequency of hematoma formation was proportionately increased in the elderly ischemic brain (P<0.05). Both tPA and age independently increased claudin 5 and occludin phosphorylation during ischemia. Early BBB permeability detected by quantitative MRI following ischemic stroke is enhanced by increased age and tPA and is related to claudin 5 and occludin phosphorylation. PMID:21610723

  4. Early optical detection of cerebral edema in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gill, Amandip S; Rajneesh, Kiran F; Owen, Christopher M; Yeh, James; Hsu, Mike; Binder, Devin K

    2011-02-01

    Cerebral edema is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in diverse disease states. Currently, the means to detect progressive cerebral edema in vivo includes the use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors and/or serial radiological studies. However, ICP measurements exhibit a high degree of variability, and ICP monitors detect edema only after it becomes sufficient to significantly raise ICP. The authors report the development of 2 distinct minimally invasive fiberoptic near-infrared (NIR) techniques able to directly detect early cerebral edema. Cytotoxic brain edema was induced in adult CD1 mice via water intoxication by intraperitoneal water administration (30% body weight intraperitoneally). An implantable dual-fiberoptic probe was stereotactically placed into the cerebral cortex and connected to optical source and detector hardware. Optical sources consisted of either broadband halogen illumination or a single-wavelength NIR laser diode, and the detector was a sensitive NIR spectrometer or optical power meter. In one subset of animals, a left-sided craniectomy was performed to obtain cortical biopsies for water-content determination to verify cerebral edema. In another subset of animals, an ICP transducer was placed on the contralateral cortex, which was synchronized to a computer and time stamped. Using either broadband illumination with NIR spectroscopy or single-wavelength laser diode illumination with optical power meter detection, the authors detected a reduction in NIR optical reflectance during early cerebral edema. The time intervals between water injection (Time Point 0), optical trigger (defined as a 2-SD change in optical reflectance from baseline), and defined threshold ICP values of 10, 15 and 20 mm Hg were calculated. Reduction in NIR reflectance occurred significantly earlier than any of the ICP thresholds (p < 0.001). Saline-injected control mice exhibited a steady baseline optical signal. There was a significant correlation between

  5. Recurrent stroke risk and cerebral microbleed burden in ischemic stroke and TIA

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Duncan; Charidimou, Andreas; Ambler, Gareth; Fox, Zoe V.; Gregoire, Simone; Rayson, Phillip; Imaizumi, Toshio; Fluri, Felix; Naka, Hiromitsu; Horstmann, Solveig; Veltkamp, Roland; Rothwell, Peter M.; Kwa, Vincent I.H.; Thijs, Vincent; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Young Dae; Huang, Yining; Wong, Ka Sing; Jäger, Hans Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine associations between cerebral microbleed (CMB) burden with recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk after IS or TIA. Methods: We identified prospective studies of patients with IS or TIA that investigated CMBs and stroke (ICH and IS) risk during ≥3 months follow-up. Authors provided aggregate summary-level data on stroke outcomes, with CMBs categorized according to burden (single, 2–4, and ≥5 CMBs) and distribution. We calculated absolute event rates and pooled risk ratios (RR) using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: We included 5,068 patients from 15 studies. There were 115/1,284 (9.6%) recurrent IS events in patients with CMBs vs 212/3,781 (5.6%) in patients without CMBs (pooled RR 1.8 for CMBs vs no CMBs; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.5). There were 49/1,142 (4.3%) ICH events in those with CMBs vs 17/2,912 (0.58%) in those without CMBs (pooled RR 6.3 for CMBs vs no CMBs; 95% CI 3.5–11.4). Increasing CMB burden increased the risk of IS (pooled RR [95% CI] 1.8 [1.0–3.1], 2.4 [1.3–4.4], and 2.7 [1.5–4.9] for 1 CMB, 2–4 CMBs, and ≥5 CMBs, respectively) and ICH (pooled RR [95% CI] 4.6 [1.9–10.7], 5.6 [2.4–13.3], and 14.1 [6.9–29.0] for 1 CMB, 2–4 CMBs, and ≥5 CMBs, respectively). Conclusions: CMBs are associated with increased stroke risk after IS or TIA. With increasing CMB burden (compared to no CMBs), the risk of ICH increases more steeply than that of IS. However, IS absolute event rates remain higher than ICH absolute event rates in all CMB burden categories. PMID:27590288

  6. Correction for Delay and Dispersion Results in More Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow Ischemic Core Measurement in Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Longting; Bivard, Andrew; Kleinig, Timothy; Spratt, Neil J; Levi, Christopher R; Yang, Qing; Parsons, Mark W

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess how the ischemic core measured by perfusion computed tomography (CTP) was affected by the delay and dispersion effect. Ischemic stroke patients having CTP performed within 6 hours of onset were included. The CTP data were processed twice, generating standard cerebral blood flow (sCBF) and delay- and dispersion-corrected CBF (ddCBF), respectively. Ischemic core measured by the sCBF and ddCBF was then compared at the relative threshold <30% of normal tissue. Two references for ischemic core were used: acute diffusion-weighted imaging or 24-hour diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with complete recanalization. Difference of core volume between CTP and diffusion-weighted imaging was estimated by Mann-Whitney U test and limits of agreement. Patients were also classified into favorable and unfavorable CTP patterns. The imaging pattern classification by sCBF and ddCBF was compared by the χ 2 test; their respective ability to predict good clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score) was tested in logistic regression. Fifty-five patients were included in this study. Median sCBF ischemic core volume was 38.5 mL (12.4-61.9 mL), much larger than the median core volume of 17.2 mL measured by ddCBF (interquartile range, 5.5-38.8; P <0.001). Moreover, compared with sCBF <30%, ddCBF <30% measured the ischemic core much closer to diffusion-weighted imaging core references, with the mean volume difference of -0.1 mL (95% limits of agreement, -25.4 to 25.2; P =0.97) and 16.7 mL (95% limits of agreement, -21.7 to 55.2; P <0.001), respectively. Imaging patterns defined by sCBF showed a difference to that defined by ddCBF ( P <0.001), with 12 patients classified as favorable imaging patterns by ddCBF but as unfavorable by sCBF. The favorable imaging pattern classified by ddCBF, compared with sCBF classification, had higher predictive power for good clinical outcome (odds ratio, 7.8 [2-30.5] and 3.1 [0.9-11], respectively). Delay and dispersion

  7. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Padroni, Marina; Bernardoni, Andrea; Tamborino, Carmine; Roversi, Gloria; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Borgatti, Luca; Marcello, Onofrio; d'Esterre, Christopher; Ceruti, Stefano; Casetta, Ilaria; Lee, Ting-Yim; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The capability of CT perfusion (CTP) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients is still questioned. 62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after onset were recorded. Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001). CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS ≤ 2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001). CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02) only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome. Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size.

  8. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Padroni, Marina; Bernardoni, Andrea; Tamborino, Carmine; Roversi, Gloria; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Borgatti, Luca; Marcello, Onofrio; d’Esterre, Christopher; Ceruti, Stefano; Casetta, Ilaria; Lee, Ting-Yim; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The capability of CT perfusion (CTP) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients is still questioned. Methods 62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after onset were recorded. Results Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001). CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS≤2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001). CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02) only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome. Conclusions Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size. PMID:26824672

  9. Effects of Angiopoietin-1 on Hemorrhagic Transformation and Cerebral Edema after Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment for Ischemic Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Kunio; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Masato; Igarashi, Hironaka; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2014-01-01

    An angiogenesis factor, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), is associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment are related to the decrease in Ang1 expression in the BBB remains unknown. We hypothesized that administering Ang1 might attenuate hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tPA treatment by stabilizing blood vessels and inhibiting hyperpermeability. Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to thromboembolic focal cerebral ischemia were assigned to a permanent ischemia group (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; PMCAO) and groups treated with tPA at 1 h or 4 h after ischemia. Endogenous Ang1 expression was observed in pericytes, astrocytes, and neuronal cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Ang1 expression levels on the ischemic side of the cerebral cortex were decreased in the tPA-1h, tPA-4h, and PMCAO groups as compared to those in the control group (P = 0.014, 0.003, and 0.014, respectively). Ang1-positive vessel densities in the tPA-4h and PMCAO groups were less than that in the control group (p = 0.002 and <0.001, respectively) as well as that in the tPA-1h group (p = 0.047 and 0.005, respectively). These results suggest that Ang1-positive vessel density was maintained when tPA was administered within the therapeutic time window (1 h), while it was decreased when tPA treatment was given after the therapeutic time window (4 h). Administering Ang1 fused with cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) to supplement this decrease has the potential to suppress hemorrhagic transformation as measured by hemoglobin content in a whole cerebral homogenate (p = 0.007) and cerebral edema due to BBB damage (p = 0.038), as compared to administering COMP protein alone. In conclusion, Ang1 might be a promising target molecule for developing vasoprotective therapies for controlling hemorrhagic

  10. Energy metabolism of cerebral mitochondria during aging, ischemia and post-ischemic recovery assessed by functional proteomics of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Ferrari, Federica; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2013-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, but most of the therapeutic approaches failed in clinical trials. The energy metabolism alterations, due to marked ATP decline, are strongly related to stroke and, at present, their physiopathological roles are not fully understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on ischemia-induced changes in energy mitochondrial transduction and the consequences on overall brain energy metabolism in an in vivo experimental model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15min duration and during post-ischemic recirculation after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, in 1year "adult" and 2year-old "aged" rats. The maximum rate (Vmax) of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome oxidase for electron transfer chain (ETC) were assayed in non-synaptic "free" mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., "light" and "heavy" mitochondria. The catalytic activities of enzymes markedly differ according to: (a) mitochondrial type (non-synaptic, intra-synaptic), (b) age, (c) acute effects of ischemia and (d) post-ischemic recirculation at different times. Enzyme activities changes are injury maturation events and strictly reflect the bioenergetic state of the tissue in each specific experimental condition respect to the energy demand, as shown by the comparative evaluation of the energy-linked metabolites and substrates content. Remarkably, recovery of mitochondrial function was more difficult for intra-synaptic mitochondria in "aged" rats, but enzyme activities of energy metabolism tended to normalize in all mitochondrial populations after 96h of recirculation. This observation is relevant for Therapy, indicating that mitochondrial enzymes may be important metabolic factors for the responsiveness of ischemic penumbra towards the restore of cerebral functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is higher body temperature beneficial in ischemic stroke patients with normal admission CT angiography of the cerebral arteries?

    PubMed Central

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Khanevski, Andrej; Nacu, Aliona; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    Background Low body temperature is considered beneficial in ischemic stroke due to neuroprotective mechanisms, yet some studies suggest that higher temperatures may improve clot lysis and outcomes in stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The effect of increased body temperature in stroke patients treated with tPA and with normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) on admission is unknown. We hypothesized a beneficial effect of higher body temperature in the absence of visible clots on CTA, possibly due to enhanced lysis of small, peripheral clots. Methods Patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and April 2013 were prospectively registered in a database (Bergen NORSTROKE Registry). Ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA with normal CTA of the cerebral arteries were included. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 1 week. An excellent outcome was defined as mRS=0, and a favorable outcome as mRS=0–1. Results A total of 172 patients were included, of which 48 (27.9%) had an admission body temperature ≥37.0°C, and 124 (72.1%) had a body temperature <37.0°C. Body temperature ≥37.0°C was independently associated with excellent outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–6.46; P=0.014) and favorable outcomes (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.13–4.98; P=0.015) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion We found an association between higher admission body temperature and improved outcome in tPA-treated stroke patients with normal admission CTA of the cerebral arteries. This may suggest a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis in the absence of visible clots on CTA. PMID:24482573

  12. Is higher body temperature beneficial in ischemic stroke patients with normal admission CT angiography of the cerebral arteries?

    PubMed

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Khanevski, Andrej; Nacu, Aliona; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    Low body temperature is considered beneficial in ischemic stroke due to neuroprotective mechanisms, yet some studies suggest that higher temperatures may improve clot lysis and outcomes in stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The effect of increased body temperature in stroke patients treated with tPA and with normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) on admission is unknown. We hypothesized a beneficial effect of higher body temperature in the absence of visible clots on CTA, possibly due to enhanced lysis of small, peripheral clots. Patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and April 2013 were prospectively registered in a database (Bergen NORSTROKE Registry). Ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA with normal CTA of the cerebral arteries were included. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 1 week. An excellent outcome was defined as mRS=0, and a favorable outcome as mRS=0-1. A total of 172 patients were included, of which 48 (27.9%) had an admission body temperature ≥37.0°C, and 124 (72.1%) had a body temperature <37.0°C. Body temperature ≥37.0°C was independently associated with excellent outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-6.46; P=0.014) and favorable outcomes (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.13-4.98; P=0.015) when adjusted for confounders. We found an association between higher admission body temperature and improved outcome in tPA-treated stroke patients with normal admission CTA of the cerebral arteries. This may suggest a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis in the absence of visible clots on CTA.

  13. Overview of Experimental and Clinical Findings regarding the Neuroprotective Effects of Cerebral Ischemic Postconditioning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Di; Feng, Liangshu; Deng, Fang; Feng, Jia-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Research on attenuating the structural and functional deficits observed following ischemia-reperfusion has become increasingly focused on the therapeutic potential of ischemic postconditioning. In recent years, various methods and animal models of ischemic postconditioning have been utilized. The results of these numerous studies have indicated that the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning may involve reductions in the generation of free radicals and inhibition of calcium overload, as well as the release of endogenous active substances, alterations in membrane channel function, and activation of protein kinases. Here we review the novel discovery, mechanism, key factors, and clinical application of ischemic postconditioning and discuss its implications for future research and problem of clinical practice.

  14. Baicalin attenuates focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury through inhibition of nuclear factor {kappa}B p65 activation

    SciT

    Xue, Xia; Center for New Drugs Evaluation, Shandong University, Jinan 250012; Qu, Xian-Jun

    Research highlights: {yields} Permanent NF-{kappa}B p65 activation contributes to the infarction after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. {yields} Baicalin can markedly inhibit the nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65 expression and m RNA levels after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. {yields} Baicalin decreased the cerebral infarction area via inhibiting the activation of nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65. -- Abstract: Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of baicalin against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Baicalin at dosesmore » of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was intravenously injected after ischemia onset. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the neurological deficit was scored and infarct volume was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed to analyze the histopathological changes of cortex and hippocampus neurons. We examined the levels of NF-{kappa}B p65 in ischemic cortexes by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. The results showed that the neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased from 2.0 {+-} 0.7 to 1.2 {+-} 0.4 and the volume of infarction was reduced by 25% after baicalin injection. Histopathological examination showed that the increase of neurons with pycnotic shape and condensed nuclear in cortex and hippocampus were not observed in baicalin treated animals. Further examination showed that NF-{kappa}B p65 in cortex was increased after ischemia reperfusion injury, indicating the molecular mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. The level of NF-{kappa}B p65 was decreased by 73% after baicalin treatment. These results suggest that baicalin might be useful as a potential neuroprotective agent in stroke therapy. The neuroprotective effects of baicalin may relate to inhibition of NF-{kappa}B p65.« less

  15. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Corte, Vittoriano Della; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile. PMID:27043681

  16. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile.

  17. Structural MRI markers of brain aging early after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Werden, Emilio; Cumming, Toby; Li, Qi; Bird, Laura; Veldsman, Michele; Pardoe, Heath R; Jackson, Graeme; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Brodtmann, Amy

    2017-07-11

    To examine associations between ischemic stroke, vascular risk factors, and MRI markers of brain aging. Eighty-one patients (mean age 67.5 ± 13.1 years, 31 left-sided, 61 men) with confirmed first-ever (n = 66) or recurrent (n = 15) ischemic stroke underwent 3T MRI scanning within 6 weeks of symptom onset (mean 26 ± 9 days). Age-matched controls (n = 40) completed identical testing. Multivariate regression analyses examined associations between group membership and MRI markers of brain aging (cortical thickness, total brain volume, white matter hyperintensity [WMH] volume, hippocampal volume), normalized against intracranial volume, and the effects of vascular risk factors on these relationships. First-ever stroke was associated with smaller hippocampal volume ( p = 0.025) and greater WMH volume ( p = 0.004) relative to controls. Recurrent stroke was in turn associated with smaller hippocampal volume relative to both first-ever stroke ( p = 0.017) and controls ( p = 0.001). These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, and, in stroke patients, infarct volume. Total brain volume was not significantly smaller in first-ever stroke patients than in controls ( p = 0.056), but the association became significant after further adjustment for atrial fibrillation ( p = 0.036). Cortical thickness and brain volumes did not differ as a function of stroke type, infarct volume, or etiology. Brain structure is likely to be compromised before ischemic stroke by vascular risk factors. Smaller hippocampal and total brain volumes and increased WMH load represent proxies for underlying vascular brain injury. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Cerebral Palsy: A Lifelong Challenge Asks for Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093

  19. Cerebral microbleeds are not associated with long-term cognitive outcome in patients with transient ischemic attack or minor stroke.

    PubMed

    Brundel, Manon; Kwa, Vincent I H; Bouvy, Willem H; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds have been related to cerebrovascular disease and dementia. They occur more frequently in patients with ischemic stroke than in the general population, but their relation to cognition in these patients is uncertain, particularly in the long run. We examined the relationship between microbleeds in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke, and cognitive performance 4 years later. Participants were recruited from a prospective multicenter cohort of patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke (n=397). They underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including a T2*-weighted sequence, within 3 months after their ischemic event. Microbleeds, atrophy, lacunae and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were rated visually. Cognitive status was examined in 94% of all patients who were still alive after a mean interval of 3.8 years by the Dutch version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS; n=280) or by an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) obtained from a close relative if a TICS could not be obtained (n=48). The relationship between presence of microbleeds and TICS or IQCODE score was assessed with linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level and time interval between MRI and cognitive evaluation. The mean age was 65±12 years at inclusion. The vascular event at inclusion was a TIA in 170 patients (52%) and a minor ischemic stroke in 155 patients (47%). Microbleeds were present in 11.6% of the patients. Patients with microbleeds were significantly older than patients without microbleeds (70±9 vs. 64±12 years), more often had hypertension, and had more cerebral atrophy, WMH and lacunae on MRI (all p<0.05). The mean TICS score was 35.3±5.9 for patients with microbleeds (n=29) and 34.6±5.2 for patients without microbleeds (n=251); the adjusted mean difference (95% CI) was 1.69 (-0.01 to 3.38). The total IQCODE score was 66.0±10.8 for patients with

  20. Neuropeptide Y - an early biomarker for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Brawanski, Alexander; Bele, Sylvia; Schödel, Petra; Herbst, Andreas; Bründl, Elisabeth; Kagerbauer, Simone Maria; Martin, Jan; Lohmeier, Anette; Stoerr, Eva-Maria; Proescholdt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the human brain, the potent vasoconstrictive neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly expressed. Neuropeptide Y, which is stored in perivascular nerve fibers of the cerebral arteries, regulates the cerebral vascular diameter as well as cerebral blood flow. However, the role of NPY in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm (CV) related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We prospectively analyzed and compared the release of endogenous NPY in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 66 patients with SAH to NPY release in a control group. Additionally, we correlated the levels of NPY with CV and consecutive ischemic stroke. Sixty-six consecutive patients (40 women, 26 men; mean age 53·1 years) with aneurysmal SAH were included. In the SAH group, CSF was drawn daily from day 1 to day 10 after the onset of SAH. The CSF of 29 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for orthopedic surgery served as control samples. The NPY levels were determined in duplicate CSF samples by means of a competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The levels of NPY in CSF were correlated with the development of CV over the 10-day period after the onset of SAH and to the occurrence of consecutive ischemic stroke. To evaluate CSF NPY levels as a predictive biomarker for vasospasm, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values. The NPY levels were significantly higher in the SAH group than in the control group (p < 0·001). The treatment modality (clip versus coil) did not influence the level of NPY in CSF (p > 0·05). Patients with CV showed significantly higher NPY levels than patients without CV during the entire observation period. The NPY levels of the non-CV group dissipated over time, whereas the CV group showed continuously increasing values. The NPY levels from day 4 to 10 were significantly higher in patients with CV-related stroke than in non-stroke patients. Using 0·3 ng/ml as a cut-off value, NPY levels on day 3 predicted the occurrence

  1. Sevoflurane postconditioning against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury is abolished in diet-induced obesity: role of brain mitochondrial KATP channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zecheng; Chen, Yunbo; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Fang, Xuedong; Xu, Jingwei

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased infarct volumes and adverse outcomes following ischemic stroke. However, its effect on anesthetic postconditioning‑induced neuroprotection has not been investigated. The present study examined the effect of sevoflurane postconditioning on focal ischemic brain injury in diet‑induced obesity. Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a high‑fat diet (HF; 45% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to develop obesity syndrome. Rats fed a low‑fat diet (LF; 10% kcal as fat) served as controls. The HF or LF‑fed rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia for 60 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Postconditioning was performed by exposure to sevoflurane for 15 min immediately at the onset of reperfusion. The involvement of the mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channel was analyzed by the administration of a selective inhibitor of 5‑hydroxydecanoate (5‑HD) prior to sevoflurane postconditioning or by administration of diazoxide (DZX), a mitoKATP channel opener, instead of sevoflurane. The cerebral infarct volume, neurological score and motor coordination were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. The HF‑fed rats had larger infarct volumes, and lower neurological scores than the LF‑fed rats and also failed to respond to neuroprotection by sevoflurane or DZX. By contrast, sevoflurane and DZX reduced the infarct volumes and improved the neurological scores and motor coordination in the LF‑fed rats. Pretreatment with 5‑HD inhibited sevoflurane‑induced neuroprotection in the LF‑fed rats, whereas it had no effect in the HF‑fed rats. Molecular studies demonstrated that the expression of Kir6.2, a significant mitoKATP channel component, was reduced in the brains of the HF‑fed rats compared with the LF‑fed rats. The results of this study indicate that diet‑induced obesity eliminates the ability of anesthetic sevoflurane postconditioning to protect the brain against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury, most likely due to an impaired brain

  2. Electroacupuncture improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via Angiotensin II its receptors-mediated mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; He, Jiaojun; Du, Yuanhao; Cui, Jingjun; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xuezhu

    2014-11-11

    To investigate the effects and potential mechanism of electroacupuncture intervention on expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors-mediated signaling pathway in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Totally 126 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and EA group. The latter two were further divided into ten subgroups (n = 6) following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors (AT1R, AT2R), as well as effector proteins in phosphatidyl inositol signal pathway were monitored before and at different times after MCAO. MCAO-induced decline of ipsilateral rCBF was partially suppressed by electroacupuncture, and contralateral blood flow was also superior to that of model group. Angiotensin II level was remarkably elevated immediately after MCAO, while electroacupuncture group exhibited significantly lower levels at 1 to 3 h and the value was significantly increased thereafter. The enhanced expression of AT1R was partially inhibited by electroacupuncture, while increased AT2R level was further induced. Electroacupuncture stimulation attenuated and postponed the upregulated-expressions of Gq and CaM these upregulations. ELISA results showed sharply increased expressions of DAG and IP3, which were remarkably neutralized by electroacupuncture. MCAO induced significant increases in expression of Angiotensin II and its receptor-mediated signal pathway. These enhanced expressions were significantly attenuated by electroacupuncture intervention, followed by reduced vasoconstriction and improved blood supply in ischemic region, and ultimately conferred beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia.

  3. Tanshinone IIA attenuates the cerebral ischemic injury-induced increase in levels of GFAP and of caspases-3 and -8.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Bondy, S C; Jian, L; Wen, P; Yang, F; Luo, H; Li, W; Zhou, Jun

    2015-03-12

    Tanshinone IIA (TSA) is a lipid soluble agent derived from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen). This plant is a traditional Chinese herb, which has been used widely in China especially for enhancing circulation. However mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain poorly understood. The present study was designed to illuminate events that may underlie the apparently neuroprotective effects of TSA following ischemic insult. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia by use of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model. They were then randomly divided into a sham-operated control group, and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion groups receiving a two-hour occlusion. Further subsets of groups received the same durations of occlusion or were sham-operated but then received daily i.p. injections of high or low doses of TSA, for seven or 15days. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed lesions in the entorhinal cortex of both rats subject to ischemia and to a lesser extent to those receiving TSA after surgery. Levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), caspase-3 and caspase-8, were quantified by both immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. TSA treatment after middle cerebral artery occlusion, markedly reduced infarct size, and reduced the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. These changes were considered protective and were generally proportional to the dose of TSA used. These results suggest that TSA may effect neuroprotection by way of reduction of the extent of cell inflammation and death within affected regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Jauch, Edward C; Saver, Jeffrey L; Adams, Harold P; Bruno, Askiel; Connors, J J Buddy; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Khatri, Pooja; McMullan, Paul W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Scott, Phillip A; Summers, Debbie R; Wang, David Z; Wintermark, Max; Yonas, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Level of Evidence grading algorithm. The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.

  5. Clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds on MRI: A comprehensive meta-analysis of risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, mortality, and dementia in cohort studies (v1).

    PubMed

    Charidimou, Andreas; Shams, Sara; Romero, Jose R; Ding, Jie; Veltkamp, Roland; Horstmann, Solveig; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Himali, Jayandra J; Gurol, M Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Imaizumi, Toshio; Vernooij, Meike W; Seshadri, Sudha; Greenberg, Steven M; Benavente, Oscar R; Launer, Lenore J; Shoamanesh, Ashkan

    2018-01-01

    Background Cerebral microbleeds can confer a high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, death and dementia, but estimated risks remain imprecise and often conflicting. We investigated the association between cerebral microbleeds presence and these outcomes in a large meta-analysis of all published cohorts including: ischemic stroke/TIA, memory clinic, "high risk" elderly populations, and healthy individuals in population-based studies. Methods Cohorts (with > 100 participants) that assessed cerebral microbleeds presence on MRI, with subsequent follow-up (≥3 months) were identified. The association between cerebral microbleeds and each of the outcomes (ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, death, and dementia) was quantified using random effects models of (a) unadjusted crude odds ratios and (b) covariate-adjusted hazard rations. Results We identified 31 cohorts ( n = 20,368): 19 ischemic stroke/TIA ( n = 7672), 4 memory clinic ( n = 1957), 3 high risk elderly ( n = 1458) and 5 population-based cohorts ( n = 11,722). Cerebral microbleeds were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.58-2.89 and adj-HR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.71-2.57), but the relative increase in future intracerebral hemorrhage risk was greater (OR: 4.65; 95% CI: 2.68-8.08 and adj-HR: 3.93; 95% CI: 2.71-5.69). Cerebral microbleeds were an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (adj-HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.24-1.48). In three population-based studies, cerebral microbleeds were independently associated with incident dementia (adj-HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.00-1.82). Results were overall consistent in analyses stratified by different populations, but with different degrees of heterogeneity. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that cerebral microbleeds predict an increased risk of stroke, death, and dementia and provides up-to-date effect sizes across different clinical settings. These pooled estimates can inform clinical decisions and

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of early changes in corpus callosum after acute cerebral hemisphere lesions in newborns.

    PubMed

    Righini, Andrea; Doneda, Chiara; Parazzini, Cecilia; Arrigoni, Filippo; Matta, Ursula; Triulzi, Fabio

    2010-11-01

    The main purpose was to investigate any early diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes in corpus callosum (CC) associated with acute cerebral hemisphere lesions in term newborns. We retrospectively analysed 19 cases of term newborns acutely affected by focal or multi-focal lesions: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycaemic encephalopathy, focal ischemic stroke and deep medullary vein associated lesions. DTI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla with dedicated neonatal coil. DTI metrics (apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial λ(∐) and radial λ(⟂) diffusivity) were measured in the hemisphere lesions and in the CC. The control group included seven normal newborns. The following significant differences were found between patients and normal controls in the CC: mean ADC was lower in patients (0.88 SD 0.23 versus 1.18 SD 0.07 μm(2)/s) and so was mean FA (0.50 SD 0.1 versus 0.67 SD 0.05) and mean λ(∐) value (1.61 SD 0.52 versus 2.36 SD 0.14 μm(2)/s). In CC the percentage of ADC always diminished independently of lesion age (with one exception), whereas in hemisphere lesions, it was negative in earlier lesions, but exceeded normal values in the older lesions. CC may undergo early DTI changes in newborns with acute focal or multi-focal hemisphere lesions of different aetiology. Although a direct insult to CC cannot be totally ruled out, DTI changes in CC (in particular λ(∐)) may also be compatible with very early Wallerian degeneration or pre-Wallerian degeneration.

  7. Regulatory T cells are strong promoters of acute ischemic stroke in mice by inducing dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Kraft, Peter; Dreykluft, Angela; Hagedorn, Ina; Göbel, Kerstin; Schuhmann, Michael K; Langhauser, Friederike; Helluy, Xavier; Schwarz, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Mayer, Christian T; Brede, Marc; Varallyay, Csanad; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Magnus, Tim; Meuth, Sven G; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Zernecke, Alma; Sparwasser, Tim; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stoll, Guido; Wiendl, Heinz

    2013-01-24

    We have recently identified T cells as important mediators of ischemic brain damage, but the contribution of the different T-cell subsets is unclear. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as prototypic anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of Tregs after experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Selective depletion of Tregs in the DEREG mouse model dramatically reduced infarct size and improved neurologic function 24 hours after stroke and this protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarct development. The specificity of this detrimental Treg effect was confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments in wild-type mice and in Rag1(-/-) mice lacking lymphocytes. Mechanistically, Tregs induced microvascular dysfunction in vivo by increased interaction with the ischemic brain endothelium via the LFA-1/ICAM-1 pathway and platelets and these findings were confirmed in vitro. Ablation of Tregs reduced microvascular thrombus formation and improved cerebral reperfusion on stroke, as revealed by ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 17.6 Tesla. In contrast, established immunoregulatory characteristics of Tregs had no functional relevance. We define herein a novel and unexpected role of Tregs in a primary nonimmunologic disease state.

  8. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy associated with cerebral vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J M; Bresnick, G H; Bell, C L; Roschmann, R A; Brooks, B R; Strother, C M

    1988-09-01

    Acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an unusual self-limited retinal disorder that has been associated with various systemic complications. To our knowledge, three prior cases associated with cerebral vasculitis have been described. This article describes a patient with APMPPE and angiographically documented cerebral vasculitis who was notable because of (a) the presence of two different cerebral ischemic events, occurring 1 month apart, and (b) the long latency (3 months) between the onset of ocular symptoms and the second cerebral ischemic event. Recognition of the association between APMPPE and cerebral vasculitis may permit early treatment of CNS involvement and prevention of morbidity.

  9. Effects of long-term post-ischemic treadmill exercise on gliosis in the aged gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Yang Hee; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic exercise is an integral component of the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. The objective of the present study was to use immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of post-ischemic exercise on neuronal damage or death and gliosis in the aged gerbil hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia. Aged gerbils (male; age, 22–24 months) underwent ischemia and were subjected to treadmill exercise for 1 or 4 weeks. Neuronal death was detected in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus using cresyl violet and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. No significant difference in neuronal death was identified following 1 or 4 weeks of post-ischemic treadmill exercise. However, post-ischemic treadmill exercise affected gliosis (the activation of astrocytes and microglia). Glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1-immunoreactive microglia were activated in the CA1 and polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus of the group without treadmill exercise. Conversely, 4 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly alleviated ischemia-induced astrocyte and microglial activation; however, 1 week of treadmill exercise did not alleviate gliosis. These findings suggest that long-term post-ischemic treadmill exercise following transient cerebral ischemia does not influence neuronal protection; however, it may effectively alleviate transient cerebral ischemia-induced astrocyte and microglial activation in the aged hippocampus. PMID:28440411

  10. Proinflammatory cytokines correlate with early exercise attenuating anxiety-like behavior after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jingjun; Yan, Yuzhong; Zhang, Pengyue; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Stroke may cause neuropsychiatric problems, which have negative effects on cognitive functions and behavior. Exercise plays an important role in reducing the occurrence and development of stroke, the concrete mechanism is not fully clarified. In this study, we attempted to determine whether early treadmill exercise attenuates anxiety-like behavior by regulation of inflammation after brain ischemia. We subjected adult male rats to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min and trained rats started to run on a treadmill from postoperative day 1 to day 14. The effects of treadmill on cognitive functions, anxiety-like behavior, and immune activation were analyzed by Morris water maze test, open field test, elevated plus maze test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Early treadmill exercise significantly improved cognitive function, alleviated anxiety-like behavior in ischemic rats model; this improvement was associated with significantly decreased activation of astrocytes and microglia cells and proinflammatory markers (platelet-activating factor [PAF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1]). Our results indicated that early treadmill exercise attenuated anxiety-like behavior by decreasing inflammation response, exercise conferred a great benefit of attenuating anxiety-like behavior via anti-inflammatory treatment may prove to be a novel neuroprotective strategy for stroke.

  11. Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86

  12. Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkellner, Oliver; Gruber, Clemens; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Jelzow, Alexander; Steinbrink, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; MacDonald, Rainer; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2010-11-01

    We present results of a clinical study on bedside perfusion monitoring of the human brain by optical bolus tracking. We measure the kinetics of the contrast agent indocyanine green using time-domain near-IR spectroscopy (tdNIRS) in 10 patients suffering from acute unilateral ischemic stroke. In all patients, a delay of the bolus over the affected when compared to the unaffected hemisphere is found (mean: 1.5 s, range: 0.2 s to 5.2 s). A portable time-domain near-IR reflectometer is optimized and approved for clinical studies. Data analysis based on statistical moments of time-of-flight distributions of diffusely reflected photons enables high sensitivity to intracerebral changes in bolus kinetics. Since the second centralized moment, variance, is preferentially sensitive to deep absorption changes, it provides a suitable representation of the cerebral signals relevant for perfusion monitoring in stroke. We show that variance-based bolus tracking is also less susceptible to motion artifacts, which often occur in severely affected patients. We present data that clearly manifest the applicability of the tdNIRS approach to assess cerebral perfusion in acute stroke patients at the bedside. This may be of high relevance to its introduction as a monitoring tool on stroke units.

  13. Early rehabilitation outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan

    2011-07-12

    Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (P<0.05). Age was negatively correlated with both BI and FIM scores at admission and discharge. Length of stay was not correlated with improvement in BI or FIM scores during hospitalization. The patients that had ≤1 month of inpatient rehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta; Tongun, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:21197427

  15. Cerebral ischemic lesions detected with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging after carotid artery stenting: Comparison of several anti-embolic protection devices.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mahmoud M; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Toma, Naoki; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Hirose, Tomofumi; Miura, Youichi; Fujimoto, Masashi; Matsushima, Satoshi; Taki, Waro

    2009-09-01

    Distal embolism is an important periprocedural technical complication with carotid angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of protection devices used during CAS by detecting new cerebral ischemic lesions using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 95 patients who underwent 98 CAS procedures: 34 using single PercuSurge GuardWire, 31 using double balloon protection, 15 using proximal flow reverse protection devices, 14 using Naviballoon, and 4 using filter anti-embolic devices. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed preoperatively and postoperatively to evaluate the presence of any new embolic cerebral lesions. Postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging revealed 117 new ischemic lesions. Three patients had new ischemic stroke, two minor and one major, all ipsilateral to the treated carotid artery. The remaining patients had clinically silent ischemia. The incidence of new embolic lesions was lower using the proximal flow reverse protection device than with the double balloon protection (33% vs. 48.4%), but the volume of ipsilateral new ischemic lesions per patient was 136.6 mm(3) vs. 86.9 mm(3), respectively. Neuroprotection with Naviballoon yielded ipsilateral lesions of large volume (86.6 mm(3)) and higher number (5.7 lesions per patient) than using the filter anti-embolic device (34.8 mm(3) and 1 lesion per patient). New cerebral ischemic lesions after neuroprotected CAS are usually silent. The lower incidence of distal ischemia using proximal flow reverse and double balloon protection devices is limited by the larger volume and higher number of ischemic lesions.

  16. Vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxic-ischemic damage: contribution of the cerebral vasculature to injury and repair?

    PubMed Central

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Ek, C. Joakim; Walker, David W.; Castillo-Melendez, Margie

    2012-01-01

    As clinicians attempt to understand the underlying reasons for the vulnerability of different regions of the developing brain to injury, it is apparent that little is known as to how hypoxia-ischemia may affect the cerebrovasculature in the developing infant. Most of the research investigating the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia has focused on excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and an inflammatory response, with the response of the developing cerebrovasculature receiving less attention. This is surprising as the presentation of devastating and permanent injury such as germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) and perinatal stroke are of vascular origin, and the origin of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) may also arise from poor perfusion of the white matter. This highlights that cerebrovasculature injury following hypoxia could primarily be responsible for the injury seen in the brain of many infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Interestingly the highly dynamic nature of the cerebral blood vessels in the fetus, and the fluctuations of cerebral blood flow and metabolic demand that occur following hypoxia suggest that the response of blood vessels could explain both regional protection and vulnerability in the developing brain. However, research into how blood vessels respond following hypoxia-ischemia have mostly been conducted in adult models of ischemia or stroke, further highlighting the need to investigate how the developing cerebrovasculature responds and the possible contribution to perinatal brain injury following hypoxia. This review discusses the current concepts on the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury, the development of the fetal cerebrovasculature and the blood brain barrier (BBB), and key mediators involved with the response of cerebral blood vessels to hypoxia. PMID:23162470

  17. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Østergaard, Karen; Gjedde, Albert; Rodell, Anders; Bailey, Christopher J; Vafaee, Manoucher S

    2012-02-15

    Decreased activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This model would most likely predict a decrease in the rate of cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). To test this hypothesis, we compared CMRO(2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) PET scans from PD patients and healthy controls. Nine early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent PET scans for quantitative mapping of CMRO(2) and CBF. Between-group differences were evaluated for absolute data and intensity-normalized values. No group differences were detected in regional magnitudes of CMRO(2) or CBF. Upon normalization using the reference cluster method, significant relative CMRO(2) decreases were evident in widespread prefrontal, parieto-occipital, and lateral temporal regions. Sensory-motor and subcortical regions, brainstem, and the cerebellum were spared. A similar pattern was evident in normalized CBF data, as described previously. While the data did not reveal substantially altered absolute CMRO(2) in brain of PD patients, employing data-driven intensity normalization revealed widespread relative CMRO(2) decreases in cerebral cortex. The detected pattern was very similar to that reported in earlier CBF and CMRglc studies of PD, and in the CBF images from the same subjects. Thus, the present results are consistent with the occurrence of parallel declines in CMRO(2), CBF, and CMRglc in spatially contiguous cortical regions in early PD, and support the hypothesis that ETC dysfunction could be a primary pathogenic mechanism in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency and determinants for hemorrhagic transformation of posterior cerebral stroke : Posterior ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic transformation.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesca; Gentile, Luana; Terruso, Valeria; Mastrilli, Sergio; Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Sarno, Caterina; Savettieri, Giovanni; D'Amelio, Marco

    2017-11-13

    hemorrhagic transformation is a threatening ischemic stroke complication. Frequency of hemorrhagic transformation differs greatly among studies, and its risk factors have been usually studied in patients with anterior ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated, in a hospital-based series of patients with posterior ischemic stroke not treated with thrombolysis, frequency and risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation. Patients with posterior circulation stroke were seen in our Department during the period January 2004 to December 2009. Demographic and clinical information were collected. We estimated risk for spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation by means of uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. 119 consecutive patients were included (73 males, 61.3%). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7 patients (5.9%). Only clinical worsening was significantly associated with hemorrhagic transformation (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.3-34.5). Our findings indicate that patients with posterior have a low risk of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation, suggesting that these patients might have greater advantage from intravenous thrombolysis.

  19. Impact of MCA stenosis on the early outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Hsieh, Fang-I; Yeh, Hsu-Ling; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Tang, Sung-Chun; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Lin, Huey-Juan; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Lo, Yuk-Keung; Chan, Lung; Chen, Chih-Hung; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Chen, Yu-Wei; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sun, Ming-Hui; Lai, Ta-Chang; Sun, Yu; Sun, Mu-Chien; Chen, Po-Lin; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lin, Shinn-Kuang; Yip, Bak-Sau; Chen, Chin-I; Bai, Chi-Huey; Chen, Sien-Tsong; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Lien, Li-Ming; Hsu, Chung Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Asians have higher frequency of intracranial arterial stenosis. The present study aimed to compare the clinical features and outcomes of ischemic stroke patients with and without middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis, assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS), based on the Taiwan Stroke Registry (TSR). Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack registered in the TSR, and received both carotid duplex and TCS assessment were categorized into those with stenosis (≥50%) and without (<50%) in the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and MCA, respectively. Logistic regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied to assess relevant variables between groups. Results Of 6003 patients, 23.3% had MCA stenosis, 10.1% ICA stenosis, and 3.9% both MCA and ICA stenosis. Patients with MCA stenosis had greater initial NIHSS, higher likelihood of stroke-in-evolution, and more severe disability than those without (all p<0.001). Patients with MCA stenosis had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Patients with combined MCA and extracranial ICA stenosis had even higher NIHSS, worse functional outcome, higher risk of stroke recurrence or death (hazard ratio, 2.204; 95% confidence intervals, 1.440–3.374; p<0.001) at 3 months after stroke than those without MCA stenosis. Conclusions In conclusion, MCA stenosis was more prevalent than extracranial ICA stenosis in ischemic stroke patients in Taiwan. Patients with MCA stenosis, especially combined extracranial ICA stenosis, had more severe neurological deficit and worse outcome. PMID:28388675

  20. Early afterdepolarizations promote transmural reentry in ischemic human ventricles with reduced repolarization reserve

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Zacur, Ernesto; Quinn, T. Alexander; Taggart, Peter; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    Aims Acute ischemia is a major cause of sudden arrhythmic death, further promoted by potassium current blockers. Macro-reentry around the ischemic region and early afterdepolarizations (EADs) caused by electrotonic current have been suggested as potential mechanisms in animal and isolated cell studies. However, ventricular and human-specific arrhythmia mechanisms and their modulation by repolarization reserve remain unclear. The goal of this paper is to unravel multiscale mechanisms underlying the modulation of arrhythmic risk by potassium current (IKr) block in human ventricles with acute regional ischemia. Methods and results A human ventricular biophysically-detailed model, with acute regional ischemia is constructed by integrating experimental knowledge on the electrophysiological ionic alterations caused by coronary occlusion. Arrhythmic risk is evaluated by determining the vulnerable window (VW) for reentry following ectopy at the ischemic border zone. Macro-reentry around the ischemic region is the main reentrant mechanism in the ischemic human ventricle with increased repolarization reserve due to the ATP-sensitive potassium current (IK(ATP)) activation. Prolongation of refractoriness by 4% caused by 30% IKr reduction counteracts the establishment of macro-reentry and reduces the VW for reentry (by 23.5%). However, a further decrease in repolarization reserve (50% IKr reduction) is less anti-arrhythmic despite further prolongation of refractoriness. This is due to the establishment of transmural reentry enabled by electrotonically-triggered EADs in the ischemic border zone. EADs are produced by L-type calcium current (ICaL) reactivation due to prolonged low amplitude electrotonic current injected during the repolarization phase. Conclusions Electrotonically-triggered EADs are identified as a potential mechanism facilitating intramural reentry in a regionally-ischemic human ventricles model with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:26850675

  1. [Restoring of the speech functions in patients with aphasia in the early rehabilitation period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kotov, S V; Belova, Yu A; Shcherbakova, M M; Chervinskaya, A D; Isakova, E V; Volchenkova, T V

    To study the efficacy of combined therapy including daily sessions and two 10-day injections of the drug cellex in patients with aphasia in the early rehabilitation period of ischemic stroke (II). Forty patients in the early rehabilitation period of II in the basin of the left middle cerebral artery with moderate to severe aphasia were studied. Twenty patients received combined therapy, including daily sessions with a speech therapist-aphasiologist within 10 days using the improved method, then a self-study using educational materials and two 10-day injections of cellex. Other 20 patients received only speech therapy. To assess the efficacy of therapy, the automated "Program of examination of patients with aphasia", Goodglass-Kaplan scale, modified Rankin scale were used. There was a significant improvement of speech functions, communicative abilities and functional recovery (p<0.01) in patients of both groups. However, a significantly greater level of rehabilitation (p<0.05) was noted in patients treated with combined therapy included two courses of cellex. The results allow to recommend the inclusion of cellex in the complex rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke speech disorders.

  2. MRI-based in vivo assessment of early cerebral infarction in a mouse filament perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazumasu; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Ikuho; Taki, Yasuyuki; Suarez, Jose Ignacio; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2017-07-13

    Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by endovascular filament perforation method is used widely in mice, but it sometimes present acute cerebral infarctions with varied magnitude and anatomical location. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and location of the acute ischemic injury in this experimental model. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation. Distribution of SAH was defined by T2*-weighted images within 1h after SAH. Prevalence and location of acute infarction were assessed by diffusion-weighted MR images on day 1 after the induction. Among 72 mice successfully acquired post-SAH MR images, 29 (40%) developed acute infarction. Location of the infarcts was classified into either single infarct (ipsilateral cortex, n=12; caudate putamen, n=3; hippocampus, n=1) or multiple lesions (cortex and caudate putamen, n=6; cortex and hippocampus, n=2; cortex, hippocampus and thalamus/hypothalamus, n=3; bilateral cortex, n=2). The mortality rate within 24h was significantly higher in mice with multiple infarcts than those with single lesion (30% versus 0%; P=0.03). Distribution of the ischemic lesion positively correlated with MRI-evidenced SAH grading (r 2 =0.31, P=0.0002). Experimental SAH immediately after the vessel perforation can induce acute cerebral infarction in varying vascular territories, resulting in increased mortality. The present model may in part, help researchers to interpret the mechanism of clinically-evidenced early multiple combined infarction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of serum levels of antibodies against MMP1, CBX1, and CBX5 with transient ischemic attack and cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Tomiyoshi, Go; Nakamura, Rika; Shinmen, Natsuko; Kuroda, Hideyuki; Kimura, Risa; Mine, Seiichiro; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo; Wada, Takeshi; Aotsuka, Akiyo; Yoshida, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Matsutani, Tomoo; Iwadate, Yasuo; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Mori, Masahiro; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Muto, Mayumi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Takemoto, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Yokote, Koutaro; Ohno, Mikiko; Chen, Po-Min; Nishi, Eiichiro; Ono, Koh; Kimura, Takeshi; Machida, Toshio; Takizawa, Hirotaka; Kashiwado, Koichi; Shimada, Hideaki; Ito, Masaaki; Goto, Ken-Ichiro; Iwase, Katsuro; Ashino, Hiromi; Taira, Akiko; Arita, Emiko; Takiguchi, Masaki; Hiwasa, Takaki

    2018-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a predictor for cerebral infarction (CI), and early diagnosis of TIA is extremely important for the prevention of CI. We set out to identify novel antibody biomarkers for TIA and CI, and detected matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), chromobox homolog 1 (CBX1), and chromobox homolog 5 (CBX5) as candidate antigens using serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX) and Western blotting to confirm the presence of serum antibodies against the antigens. Amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay-linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA) revealed that serum antibody levels were significantly higher in patients with TIA or acute-phase CI (aCI) compared with healthy donors (P < 0.01). Spearman’s correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that levels of anti-MMP1, anti-CBX1, and anti-CBX5 antibodies were associated with age, cigarette-smoking habits, and blood pressure. Thus, serum levels of antibodies against MMP1, CBX1, and CBX5 could potentially serve as useful tools for diagnosing TIA and predicting the onset of aCI. PMID:29464021

  4. The hemorrhagic transformation index score: a prediction tool in middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Mikhail N; Khasanova, Dina R; Ibatullin, Murat M

    2017-09-07

    We aimed to develop a tool, the hemorrhagic transformation (HT) index (HTI), to predict any HT within 14 days after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke onset regardless of the intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) use. That is especially important in the light of missing evidence-based data concerning the timing of anticoagulant resumption after stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We retrospectively analyzed 783 consecutive MCA stroke patients. Clinical and brain imaging data at admission were recorded. A follow-up period was 2 weeks after admission. The patients were divided into derivation (DC) and validation (VC) cohorts by generating Bernoulli variates with probability parameter 0.7. Univariate/multivariate logistic regression, and factor analysis were used to extract independent predictors. Validation was performed with internal consistency reliability and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Bootstrapping was used to reduce bias. The HTI was composed of 4 items: Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), hyperdense MCA (HMCA) sign, and AF on electrocardiogram (ECG) at admission. According to the predicted probability (PP) range, scores were allocated to ASPECTS as follows: 10-7 = 0; 6-5 = 1; 4-3 = 2; 2-0 = 3; to NIHSS: 0-11 = 0; 12-17 = 1; 18-23 = 2; >23 = 3; to HMCA sign: yes = 1; to AF on ECG: yes = 1. The HTI score varied from 0 to 8. For each score, adjusted PP of any HT with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was as follows: 0 = 0.027 (0.011-0.042); 1 = 0.07 (0.043-0.098); 2 = 0.169 (0.125-0.213); 3 = 0.346 (0.275-0.417); 4 = 0.571 (0.474-0.668); 5 = 0.768 (0.676-0.861); 6 = 0.893 (0.829-0.957); 7 = 0.956 (0.92-0.992); 8 = 0.983 (0.965-1.0). The optimal cutpoint score to differentiate between HT-positive and negative groups was 2 (95% normal-based CI, 1-3) for the DC and VC alike. ROC area

  5. Immediate remote ischemic postconditioning after hypoxia ischemia in piglets protects cerebral white matter but not grey matter.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, Mojgan; Bainbridge, Alan; Broad, Kevin D; Kawano, Go; Oliver-Taylor, Aaron; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Fierens, Igor; Rostami, Jamshid; Jane Hassell, K; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Gressens, Pierre; Hristova, Mariya; Bennett, Kate; Lebon, Sophie; Fleiss, Bobbi; Yellon, Derek; Hausenloy, Derek J; Golay, Xavier; Robertson, Nicola J

    2016-08-01

    Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) is a promising therapeutic intervention whereby brief episodes of ischemia/reperfusion of one organ (limb) mitigate damage in another organ (brain) that has experienced severe hypoxia-ischemia. Our aim was to assess whether RIPostC is protective following cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in a piglet model of neonatal encephalopathy (NE) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers and immunohistochemistry. After hypoxia-ischemia (HI), 16 Large White female newborn piglets were randomized to: (i) no intervention (n = 8); (ii) RIPostC - with four, 10-min cycles of bilateral lower limb ischemia/reperfusion immediately after HI (n = 8). RIPostC reduced the hypoxic-ischemic-induced increase in white matter proton MRS lactate/N acetyl aspartate (p = 0.005) and increased whole brain phosphorus-31 MRS ATP (p = 0.039) over the 48 h after HI. Cell death was reduced with RIPostC in the periventricular white matter (p = 0.03), internal capsule (p = 0.002) and corpus callosum (p = 0.021); there was reduced microglial activation in corpus callosum (p = 0.001) and more surviving oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum (p = 0.029) and periventricular white matter (p = 0.001). Changes in gene expression were detected in the white matter at 48 h, including KATP channel and endothelin A receptor. Immediate RIPostC is a potentially safe and promising brain protective therapy for babies with NE with protection in white but not grey matter. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Evaluation of asymmetries of blood flow rate and of circulation time by intravenous radionuclide cerebral angiography in patients with ischemic completed stroke.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, A; Primavera, A; Gasparetto, B

    1984-12-01

    155 patients with ischemic completed stroke of varying severity and outcome have been evaluated by radionuclide cerebral angiography with analysis of regional time-activity curves. Two parameters have been evaluated: area under the upslope of the curve (Aup) reflecting regional blood flow rate and moment of the whole curve reflecting tracer circulation time (rABCT) Combination of these two methods ensured increased detection of perfusion asymmetries.

  7. Ferulic acid attenuates the cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin expression.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin-Hee; Gim, Sang-Ah; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2014-04-30

    Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical compound found in various plants, has a neuroprotective effect through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation functions. Peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin play a potent neuroprotective function against oxidative stress. We investigated whether ferulic acid regulates peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 210-230g) were treated with vehicle or ferulic acid (100mg/kg) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24h after MCAO. Decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels were elucidated in MCAO-operated animals using a proteomics approach. We found that ferulic acid treatment prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in the expression of peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that ferulic acid treatment attenuated the MCAO-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels. Moreover, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the interaction between thioredoxin and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) decreased during MCAO, whereas ferulic acid prevented the MCAO-induced decrease in this interaction. Our findings suggest that ferulic acid plays a neuroprotective role by attenuating injury-induced decreases in peroxiredoxin-2 and thioredoxin levels in neuronal cell injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Early Versus Delayed Statin Therapy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: ASSORT Trial (Administration of Statin on Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Shinichi; Uchida, Kazutaka; Daimon, Takashi; Takashima, Ryuzo; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    Several studies suggested that statins during hospitalization were associated with better disability outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke, but only 1 small randomized trial is available. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in patients with acute ischemic strokes in 11 hospitals in Japan. Patients with acute ischemic stroke and dyslipidemia randomly received statins within 24 hours after admission in the early group or on the seventh day in the delayed group, in a 1:1 ratio. Statins were administered for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was patient disability assessed by modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. A total of 257 patients were randomized and analyzed (early 131, delayed 126). At 90 days, modified Rankin Scale score distribution did not differ between groups ( P =0.68), and the adjusted common odds ratio of the early statin group was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.3; P =0.46) compared with the delayed statin group. There were 3 deaths at 90 days (2 in the early group, 1 in the delayed group) because of malignancy. Ischemic stroke recurred in 9 patients (6.9%) in the early group and 5 patients (4.0%) in the delayed group. The safety profile was similar between groups. Our randomized trial involving patients with acute ischemic stroke and dyslipidemia did not show any superiority of early statin therapy within 24 hours of admission compared with delayed statin therapy 7 days after admission to alleviate the degree of disability at 90 days after onset. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02549846. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping; Tong, Kai-yu

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p < 0.05) and De Ryck's test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely

  10. Blood -brain barrier disruption was less under isoflurane than pentobarbital anesthesia via a PI3K/Akt pathway in early cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Mellender, Scott J; Kiss, Geza K; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2017-05-01

    One of the important factors altering the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in cerebral ischemia is the anesthetic used. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in modulating BBB permeability and in isoflurane induced neuroprotection. This study was performed to compare the degree of BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia under isoflurane vs pentobarbital anesthesia and to determine whether inhibition of PI3K/Akt would affect the disruption in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia. Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was performed in rats under 1.4% isoflurane or pentobarbital (50mg/kg i.p.) anesthesia with controlled ventilation. In half of each group LY294002, which is a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, was applied on the ischemic cortex immediately after MCA occlusion. After one hour of MCA occlusion, the transfer coefficient (K i ) of 14 C-α-aminoisobutyric acid ( 14 C-AIB) was determined to quantify the degree of BBB disruption. MCA occlusion increased the K i both in the isoflurane and pentobarbital anesthetized rats. However, the value of K i was lower under isoflurane (11.5±6.0μL/g/min) than under pentobarbital (18.3±7.1μL/g/min) anesthesia. The K i of the contralateral cortex of the pentobarbital group was higher (+74%) than that of the isoflurane group. Application of LY294002 on the ischemic cortex increased the K i (+99%) only in the isoflurane group. The degree of BBB disruption by MCA occlusion was significantly lower under isoflurane than pentobarbital anesthesia in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Our data demonstrated the importance of choice of anesthetics and suggest that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role in altering BBB disruption in cerebral ischemia during isoflurane but not during pentobarbital anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient-specific core decompression surgery for early-stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Wei; Yang, Pei; Dang, Xiao Qian; Li, Xiao Hui; Wang, Kun Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Core decompression is an efficient treatment for early stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. In conventional procedures, the pre-operative X-ray only shows one plane of the ischemic area, which often results in inaccurate drilling. This paper introduces a new method that uses computer-assisted technology and rapid prototyping to enhance drilling accuracy during core decompression surgeries and presents a validation study of cadaveric tests. Methods Twelve cadaveric human femurs were used to simulate early-stage ischemic necrosis. The core decompression target at the anterolateral femoral head was simulated using an embedded glass ball (target). Three positioning Kirschner wires were drilled into the top and bottom of the large rotor. The specimen was then subjected to computed tomography (CT). A CT image of the specimen was imported into the Mimics software to construct a three-dimensional model including the target. The best core decompression channel was then designed using the 3D model. A navigational template for the specimen was designed using the Pro/E software and manufactured by rapid prototyping technology to guide the drilling channel. The specimen-specific navigation template was installed on the specimen using positioning Kirschner wires. Drilling was performed using a guide needle through the guiding hole on the templates. The distance between the end point of the guide needle and the target was measured to validate the patient-specific surgical accuracy. Results The average distance between the tip of the guide needle drilled through the guiding template and the target was 1.92±0.071 mm. Conclusions Core decompression using a computer-rapid prototyping template is a reliable and accurate technique that could provide a new method of precision decompression for early-stage ischemic necrosis. PMID:28464029

  12. Patient-specific core decompression surgery for early-stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Wei; Yang, Pei; Dang, Xiao Qian; Li, Xiao Hui; Wang, Kun Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Core decompression is an efficient treatment for early stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. In conventional procedures, the pre-operative X-ray only shows one plane of the ischemic area, which often results in inaccurate drilling. This paper introduces a new method that uses computer-assisted technology and rapid prototyping to enhance drilling accuracy during core decompression surgeries and presents a validation study of cadaveric tests. Twelve cadaveric human femurs were used to simulate early-stage ischemic necrosis. The core decompression target at the anterolateral femoral head was simulated using an embedded glass ball (target). Three positioning Kirschner wires were drilled into the top and bottom of the large rotor. The specimen was then subjected to computed tomography (CT). A CT image of the specimen was imported into the Mimics software to construct a three-dimensional model including the target. The best core decompression channel was then designed using the 3D model. A navigational template for the specimen was designed using the Pro/E software and manufactured by rapid prototyping technology to guide the drilling channel. The specimen-specific navigation template was installed on the specimen using positioning Kirschner wires. Drilling was performed using a guide needle through the guiding hole on the templates. The distance between the end point of the guide needle and the target was measured to validate the patient-specific surgical accuracy. The average distance between the tip of the guide needle drilled through the guiding template and the target was 1.92±0.071 mm. Core decompression using a computer-rapid prototyping template is a reliable and accurate technique that could provide a new method of precision decompression for early-stage ischemic necrosis.

  13. Antiplatelet Treatment After Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Cerebral Microbleeds in 2 Large Cohorts and an Updated Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kui Kai; Lovelock, Caroline E; Li, Linxin; Simoni, Michela; Gutnikov, Sergei; Küker, Wilhelm; Mak, Henry Ka Fung; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-06-01

    In patients with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke, microbleed burden predicts intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and ischemic stroke, but implications for antiplatelet treatment are uncertain. Previous cohort studies have had insufficient follow-up to assess the time course of risks, have not stratified risks by antithrombotic use, and have not reported extracranial bleeds or functional outcome of ICH versus ischemic stroke. In 2 independent prospective cohorts with transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (Oxford Vascular Study/mainly white; University of Hong Kong/mainly Chinese), antiplatelet treatment was started routinely irrespective of microbleed burden. Risks, time course and outcome of ICH, extracranial bleeds, and recurrent ischemic events were determined and stratified by microbleed burden (0 versus 1, 2-4, and ≥5), adjusting for age, sex, and vascular risk factors. Microbleeds were more frequent in the Chinese cohort (450 of 1003 versus 165 of 1080; P <0.0001), but risk associations were similar during 7433 patient-years of follow-up. Among 1811 patients on antiplatelet drugs, risk of major extracranial bleeds was unrelated to microbleed burden ( P trend =0.87), but the 5-year risk of ICH was steeply related ( P trend <0.0001), with 11 of 15 (73%) of ICH in 140 of 1811 (7.7%) patients with ≥5 microbleeds. However, risk of ischemic stroke also increased with microbleed burden ( P trend =0.013), such that risk of ischemic stroke and coronary events exceeded ICH and major extracranial bleeds during the first year, even among patients with ≥5 microbleeds (11.6% versus 3.9%). However, this ratio changed over time, with risk of hemorrhage (11.2%) matching that of ischemic events (12.0%) after 1 year. Moreover, whereas the association between microbleed burden and risk of ischemic stroke was due mainly to nondisabling events ( P trend =0.007), the association with ICH was accounted for ( P trend <0.0001) by disabling/fatal events (≥5 microbleeds

  14. Massive Ischemic Stroke Due to Pulmonary Barotrauma and Cerebral Artery Air Embolism During Commercial Air Travel

    PubMed Central

    Zarabi, Sara Farshchi; Parotto, Matteo; Katznelson, Rita; Downar, James

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 65 Final Diagnosis: Air emboli Symptoms: Short of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Air embolism into the systemic arterial circulation secondary to pulmonary barotrauma has rarely been reported. Herein, we report the clinical course of an extremely rare presentation of cerebral air embolism likely due to ruptured pulmonary bullae during commercial air travel. Case Report: A 65-year-old man suddenly became unconscious during an airplane descent. Upon landing, he was immediately transferred to the nearest emergency department where he was intubated for airway protection. His head CT angiogram showed multiple air pockets in the right parietal lobe suspicious for multiple air emboli. His chest CT scan showed multiple large bullae in the left upper and lower lobes as well as diffusely emphysematous lung tissue. After initial stabilization, he underwent emergent hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) in the multiplace chamber at 2.8 atmospheres. The patient tolerated HBOT well with no complications. However, his neurologic status deteriorated in the following 24 hours due to progression of his cerebral edema and mass effects. The patient’s clinical status was discussed with his family and the decision was made to withdraw life-sustaining measures. He died shortly after withdrawal of life support. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of very large bullae in the lungs bilaterally. Conclusions: Spontaneous cerebral air embolism is a possible complication of ruptured pulmonary bullae during air travel. HBOT is well-tolerated and may be used with caution even in the presence of emphysematous bullae. PMID:28607332

  15. [Interpretation of 2018 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Fang, Bangjiang; Yu, Xuezhong; Li, Zhijun

    2018-04-01

    In 2018, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) has developed the latest 2018 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), based on the latest evidences. The 2018 guidelines including recommendations on pre-hospital and in-hospital management treatment, has revised and add new recommendations from 2013 guideline. The major changes in 2018 guideline involve applications of brain imaging in early stage, intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy, et al. This review interprets the 2018 guidelines for clinicians to improve the clinical diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with AIS.

  16. PACAP38 Differentially Effects Genes and CRMP2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Core and Penumbra Regions of Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Mice Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Tsuchida, Masachi; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol) injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral) brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy) core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38. PMID:25257527

  17. Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome is Different from Transient Ischemic Attack on CT Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Vanacker, Peter; Matias, Gonçalo; Hagmann, Patric; Michel, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    PRES is a reversible neurotoxic state presenting with headache, altered mental status, visual loss, and seizures. Delayed diagnosis can be avoided if radiological patterns could distinguish PRES from cerebral ischemia. Clinical and radiological data were collected on all hospitalized patients who had (1) discharge diagnosis of PRES and (2) acute CTP/CTA. Data were compared with 10 TIA patients with proven cytotoxic edema on MRI. Of the four PRES patients found, three were correlated with acute blood pressure and one with chemotherapy. At the radiological level, quantitative analyses of the CTP parameters showed that 2 out of 4 patients had bilaterally reduced CBF-values (23.2-47.1 ml/100g/min) in occipital regions, as seen in the pathological regions of TIA patients (27.3 ± 13.5 ml/100g/min). When compared with TIA patients, the pathological ROI's demonstrated decreased CBV-values (3.4-5.6 ml/100g). Vasogenic edema on MRI FLAIR imaging was seen in only one PRES patient, and cytotoxic edema on DWI-imaging was never found. CT angiography showed in one PRES patient a vasospasm-like unilateral posterior cerebral artery. If confirmed by other groups, CTP and CTA imaging in patients with acute visual loss and confusion may help to distinguish PRES from bi-occipital ischemia. These radiological parameters may identify PRES patients at risk for additional tissue infarction. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. Early antihypertensive treatment and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke: subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure.

    PubMed

    He, William J; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Wang, Dali; Sun, Yingxian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Wang, Jinchao; Ju, Zhong; Li, Qunwei; Zhang, Jintao; Geng, Deqin; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Dong; Li, Yongqiu; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yonghong; Kelly, Tanika N

    2018-06-01

    We studied the effect of early antihypertensive treatment on death, major disability, and vascular events among patients with acute ischemic stroke according to their baseline SBP. We randomly assigned 4071 acute ischemic stroke patients with SBP between 140 and less than 220 mmHg to receive antihypertensive treatment or to discontinue all antihypertensive medications during hospitalization. A composite primary outcome of death and major disability and secondary outcomes were compared between treatment and control stratified by baseline SBP levels of less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg. At 24 h after randomization, differences in SBP reductions were 8.8, 8.6 and 7.8 mmHg between the antihypertensive treatment and control groups among patients with baseline SBP less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001 among subgroups). At day 14 or hospital discharge, the primary and secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups among subgroups. However, there was a significant interaction between antihypertensive treatment and baseline SBP subgroups on death (P = 0.02): odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.42 (0.74-7.89) in patients with baseline SBP less than 60 mmHg and 0.34 (0.11-1.09) in those with baseline SBP at least 180 mmHg. At the 3-month follow-up, the primary and secondary clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups by baseline SBP levels. Early antihypertensive treatment had a neutral effect on clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with various baseline SBP levels. Future clinical trials are warranted to test BP-lowering effects in acute ischemic stroke patients by baseline SBP levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840072.

  19. Early intervention of tyrosine nitration prevents vaso-obliteration and neovascularization in ischemic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Abdelsaid, Mohammed A; Pillai, Bindu A; Matragoon, Suraporn; Prakash, Roshini; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; El-Remessy, Azza B

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity are blinding disorders that follow a pathological pattern of ischemic retinopathy and affect premature infants and working-age adults. Yet, the treatment options are limited to laser photocoagulation. The goal of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism and examine the therapeutic effects of inhibiting tyrosine nitration on protecting early retinal vascular cell death and late neovascularization in the ischemic retinopathy model. Ischemic retinopathy was developed by exposing neonatal mice to 75% oxygen [postnatal day (p) 7-p12] followed by normoxia (21% oxygen) (p12-p17). Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron III chloride (FeTPPS) (1 mg/kg), the nitration inhibitor epicatechin (10 mg/kg) or the thiol donor N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 150 mg/kg) were administered (p7-p12) or (p7-p17). Vascular endothelial cells were incubated at hyperoxia (40% oxygen) or normoxia (21% oxygen) for 48 h. Vascular density was determined in retinal flat mounts labeled with isolectin B4. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, caspase-3, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP), activation of Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and tyrosine nitration of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase p85 subunit were analyzed by Western blot. Hyperoxia-induced peroxynitrite caused endothelial cell apoptosis as indicated by expression of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP leading to vaso-obliteration. These effects were associated with significant tyrosine nitration of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, decreased Akt activation, and enhanced p38 MAPK activation. Blocking tyrosine nitration of PI 3-kinase with epicatechin or NAC restored Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited vaso-obliteration at p12 and neovascularization at p17 comparable with FeTPPS. Early inhibition of tyrosine nitration with use of epicatechin or NAC can represent safe and effective vascular

  20. The association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity and early recurrence of ischemic events after minor stroke or TIA.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zilong; Zheng, Huaguang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Anxin; Liu, Liping; Dong, Kehui; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yilong; Cao, Yibin

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the role of HTPR in predicting early recurrence of ischemic events in patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. From January 2014 to September 2014, a single center continuously enrolled patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA and gave them antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin with clopidogrel. HTPR was assessed by TEG after 7 days of antiplatelet therapy and detected CYP2C19 genotype. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was assessed 3 months after onset. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was compared between the HTPR and NTPR groups with the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk factors associated with recurrent ischemic events. We enrolled 278 eligible patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. Through TEG testing, patients with HTPR were 22.7%, and carriers were not associated with HTPR to ADP by TEG-ADP(%) (p = 0.193). A total of 265 patients completed 3 months of follow-up, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with HTPR had a higher percentage of recurrent ischemic events compared with patients with NTPR (p = 0.002). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, history of ischemic stroke or TIA (HR 4.45, 95% CI 1.77-11.16, p = 0.001) and HTPR (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.41-7.91, p = 0.006) was independently associated with recurrent ischemic events. In patients with minor stroke or TIA, the prevalence of HTPR was 22.7%, and HTPR was independently associated with recurrent ischemic events.

  1. Hippocampal arterial cerebral blood volume in early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Donahue, Manus J.; Heckers, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of patients in the early stage of psychosis have revealed increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in specific subfields of the anterior hippocampus. These studies required injection of a contrast agent to measure steady state CBV. Here we used a novel, non-invasive method, inflow-based-vascular-space-occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-DS), to measure the arterial component of CBV (aCBV) in a single slice of the hippocampus. Based on evidence from contrast-enhanced CBV studies, we hypothesized increased aCBV in the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis. We used 3T MRI to generate iVASO-derived aCBV maps in 17 medicated patients (average duration of illness = 7.6 months) and 25 matched controls. We did not find hemispheric or regional group differences in hippocampal aCBV. The limited spatial resolution of the iVASO-DS method did not allow us to test for aCBV differences in specific subfields of the hippocampus. Future studies should investigate venous and arterial CBV changes in the hippocampus of early psychosis patients. PMID:27644028

  2. Studies on cerebral protection of digoxin against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kaiwei; Tan, Danfeng; He, Miao; Guo, Dandan; Huang, Juan; Wang, Xia; Liu, Chentao; Zheng, Xiangrong

    2016-08-17

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of neonatal acute deaths and chronic nervous system damage. Our present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of digoxin-induced pharmacological preconditioning after hypoxia-ischemia and underlying mechanisms. Neonatal rats were assigned randomly to control, HIBD, or HIBD+digoxin groups. Pharmacological preconditioning was induced by administration of digoxin 72 h before inducing HIBD by carotid occlusion+hypoxia. Behavioral assays, and neuropathological and apoptotic assessments were performed to examine the effects; the expression of Na/K ATPase was also assessed. Rats in the HIBD group showed deficiencies on the T-maze, radial water maze, and postural reflex tests, whereas the HIBD+digoxin group showed significant improvements on all behavioral tests. The rats treated with digoxin showed recovery of pathological conditions, increased number of neural cells and proliferative cells, and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, an increased expression level of Na/K ATPase was observed after digoxin preconditioning treatment. The preconditioning treatment of digoxin contributed toward an improved functional recovery and exerted a marked neuroprotective effect including promotion of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis after HIBD, and the neuroprotective action was likely associated with increased expression of Na/K ATPase.

  3. Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Myocardium Against Remote Tissue Injury Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumas, Meltem; Altintas, Ozge; Karatas, Ersin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2017-01-01

    Background Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) could provide tissue-protective effect at a remote site by anti-inflammatory, neuronal, and humoral signaling pathways. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective effects of remote IPreC on myocardium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in streptozotocin- induced diabetic (STZ) and non-diabetic rats. Methods 48 male Spraque Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: Sham, STZ, IPreC, MCAo, IPreC+MCAo, STZ+IPreC, STZ+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo groups. We induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes, and performed IPreC 72 hours before transient MCAo. Remote myocardial injury was investigated histopathologically. Bax, Bcl2 and caspase-3 protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) of myocardial tissue were measured by colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress index(OSI) was calculated as TOS-to-TAS ratio. For all statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results We observed serious damage including necrosis, congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in myocardial tissue of the diabetic and ischemic groups. In these groups TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher; TAS levels were lower than those of IPreC related groups (p < 0.05). IPreC had markedly improved histopathological alterations and increased TAS levels in IPreC+MCAo and STZ+IPreC+MCAo compared to MCAo and STZ+MCAo groups (p < 0.05). In non-diabetic rats, MCAo activated apoptotic cell death via increasing Bax/Bcl2 ratio and caspase-3 levels. IPreC reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing pro-apoptotic proteins. Diabetes markedly increased apoptotic protein levels and the effect did not reversed by IPreC. Conclusions We could suggest that IPreC attenuates myocardial injury via ameliorating histological findings, activating antioxidant mechanisms, and inducing antiapoptotic activity in diabetic

  4. Detection of Early Ischemic Changes in Noncontrast CT Head Improved with "Stroke Windows".

    PubMed

    Mainali, Shraddha; Wahba, Mervat; Elijovich, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Noncontrast head CT (NCCT) is the standard radiologic test for patients presenting with acute stroke. Early ischemic changes (EIC) are often overlooked on initial NCCT. We determine the sensitivity and specificity of improved EIC detection by a standardized method of image evaluation (Stroke Windows). Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who had NCCT at presentation. EIC was defined by the presence of hyperdense MCA/basilar artery sign; sulcal effacement; basal ganglia/subcortical hypodensity; and loss of cortical gray-white differentiation. NCCT was reviewed with standard window settings and with specialized Stroke Windows. Results. Fifty patients (42% females, 58% males) with a mean NIHSS of 13.4 were identified. EIC was detected in 9 patients with standard windows, while EIC was detected using Stroke Windows in 35 patients (18% versus 70%; P < 0.0001). Hyperdense MCA sign was the most commonly reported EIC; it was better detected with Stroke Windows (14% and 36%; P < 0.0198). Detection of the remaining EIC also improved with Stroke Windows (6% and 46%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Detection of EIC has important implications in diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Utilization of Stroke Windows significantly improved detection of EIC.

  5. Abnormal myocardial fluid retention as an early manifestation of ischemic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, J. T.; Scales, F.; Mukherjee, A.; Platt, M.; Templeton, G. H.; Fink, G. S.; Buja, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-seven isolated, blood perfused, continuously weighed canine hearts have been utilized to study the development of abnormal myocardial fluid retention during early myocardial ischemic injury. Inflatable balloon catheters were positioned around the left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) of 54 hearts or the proximal left circumflex coronary arteries of three hearts for study of the following intervals of coronary occlusion: a) 10 minutes followed by 20 minutes of reflow, b) 40 minutes followed by either no reflow or by 20 minutes of reflow, and c) 60 minutes without reflow. After 60 minutes of fixed coronary occlusion, histologic and ultrastructural examination revealed mild swelling of many ischemic cardiac muscle cells in the absence of interstitial edema, cardiac weight gain, and obvious structural defects in cell membrane integrity. After 40 minutes of coronary occlusion and 20 minutes of reflow, significant cardiac weight gain occurred in association with characteristic alterations in the ischemic region, including widespread interstitial edema and focal vascular congestion and hemorrhage and swelling of cardiac muscle cells. Focal structural defects in cell membrane integrity were also noted. The development of abnormal myocardial fluid retention after 40 minutes of LAD occlusion occurred in association with a significant reduction in sodium-potassium-ATPase activity in the ischemic area, but with no significant alteration in either creatine phosphokinase or citrate synthase activity in the same region. Despite the abnormal myocardial fluid retention in these hearts, it was possible pharmacologically to vasodilate coronary vessels with adenosine and nitroglycerin infusion to maintain a consistently high coronary flow following release of the coronary occlusion after 40 minutes and to even exceed initial hyperemic flow values following release of the occlusion when adenosine and nitroglycerin infusion was delayed until 15 minutes after reflow

  6. Extravasation into brain and subsequent spread beyond the ischemic core of a magnetic resonance contrast agent following a step-down infusion protocol in acute cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limiting expansion of the ischemic core lesion by reinstating blood flow and protecting the penumbral cells is a priority in acute stroke treatment. However, at present, methods are not available for effective drug delivery to the ischemic penumbra. To address these issues this study compared the extravasation and subsequent interstitial spread of a magnetic resonance contrast agent (MRCA) beyond the ischemic core into the surrounding brain in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion for bolus injection and step-down infusion (SDI) protocols. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 3 h followed by reperfusion. Perfusion-diffusion mismatched regions indicating the extent of spread were identified by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficits by arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging and the extent of the ischemic core by mapping the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water with diffusion-weighted imaging. Vascular injury was assessed via MRCA, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) penetration, by Look-Locker T1-weighted MR imaging after either a bolus injection (n = 8) or SDI (n = 6). Spatial and temporal expansion of the MRCA front during a 25 min imaging period was measured from images obtained at 2.5 min intervals. Results The mean ADC lesion was 20 ± 7% of the hemispheric area whereas the CBF deficit area was 60 ± 16%, with the difference between the areas suggesting the possible presence of a penumbra. The bolus injection led to MRCA enhancement with an area that initially spread into the ischemic core and then diminished over time. The SDI produced a gradual increase in the area of MRCA enhancement that slowly enlarged to occupy the core, eventually expanded beyond it into the surrounding tissue and then plateaued. The integrated area from SDI extravasation was significantly larger than that for the bolus (p = 0.03). The total number of pixels covered by the

  7. Extravasation into brain and subsequent spread beyond the ischemic core of a magnetic resonance contrast agent following a step-down infusion protocol in acute cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Keenan, Kelly A; Aryal, Madhava P; Ewing, James R; Gopinath, Saarang; Nadig, Varun S; Shashikumar, Sukruth; Knight, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Limiting expansion of the ischemic core lesion by reinstating blood flow and protecting the penumbral cells is a priority in acute stroke treatment. However, at present, methods are not available for effective drug delivery to the ischemic penumbra. To address these issues this study compared the extravasation and subsequent interstitial spread of a magnetic resonance contrast agent (MRCA) beyond the ischemic core into the surrounding brain in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion for bolus injection and step-down infusion (SDI) protocols. Male Wistar rats underwent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 3 h followed by reperfusion. Perfusion-diffusion mismatched regions indicating the extent of spread were identified by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficits by arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging and the extent of the ischemic core by mapping the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water with diffusion-weighted imaging. Vascular injury was assessed via MRCA, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) penetration, by Look-Locker T1-weighted MR imaging after either a bolus injection (n = 8) or SDI (n = 6). Spatial and temporal expansion of the MRCA front during a 25 min imaging period was measured from images obtained at 2.5 min intervals. The mean ADC lesion was 20 ± 7% of the hemispheric area whereas the CBF deficit area was 60 ± 16%, with the difference between the areas suggesting the possible presence of a penumbra. The bolus injection led to MRCA enhancement with an area that initially spread into the ischemic core and then diminished over time. The SDI produced a gradual increase in the area of MRCA enhancement that slowly enlarged to occupy the core, eventually expanded beyond it into the surrounding tissue and then plateaued. The integrated area from SDI extravasation was significantly larger than that for the bolus (p = 0.03). The total number of pixels covered by the SDI at its maximum was

  8. The Early Needs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Comprehensive View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, James A.; Healy, Alfred

    Intended for professionals and parents, this monograph focuses on the service needs of young children with cerebral palsy. Section I presents an overview of cerebral palsy, including etiology, incidence, and history of management. Section II describes service needs in the following areas: prevention; early identification; treatment; the…

  9. Early effect of intra-arterial treatment in ischemic stroke on aphasia recovery in MR CLEAN.

    PubMed

    Crijnen, Yvette S; Nouwens, Femke; de Lau, Lonneke M L; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Lingsma, Hester F; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van Zwam, Wim H; Majoie, Charles B L M; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2016-05-31

    To investigate the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) on early recovery from aphasia in acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that the early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. We included patients with aphasia from the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), in which 500 patients with a proximal anterior circulation stroke were randomized to usual care plus IAT (<6 hours after stroke, mainly stent retrievers) or usual care alone. We estimated the effect of IAT on the shift on the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) item language and the NIHSS item motor arm at 24 hours and 1 week after stroke with multivariable ordinal logistic regression as a common odds ratio, adjusted for prognostic variables (acOR). Differences between the effect of IAT on aphasia and on motor deficits were tested in a multilevel model with a multiplicative interaction term. Of the 288 patients with aphasia, 126 were assigned to IAT and 162 to usual care alone. The acOR for improvement of language score at 24 hours was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.60), and at 1 week 1.86 (95% CI 1.18-2.94). The acOR for improvement of motor deficit at 24 hours was 2.44 (95% CI 1.54-3.88), and at 1 week 2.32 (95% CI 1.43-3.77). The effect of IAT on language deficits was significantly different from the effect on motor deficits at 24 hours and 1 week (p = 0.005 and p = 0.011). IAT results in better early recovery from aphasia than usual care alone. The early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with acute ischemic stroke IAT increases early recovery from aphasia and that the early effect on aphasia, as measured by the NIHSS, is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Automated brain computed tomographic densitometry of early ischemic changes in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Marquering, Henk A.; Staring, Marius; Beenen, Ludo F.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Roos, Yvo B.; Majoie, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) scoring method is frequently used for quantifying early ischemic changes (EICs) in patients with acute ischemic stroke in clinical studies. Varying interobserver agreement has been reported, however, with limited agreement. Therefore, our goal was to develop and evaluate an automated brain densitometric method. It divides CT scans of the brain into ASPECTS regions using atlas-based segmentation. EICs are quantified by comparing the brain density between contralateral sides. This method was optimized and validated using CT data from 10 and 63 patients, respectively. The automated method was validated against manual ASPECTS, stroke severity at baseline and clinical outcome after 7 to 10 days (NIH Stroke Scale, NIHSS) and 3 months (modified Rankin Scale). Manual and automated ASPECTS showed similar and statistically significant correlations with baseline NIHSS (R=−0.399 and −0.277, respectively) and with follow-up mRS (R=−0.256 and −0.272), except for the follow-up NIHSS. Agreement between automated and consensus ASPECTS reading was similar to the interobserver agreement of manual ASPECTS (differences <1 point in 73% of cases). The automated ASPECTS method could, therefore, be used as a supplementary tool to assist manual scoring. PMID:26158082

  11. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Mario; Gernone, Floriana; Simone, Antonio De; Giannuzzi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    A wild young male red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed.

  12. Central vestibular syndrome in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with presumptive right caudal cerebral artery ischemic infarct and prevalent midbrain involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Mario; Gernone, Floriana; Simone, Antonio De; Giannuzzi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    A wild young male red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was found in the mountainous hinterland of Rome (Italy) with a heavily depressed mental status and unresponsive to the surrounding environment. Neurological examination revealed depression, left circling, right head tilt, ventromedial positional strabismus and decreased postural reactions on the left side. Neurological abnormalities were suggestive of central vestibular syndrome. Two consecutive MRIs performed with 30 days interval were compatible with lacunar ischemic infarct in the territory of right caudal cerebral artery and its collateral branches. The lesion epicentre was in the right periaqueductal portion of the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlation between lesion localization and clinical presentation are discussed. PMID:28717604

  13. Sodium phenylbutyrate ameliorates focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury associated with comorbid type 2 diabetes by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnamoorthy; Sharma, Shyam S

    2011-11-20

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury and diabetes. Diabetes is a major risk factor and also common amongst the people who suffer from stroke. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective potential of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (SPB; 30-300mg/kg), a chemical chaperone by targeting ER stress in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia associated with comorbid type 2 diabetes. Intraperitoneal treatment with SPB (100 and 300mg/kg) significantly ameliorated brain I/R damage as evidenced by reduction in cerebral infarct and edema volume. It also significantly improved the functional recovery of various neurobehavioral impairments (neurological deficit score, grip strength and rota rod) evoked by I/R compared with vehicle-treatment. Further, SPB (100mg/kg) significantly reduced the DNA fragmentation as shown by prominent reduction in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. This effect was observed concomitantly with significant attenuation in upregulation of 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein or growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (CHOP/GADD153) and activation of caspase-12, specific markers of ER stress/apoptosis. The neuroprotection observed with SPB was independent of its effect on cerebral blood flow and blood glucose. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of SPB owing to amelioration of ER stress and DNA fragmentation. It also suggest that targeting ER stress might offer a promising therapeutic approach and benefits against ischemic stroke associated with comorbid type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the role of non-selective calcium channel blocker (flunarizine) on cerebral ischemic-reperfusion associated cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Puja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Kaur, Parneet

    2015-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of flunarizine (a non-selective calcium channel blocker) on cerebral ischemic-reperfusion associated cognitive dysfunction in aged mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 12min followed by reperfusion for 24h was given to induce cerebral injury in male Swiss mice. The assessment of learning & memory was performed by Morris water maze test; motor in-coordination was evaluated by rota rod, lateral push and inclined beam walking tests; cerebral infarct size was quantified by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH), total calcium and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also estimated in aged brain tissue. Donepezil treated group served as a positive control in this study. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury produced significant increase in cerebral infarct size. A significant loss of memory along with impairment of motor performance was also noted. Further, I/R injury also produced significant increase in levels of total calcium, AChE activity and decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment of flunarizine significantly attenuated I/R induced infarct size, behavioral and biochemical changes. Hence, it may be concluded that, a non-selective calcium channel blocker can be useful in I/R associated cognitive dysfunction due to its anti-oxidant, anti-infarct and modulatory actions of neurotransmitters & calcium channels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Sydney E.; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L.; Drummond, Gabrielle T.; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S.; Johnston, Michael V.; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  16. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Doman, Sydney E; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L; Drummond, Gabrielle T; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  17. Resting Heart Rate Predicts Depression and Cognition Early after Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Arnaud; Sibon, Igor; Poli, Mathilde; Audiffren, Michel; Allard, Michèle; Pfeuty, Micha

    2017-10-01

    Early detection of poststroke depression (PSD) and cognitive impairment (PSCI) remains challenging. It is well documented that the function of autonomic nervous system is associated with depression and cognition. However, their relationship has never been investigated in the early poststroke phase. This pilot study aimed at determining whether resting heart rate (HR) parameters measured in early poststroke phase (1) are associated with early-phase measures of depression and cognition and (2) could be used as new tools for early objective prediction of PSD or PSCI, which could be applicable to patients unable to answer usual questionnaires. Fifty-four patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, without cardiac arrhythmia, were assessed for resting HR and heart rate variability (HRV) within the first week after stroke and for depression and cognition during the first week and at 3 months after stroke. Multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and stroke severity revealed that higher HR, lower HRV, and higher sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of HRV) were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms within the first week after stroke. Furthermore, higher sympathovagal balance in early phase predicted higher severity of depressive symptoms at the 3-month follow-up, whereas higher HR and lower HRV in early phase predicted lower global cognitive functioning at the 3-month follow-up. Resting HR measurements obtained in early poststroke phase could serve as an objective tool, applicable to patients unable to complete questionnaires, to help in the early prediction of PSD and PSCI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of berberine on serum inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaques in patients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Wang, Pei; Chai, Mei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Li, Hong-Shan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Huan; Lu, Dan-Dan

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the effect of berberine on serum inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaques in ppatients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke(AIS). In the study, 120 patients with AIS were randomly divided into berberine group(n=60) and general group (n=60). The 60 cases in the general group were provided with general therapy according to the latest guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of AIS. The berberine group received berberine 300 mg(tid) in addition to the therapy of the general group. The levels of serum inflammatory factors, the nerve function defect grades and the indexes of carotid atherosclerosis plaques [including the total plaque area(TPA), intima-media thickness(IMT) and the number of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques] were measured and compared. The results indicated that the levels of serum inflammatory factors, the NIHSS(national institute of health stroke scales) cores and the indexes of carotid atherosclerosis plaques were not significantly different between the berberine groups of general group, with positive correlation between serum inflammatory factors and NIHSS scores(P<0.05). The levels of serum inflammatory factors and NIHSS scores of the berberine groups on 14 d were significantly lower than those on 1 d(P<0.05). The levels of serum inflammatory factors and NIHSS scores of the berberine group on 14 d were significantly lower than those of the general group(P<0.05). The TPA and the number of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques of the berberine groups on 90 d were significantly lower than those of general group, with significant differences(P<0.05). The IMT showed a downward trend, but with significant difference.The mRS(modified rankin scale) scores of the berberine group on 90 d were significantly lower, with a higher rate of short-term favorable prognosis (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups. This study showed that berberine in

  19. Long-term neuropathologic changes associated with cerebral palsy in a nonhuman primate model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Ryan M.; Fleiss, Bobbi; Traudt, Christopher; Schwendimann, Leslie; Snyder, Jessica M.; Haynes, Robin L.; Natarajan, Niranjana; Gressens, Pierre; Juul, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood with a worldwide prevalence of ranging between 1.5 to >4 per 1000 live births. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. Methodology Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina were included in this long-term neuropathologic study: 9 control animals delivered by Cesarean section, and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia who delivered by cesarean section after 15–18 minutes of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO). UCO animals were randomized to saline (n = 11), therapeutic hypothermia (TH) only (n = 6), or TH+erythropoietin (Epo; n = 8). Epo was given on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. Animals had serial developmental assessments and underwent MRI with diffusion tensor imaging at 9 months of age followed by necropsy. Histology and immunohistochemical staining of brain and brainstem sections was performed. Results All UCO animals demonstrated and met standard diagnostic criteria for human neonates with moderate-to-severe HIE. Four animals developed moderate-to-severe CP (3 UCO, 1 UCO+TH), 9 had mild CP (2 UCO, 3 UCO+TH, 3 UCO+TH+Epo, 1 control) and 2 UCO animals died. None of the animals treated with TH+Epo died, had moderate-to-severe CP, or demonstrated signs of long-term neuropathological toxicity. Compared to animals grouped together as non-CP (controls and mild CP only), animals with CP (moderate & severe) demonstrated decreased fractional anisotropy of multiple white matter tracks including corpus callosum and internal capsule on using track based special statistics (TBSS). Animals with CP had decreased staining for cortical neurons, and increased brainstem glial scarring compared to animals without CP. Cerebellar cell density of the internal granular layer and white matter was decreased in CP animals compared to control animals without CP. Conclusions/Significance In this nonhuman primate HIE model

  20. N-3 Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Are Neuroprotective after Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Susan J.; Mastropietro, Christopher; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Ten, Vadim S.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    We questioned if acute administration of n-3 fatty acids (FA) carried in n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions provides neuroprotection in neonatal mice subjected to hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) brain injury. We examined specificity of FA, optimal doses, and therapeutic windows for neuroprotection after H/I. H/I insult was induced in C57BL/6J 10-day-old mice by right carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 15 minutes at 37°C. Intraperitoneal injection with n-3-rich TG emulsions, n-6 rich TG emulsions or saline for control was administered at different time points before and/or after H/I. In separate experiments, dose responses were determined with TG containing only docosahexaenoic acid (Tri-DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (Tri-EPA) with a range of 0.1–0.375 g n-3 TG/kg, administered immediately after H/I insult. Infarct volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured. Treatment with n-3 TG emulsions both before- and after- H/I significantly reduced total infarct volume by a mean of 43% when administered 90 min prior to H/I and by 47% when administered immediately after H/I. In post-H/I experiments Tri-DHA, but not Tri-EPA exhibited neuroprotective effects with both low and high doses (p<0.05). Moreover, delayed post-H/I treatment with Tri-DHA significantly decreased total infarct volume by a mean of 51% when administered at 0 hr, by 46% at 1 hr, and by 51% at 2 hr after H/I insult. No protective effect occurred with Tri-DHA injection at 4 hr after H/I. There were no n-3 TG related differences in CBF. A significant reduction in brain tissue death was maintained after Tri-DHA injection at 8 wk after the initial brain injury. Thus, n-3 TG, specifically containing DHA, is protective against H/I induced brain infarction when administered up to 2 hr after H/I injury. Acute administration of TG-rich DHA may prove effective for treatment of stroke in humans. PMID:23437099

  1. Different expression patterns of Ngb and EPOR in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus revealed distinctive therapeutic effects of intranasal delivery of Neuro-EPO for ischemic insults to the gerbil brain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Mengana, Yuneidis; Cruz, Yamila Rodríguez; Muñoz, Adriana; Testé, Iliana Sosa; García, Jorge Daniel; Wu, Yonghong; Rodríguez, Julio César García; Zhang, Chenggang

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of intranasally delivered recombinant human neuronal erythropoietin (Neuro-EPO) on brain injury induced by unilateral permanent ischemia in the Mongolian gerbil. Expression of EPO receptor (EPOR) and neuroglobin (Ngb) over 5 weeks after intranasal treatment with Neuro-EPO was determined using immunohistochemistry. Mortality of Neuro-EPO-treated gerbils decreased after surgery, and the sensory and motor function was significantly improved. Histopathological mapping showed that Neuro-EPO significantly reduced delayed neuronal death in the brain. Expression of Ngb was upregulated in the cerebral cortex at most time points (expect for 10 min and 48 hr) and in the hippocampus at 10 min and from 48 hr to 5 weeks, whereas EPOR was almost downregulated or unchanged in the brain (expect for 48 hr). The 10 min and 48 hr seemed to be two time points for the brain to switch the expression of both Ngb and EPOR to early and late recovery phase, respectively. In addition, there were two phases, 10 min to 1 hr and 24 hr to 72 hr, respectively, closing to the "golden hour" of about 60 min and the "silver day" of 1 to 3 days, for the brain to recover from stroke onset with intranasal Neuro-EPO treatment. Therefore, the results suggest that the intranasal administration of Neuro-EPO is effective in the treatment of acute brain ischemia. The different expression patterns of Ngb and EPOR is probably due to ischemic tolerance in the cerebral cortex and ischemic sensitivity in the hippocampus.

  2. Different Expression Patterns of Ngb and EPOR in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus Revealed Distinctive Therapeutic Effects of Intranasal Delivery of Neuro-EPO for Ischemic Insults to the Gerbil Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Mengana, Yuneidis; Cruz, Yamila Rodríguez; Muñoz, Adriana; Testé, Iliana Sosa; García, Jorge Daniel; Wu, Yonghong; Rodríguez, Julio César García; Zhang, Chenggang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of intranasally delivered recombinant human neuronal erythropoietin (Neuro-EPO) on brain injury induced by unilateral permanent ischemia in the Mongolian gerbil. Expression of EPO receptor (EPOR) and neuroglobin (Ngb) over 5 weeks after intranasal treatment with Neuro-EPO was determined using immunohistochemistry. Mortality of Neuro-EPO-treated gerbils decreased after surgery, and the sensory and motor function was significantly improved. Histopathological mapping showed that Neuro-EPO significantly reduced delayed neuronal death in the brain. Expression of Ngb was upregulated in the cerebral cortex at most time points (expect for 10 min and 48 hr) and in the hippocampus at 10 min and from 48 hr to 5 weeks, whereas EPOR was almost downregulated or unchanged in the brain (expect for 48 hr). The 10 min and 48 hr seemed to be two time points for the brain to switch the expression of both Ngb and EPOR to early and late recovery phase, respectively. In addition, there were two phases, 10 min to 1 hr and 24 hr to 72 hr, respectively, closing to the “golden hour” of about 60 min and the “silver day” of 1 to 3 days, for the brain to recover from stroke onset with intranasal Neuro-EPO treatment. Therefore, the results suggest that the intranasal administration of Neuro-EPO is effective in the treatment of acute brain ischemia. The different expression patterns of Ngb and EPOR is probably due to ischemic tolerance in the cerebral cortex and ischemic sensitivity in the hippocampus. PMID:21339183

  3. Role of ischemic modified albumin in the early diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure and brain death.

    PubMed

    Kara, I; Pampal, H K; Yildirim, F; Dilekoz, E; Emmez, G; U, F P; Kocabiyik, M; Demirel, C B

    Increased intracranial pressure following trauma and subsequent possible development of brain death are important factors for morbidity and mortality due to ischemic changes. We aimed to establish the role of ischemic modified albumin (IMA) in the early diagnosis of the process, starting with increased intracranial pressure and ending with brain death. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats were divided into three groups; control (CG, n = 6), increased intracranial pressure (ICPG, n = 6), and brain death (BDG, n = 6). Intracranial pressure elevation and brain death were constituted with the inflation of a balloon of a Fogarty catheter in the epidural space. In all three groups, blood samples were drawn before the procedure, and at minutes 150 and 240 for IMA and malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis. Serum IMA levels at 150 and 240 minutes were higher in ICPG than in CG (p < 0.05). IMA levels were similar in ICPG and BDG. Serum MDA levels at 150 and 240 minutes increased in ICPG and BDG groups compared to CG (p < 0.05). MDA levels were similar in ICP and BD groups. IMA should be considered as a biochemical parameter in the process starting from increased intracranial pressure elevation and ending at brain death (Tab. 3, Fig. 5, Ref. 31).

  4. Novel insight into circular RNA HECTD1 in astrocyte activation via autophagy by targeting MIR142-TIPARP: Implications for cerebral ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yanhong; Bai, Ying; Chen, Xufeng; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Fangfang; Leng, Shuo; Chao, Jie; Zhang, John H; Hu, Gang; Yao, Honghong

    2018-06-25

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system and are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the potential role of circRNAs in stroke remains largely unknown. Here, using a circRNA microarray, we showed that circular RNA Hectd1 (circHectd1) levels were significantly increased in ischemic brain tissues in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mouse stroke models and further validated this finding in plasma samples from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Knockdown of circHectd1 expression significantly decreased infarct areas, attenuated neuronal deficits, and ameliorated astrocyte activation in tMCAO mice. Mechanistically, circHECTD1 functions as an endogenous MIR142 (microRNA 142) sponge to inhibit MIR142 activity, resulting in the inhibition of TIPARP (TCDD inducible poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase) expression with subsequent inhibition of astrocyte activation via macroautophagy/autophagy. Taken together, the results of our study indicate that circHECTD1 and its coupling mechanism are involved in cerebral ischemia, thus providing translational evidence that circHECTD1 can serve as a novel biomarker of and therapeutic target for stroke.

  5. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Increases Cerebral Blood Flow via a NO Surge Mediated by Akt/eNOS Pathway to Reduce Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jon-Son; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) protects brain from ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthases partially reduces G-CSF protection. We thus further investigated the effects of G-CSF on ischemia-induced NO production and its consequence on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and neurological deficit. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) microinfused above middle cerebral artery caused a rapid reduction of rCBF (ischemia) which lasted for 30 minutes and was followed by a gradual recovery of blood flow (reperfusion) within the striatal region. Regional NO concentration increased rapidly (NO surge) during ischemia and recovered soon to the baseline. G-CSF increased rCBF resulting in shorter ischemic duration and an earlier onset of reperfusion. The enhancement of the ischemia-induced NO by G-CSF accompanied by elevation of phospho-Akt and phospho-eNOS was noted, suggesting an activation of Akt/eNOS. I/R-induced infarct volume and neurological deficits were also reduced by G-CSF treatment. Inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the effects of G-CSF on rCBF, NO surge, infarct volume, and neurological deficits. We conclude that G-CSF increases rCBF through a NO surge mediated by Akt/eNOS, which partially contributes to the beneficial effect of G-CSF on brain I/R injury. PMID:26146654

  6. Amelioration of cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions with silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid in the cerebral global ischemic rat model.

    PubMed

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Bafna, Pallavi A; Naik, Suresh R

    2013-07-19

    The neuroprotective activities of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) on cerebral global ischemic/reperfusion were evaluated in a rat model. A midline ventral incision was made in the throat region. The right and left common carotid arteries were located and a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 30min using atraumatic clamps followed by a 24h period of reperfusion. Neurological/behavioral functions (cognitive and motor), endogenous defense systems (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase), reduced water content and infarct size and histopathological alterations were then studied. Silymarin and PCA treatments significantly improved cognitive, motor and endogenous defense functions, histopathological alterations, and, reduced both water content and infarct size compared to the vehicle-treated ischemic control group. Piracetam treatment improved neurological and histopathological alterations, reduced water content and infarct size, but failed to restore/prevent the impaired endogenous defense functions significantly. Silymarin showed better neuroprotection than piracetam and PCA in experimentally induced global ischemic/reperfusion and was able to facilitate mnemonic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p < .001), mean pulmonary arterial pressure fell (p = .012), but central venous pressure (p = .58) and left atrial pressure (p = .20) were unchanged. After adjustment for age, primary diagnosis, pre-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical support, and marginal donor factors, longer total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p < .001) in the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, longer post-orthotopic heart transplant mechanical ventilation (p = .03), longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in the intensive care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood

  8. Role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological function after early ischemic stroke in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Qian; Lin, Yong-Zhong; Ge, Yu-Song; Li, Dong-Mei; Mao, Geng-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to explore the role of fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological functioning after an early ischemic stroke in rats. After establishment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) models, 50 rats were divided into blank, sham, model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Neurological impairment, walking and grip abilities, and cortical and hippocampal infarctions were evaluated by Zea Longa scoring criterion, beam-walking assay and grip strength test, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expressions. ELISA was conducted to measure concentration of sFractalkine (sFkn), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNF-α. The recovery rate of neurological functioning impairment and reduced walking and grip abilities was faster in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups than the model group. The model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups showed increased mRNA and protein expression of chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions while decreased expression of NGF and BDNF compared with the blank and sham groups. Compared with the model group, the mRNA and protein expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions decreased while expression of NGF and BDNF increased in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Thus, the study suggests that inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway promotes the recovery of neurological functioning after the occurrence of an early ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of middle latency evoked potentials in early prediction of favorable outcomes among patients with severe ischemic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Miao; Su, Ying Ying

    2014-10-15

    To explore the role of middle latency evoked potentials (EPs) as predictors for favorable outcome in patients with severe ischemic brain injuries by comparing the prognostic ability of short latency somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials (SLSEP and BAEP) with middle latency somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials (MLSEP and MLAEP). MLSEP, MLAEP, SLSEP and BAEP were recorded in 112 patients with severe ischemic brain injuries (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8). Among them, 83 patients suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke and 29 suffered from anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 1 and 7 days after the onset of stroke. Outcomes were reviewed 6 months later using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). A GOS score of 4-5 was considered as a good outcome while a score of 1-3 was considered as poor. By using the prognostic authenticity analysis of predictors for good outcome, at least unilateral N20 of the SLSEP exit and at least unilateral N60 of the MLSEP exit showed the highest sensitivity which was 100% (95% CI: 86.7%-100%). The bilateral normal N60 showed a high specificity of 97.5% (95% CI: 90.4%-99.6%). It also showed the highest positive likelihood ratio of 6.25% (95% CI: 1.28%-30.59%), which was superior to N20 of SLSEP, V of BAEP, and Pa of MLAEP. The analysis demonstrated that the area under the curve for MLSEP grading was the highest (0.838) compared to that of SLSEP grading (0.784), MLAEP grading (0.659) and BAEP grading (0.621). Compared with using N20 of SLSEP analysis alone, adding MLSEP improves the outcome prediction in patients with severe ischemic brain injuries. When an outcome is uncertain after initial evaluation using short-latency EPs, MLSEP is valuable to be used from the first week to further improve prognostication in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats].

    PubMed

    Dai, L; Guo, X; Huang, H J; Liao, X M; Luo, X Q; Li, D; Zhou, H; Gao, X C; Tan, M Y

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To observe effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats. Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into HMGB1 group and simple scald (SS) group according to the random number table, with 18 rats in each group. Comb-like copper mould was placed on the back of rats for 20 s after being immersed in 100 ℃ hot water for 3 to 5 min to make three ischemic zones of wound. Immediately after scald, rats in HMGB1 group were subcutaneously injected with 0.4 μg HMGB1 and 0.1 mL phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and rats in SS group were subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mL PBS from boarders of ischemic zone of scald wound. At post scald hour (PSH) 24, 48, and 72, 6 rats in each group were collected. Protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 24, 48, and 72 and protein expressions of CD31 in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The number of microvessel in CD31 immunohistochemical sections of ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 was calculated after observing by the microscope. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and CD31 in ischemic zone of wound were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at PSH 24, 48, and 72. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At PSH 24, 48, and 72, protein expressions of VEGF in ischemic zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were significantly higher than those of rats in SS group ( t =7.496, 4.437, 5.402, P <0.05 or P <0.01). At PSH 48 and 72, protein expressions of CD31 in ischemic zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were 0.038 8±0.007 9 and 0.057 7±0.001 2 respectively, significantly higher than 0.013 4±0.004 9 and 0.030 3±0.004 0 of rats in SS group ( t =10.257, 15.055, P <0.01). (2) At PSH 48 and 72, the number of

  11. [Therapeutic effect of early applying hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Zhi; Zhai, Hong-Yin; Su, Chun-Ya

    2009-02-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs (HT-C) in early intervention on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE children were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each, at random depending on the willingness of patients' parents. Both groups received the conventional functional training, according to the "0 -3-year-old early intervention outline", but for the treatment group, HT-C was applied additionally. Indexes for quality of sleep, gross motor function, severity of spasm and intellectual development were observed and compared before and after treatment to assess the therapeutic effects. Therapeutic effect in the treatment group was better than that in the control group in all the indexes observed, showing statistical significance (all P <0.05). Early intervention of HT-C could improve clinical symptom, promote the functional recovery and intellectual development in children HIE, and also could reduce or prevent the sequelae occurrence of the nervous system in them.

  12. Early functional MRI activation predicts motor outcome after ischemic stroke: a longitudinal, multimodal study.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-05-15

    An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.

  13. Age-Specific Associations of Renal Impairment With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Lau, Kui Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline; Liu, Ming; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age. In a population-based study of transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]), we evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral SVD, including lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and enlarged perivascular space. We studied the age-specific associations of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ) and total SVD burden (total SVD score) adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and premorbid blood pressure (mean blood pressure during 15 years preevent). Of 1080 consecutive patients, 1028 (95.2%) had complete magnetic resonance imaging protocol and creatinine measured at baseline. Renal impairment was associated with total SVD score (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.75; P <0.001), but only at age <60 years (<60 years: OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.69-9.32; P =0.002; 60-79 years: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.41; P =0.963; ≥80 years: OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.59-1.54; P =0.832). The overall association of renal impairment and total SVD score was also attenuated after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premorbid average systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.02; P =0.067), but the independent association of renal impairment and total SVD score at age <60 years was maintained (adjusted OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.21-7.98; P =0.018). Associations of renal impairment and SVD were consistent for each SVD marker at age <60 years but

  14. [The effectiveness of early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kulishova, T V; Shinkorenko, O V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of rehabilitation of 92 patients who survived after acute ischemic stroke and received the combined treatment with the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (the study group, n=32). The first control group (n=30) included the patients given transcranial magnetic stimulation in the function of placebo (n=30) and the second control group was comprised of the patients who received low-frequency magnetic therapy (n=30). The course of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) resulted in the significant regression of the locomotor deficiency in the patients of the study group compared with those in both control groups (χ2>3,8). In addition, a significant decrease in anxiety and depression was documented in the patients of the study group. Dynamics of these characteristics in the patients of the control groups group was significantly less pronounced (χ2>3,8). The well apparent improvement of the cognitive function evaluated with the help of the MMSE test was observed in the patients of the study group and control group 2, but this effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation was significantly more pronounced than that of low-frequency magnetic therapy (χ2>3,8). Transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly normalized cerebral hemodynamics on the side of the stroke-affected hemisphere and improved the daily activities of the patients. Studying the long-term results within 6 months after the onset of rehabilitation in the hospital environment, most patients rated their health with improving. The evaluation of long-term results of the treatment during the 6 month rehabilitation period demonstrated that the majority of the patients reported the marked improvement of their health status.

  15. Goreisan Inhibits Upregulation of Aquaporin 4 and Formation of Cerebral Edema in the Rat Model of Juvenile Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hajime; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Yoshimoto, Kouhei; Tsuda, Shinji; Fujiyama, Kenta; Izumo-Shimizu, Yusuke; Motoie, Ryota; Ito, Masanori; Tanaka, Junya; Ishii, Eiichi

    2017-01-01

    Secondary cerebral edema regulation is of prognostic significance in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema. The traditional Japanese herbal medicine Goreisan relieves brain edema in adults; however, its effect and pharmacological mechanism in children are unknown. We investigated the effects of Goreisan on HIE-associated brain edema and AQP4 expression in a juvenile rat model, established by combined occlusion of middle cerebral and common carotid arteries. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the lesion areas were significantly smaller in the Goreisan- (2 g/kg) treated group than in the nontreated (saline) group at 24 and 48 h postoperatively. AQP4 mRNA levels in the lesion and nonlesion sides were significantly suppressed in the Goreisan group compared with the nontreated group 36 h postoperatively. Western blotting revealed that levels of AQP4 protein were significantly decreased in the Goreisan group compared with the nontreated group in the lesion side 72 h postoperatively, but not at 12 or 36 h. After 14 days, the Goreisan group had a significantly better survival rate. These findings suggest that Goreisan suppresses brain edema in HIE and improves survival in juvenile rats, possibly via regulation of AQP4 expression and function. PMID:29234383

  16. Ferulic acid attenuates the down-regulation of MEK/ERK/p90RSK signaling pathway in focal cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2015-02-19

    Ferulic acid provides neuroprotective effects against a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia. Mitogen-activated protein kinases can regulate extensive intracellular processes including cell differentiation, growth, and death. This study further investigated whether ferulic acid modulates a protective mechanism through the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and its downstream targets, including 90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and Bad during cerebral ischemic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ferulic acid (100mg/kg) or vehicle after the onset of MCAO and brain tissues were collected 24h after MCAO. These results indicated that ferulic acid decreases the volume of the infarct area and the number of cells positive in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Although MCAO injury induces a decrease in the phosphorylation of Raf-1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, ferulic acid treatment prevents the injury-induced decrease in these phosphorylation levels. Ferulic acid also attenuates the injury-induced decrease in p90RSK and Bad phosphorylation levels. These findings suggest that ferulic acid prevents MCAO-induced neuronal cell death and that the MEK-ERK-p90RSK-Bad signaling pathway is involved in these neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Perinatal Systemic Hypoxic–Ischemic Injury on the Brain of Male Offspring Rats: An Improved Model of Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy in Early Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwu; Wu, Weizhao; Lai, Xiulan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian; Chen, Yunbin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to design a model using Sprague-Dawley rats to better reproduce perinatal systemic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in early preterm newborns. On day 21 of gestation, the uterus of pregnant rats were exposed and the blood supply to the fetuses of neonatal HIE groups were thoroughly abscised by hemostatic clamp for 5, 10 or 15 min. Thereafter, fetuses were moved from the uterus and manually stimulated to initiate breathing in an incubator at 37 °C for 1 hr in air. We showed that survival rates of offspring rats were decreased with longer hypoxic time. TUNEL staining showed that apoptotic cells were significant increased in the brains of offspring rats from the 10 min and 15 min HIE groups as compared to the offspring rats in the control group at postnatal day (PND) 1, but there was no statistical difference between the offspring rats in the 5 min HIE and control groups. The perinatal hypoxic treatment resulted in decreased neurons and increased cleaved caspase-3 protein levels in the offspring rats from all HIE groups at PND 1. Platform crossing times and the percentage of the time spent in the target quadrant of Morris Water Maze test were significantly reduced in the offspring rats of all HIE groups at PND 30, which were associated with decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and neuronal cells in the hippocampus of offspring rats at PND 35. These data demonstrated that perinatal ischemic injury led to the death of neuronal cells and long-lasting impairment of memory. This model reproduced hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in early preterm newborns and may be appropriate for investigating therapeutic interventions. PMID:24324800

  18. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Da; Wang, Hwai-Lee; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Pan, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ted Weita

    2017-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is thought to facilitate the development of cerebral infarction after a stroke. In a typical stroke model (such as the one used in this study), the early phase of BBB disruption reaches a peak 6 h post-ischemia and largely recovers after 8-24 h, whereas the late phase of BBB disruption begins 48-58 h post-ischemia. Because cerebral infarct develops within 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and several therapeutic agents have been shown to reduce the infarct volume when administered at 6 h post-ischemia, we hypothesized that attenuating BBB disruption at its peak (6 h post-ischemia) can also decrease the infarct volume measured at 24 h. We used a mouse stroke model obtained by combining 120 min of distal middle cerebral arterial occlusion (dMCAo) with ipsilateral common carotid arterial occlusion (CCAo). This model produced the most reliable BBB disruption and cerebral infarction compared to other models characterized by a shorter duration of ischemia or obtained with dMCAO or CCAo alone. The BBB permeability was measured by quantifying Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, as this tracer has been shown to be more sensitive for the detection of early-phase BBB disruption compared to other intravascular tracers that are more appropriate for detecting late-phase BBB disruption. We showed that a 1 h-long treatment with isoflurane-anesthesia induced marked hypothermia and attenuated the peak of BBB disruption when administered 6 h after the onset of dMCAo/CCAo-induced ischemia. We also demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of isoflurane was hypothermia-dependent because the same treatment had no effect on ischemic BBB disruption when the mouse body temperature was maintained at 37°C. Importantly, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption by hypothermia had no effect on the volume of brain infarct 24 h post-ischemia. In conclusion, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption is not an effective neuroprotective strategy, especially in comparison

  19. Early Numeracy in Cerebral Palsy: Review and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have problems with arithmetic, but the development of numerical abilities in these children has received only minor attention. In comparison, detailed accounts have been written on the arithmetic abilities of typically developing children, but a theoretical framework is still lacking. A promising perspective…

  20. Early Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Duckwiler, Gary R; Jahan, Reza; Tateshima, Satoshi; Szeder, Viktor; Saver, Jeffrey L; Kim, Doojin; Sharma, Latisha K; Vespa, Paul M; Salamon, Noriko; Villablanca, J Pablo; Viñuela, Fernando; Feng, Lei; Loh, Yince; Liebeskind, David S

    2018-05-01

    The impact of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption can be detected by intraparenchymal hyperdense lesion on the computed tomography (CT) scan after endovascular stroke therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early BBB disruption predicts intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We analyzed patients with anterior circulation stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy and identified BBB disruption on the noncontrast CT images immediately after endovascular treatment. Follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed at 24 hours to assess intracranial hemorrhage. We dichotomized patients into those with moderate BBB disruption versus those with minor BBB disruption and no BBB disruption. We evaluated the association of moderate BBB disruption after mechanical thrombectomy with intracranial hemorrhage and clinical outcomes. Moderate BBB disruption after mechanical thrombectomy was found in 56 of 210 patients (26.7%). Moderate BBB disruption was independently associated with higher rates of hemorrhagic transformation (OR 25.33; 95% CI 9.93-64.65; P < .001), parenchymal hematoma (OR 20.57; 95% CI 5.64-74.99; P < .001), and poor outcome at discharge (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.09-5.07; P = .03). The association of BBB disruption with intracranial hemorrhage remained in patients with successful reperfusion after mechanical thrombectomy. The location of BBB disruption was not associated with intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcome. Moderate BBB disruption is common after mechanical thrombectomy in a quarter of patients with acute ischemic stroke and increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcome. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Identification of nine genes as novel susceptibility loci for early-onset ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiji; Kato, Kimihiko; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Horibe, Hideki; Fujimaki, Tetsuo; Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Sakuma, Jun

    2018-07-01

    Given that substantial genetic components have been shown in ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), heritability may be higher in early-onset than late-onset individuals with these conditions. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes and loci significantly associated with ischemic stroke, ICH, or intracranial aneurysm mainly in European ancestry populations, genetic variants that contribute to susceptibility to these disorders remain to be identified definitively. We performed exome-wide association studies (EWASs) to identify genetic variants that confer susceptibility to ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH in early-onset subjects with these conditions. A total of 6,649 individuals aged ≤65 years were examined. For the EWAS of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, 6,224 individuals (450 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5,774 controls) or 6,179 individuals (261 subjects with ICH, 176 subjects with SAH, 5,742 controls), respectively, were examined. EWASs were performed with the use of Illumina Human Exome-12 v1.2 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 v1.0 BeadChip. To compensate for multiple comparisons of allele frequencies with ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH, we applied a false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.05 for statistical significance of association. The association of allele frequencies of 31,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control to ischemic stroke was examined with Fisher's exact test, and 31 SNPs were significantly (FDR <0.05) associated with ischemic stroke. The association of allele frequencies of 31,253 or 30,970 SNPs to ICH or SAH, respectively, was examined with Fisher's exact test, and six or two SNPs were significantly associated with ICH or SAH, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus revealed that 12 SNPs were significantly [P<0.0004 (0

  2. Early whole-brain CT perfusion for detection of patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Dolatowski, Karoline; Schramm, Peter; Moerer, Onnen; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT This prospective study investigated the role of whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) studies in the identification of patients at risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) and of tissue at risk for delayed cerebral infarction (DCI). METHODS Forty-three patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were included in this study. A CTP study was routinely performed in the early phase (Day 3). The CTP study was repeated in cases of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD)-measured blood flow velocity (BFV) increase of > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours and/or on Day 7 in patients who were intubated/sedated. RESULTS Early CTP studies revealed perfusion deficits in 14 patients, of whom 10 patients (72%) developed DIND, and 6 of these 10 patients (60%) had DCI. Three of the 14 patients (21%) with early perfusion deficits developed DCI without having had DIND, and the remaining patient (7%) had neither DIND nor DCI. There was a statistically significant correlation between early perfusion deficits and occurrence of DIND and DCI (p < 0.0001). A repeated CTP was performed in 8 patients with a TCD-measured BFV increase > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours, revealing a perfusion deficit in 3 of them (38%). Two of the 3 patients (67%) developed DCI without preceding DIND and 1 patient (33%) had DIND without DCI. In 4 of the 7 patients (57%) who were sedated and/or comatose, additional CTP studies on Day 7 showed perfusion deficits. All 4 patients developed DCI. CONCLUSIONS Whole-brain CTP on Day 3 after aSAH allows early and reliable identification of patients at risk for DIND and tissue at risk for DCI. Additional CTP investigations, guided by TCD-measured BFV increase or persisting coma, do not contribute to information gain.

  3. Dyslipidemia links obesity to early cerebral neurochemical alterations

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Andreana P.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in potentially accounting for obesity-related brain vulnerability in the form of altered cerebral neurochemistry. Design and Methods Sixty-four adults, ages 40 to 60 years, underwent a health screen and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of occipitoparietal grey matter to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI) and glutamate (Glu) relative to creatine (Cr). The causal steps approach and non-parametric bootstrapping were utilized to assess if fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure or peripheral lipid/lipoprotein levels mediate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cerebral neurochemistry. Results Higher BMI was significantly related to higher mI/Cr, independent of age and sex. BMI was also significantly related to two of the proposed mediators, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol, which were also independently related to increased mI/Cr. Finally, the relationship between BMI and mI/Cr, was significantly attenuated after inclusion of triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol into the model, one at a time, indicating statistical mediation. Conclusions Higher triglyceride and lower HDL levels statistically account for the association between BMI and myo-inositol, pointing towards a potentially critical role for dyslipidemia in the development of cerebral neurochemical alterations in obesity. PMID:23512296

  4. Dyslipidemia links obesity to early cerebral neurochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Haley, Andreana P; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    To examine the role of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia in potentially accounting for obesity-related brain vulnerability in the form of altered cerebral neurochemistry. Sixty-four adults, ages 40-60 years, underwent a health screen and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS) of occipitoparietal gray matter to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and glutamate (Glu) relative to creatine (Cr). The causal steps approach and nonparametric bootstrapping were utilized to assess if fasting glucose, mean arterial pressure or peripheral lipid/lipoprotein levels mediate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cerebral neurochemistry. Higher BMI was significantly related to higher mI/Cr, independent of age and sex. BMI was also significantly related to two of the proposed mediators, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol, which were also independently related to increased mI/Cr. Finally, the relationship between BMI and mI/Cr was significantly attenuated after inclusion of triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol into the model, one at a time, indicating statistical mediation. Higher triglyceride and lower HDL levels statistically account for the association between BMI and myo-inositol, pointing toward a potentially critical role for dyslipidemia in the development of cerebral neurochemical alterations in obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  6. The Antiepileptic Drug Levetiracetam Suppresses Non-Convulsive Seizure Activity and Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Ornella; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Leo, Antonio; Politi, Giovanni Bosco; Vinciguerra, Antonio; di Renzo, Gianfranco; Cataldi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug Levetiracetam (Lev) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and neurotrauma. In these conditions, non-convulsive seizures (NCSs) propagate from the core of the focal lesion into perilesional tissue, enlarging the damaged area and promoting epileptogenesis. Here, we explore whether Lev neuroprotective effect is accompanied by changes in NCS generation or propagation. In particular, we performed continuous EEG recordings before and after the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in rats that received Lev (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle immediately before surgery. Both in Lev-treated and in control rats, EEG activity was suppressed after pMCAO. In control but not in Lev-treated rats, EEG activity reappeared approximately 30-45 min after pMCAO. It initially consisted in single spikes and, then, evolved into spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges. In Lev-treated rats, only rare spike events were observed and the EEG power was significantly smaller than in controls. Approximately 24 hours after pMCAO, EEG activity increased in Lev-treated rats because of the appearance of polyspike events whose power was, however, significantly smaller than in controls. In rats sacrificed 24 hours after pMCAO, the ischemic lesion was approximately 50% smaller in Lev-treated than in control rats. A similar neuroprotection was observed in rats sacrificed 72 hours after pMCAO. In conclusion, in rats subjected to pMCAO, a single Lev injection suppresses NCS occurrence for at least 24 hours. This electrophysiological effect could explain the long lasting reduction of ischemic brain damage caused by this drug. PMID:24236205

  7. Non-ischemic cerebral enhancing lesions secondary to endovascular aneurysm therapy: nickel allergy or foreign body reaction? Case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Eimad; Law-Ye, Bruno; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Zeidan, Sinead; Psimaras, Dimitri; Bielle, Franck; Pecquet, Catherine; Navarro, Soledad; Rosso, Charlotte; Cohen, Fleur; Chiras, Jacques; Di Maria, Federico; Sourour, Nader; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Delayed onset of non-ischemic cerebral enhancing (NICE) lesions is a rare complication of intracranial aneurysms' endovascular therapy (EVT). The purpose of this study is to report this rare complication and its potential pathophysiology in a single-center case series and review the relevant literature. After retrospective review of all patients managed by EVT at our institution from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014, 2 out of 374 patients (0.5 %) with such a complication were identified. Skin patch testing was performed with all endovascular devices used in the two patients and with the European baseline series, including nickel. All previously published cases in the English literature were reviewed based on exhaustive PubMed and Embase research. Patient no. 1 developed NICE lesions 1 month after balloon-assisted coiling of a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Patient no. 2 developed NICE lesions 12 months (the longest delay reported to date for such a complication) after the treatment of a right carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm by loose coiling and flow diversion. Patient no. 2 demonstrated nickel skin reactivity, but none of the two patients presented allergic reaction to the devices used during interventions. Based on our observations and review of the literature, we hypothesize that delayed non-ischemic cerebral enhancing lesions after EVT are more likely related to foreign body emboli rather than nickel allergy. The two presented cases demonstrate the potential for recurrence and prolonged fluctuation of NICE lesions, warranting long-term follow-up for all patients presenting this complication.

  8. Quantification of ante-mortem hypoxic ischemic brain injury by post-mortem cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Montaldo, Paolo; Chaban, Badr; Lally, Peter J; Sebire, Neil J; Taylor, Andrew M; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2015-11-01

    Post-mortem (PM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an alternative to conventional autopsy in babies dying from neonatal encephalopathy. However, the confounding effect of post-mortem changes on the detection of ante-mortem ischemic injury is unclear. We examined whether quantitative MR measurements can accurately distinguish ante-mortem ischemic brain injury from artifacts using post-mortem MRI. We compared PM brain MRI (1.5 T Siemens, Avanto) in 7 infants who died with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of presumed hypoxic-ischemic origin with 7 newborn infants who had sudden unexplained neonatal death (SUND controls) without evidence of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury at autopsy. We measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), T1-weighted signal intensity ratios (SIRs) compared to vitreous humor and T2 relaxation times from 19 predefined brain areas typically involved in neonatal encephalopathy. There were no differences in mean ADC values, SIRs on T1-weighted images or T2 relaxation times in any of the 19 predefined brain areas between NE and SUND infants. All MRI images showed loss of cortical gray/white matter differentiation, loss of the normal high signal intensity (SI) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T1-weighted images, and high white matter SI on T2-weighted images. Normal post-mortem changes may be easily mistaken for ante-mortem ischemic injury, and current PM MRI quantitative assessment cannot reliably distinguish these. These findings may have important implications for appropriate interpretation of PM imaging findings, especially in medico-legal practice. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early and late mortality of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Marco; Terruso, Valeria; Famoso, Giorgia; Di Benedetto, Norma; Realmuto, Sabrina; Valentino, Francesca; Ragonese, Paolo; Savettieri, Giovanni; Aridon, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), a complication of ischemic stroke (IS), might influence patient's prognosis. Our aim is to evaluate, in a hospital-based series of patients not treated with thrombolysis, the relationship between HT and mortality. We compared mortality of individuals with spontaneous HT with that of individuals without. Medical records of patients diagnosed with anterior IS were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome measures were 30- and 90-day survival after IS onset. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to construct survival curves. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for the main outcome measure (death). HT was stratified in hemorrhagic infarction and parenchymal hematoma (PH). We also evaluated the relationship between HT and the main mortality risk factors (gender, age, premorbid status, severity of stroke, and radiological features). Thirty days from stroke onset, 8.1% (19 of 233) of patients died. At multivariate analysis, PH (HR: 7.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1, 27.8) and low level of consciousness at admission (HR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 18.6) were significantly associated with death. At 3-month follow-up, mortality rate was 12.1% (28 of 232). At multivariate analysis, large infarct size (HR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 6.0) and HT (HR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.4) were independent risk factors for mortality. Parenchymal hematoma was, however, the strongest predictor of late mortality (HR: 7.9, 95% CI: 2.9, 21.4). Neurological status and infarct size play a significant role, respectively, in early and late mortality after IS. Parenchymal hematoma independently predicts both early and late mortality. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estradiol modulates post-ischemic cerebral vascular remodeling and improves long-term functional outcome in a rat model of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ardelt, Agnieszka A.; Carpenter, Randall S.; Lobo, Merryl R.; Zeng, Huadong; Solanki, Rajanikant B.; Zhang, An; Kulesza, Piotr; Pike, Martin M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously observed that 17β-estradiol (E2) augments ischemic borderzone vascular density 10 days after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. We now evaluated the effect of E2 on vascular remodeling, lesional characteristics, and motor recovery up to 30 days after injury. Peri-lesional vascular density in tissue sections from rats treated with 0.72 mg E2 pellets was higher compared to 0.18 mg E2 pellets or placebo (P) pellets: vascular density index, 1.9 ± 0.2 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 (0.18 mg E2) vs. 1.5 ± 0.4 (P), p=0.01. This was consistent with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of lesional relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF): 1.89 ± 0.32 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 1.32 ± 0.19 (P), p=0.04. Post-ischemic angiogenesis occurred in P-treated as well as E2-treated rats. There was no treatment-related effect on lesional size, but lesional tissue was better preserved in E2-treated rats: cystic component as a % of total lesion, 30 ± 12 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 29 ± 17 (0.18 mg E2) vs. 61 ± 29 (P), p=0.008. Three weeks after right middle cerebral artery territory injury, rats treated with 0.72 mg E2 pellets used the left forelimb more than P-treated or 0.18 mg E2-treated rats: limb use asymmetry score, 0.09 ± 0.43 (0.72 mg E2) vs. 0.54 ± 0.12 (0.18 mg E2) vs. 0.54 ± 0.40 (P), p=0.05. We conclude that treatment with 0.72 mg E2 pellets beginning one week prior to ischemia/reperfusion and continuing through the one-month recovery period results in augmentation of lesional vascularity and perfusion, as well as improved motor recovery. PMID:22572084

  11. Crohns disease with central nervous system vasculitis causing subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm and cerebral ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Garge, Shaileshkumar S.; Vyas, Pooja D.; Modi, Pranav D.; Ghatge, Sharad

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis secondary to Crohn's disease (CD) seems to be a very rare phenomenon. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with headache, vomiting, and left-sided weakness in the known case of CD. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging,) showed right gangliocapsular acute infarct with supraclinoid cistern subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral digital substraction angiography (DSA) showed dilatation and narrowing of right distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Left ICA was chronically occluded. His inflammatory markers were significantly raised. Imaging features are suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. Arterial and venous infarcts due to thrombosis are known in CD. Our case presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in supraclinoid cistern due to rupture of tiny aneurysm of perforator arteries causing SAH and infarction in right basal ganglia. Patient was treated conservatively with immunosuppression along with medical management of SAH. PMID:25506170

  12. Crohns disease with central nervous system vasculitis causing subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm and cerebral ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Garge, Shaileshkumar S; Vyas, Pooja D; Modi, Pranav D; Ghatge, Sharad

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral vasculitis secondary to Crohn's disease (CD) seems to be a very rare phenomenon. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with headache, vomiting, and left-sided weakness in the known case of CD. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging,) showed right gangliocapsular acute infarct with supraclinoid cistern subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral digital substraction angiography (DSA) showed dilatation and narrowing of right distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Left ICA was chronically occluded. His inflammatory markers were significantly raised. Imaging features are suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. Arterial and venous infarcts due to thrombosis are known in CD. Our case presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in supraclinoid cistern due to rupture of tiny aneurysm of perforator arteries causing SAH and infarction in right basal ganglia. Patient was treated conservatively with immunosuppression along with medical management of SAH.

  13. Gene interference regulates aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with cerebral ischemic edema: Correlation with variation in apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Lu, Hong; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

    2012-07-25

    To investigate the effects of mRNA interference on aquaporin-4 expression in swollen tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral edema, and diagnose the significance of diffusion-weighted MRI, we injected 5 μL shRNA- aquaporin-4 (control group) or siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution (1:800) (RNA interference group) into the rat right basal ganglia immediately before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. At 0.25 hours after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, diffusion-weighted MRI displayed a high signal; within 2 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient decreased markedly, aquaporin-4 expression increased rapidly, and intracellular edema was obviously aggravated; at 4 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slowly returned to control levels, aquaporin-4 expression slightly increased, and angioedema was observed. In the RNA interference group, during 0.25-6 hours after injection of siRNA- aquaporin-4 solution, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient slightly fluctuated and aquaporin-4 expression was upregulated; during 0.5-4 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher, while aquaporin-4 expression was significantly lower when compared with the control group, and intracellular edema was markedly reduced; at 0.25 and 6 hours, the relative apparent diffusion coefficient and aquaporin-4 expression were similar when compared with the control group; obvious angioedema remained at 6 hours. Pearson's correlation test results showed that aquaporin-4 expression was negatively correlated with the apparent diffusion coefficient (r = -0.806, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that upregulated aquaporin-4 expression is likely to be the main molecular mechanism of intracellular edema and may be the molecular basis for decreased relative apparent diffusion coefficient. Aquaporin-4 gene interference can effectively inhibit the upregulation of aquaporin-4 expression during the stage of intracellular edema with time

  14. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing early neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Xia, Cheng; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Zhou, Zhong-He; Li, Feng-Peng; Li, Wei; Lv, Yan; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that combination antiplatelet therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of acute stroke. However, additional prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. The present trial compared the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in the treatment of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke within 72 hours of onset. Six hundred and ninety patients aged ⩾ 40 years with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were identified for enrollment. Experienced physicians determined baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at the time of admission. All patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive aspirin alone (300 mg/day) or clopidogrel (300 mg for the first day, 75 mg/day thereafter) plus aspirin (100mg/day). The main endpoints were neurological deterioration, recurrent stroke, and development of stroke in patients with TIA within 14 days of admission. After 43 patients were excluded, 321 patients in the dual therapy group and 326 patients in the monotherapy group completed the treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. During the 2 week period, stroke deterioration occurred in nine patients in the dual therapy group and 19 patients in the monotherapy group. Stroke occurred after TIA in one patient in the dual therapy group and three patients in the monotherapy group. Similar numbers of adverse events occurred in both groups. This study showed that early dual antiplatelet treatment reduced early neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke, compared with antiplatelet monotherapy. These results imply that dual antiplatelet therapy is superior to monotherapy in the early treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-Specific Associations of Renal Impairment With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Lau, Kui Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline; Liu, Ming; Kuker, Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose— It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age. Methods— In a population-based study of transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]), we evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral SVD, including lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and enlarged perivascular space. We studied the age-specific associations of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and total SVD burden (total SVD score) adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and premorbid blood pressure (mean blood pressure during 15 years preevent). Results— Of 1080 consecutive patients, 1028 (95.2%) had complete magnetic resonance imaging protocol and creatinine measured at baseline. Renal impairment was associated with total SVD score (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69–2.75; P<0.001), but only at age <60 years (<60 years: OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.69–9.32; P=0.002; 60–79 years: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72–1.41; P=0.963; ≥80 years: OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.59–1.54; P=0.832). The overall association of renal impairment and total SVD score was also attenuated after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premorbid average systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56–1.02; P=0.067), but the independent association of renal impairment and total SVD score at age <60 years was maintained (adjusted OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.21–7.98; P=0.018). Associations of renal impairment and SVD were

  16. Effects of edaravone on early outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Inokuchi, Ryota; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsubara, Takehiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-10-15

    We investigated whether edaravone could improve early outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. We identified patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke from 1 July 2010 to 31 March 2012 and treated with rtPA on the same day of stroke onset or the following day. Thereafter, we selected those who received edaravone on the same day of rtPA administration (edaravone group), and those who received rtPA without edaravone (control group). The primary outcomes were modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge. One-to-one propensity-score matching was performed between the edaravone and control groups. An ordinal logistic regression analysis for mRS scores at discharge was performed with adjustment for possible variables as well as clustering of patients within hospitals using a generalized estimating equation. We identified 6336 eligible patients for inclusion in the edaravone group (n=5979; 94%) and the control group (n=357; 6%) as the total population. In 356 pairs of the propensity-matched population, the ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that edaravone was significantly associated with lower mRS scores of patients at discharge (adjusted odds ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.96). Edaravone may improve early outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with rtPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel neuroimaging model to predict early neurological deterioration after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Chu; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Lee, Jiann-Der; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Pan, Yi-Ting

    2018-05-16

    In acute ischemic stroke, early neurological deterioration (END) may occur in up to one-third of patients. However, there is still no satisfying or comprehensive predictive model for all the stroke subtypes. We propose a practical model to predict END using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with anterior circulation infarct were recruited and they underwent an MRI within 24 hours of stroke onset. END was defined as an elevation of ≥2 points on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) within 72 hours of stroke onset. We examined the relationships of END to individual END models, including: A, infarct swelling; B, small subcortical infarct; C, mismatch; and D, recurrence. There were 163 patients recruited and 43 (26.4%) of them had END. The END models A, B and C significantly predicted END respectively after adjusting for confounding factors (p=0.022, p=0.007 and p<0.001 respectively). In END model D, we examined all imaging predictors of Recurrence Risk Estimator (RRE) individually and only the "multiple acute infarcts" pattern was significantly associated with END (p=0.032). When applying END models A, B, C and D, they successfully predicted END (p<0.001; odds ratio: 17.5[95% confidence interval: 5.1-60.8]), with 93.0% sensitivity, 60.0% specificity, 45.5% positive predictive value and 96.0% negative predictive value. The results demonstrate that the proposed model could predict END in all stroke subtypes of anterior circulation infarction. It provides a practical model for clinical physicians to select high-risk patients for more aggressive treatment to prevent END. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Minocycline in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage: An Early Phase Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Newsome, Andrea S; Spellicy, Samantha; Waller, Jennifer L; Zhi, Wenbo; Hess, David C; Ergul, Adviye; Edwards, David J; Fagan, Susan C; Switzer, Jeffrey A

    2017-10-01

    Minocycline is under investigation as a neurovascular protective agent for stroke. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic, anti-inflammatory, and safety profile of minocycline after intracerebral hemorrhage. This study was a single-site, randomized controlled trial of minocycline conducted from 2013 to 2016. Adults ≥18 years with primary intracerebral hemorrhage who could have study drug administered within 24 hours of onset were included. Patients received 400 mg of intravenous minocycline, followed by 400 mg minocycline oral daily for 4 days. Serum concentrations of minocycline after the last oral dose and biomarkers were sampled to determine the peak concentration, half-life, and anti-inflammatory profile. A total of 16 consecutive eligible patients were enrolled, with 8 randomized to minocycline. Although the literature supports a time to peak concentration (T max ) of 1 hour for oral minocycline, the T max was estimated to be at least 6 hours in this cohort. The elimination half-life (available on 7 patients) was 17.5 hours (SD±3.5). No differences were observed in inflammatory biomarkers, hematoma volume, or perihematomal edema. Concentrations remained at neuroprotective levels (>3 mg/L) throughout the dosing interval in 5 of 7 patients. In intracerebral hemorrhage, a 400 mg dose of minocycline was safe and achieved neuroprotective serum concentrations. However, oral administration led to delayed absorption in these critically ill patients and should not be used when rapid, high concentrations are desired. Given the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of minocycline in intracerebral hemorrhage and promising data in the treatment of ischemic stroke, intravenous minocycline is an excellent candidate for a prehospital treatment trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01805895. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Magnolol protects against ischemic-reperfusion brain damage following oxygen-glucose deprivation and transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Yang; Tai, Shih-Huang; Chang, Che-Chao; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chang, Chih-Han; Lee, E-Jian

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of magnolol against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury was examined via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Magnolol exhibited strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibited the production of interleukin‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑a and nitrite/nitrate (NOX) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 and RAW 264.7 cells when applied at concentrations of 10 and 50 µM, respectively. Magnolol (100 µM) also significantly attenuated oxygen‑glucose deprivation‑induced damage in neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, when administered up to 4 h following the insult. In a rat model of stable ischemia, compared with a vehicle‑treated ischemic control, pretreatment with magnolol (0.01‑1 mg/kg, intravenously) significantly reduced brain infarction following ischemic stroke, and post‑treatment with magnolol (1 mg/kg) remained effective and significantly reduced infarction when administered 2 h following the onset of ischemia. Additionally, magnolol (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) significantly reduced the accumulation of superoxide anions at the border zones of infarction and reduced oxidative damage in the ischemic brain. This was assessed by measuring the levels of NOX, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, the ratio of glutathione/oxidized glutathione and the immunoreactions of 8‑hydroxy‑2'‑deoxyguanosine and 4‑hydroxynonenal. Thus, magnolol was revealed to protect against ischemia‑reperfusion brain damage. This may be partly attributed to its antioxidant, radical scavenging and anti‑inflammatory effects.

  20. Focal cerebral ischemic tolerance and change in blood-brain barrier permeability after repetitive pure oxygen exposure preconditioning in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Kang, Kai; Wang, Shiquan; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xijing

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to demonstrate that repetitive pure oxygen exposure preconditioning (O 2 PC) for 8 hours per day for 3 or 7 days, a practicable preconditioning for clinical use, is able to induce cerebral ischemic tolerance (IT) and further clarify the accompanying changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that may be involved. METHODS A total of 68 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and eight 1-day-old rat pups were used in this study. The adult rats were exposed to pure O 2 (38 rats) 8 hours a day for 3 or 7 days or to room air (in an identical setup) for 8 hours a day for 7 days as controls (30 rats). Arterial O 2 tension (PaO 2 ) was measured in 6 rats exposed to O 2 and 3 controls. Focal cerebral ischemia was elicited by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 37 rats, of which 21 had been exposed to pure O 2 for 3 or 7 days and 16 to room air for 7 days as controls. Neurological behavior was scored with the Garcia score in 15 MCAO rats, of which 10 had been exposed to pure O 2 for 3 or 7 days and 5 to room air for 7 days as controls, and cerebral infarct volumes were assessed with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining in 10 rats (5 from each group) after 7 days of exposure. Formamide-extraction method was used to detect leakage of Evans blue (EB) dye in 7 rats exposed to pure O 2 for 7 days and 7 exposed to room air for 7 days. Fluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the leaked EB in the nonischemic areas of 4 rats exposed to pure O 2 for 7 days and 4 exposed to room air for 7 days before MCAO and the brain of the rats that had not been subjected to MCAO. Astrocyte changes associated with O 2 PC were evaluated by means of fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in 14 rats that were exposed to the same O 2 or control conditions as the MCAO rats but without MCAO. Astrocytes were also obtained from 8 rat pups and cultured; levels of AQP4 and VEGF were detected by Western blot and ELISA in cells with and without O 2

  1. FOXO4-Knockdown Suppresses Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis of Early Pro-Angiogenic Cells and Augments Their Neovascularization Capacities in Ischemic Limbs

    PubMed Central

    Nakayoshi, Takaharu; Sasaki, Ken-ichiro; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Koiwaya, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Masanori; Ueno, Takafumi; Chibana, Hidetoshi; Itaya, Naoki; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shinji; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic angiogenesis by intramuscular injection of early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) to ischemic limbs are unsatisfactory. Oxidative stress in the ischemic limbs may accelerate apoptosis of injected EPCs, leading to less neovascularization. Forkhead transcription factor 4 (FOXO4) was reported to play a pivotal role in apoptosis signaling of EPCs in response to oxidative stress. Accordingly, we assessed whether FOXO4-knockdown EPCs (FOXO4KD-EPCs) could suppress the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and augment the neovascularization capacity in ischemic limbs. We transfected small interfering RNA targeted against FOXO4 of human EPCs to generate FOXO4KD-EPCs and confirmed a successful knockdown. FOXO4KD-EPCs gained resistance to apoptosis in response to hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Oxidative stress stained by dihydroethidium was stronger for the immunodeficient rat ischemic limb tissue than for the rat non-ischemic one. Although the number of apoptotic EPCs injected into the rat ischemic limb was greater than that of apoptotic EPCs injected into the rat non-ischemic limb, FOXO4KD-EPCs injected into the rat ischemic limb brought less apoptosis and more neovascularization than EPCs. Taken together, the use of FOXO4KD-EPCs with resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis may be a new strategy to augment the effects of therapeutic angiogenesis by intramuscular injection of EPCs. PMID:24663349

  2. New Wavelet Neurovascular Bundle for Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Autoregulation and Neurovascular Coupling in Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Lina F; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) resulting from birth asphyxia constitutes a major global public health burden for millions of infants every year, and despite therapeutic hypothermia, half of these neonates have poor neurological outcomes. As new neuroprotective interventions are being studied in clinical trials, there is a critical need to establish physiological surrogate markers of therapeutic efficacy, to guide patient selection and/or to modify the therapeutic intervention. The challenge in the field of neonatal brain injury has been the difficulty of clinically discerning NE severity within the short therapeutic window after birth or of analyzing the dynamic aspects of the cerebral circulation in sick NE newborns. To address this roadblock, we have recently developed a new "wavelet neurovascular bundle" analytical system that can measure cerebral autoregulation (CA) and neurovascular coupling (NVC) at multiple time scales under dynamic, nonstationary clinical conditions. This wavelet analysis may allow noninvasive quantification at the bedside of (1) CA (combining metrics of blood pressure and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) and (2) NVC (combining metrics obtained from NIRS and EEG) in newborns with encephalopathy without mathematical assumptions of linear and stationary systems. In this concept paper, we present case examples of NE using the proposed physiological wavelet metrics of CA and NVC. The new approach, once validated in large NE studies, has the potential to optimize the selection of candidates for therapeutic decision-making, and the prediction of neurocognitive outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. New Wavelet Neurovascular Bundle for Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Autoregulation and Neurovascular Coupling in Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chalak, Lina F; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) resulting from birth asphyxia constitutes a major global public health burden for millions of infants every year, and despite therapeutic hypothermia, half of neonates have poor neurologic outcomes. As new neuroprotective interventions are being studied in clinical trials, there is a critical need to establish physiological surrogate markers of therapeutic efficacy, to guide patient selection and/or to modify the therapeutic intervention. The challenge in the field of neonatal brain injury has been the difficulty to clinically discern the NE severity within the short therapeutic window after birth, or to analyze the dynamic aspects of the cerebral circulation in the NE sick newborns. To address this road block, we have recently developed a new “wavelet neurovascular bundle” analytical system that can measure cerebral autoregulation (CA) and neurovascular coupling (NVC) at multiple time scales under dynamic, non-stationary clinical conditions. This wavelet analysis can enable non-invasive quantification at the bedside of 1) CA (combining metrics of blood pressure and cerebral NIRS), and 2) NVC (combining metrics obtained from NIRS and EEG) in newborns with encephalopathy without mathematical assumptions of linear and stationary systems. In this concept paper, we present case examples of NE using the proposed physiological wavelet metrics of CA and NVC. The new approach, once validated in large NE studies has the potential to optimize the selection of candidates for therapeutic decision making, and the prediction of neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:28355608

  4. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our group has been systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain. To do so, we have established and utilized the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model, in which PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection is given intracerebroventrically and compared to a control saline (0.9% sodium chloride, NaCl) injection, to unravel genome-wide gene expression changes using a high-throughput DNA microarray analysis approach. In our previous studies, we have accumulated a large volume of data (gene inventory) from the whole brain (ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres) after both PMCAO and post-PACAP38 injection. In our latest research, we have targeted specifically infarct or ischemic core (hereafter abbreviated IC) and penumbra (hereafter abbreviated P) post-PACAP38 injections in order to re-examine the transcriptome at 6 and 24 h post injection. The current study aims to delineate the specificity of expression and localization of differentially expressed molecular factors influenced by PACAP38 in the IC and P regions. Utilizing the mouse 4 × 44 K whole genome DNA chip we show numerous changes (≧/≦ 1.5/0.75-fold) at both 6 h (654 and 456, and 522 and 449 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) and 24 h (2568 and 2684, and 1947 and 1592 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) after PACAP38 treatment. Among the gene inventories obtained here, two genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and transthyretin (Ttr) were found to be induced by PACAP38 treatment, which we had not been able to identify previously using the whole hemisphere transcriptome analysis. Using bioinformatics analysis by pathway- or specific-disease-state focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) the differentially expressed genes are functionally classified and discussed. Among these, we specifically discuss some novel and previously

  5. Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    CHO, YOUNG SHIN; CHO, JUN HWI; SHIN, BICH-NA; CHO, GEUM-SIL; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; OHK, TAEK GEUN; CHO, BYUNG-RYUL; KIM, YOUNG-MYEONG; HONG, SEONGKWEON; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, JAE-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia-operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia-operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post-ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post-ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia-operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham-group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia-reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26134272

  6. Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke with occlusion of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saber, Hamidreza; Narayanan, Sandra; Palla, Mohan; Saver, Jeffrey L; Nogueira, Raul G; Yoo, Albert J; Sheth, Sunil A

    2017-11-10

    Endovascular thrombectomy has demonstrated benefit for patients with acute ischemic stroke from proximal large vessel occlusion. However, limited evidence is available from recent randomized trials on the role of thrombectomy for M2 segment occlusions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate clinical and radiographic outcomes, rates of hemorrhagic complications, and mortality after M2 occlusion thrombectomy using modern devices, and compared these outcomes against patients with M1 occlusions. Recanalization was defined as Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3 or modified TICI 2b/3. A total of 12 studies with 1080 patients with M2 thrombectomy were included in our analysis. Functional independence (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) rate was 59% (95% CI 54% to 64%). Mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates were 16% (95% CI 11% to 23%) and 10% (95% CI 6% to 16%), respectively. Recanalization rates were 81% (95% CI 79% to 84%), and were equally comparable for stent-retriever versus aspiration (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.21). Successful M2 recanalization was associated with greater rates of favorable outcome (OR 4.22; 95% CI 1.96 to 9.1) compared with poor M2 recanalization (TICI 0-2a). There was no significant difference in recanalization rates for M2 versus M1 thrombectomy (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.42). This meta-analysis suggests that mechanical thrombectomy for M2 occlusions that can be safely accessed is associated with high functional independence and recanalization rates, but may be associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Computational Pipeline for NIRS-EEG Joint Imaging of tDCS-Evoked Cerebral Responses-An Application in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Debarpan; Dutta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical neural activity and hemodynamics. Electrophysiological methods (electroencephalography-EEG) measure neural activity while optical methods (near-infrared spectroscopy-NIRS) measure hemodynamics coupled through neurovascular coupling (NVC). Assessment of NVC requires development of NIRS-EEG joint-imaging sensor montages that are sensitive to the tDCS affected brain areas. In this methods paper, we present a software pipeline incorporating freely available software tools that can be used to target vascular territories with tDCS and develop a NIRS-EEG probe for joint imaging of tDCS-evoked responses. We apply this software pipeline to target primarily the outer convexity of the brain territory (superficial divisions) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). We then present a computational method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition of NIRS and EEG time series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and then perform a cross-correlation analysis on those IMFs from NIRS and EEG signals to model NVC at the lesional and contralesional hemispheres of an ischemic stroke patient. For the contralesional hemisphere, a strong positive correlation between IMFs of regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the log-transformed mean-power time-series of IMFs for EEG with a lag of about -15 s was found after a cumulative 550 s stimulation of anodal tDCS. It is postulated that system identification, for example using a continuous-time autoregressive model, of this coupling relation under tDCS perturbation may provide spatiotemporal discriminatory features for the identification of ischemia. Furthermore, portable NIRS-EEG joint imaging can be incorporated into brain computer interfaces to monitor tDCS-facilitated neurointervention as well as cortical reorganization.

  8. Computational Pipeline for NIRS-EEG Joint Imaging of tDCS-Evoked Cerebral Responses—An Application in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Guhathakurta, Debarpan; Dutta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical neural activity and hemodynamics. Electrophysiological methods (electroencephalography-EEG) measure neural activity while optical methods (near-infrared spectroscopy-NIRS) measure hemodynamics coupled through neurovascular coupling (NVC). Assessment of NVC requires development of NIRS-EEG joint-imaging sensor montages that are sensitive to the tDCS affected brain areas. In this methods paper, we present a software pipeline incorporating freely available software tools that can be used to target vascular territories with tDCS and develop a NIRS-EEG probe for joint imaging of tDCS-evoked responses. We apply this software pipeline to target primarily the outer convexity of the brain territory (superficial divisions) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). We then present a computational method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition of NIRS and EEG time series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and then perform a cross-correlation analysis on those IMFs from NIRS and EEG signals to model NVC at the lesional and contralesional hemispheres of an ischemic stroke patient. For the contralesional hemisphere, a strong positive correlation between IMFs of regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation and the log-transformed mean-power time-series of IMFs for EEG with a lag of about −15 s was found after a cumulative 550 s stimulation of anodal tDCS. It is postulated that system identification, for example using a continuous-time autoregressive model, of this coupling relation under tDCS perturbation may provide spatiotemporal discriminatory features for the identification of ischemia. Furthermore, portable NIRS-EEG joint imaging can be incorporated into brain computer interfaces to monitor tDCS-facilitated neurointervention as well as cortical reorganization. PMID:27378836

  9. Neurocardiac protection with milrinone for restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed ischemic injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Kazumasu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2017-02-15

    Acute cerebral hypoperfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is highly related to the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), but the therapeutic option is poorly available. This study aimed to clarify the effect of milrinone (MIL) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and related outcomes after experimental SAH. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham; n=6), SAH induced by endovascular perforation (control; n=10), or SAH followed by cardiac support with intravenous MIL (n=11) performed 1.5-h after SAH induction. CBF, neurobehavioral function, occurrence of DCI were assessed by MR-continuous arterial spin labeling, daily neurological score testing, and diffusion- and T2-weighted MR images on days 1 and 3, respectively. Initial global CBF depression was notable in mice of control and MIL groups as compared to the SAH-sham group (P<0.05). MIL raised CBF in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.001), resulted in lower incidence of DCI (P=0.008) and better recovery from neurobehavioral decline than control (P<0.001). The CBF values on day 1 predicted DCI with a cut-off of 42.5ml/100g/min (82% specificity and 83% sensitivity), which was greater in mice treated with MIL than those of control (51.7 versus 37.6ml/100g/min; P<0.001). MIL improves post-SAH acute hypoperfusion that can lead to the prevention of DCI and functional worsening, acting as a neurocardiac protective agent against EBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acidosis mediates recurrent hypoglycemia-induced increase in ischemic brain injury in treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rehni, Ashish K; Shukla, Vibha; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A; Dave, Kunjan R

    2018-03-15

    Cerebral ischemia is a serious possible manifestation of diabetic vascular disease. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) enhances ischemic brain injury in insulin-treated diabetic (ITD) rats. In the present study, we determined the role of ischemic acidosis in enhanced ischemic brain damage in RH-exposed ITD rats. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and mild/moderate RH was induced for 5 days. Three sets of experiments were performed. The first set evaluated the effects of RH exposure on global cerebral ischemia-induced acidosis in ITD rats. The second set evaluated the effect of an alkalizing agent (Tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane: THAM) on ischemic acidosis-induced brain injury in RH-exposed ITD rats. The third experiment evaluated the effect of the glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitor on ischemic acidosis-induced brain injury in RH-exposed ITD rats. Hippocampal pH and lactate were measured during ischemia and early reperfusion for all three experiments. Neuronal survival in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampus served as a measure of ischemic brain injury. Prior RH exposure increases lactate concentration and decreases pH during ischemia and early reperfusion when compared to controls. THAM and GLUT inhibitor treatments attenuated RH-induced increase in ischemic acidosis. GLUT inhibitor treatment reduced the RH-induced increase in lactate levels. Both THAM and GLUT inhibitor treatments significantly decreased ischemic damage in RH-exposed ITD rats. Ischemia causes increased acidosis in RH-exposed ITD rats via a GLUT-sensitive mechanism. Exploring downstream pathways may help understand mechanisms by which prior exposure to RH increases cerebral ischemic damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of PSD-93 Deficiency on the Expression of Early Inflammatory Cytokines Induced by Ischemic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxiu; Cheng, Hongyu; Rong, Rong; Yang, Hui; Ji, Qiuhong; Li, Qingjie; Rong, Liangqun; Hu, Gang; Xu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of PSD-93 deficiency on the expression of early inflammatory cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ten- to twelve-week-old male PSD-93 knockout (PSD-93 KO) mice (C57BL/6 genetic background) and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly divided into sham and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group. The focal cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suture method. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α4h following reperfusion. Infarct volume at different time points after I/R was analyzed using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium staining, and neurological damage score (neurological severity scores, NSS) was used to evaluate the effect of PSD-93 gene knockout on the MCAO-induced neurological injury. In WT mice, early I/R injury led to the increase in the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α that coincided with the decrease in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, as compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). This effect was markedly attenuated by depleting PSD-93 levels by gene knockout. As compared to sham group, in PSD-93 KO mice I/R4h led to downregulation of Cox-2 and iNOS expression, and increase in the mRNA levels of IL-10 (P < 0.05). In addition, following MCAO, PSD-93 KO mice exhibited improved NSS and reduced infarct volumes, as compared with WT animals. PSD-93 knockout may play a neuroprotective role by mediating the early release of inflammatory cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia.

  12. Change in blood pressure variability in patients with acute ischemic stroke and its effect on early neurologic outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Min Uk; Choi, Nack Cheon; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Background How short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) is affected in the acute stage of ischemic stroke and whether BPV is associated with early neurologic outcomes remains unclear. Methods Patients who admitted for ischemic stroke within 24 h of symptom onset were consecutively identified between January 2010 and January 2015. BP profiles measured in real-time were summarized into short-term, 24-h time intervals, based on standard deviation (SD) and mean of systolic BP (SBPSD) during the first 3 days. The primary outcome was daily assessment of early neurological deterioration (END). The associations between short-term SBPSD values and the secular trend for primary outcome were examined. Results A total of 2,545 subjects (mean age, 67.1 ± 13.5 years old and median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 3) arrived at the hospital an average of 6.1 ± 6.6 h after symptom onset. SBPSD values at day 1 (SD#D1), SD#D2, and SD#D3 were 14.4 ± 5.0, 12.5 ± 4.5, and 12.2 ± 4.6 mmHg, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that SD#D2 was independently associated with onset of END at day 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.13), and SD#D3 was independently associated with END#D3 (1.07, 1.01–1.14), with adjustments for predetermined covariates, SBPmean, and interactions with daily SBPSD. Conclusion Short-term BPV changed and stabilized from the first day of ischemic stroke. Daily high BPV may be associated with neurological deterioration independent of BPV on the previous day. PMID:29252991

  13. Sulforaphane improves outcomes and slows cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang; He, Qi; Zheng, Jing; Li, Ling Yu; Hou, Yang Hao; Song, Fang Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been correlated with systemic inflammatory response. In addition, NLRP3 has been suggested as a cause in many inflammatory processes. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage. While recent studies have demonstrated that Sulforaphane has protective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, little is known about how those protective effects work. In this study, we focus our investigation on the role and process of Sulforaphane in the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as well as its effect on brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Sulforaphane (5 or 10mg/kg) intraperitoneally at the beginning of reperfusion, after a 60min period of occlusion. A neurological score and infarct volume were assessed at 24h after the administration of Sulforaphane. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured at 24h to assess neutrophil infiltration in brain tissue. ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to measure any inflammatory reaction. Sulforaphane treatment significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological scores when compared to a vehicle-treated group. Neutrophil infiltration was significantly higher in the vehicle-treated group than in the Sulforaphane treatment group. Sulforaphane treatment inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the downregulation of cleaved caspase-1, while reducing IL-1β and IL-18 expression. The inhibition of inflammatory response with Sulforaphane treatment improves outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia. This neuroprotective effect is likely exerted by Sulforaphane inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation caused by the downregulation of NLRP3, the induction of cleaved caspase-1, and thus the reduction of IL-1β and IL-18. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Mobilization in Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Trial of Safety and Feasibility in a Public Hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Simone Rosa; Rebello, Letícia Costa; Valença, Maria Júlia Monteiro; Rossato, Daniele; Almeida, Andrea Garcia; Brondani, Rosane; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Nasi, Luiz Antônio; Martins, Sheila Cristina Ouriques

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of early mobilization after acute stroke is still unclear, although some studies have suggested improvement in outcomes. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial seeking to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and benefit of early mobilization for patients with acute ischemic stroke treated in a public teaching hospital in Southern Brazil. This report presents the feasibility and safety findings for the pilot phase of this trial. Methods The primary outcomes were time to first mobilization, total duration of mobilization, complications during early mobilization, falls within 3 months, mortality within 3 months, and medical complications of immobility. We included adult patients with CT- or MRI-confirmed ischemic stroke within 48 h of symptom onset who were admitted from March to November 2012 to the acute vascular unit or general emergency unit of a large urban emergency department (ED) at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The severity of the neurological deficit on admission was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The NIHSS and modified Rankin Scale (mRS, functional outcome) scores were assessed on day 14 or at discharge as well as at 3 months. Activities of daily living (ADL) were measured with the modified Barthel Index (mBI) at 3 months. Results Thirty-seven patients (mean age 65 years, mean NIHSS score 11) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). The IG received earlier (p = 0.001) and more frequent (p < 0.0001) mobilization than the CG. Of the 19 patients in the CG, only 5 (26%) underwent a physical therapy program during hospitalization. No complications (symptomatic hypotension or worsening of neurological symptoms) were observed in association with early mobilization. The rates of complications of immobility (pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis) and mortality were similar in the two groups. No statistically significant

  15. Prevention of the collapse of pial collaterals by remote ischemic perconditioning during acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junqiang; Ma, Yonglie; Dong, Bin; Bandet, Mischa V; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Winship, Ian R

    2017-08-01

    Collateral circulation is a key variable determining prognosis and response to recanalization therapy during acute ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) involves inducing peripheral ischemia (typically in the limbs) during stroke and may reduce perfusion deficits and brain damage due to cerebral ischemia. In this study, we directly investigated pial collateral flow augmentation due to RIPerC during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Blood flow through pial collaterals between the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the MCA was assessed in male Sprague Dawley rats using in vivo laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) during distal MCAo. LSCI and TPLSM revealed that RIPerC augmented collateral flow into distal MCA segments. Notably, while control rats exhibited an initial dilation followed by a progressive narrowing of pial arterioles 60 to 150-min post-MCAo (constricting to 80-90% of post-MCAo peak diameter), this constriction was prevented or reversed by RIPerC (such that vessel diameters increased to 105-110% of post-MCAo, pre-RIPerC diameter). RIPerC significantly reduced early ischemic damage measured 6 h after stroke onset. Thus, prevention of collateral collapse via RIPerC is neuroprotective and may facilitate other protective or recanalization therapies by improving blood flow in penumbral tissue.

  16. Immunohistochemical Markers of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Early Embryonic Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, L.; Ravarino, A.; Fanos, V.; Naccarato, A.G.; Senes, G.; Gerosa, C.; Bevilacqua, G.; Faa, G.; Ambu, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development. To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation. PMID:26972711

  17. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R.; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions. PMID

  18. Association of MTHFR C677T Genotype With Ischemic Stroke Is Confined to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Traylor, Matthew; Adib-Samii, Poneh; Thijs, Vincent; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M.; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Dichgans, Martin; Meschia, James; Maguire, Jane; Levi, Christopher; Rost, Natalia S.; Rosand, Jonathan; Hassan, Ahamad; Bevan, Steve; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with stroke. However, this might be a reflection of bias or confounding because trials have failed to demonstrate an effect from homocysteine lowering in stroke patients, although a possible benefit has been suggested in lacunar stroke. Genetic studies could potentially overcome these issues because genetic variants are inherited randomly and are fixed at conception. Therefore, we tested the homocysteine levels–associated genetic variant MTHFR C677T for association with magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed lacunar stroke and compared this with associations with large artery and cardioembolic stroke subtypes. Methods— We included 1359 magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed lacunar stroke cases, 1824 large artery stroke cases, 1970 cardioembolic stroke cases, and 14 448 controls, all of European ancestry. Furthermore, we studied 3670 ischemic stroke patients in whom white matter hyperintensities volume was measured. We tested MTHFR C677T for association with stroke subtypes and white matter hyperintensities volume. Because of the established association of homocysteine with hypertension, we additionally stratified for hypertension status. Results— MTHFR C677T was associated with lacunar stroke (P=0.0003) and white matter hyperintensity volume (P=0.04), but not with the other stroke subtypes. Stratifying the lacunar stroke cases for hypertension status confirmed this association in hypertensive individuals (P=0.0002), but not in normotensive individuals (P=0.30). Conclusions— MTHFR C677T was associated with magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed lacunar stroke, but not large artery or cardioembolic stroke. The association may act through increased susceptibility to, or interaction with, high blood pressure. This heterogeneity of association might explain the lack of effect of lowering homocysteine in secondary prevention trials which included all strokes. PMID:26839351

  19. [The Battelle developmental inventory screening test for early detection of developmental disorders in cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Moraleda-Barreno, E; Romero-López, M; Cayetano-Menéndez, M J

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is usually associated with motor, cognitive, and language deficits, and with other disorders that cause disability in daily living skills, personal independence, social interaction and academic activities. Early detection of these deficits in the clinical setting is essential to anticipate and provide the child with the necessary support for adapting to the environment in all possible areas. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate that these deficits can be detected at an early age and comprehensively through the use of a brief development scale. We studied 100 children between 4 and 70 months old, half of them with cerebral palsy and the other half without any disorder. All subjects were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory screening test. We compared the developmental quotients in both groups and between the subjects with different motor impairments, using a simple prospective ex post facto design. The test detected statistically significant differences between the clinical group and the control group at all age levels. Statistically significant differences were also found between tetraplegia and other motor disorders. There were no differences by gender. The deficit in development associated with cerebral palsy can be quantified at early ages through the use of a brief development scale, thus we propose that the systematic implementation of protocols with this screening tool would be helpful for treatment and early intervention. This would also help in anticipating and establishing the means for the multidisciplinary actions required, and could provide guidance to other health professionals, to provide adequate school, social, and family support,. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations between cerebral amyloid and changes in cognitive function and falls risk in subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Dao, Elizabeth; Best, John R; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Sossi, Vesna; Jacova, Claudia; Tam, Roger; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-28

    To determine the association between amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque deposition and changes in global cognition, executive functions, information processing speed, and falls risk over a 12-month period in older adults with a primary clinical diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). This is a secondary analysis of data acquired from a subset of participants (N = 22) who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise (NCT01027858). The subset of individuals completed an 11 C Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) scan. Cognitive function and falls risk were assessed at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Global cognition, executive functions, and information processing speed were measured using: 1) ADAS-Cog; 2) Trail Making Test; 3) Digit Span Test; 4) Stroop Test, and 5) Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Falls risk was measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses determined the unique contribution of Aβ on changes in cognitive function and falls risk at 12-months after controlling for experimental group (i.e. aerobic exercise training or usual care control) and baseline performance. To correct for multiple comparisons, we applied the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to obtain a false discovery rate corrected threshold using alpha = 0.05. Higher PIB retention was significantly associated with greater decrements in set shifting (Trail Making Test, adjusted R 2  = 35.3%, p = 0.002), attention and conflict resolution (Stroop Test, adjusted R 2  = 33.4%, p = 0.01), and information processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, adjusted R 2  = 24.4%, p = 0.001) over a 12-month period. Additionally, higher PIB retention was significantly associated with increased falls risk (Physiological Profile Assessment, adjusted R 2  = 49.1%, p = 0.04). PIB retention was not significantly associated with change in ADAS-Cog and Verbal Digit Span Test (p > 0.05). Symptoms

  1. Leukoaraiosis, cerebral hemorrhage and outcome after IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis (v1)

    PubMed Central

    Charidimou, Andreas; Pasi, Marco; Fiorelli, Marco; Shams, Sara; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Pantoni, Leonardo; Rost, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Background-and-Purpose We performed a meta-analysis to assess whether leukoaraiosis on brain CT scans of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and/or poor functional outcome at 3–6 months post-stroke. Methods We searched PubMed and pooled relevant data in meta-analyses using random effects models. Using odds ratios (OR), we quantified the strength of association between the presence and severity of leukoaraiosis and post-thrombolysis sICH or 3–6 month modified Rankin Score (mRS) >2. Results Eleven eligible studies (n=7194) were pooled in meta-analysis. The risk of sICH was higher in patients with leukoaraiosis (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.17–2.06, p=0.002) and severe leukoaraiosis (OR: 2.53; 95%CI: 1.92–3.34, p<0.0001), compared to patients without leukoaraiosis. Leukoaraiosis was an independent predictor of sICH in six included studies (n=4976, adjusted-OR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.35–2.27; p<0.0001). OR for leukoaraiosis and poor 3–6 month outcome was 2.02 (95%CI: 1.54–2.65, p<0.0001), with significant statistical heterogeneity (I2:75.7%, p=0.002). In adjusted analysed, leukoaraiosis was an independent predictor of poor outcome (n=3688, adjusted-OR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.44–1.79; p<0.0001). In post-hoc analyses, including only leukoaraiosis patients in RCTs (IST-3, NINDS, ECASS-1-2; n=2234), tPA vs. control was associated with higher sICH risk (OR: 5.50; 95%CI: 2.49–12.13), but lower poor outcome risk (OR: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.60–0.95). Conclusions Leukoaraiosis might increase post-IV thrombolysis sICH risk and poor outcome post-stroke. Despite increased sICH risk, IV tPA treatment has net clinical benefit in patients with leukoaraiosis. Given the risk of bias/confounding, these results should be considered hypothesis-generating and do not justify withholding IV thrombolysis. PMID:27491738

  2. Effects of ellagic acid pretreatment on renal functions disturbances induced by global cerebral ischemic-reperfusion in rat.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Khojasteh Hoseiny; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza; Dianat, Mahin; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2017-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (GCIR) causes disturbances in brain functions as well as other organs such as kidney. Our aim was to evaluate the protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) on certain renal disfunction after GCIR. Adult male Wistar rats (n=32, 250-300 g) were used. GCIR was induced by bilateral vertebral and common carotid arteries occlusion (4-VO). Animal groups were: 1) received DMSO/saline (10%) as solvent of EA, 2) solvent + GCIR, 3) EA + GCIR, and 4) EA. Under anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine, GCIR was induced (20 and 30 min respectively) in related groups. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in DMSO/saline (10%) or solvent was administered (1.5 ml/kg) orally for 10 consecutive days to the related groups. EEG was recorded from NTS in GCIR treated groups. Our data showed that: a) EEG in GCIR treated groups was flattened. b) GCIR reduced GFR ( P <0.01) and pretreatment with EA attenuated this reduction. c) BUN was increased by GCIR ( P <0.001) and pretreatment with EA improved the BUN to normal level. d) Serum creatinine concentration was elevated by GCIR but not significantly, however, in EA+GCIR group serum creatinine was reduced ( P <0.05). e) GCIR induced proteinuria ( P <0.05) but, EA was unable to reduced proteinuria. Results indicate that GCIR impairs certain renal functions and EA as an antioxidant can improve these functions. Our results suggest the possible usefulness of ellagic acid in patients with brain stroke.

  3. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Are More Effective Than Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cerebral Ischemic Injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Miyeoun; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jinhyun; Bu, Youngmin; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2017-06-09

    We compared the therapeutic effects and mechanism of transplanted human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) in a rat stroke model and an in vitro model of ischemia. Rats were intravenously injected with hDPSCs or hBM-MSCs 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), and both groups showed improved functional recovery and reduced infarct volume versus control rats, but the hDPSC group showed greater reduction in infarct volume than the hBM-MSC group. The positive area for the endothelial cell marker was greater in the lesion boundary areas in the hDPSC group than in the hBM-MSC group. Administration of hDPSCs to rats with stroke significantly decreased reactive gliosis, as evidenced by the attenuation of MCAo-induced GFAP+/nestin+ and GFAP+/Musashi-1+ cells, compared with hBM-MSCs. In vivo findings were confirmed by in vitro data illustrating that hDPSCs showed superior neuroprotective, migratory, and in vitro angiogenic effects in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-injured human astrocytes (hAs) versus hBM-MSCs. Comprehensive comparative bioinformatics analyses from hDPSC- and hBM-MSC-treated in vitro OGD-injured hAs were examined by RNA sequencing technology. In gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, significant pathways in the hDPSC-treated group were the MAPK and TGF-β signaling pathways. Thus, hDPSCs may be a better cell therapy source for ischemic stroke than hBM-MSCs.

  4. The Effect of Early Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy in Acute/Subacute Ischemic Stroke Patients With Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Hwa; Lee, Sook Joung; Park, Jin Gee

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of an early application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) combined with traditional dysphagia therapy (TDT) versus traditional dysphagia therapy only in acute/subacute ischemic stroke patients with moderate to severe dysphagia by videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Methods Fifty-seven dysphagic stroke patients were enrolled in a VFSS within 10 days after stroke onset. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. Thirty-one patients received NMES combined with TDT (NMES/TDT group) and 26 patients received TDT only (TDT group). Electrical stimulation with a maximal tolerable intensity was applied on both suprahyoid muscles for 30 minutes, 5 days per week during 3 weeks. The swallowing function was evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 weeks after baseline. Outcomes of the VFSS were assessed using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). Results The mean ages were 63.5±11.4 years in the NMES/TDT group and 66.7±9.5 years in the TDT group. Both groups showed a significant improvement on the FOIS after treatment. The FOIS score was significantly more improved at 3 and 6 weeks after baseline in the NMES/TDT group than in the TDT group (p<0.05). Conclusion An early application of NMES combined with TDT showed a positive effect in acute/subacute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. These results indicated that the early application of NMES could be used as a supplementary treatment of TDT to help rehabilitate acute/subacute dysphagic stroke patients by improving their swallowing coordination. PMID:24855608

  5. The initial glycemic variability is associated with early neurological deterioration in diabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jiaojie; Zhang, Jianping; Mao, Xuqiang; Li, Zaiwang; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Qingfang; Wang, Sunwei; Pu, Mengjia; Xi, Guangjun

    2018-06-05

    The association between glycemic variability and early neurological deterioration (END) in acute ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study attempted to explore whether initial glycemic variability increases END in diabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke. We enrolled type 2 diabetic patients undergoing acute ischemic stroke from November 2015 to November 2016. A total of 336 patients within 72 h from stroke onset were included. The serum glucose levels were checked four times per day during the initial 3 hospital days. The standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) values and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) were calculated for glycemic variability. END was defined as an increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥ 2 points between hospital days 0 and 5. The frequencies of END and HbA1c were significantly different in subjects grouped according to tertiles of MAGE (9.09, 12.07 and 50.00%, p < 0.001 for END; 7.36 ± 1.91, 7.83 ± 1.93 and 8.56 ± 1.79, p < 0.001 for HbA1c). Compared to patients without END, patients with END had significantly higher HbA1c levels (8.30 ± 1.92 vs 7.80 ± 1.93, p = 0.043), increased SDBG (3.42 ± 1.14 vs 2.60 ± 0.96, p < 0.001), and increased MAGE (6.46 ± 2.09 vs 4.59 ± 1.91, p < 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression, stroke etiology (OR 0.675; 95% CI 0.485-0.940, p = 0.020), baseline NIHSS (OR 1.086; 95% CI 1.004-1.175, p = 0.040), and MAGE (OR 1.479; 95% CI 1.162-1.882, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with END. Initial glycemic variability is associated with END in diabetic patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  6. AAC and Early Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Parent Perceptions and Child Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Hustad, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26, 2-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language. PMID:26401966

  7. Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes: the MIRACL study: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G G; Olsson, A G; Ezekowitz, M D; Ganz, P; Oliver, M F; Waters, D; Zeiher, A; Chaitman, B R; Leslie, S; Stern, T

    2001-04-04

    Patients experience the highest rate of death and recurrent ischemic events during the early period after an acute coronary syndrome, but it is not known whether early initiation of treatment with a statin can reduce the occurrence of these early events. To determine whether treatment with atorvastatin, 80 mg/d, initiated 24 to 96 hours after an acute coronary syndrome, reduces death and nonfatal ischemic events. A randomized, double-blind trial conducted from May 1997 to September 1999, with follow-up through 16 weeks at 122 clinical centers in Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australasia. A total of 3086 adults aged 18 years or older with unstable angina or non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction. Patients were stratified by center and randomly assigned to receive treatment with atorvastatin (80 mg/d) or matching placebo between 24 and 96 hours after hospital admission. Primary end point event defined as death, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest with resuscitation, or recurrent symptomatic myocardial ischemia with objective evidence and requiring emergency rehospitalization. A primary end point event occurred in 228 patients (14.8%) in the atorvastatin group and 269 patients (17.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.00; P =.048). There were no significant differences in risk of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest between the atorvastatin group and the placebo group, although the atorvastatin group had a lower risk of symptomatic ischemia with objective evidence and requiring emergency rehospitalization (6.2% vs 8.4%; RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95; P =.02). Likewise, there were no significant differences between the atorvastatin group and the placebo group in the incidence of secondary outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures, worsening heart failure, or worsening angina, although there were fewer strokes in the atorvastatin group than in the placebo group (12

  8. Early Surgery for Endocarditis Complicated by Preoperative Cerebral Emboli Is Not Associated With Worsened Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sorabella, Robert A.; Han, Sang Myung; Grbic, Mark; Wu, Yeu Sanz; Takyama, Hiroo; Kurlansky, Paul; Borger, Michal A.; Argenziano, Michael; Gordon, Rachel; George, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Background Valve surgery for patients presenting with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by stroke is thought to carry elevated risk of postoperative complications. Our aim is to compare outcomes of IE patients who undergo surgery early after diagnosis of septic cerebral emboli with patients without preoperative emboli. Methods All patients undergoing surgery for left-sided IE between 1996–2013 at our institution were reviewed. Patients undergoing surgery > 14 days after embolic stroke diagnosis (n=11) and those with purely hemorrhagic lesions were excluded from analysis (n=7). In total, 308 were included in the study and stratified according to the presence (STR, n=54) or absence of a preoperative septic cerebral embolus (NoSTR, n=254). Primary outcomes of interest were development of new postoperative stroke and 30-day mortality. Results Mean time to surgical intervention from stroke onset was 6.0 ± 4.1 days. S. aureus (39% STR vs. 21% NoSTR, p = 0.004) and annular abscess at surgery (52% STR vs. 27% NoSTR, p < 0.001) were more prevalent in STR patients. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality (9.3% STR vs. 7.1% NoSTR, p = 0.57) or rate of new postoperative stroke [5 (9.4%) STR vs. 12 (4.7%) NoSTR, p = 0.19] between groups. Additionally, there was no difference in 10-year survival between groups (log rank p = 0.74). Conclusions Early surgical intervention in patients with IE complicated by preoperative septic cerebral emboli does not lead to significantly worse postoperative outcomes. Early surgery for IE following embolic stroke warrants consideration, particularly in patients with high-risk features such as S. aureus and/or annular abscess. PMID:26116483

  9. Severe subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cerebral venous thrombosis in early pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Takahashi, Mayu; Idei, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Akiba, Daisuke; Shibata, Eiji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) rarely induces subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). During late pregnancy and puerperium, CVT is an uncommon but important cause of stroke. However, severe SAH resulting from CVT is extremely rare during early pregnancy. We report on a rare case of severe SAH due to CVT, and discuss the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. A 32-year-old pregnant woman (9th week of pregnancy) presented with slight head dullness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed focal, abnormal signal intensity in the left thalamus. Nine days later, the patient developed a generalized seizure and severe SAH was detected with computed tomography (CT) scan. MRI and cerebral angiography revealed a completely thrombosed superior sagittal sinus, vein of Galen, straight sinus, and right transverse sinus. Transvaginal sonography indicated a missed abortion. The day after admission, the patient presented again with a progressive loss of consciousness and signs of herniation. The patient underwent emergency decompressive craniotomy, followed by intrauterine curettage. Two months later, she made an excellent recovery except for a slight visual field defect. A rare case of severe SAH due to CVT is reported, with emphasis on the potential pitfalls of CVT diagnosis in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral oximetry during infant cardiac surgery: evaluation and relationship to early postoperative outcome.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A; Newburger, Jane W; Mayer, John E; del Nido, Pedro J; Bacha, Emile A; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C

    2009-04-01

    We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% vs 35%. Before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO(2) values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow, and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO(2) values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO(2) and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with > or =5 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), there was no correlation between the rSO(2) (91% +/- 6%) or hematocrit (29.2% +/- 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO(2) during arrest. Intraoperative rSO(2) varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of DHCA.

  11. pH-Responsive biodegradable polymeric micelles with anchors to interface magnetic nanoparticles for MR imaging in detection of cerebral ischemic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong Yu; Jang, Moon-Sun; Gao, Guang Hui; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Doo Sung

    2016-06-01

    A novel type of pH-responsive biodegradable copolymer was developed based on methyloxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly[dopamine-2-(dibutylamino) ethylamine-l-glutamate] (mPEG-b-P(DPA-DE)LG) and applied to act as an intelligent nanocarrier system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mPEG-b-P(DPA-DE)LG copolymer was synthesized by a typical ring opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs-ROP) using mPEG-NH2 as a macroinitiator, and two types of amine-terminated dopamine groups and pH-sensitive ligands were grafted onto a side chain by a sequential aminolysis reaction. This design greatly benefits from the addition of the dopamine groups to facilitate self-assembly, as these groups can act as high-affinity anchors for iron oxide nanoparticles, thereby increasing long-term stability at physiological pH. The mPEG moiety in the copolymers helped the nanoparticles to remain well-dispersed in an aqueous solution, and pH-responsive groups could control the release of hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in an acidic environment. The particle size of the Fe3O4-loaded mPEG-b-P(DPA-DE)LG micelles was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryo-TEM. The superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4-loaded mPEG-b-P(DPA-DE)LG micelles were confirmed by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Fe3O4-loaded mPEG-b-P(DPA-DE)LG phantoms exhibited enhanced negative contrast with an r2 relaxivity of approximately 106.7 mM-1 s-1. To assess the ability of the Fe3O4-loaded mPEG-P(DE-DPA)LG micelles to act as MRI probes, we utilized a cerebral ischemia disease rat model with acidic tissue. We found that a gradual change in contrast in the cerebral ischemic area could be visualized by MRI after 1 h, and maximal signal loss was detected after 24 h post-injection. These results demonstrated that the Fe3O4-loaded mPEG-b-P(DPA-DE)LG micelles can act as pH-triggered MRI probes for diagnostic imaging of acidic

  12. Andrographolide stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase 1 signaling in primary cerebral endothelial cells for definite protection against ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Chen, Ray-Jade; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Stroke pathogenesis involves complex oxidative stress-related pathways. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathways have been considered molecular targets in pharmacologic intervention for ischemic diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, has received increasing attention in recent years because of its various pharmacologic activities. We determined that andrographolide modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling cascade in primary cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) to provide positive protection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in rats. In the present study, andrographolide (10 μM) increased HO-1 protein and messenger RNA expressions, Nrf2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in CECs, and these activities were disrupted by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. Similar results were observed in confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, andrographolide-induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were significantly inhibited by Nrf2 small interfering RNA. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown attenuated the protective effect of andrographolide against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced CEC death. Andrographolide (0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed free radical formation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain infarction in MCAO-insulted rats, and these effects were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX. The mechanism is attributable to HO-1 activation, as directly evidenced by andrographolide-induced pronounced HO-1 expression in brain tissues, which was highly localized in the cerebral capillary. In conclusion, andrographolide increased Nrf2-HO-1 expression through p38 MAPK regulation, confirming that it provides protection against MCAO-induced brain injury. These findings provide strong evidence that andrographolide could

  13. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  14. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy: a predictive factor of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuhong; Berthiller, Julien; Trouillas, Paul; Derex, Laurent; Diallo, Laho; Hanss, Michel

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the correlations between the post-thrombolytic changes of hemostasis parameters and the occurrence of early intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In 72 consecutive patients with cerebral infarcts treated with rt-PA, plasma levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, factor XIII, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) and d-Dimers were measured at baseline, 2 and 24h after thrombolysis. Correlations were studied between the hemostasis events and early (less than 24h) hemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) or parenchymatous hematomas (PH). Of 72 patients, 6 patients (8.3%) had early PHs, 11 (15.3%) had early HIs, and 55 (76.4%) had no bleeding. Early HIs were not linked to any hemostasis parameter at any time. Univariate comparison of patients having early PHs with non-bleeding patients showed hemostasis abnormalities at 2h: high FDP (p=0.01), high Log FDP (p=0.01), low fibrinogen (p=0.01), and low Log fibrinogen (p=0.01). Logistic regression adjusted for age, NIHSS and diabetes confirmed these 2hour predictors: Log FDP (OR: 7.50; CI: 1.26 to 44.61, p=0.03), and Log fibrinogen (OR: 19.32; CI: 1.81 to 205.98, p=0.01). The decrease in fibrinogen less than 2g/L multiplies the odds of early PH by a factor 12.82. An early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy involving an increase of FDP and a massive consumption of circulating fibrinogen is predictive of early parenchymal hematomas, indicating the occurrence of a particularly intense lysis of circulating fibrinogen. These results, if confirmed by future studies, suggest that early assays of fibrinogen and FDP may be useful in predicting the risk of post-thrombolytic intracerebral hematoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced fiber tracking in early acquired brain injury causing cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, F; Holmström, L; Eliasson, A-C; Flodmark, O; Forssberg, H; Tournier, J-D; Vollmer, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and fiber tractography can be used to investigate alterations in white matter tracts in patients with early acquired brain lesions and cerebral palsy. Most existing studies have used diffusion tensor tractography, which is limited in areas of complex fiber structures or pathologic processes. We explored a combined normalization and probabilistic fiber-tracking method for more realistic fiber tractography in this patient group. This cross-sectional study included 17 children with unilateral cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing controls. DWI data were collected at 1.5T (45 directions, b=1000 s/mm(2)). Regions of interest were defined on a study-specific fractional anisotropy template and mapped onto subjects for fiber tracking. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex was performed by using constrained spherical deconvolution. Tracts were qualitatively assessed, and DTI parameters were extracted close to and distant from lesions and compared between groups. The corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex were realistically reconstructed in both groups. Structural changes to tracts were seen in the cerebral palsy group and included splits, dislocations, compaction of the tracts, or failure to delineate the tract and were associated with underlying pathology seen on conventional MR imaging. Comparisons of DTI parameters indicated primary and secondary neurodegeneration along the corticospinal tract. Corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex showed dissimilarities in both structural changes and DTI parameters. Our proposed method offers a sensitive means to explore alterations in WM tracts to further understand pathophysiologic changes following early acquired brain injury. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Intrauterine inflammation, cerebral oxygen consumption and susceptibility to early brain injury in very preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Stark, Michael J; Hodyl, Nicolette A; Belegar V, Kiran Kumar; Andersen, Chad C

    2016-03-01

    In utero exposure to inflammation results in elevated cerebral oxygen consumption. This increased metabolic demand may contribute to the association between chorioamnionitis and intraventricular haemorrhage (P/IVH). We hypothesised that intrauterine inflammation imposes an elevated cerebral metabolic load and increased fractional oxygen extraction (cFTOE) with cFTOE further increased in the presence of early P/IVH. Eighty-three infants ≤30 weeks gestation were recruited. Exposure to intrauterine inflammation was determined by placental histology. Total internal carotid blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and near infrared spectroscopy were measured and cerebral oxygen delivery (mcerbDO2), consumption (mcerbVO2) and cFTOE were calculated on days 1 and 3 of life. Primary outcome was defined as death or P/IVH >grade II (cranial sonograph) by day 3. Infants exposed to intrauterine inflammation had higher total internal carotid blood flow (92 vs 63 mL/kg/min) and mcerbDO2 (13.7 vs 10.1 mL/kg/min) than those not exposed to inflammation. Newborns with P/IVH had both higher oxygen consumption and extraction compared with those without sonographic injury regardless of exposure to intrauterine inflammation. Further, in preterms exposed to inflammation, those with P/IVH had higher consumption (6.1 vs 4.8 mL/kg/min) and extraction than those without injury. These differences were observed only on day 1 of life. Although P/IVH is multifactorial in preterm newborns, it is likely that cerebral hypoxic-ischaemia plays a central pathophysiological role. These data provide a mechanistic insight into this process and suggests that the increased cerebral metabolic load imposed by the presence of inflammation results in a higher risk of critical hypoxic ischaemia in the preterm with increased susceptibility to significant P/IVH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Low prevalence of collateral cerebral circulation in the circle of Willis in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis and recent ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Badacz, Rafał; Przewłocki, Tadeusz; Karch, Izabela; Pieniążek, Piotr; Rosławiecka, Agnieszka; Mleczko, Szymon; Brzychczy, Andrzej; Trystuła, Mariusz; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The circle of Willis is thought to play a key role in development of collateral flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). To assess flow in the circle of Willis in patients with recent ischemic stroke (IS). The study included 371 patients, 102 symptomatic with severe ICAS and recent IS (within the last 3 months) (group I) and 269 asymptomatic with severe ICAS (group II). Flow in the middle (MCA), anterior (ACA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries and pattern of the cross-flow through anterior (ACoA) and posterior (PCoA) communicating arteries were assessed with transcranial color-coded Doppler ultrasonography (TCCD). The ACoA or PCoA was less prevalent in group I than in group II (54% vs. 78%, p < 0.001 and 20% vs. 42%, p < 0.001, respectively), resulting in lower peak-systolic velocity (PSV) in the MCA in group I vs. group II (p = 0.015). Any collateral pathway was present in 67% of patients in group I, compared to 86% in group II (p < 0.001). Both PSV and end-diastolic (EDV) flow velocity in the ACA were lower in patients with recent IS, compared to asymptomatic subjects (71 ±24 cm/s vs. 86 ±34 cm/s, p < 0.001 and 32 ±12 cm/s vs. 37 ±17 cm/s, p = 0.038, respectively). Presence of ACoA or PCoA and higher PSV in the MCA and ACA were associated with significant risk reduction of IS (RR = 0.28 (95% CI = 0.16-0.49, p < 0.001), RR = 0.28 (95% CI = 0.15-0.52, p < 0.001), RR = 0.97 (95% CI = 0.96-0.99, p < 0.001), RR = 0.99 (95% CI = 0.98-0.99, p < 0.032), respectively). However, ROC curves failed to show reliable MCA or ACA PSV cut-offs for IS risk assessment. The ACoA and PCoA seem to play a key role in the evaluation of IS risk in subjects with severe ICAS.

  18. The effects of therapeutic hypothermia on cerebral metabolism in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: An in vivo 1H-MR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wisnowski, Jessica L; Wu, Tai-Wei; Reitman, Aaron J; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Vanderbilt, Douglas; Ho, Eugenia; Nelson, Marvin D; Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as the first empirically supported therapy for neuroprotection in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to characterize the effects of hypothermia on energy metabolites, neurotransmitters, and antioxidants. Thirty-one neonates with HIE were studied during hypothermia and after rewarming. Metabolite concentrations (mmol/kg) were determined from the thalamus, basal ganglia, cortical grey matter, and cerebral white matter. In the thalamus, phosphocreatine concentrations were increased by 20% during hypothermia when compared to after rewarming (3.49 ± 0.88 vs. 2.90 ± 0.65, p < 0.001) while free creatine concentrations were reduced to a similar degree (3.00 ± 0.50 vs. 3.74 ± 0.85, p < 0.001). Glutamate (5.33 ± 0.82 vs. 6.32 ± 1.12, p < 0.001), aspartate (3.39 ± 0.66 vs. 3.87 ± 1.19, p < 0.05), and GABA (0.92 ± 0.36 vs. 1.19 ± 0.41, p < 0.05) were also reduced, while taurine (1.39 ± 0.52 vs. 0.79 ± 0.61, p < 0.001) and glutathione (2.23 ± 0.41 vs. 2.09 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) were increased. Similar patterns were observed in other brain regions. These findings support that hypothermia improves energy homeostasis by decreasing the availability of excitatory neurotransmitters, and thereby, cellular energy demand. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Risk of Symptomatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and High Cerebral Microbleed Burden: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Zand, Ramin; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Turc, Guillaume; Nolte, Christian H; Jung, Simon; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Fiebach, Jochen B; Scheitz, Jan F; Klinger-Gratz, Pascal P; Oppenheim, Catherine; Goyal, Nitin; Safouris, Apostolos; Mattle, Heinrich P; Alexandrov, Anne W; Schellinger, Peter D; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been established as an independent predictor of cerebral bleeding. There are contradictory data regarding the potential association of CMB burden with the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). To investigate the association of high CMB burden (>10 CMBs on a pre-IVT magnetic image resonance [MRI] scan) with the risk of sICH following IVT for AIS. Eligible studies were identified by searching Medline and Scopus databases. No language or other restrictions were imposed. The literature search was conducted on October 7, 2015. This meta-analysis has adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was written according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) proposal. Eligible prospective study protocols that reported sICH rates in patients with AIS who underwent MRI for CMB screening prior to IVT. The reported rates of sICH complicating IVT in patients with AIS with pretreatment MRI were extracted independently for groups of patients with 0 CMBs (CMB absence), 1 or more CMBs (CMB presence), 1 to 10 CMBs (low to moderate CMB burden), and more than 10 CMBs (high CMB burden). An individual-patient data meta-analysis was also performed in the included studies that provided complete patient data sets. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage based on the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study-II definition (any intracranial bleed with ≥4 points worsening on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score). We included 9 studies comprising 2479 patients with AIS. The risk of sICH after IVT was found to be higher in patients with evidence of CMB presence, compared with patients without CMBs (risk ratio [RR], 2.36; 95% CI, 1.21-4.61; P = .01). A higher risk for sICH after IVT was detected in patients with high CMB burden (>10 CMBs) when compared with

  20. Proinflammatory Cytokines, Enolase and S-100 as Early Biochemical Indicators of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Following Perinatal Asphyxia in Newborns.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Merin Sigala, Mario Ernesto; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam de Guadalupe; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Estimation of the neurological prognosis of infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia and signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is of great clinical importance; however, it remains difficult to satisfactorily assess these signs with current standard medical practices. Prognoses are typically based on data obtained from clinical examinations and neurological tests, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging, but their sensitivities and specificities are far from optimal, and they do not always reliably predict future neurological sequelae. In an attempt to improve prognostic estimates, neurological research envisaged various biochemical markers detectable in the umbilical cord blood of newborns (NB). Few studies examining these biochemical factors in the whole blood of newborns exist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the expression and concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and specific CNS enzymes (S-100 and enolase) in infants with perinatal asphyxia. These data were compared between the affected infants and controls and were related to the degree of HIE to determine their utilities as biochemical markers for early diagnosis and prognosis. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression and serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, enolase and S-100 were significantly increased in the children with asphyxia compared with the controls. The role of cytokines after hypoxic-ischemic insult has been determined in studies of transgenic mice that support the use of these molecules as candidate biomarkers. Similarly, S-100 and enolase are considered promising candidates because these markers have been correlated with tissue damage in different experimental models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Early discontinuation of antiseizure medications in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Mark P; Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Abend, Nicholas S

    2017-06-01

    Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) managed with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) often experience acute symptomatic seizures, prompting treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs). Because the risk of seizure occurrence after hospital discharge is unknown, the optimal ASM treatment duration is unclear. We aimed to determine the risk of seizure occurrence after hospital discharge and the impact of ASM treatment duration on this outcome. We performed a single-center, retrospective study of consecutive neonates with HIE managed with TH who received ASMs for acute symptomatic seizures from June 2010 through December 2014. Neonates were monitored with continuous electroencephalography (EEG) during TH. Follow-up data were available for 59 (82%) of 72 neonates who survived to discharge, with a median follow-up period of 19 months (interquartile range [IQR] 11-25). Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 neonates (59%), including electrographic seizures in 21 neonates (36%). ASMs were continued upon discharge in 17 (49%) of 35 neonates. Seizures occurred in follow-up in four neonates (11%). No patient for whom ASMs were discontinued prior to discharge experienced seizures during the follow-up period. Among neonates with HIE, seizures after hospital discharge were rare in those with acute symptomatic seizures and did not occur in neonates without acute symptomatic seizures. ASM discontinuation prior to discharge did not increase the risk of seizures during the follow-up period, suggesting that ASMs may be discontinued in many neonates prior to discharge. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Erin M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Baker, Wesley B.; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Xiao, Rui; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, A. G.; Gaynor, J. William; Licht, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The early postoperative period following neonatal cardiac surgery is a time of increased risk for brain injury, yet the mechanisms underlying this risk are unknown. To understand these risks more completely, we quantified changes in postoperative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) compared with preoperative levels by using noninvasive optical modalities. Methods Diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy were used concurrently to derive cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization postoperatively for 12 hours. Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were quantified with reference to preoperative data. A mixed-effect model was used to investigate the influence of total support time and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration on relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF. Results Relative changes in CMRO2, OEF, and CBF were assessed in 36 patients, 21 with single-ventricle defects and 15 with 2-ventricle defects. Among patients with single-ventricle lesions, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest duration did not affect relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, or OEF (P > .05). Among 2-ventricle patients, total support time was not a significant predictor of relative changes in CMRO2 or CBF (P > .05), although longer total support time was associated significantly with greater increases in relative change of postoperative OEF (P = .008). Conclusions Noninvasive diffuse optical techniques were used to quantify postoperative relative changes in CMRO2, CBF, and OEF for the first time in this observational pilot study. Pilot data suggest that surgical duration does not account for observed variability in the relative change in CMRO2, and that more comprehensive clinical studies using the new technology are feasible and warranted to elucidate these issues further. PMID:23111021

  3. Cerebral Oximetry During Infant Cardiac Surgery: Evaluation of and Relationship to Early Postoperative Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kussman, Barry D.; Wypij, David; DiNardo, James A.; Newburger, Jane W.; Mayer, John E.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Bacha, Emile A.; Pigula, Frank; McGrath, Ellen; Laussen, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined changes in cerebral oxygen saturation during infant heart surgery and its relationship to anatomic diagnosis and early outcome Methods Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy in 104 infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch obstruction as part of a randomized trial of hemodilution to a hematocrit of 25% versus 35%. Results Prior to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), infants with tetralogy of Fallot had higher rSO2 values compared to those with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) or ventricular septal defect (P < 0.001). During CPB cooling, low flow and at the termination of CPB, D-TGA subjects had the highest rSO2 values (P < 0.001). There were no significant associations between intraoperative rSO2 and early postoperative outcomes after adjustment for diagnosis. In 39 D-TGA subjects with ≥5 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, there was no correlation between the rSO2 (91 ± 6%) or hematocrit (29.2 ± 5.5%) at the onset of arrest and the rate of decline in rSO2 during arrest. Conclusions Intraoperative rSO2 varies according to anatomic diagnosis but accounts for very little of the variance in early outcome. As measured by frontal near-infrared spectroscopy, higher levels of hematocrit and current perfusion techniques appear to provide an adequate oxygen reservoir prior to relatively short periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:19299774

  4. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    PubMed

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist <2 days before and not later than five days after the procedure. Values of microembolic signs during dissection were summarised with arithmetic means and standard deviations. For further analysis non parametric Wilcoxon test was performed between both methods. P-values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Wilcoxon test was performed to compare both methods concerning clamp- and procedure times. We performed EEA 26

  5. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease associated with dementia using cerebral perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Song, In-Uk; Chung, Yong-An; Chung, Sung-Woo; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-01-01

    Since patterns of cognitive dysfunction in mild Parkinson's disease associated with dementia (PDD) are similar to those in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is difficult to accurately differentiate between these two types of dementia in their early phases using neuropsychological tests. The purpose of the current study was to investigate differences in cerebral perfusion patterns of patients with AD and PDD at the earliest stages using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We consecutively recruited 31 patients with mild PDD, 32 patients with mild probable AD and 33 age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime perfusion SPECT and completed general neuropsychological tests. We found that both mild PDD and AD patients showed distinct hypoperfusion in frontal, parietal and temporal regions, compared with healthy subjects. More importantly, hypoperfusion in occipital and cerebellar regions was observed only in mild PDD. The observation of a significant decrease in cerebral perfusion in occipital and cerebellar regions in patients with mild PDD is likely useful to differentiate between PDD and AD at the earliest stages. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Imaging of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    El-Koussy, Marwan; Schroth, Gerhard; Brekenfeld, Caspar; Arnold, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Over 80% of strokes result from ischemic damage to the brain due to an acute reduction in the blood supply. Around 25-35% of strokes present with large vessel occlusion, and the patients in this category often present with severe neurological deficits. Without early treatment, the prognosis is poor. Stroke imaging is critical for assessing the extent of tissue damage and for guiding treatment. This review focuses on the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke, with an emphasis on those involving the anterior circulation. Key Message: Effective and standardized imaging protocols are necessary for clinical decision making and for the proper design of prospective studies on acute stroke. Each minute without treatment spells the loss of an estimated 1.8 million neurons ('time is brain'). Therefore, stroke imaging must be performed in a fast and efficient manner. First, intracranial hemorrhage and stroke mimics should be excluded by the use of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The next key step is to define the extent and location of the infarct core (values of >70 ml, >1/3 of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory or an ASPECTS score ≤ 7 indicate poor clinical outcome). Penumbral imaging is currently based on the mismatch concept. It should be noted that the penumbra is a dynamic zone and can be sustained in the presence of good collateral circulation. A thrombus length of >8 mm predicts poor recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Working memory and fine motor skills predict early numeracy performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p < .001, β = .41 and p < .001, respectively). Furthermore, counting was a mediating variable between working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p < .001). Together, these findings highlight the importance of working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.

  8. Quantitative analysis of computed tomography images and early detection of cerebral edema for pediatric traumatic brain injury patients: retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hakseung; Kim, Gwang-dong; Yoon, Byung C; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Byung-Jo; Choi, Young Hun; Czosnyka, Marek; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2014-10-22

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether the distribution of Hounsfield Unit (HU) values across the intracranial area in computed tomography (CT) images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for determining the severity of cerebral edema in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. CT images, medical records and radiology reports on 70 pediatric patients were collected. Based on radiology reports and the Marshall classification, the patients were grouped as mild edema patients (n=37) or severe edema patients (n=33). Automated quantitative analysis using unenhanced CT images was applied to eliminate artifacts and identify the difference in HU value distribution across the intracranial area between these groups. The proportion of pixels with HU=17 to 24 was highly correlated with the existence of severe cerebral edema (P<0.01). This proportion was also able to differentiate patients who developed delayed cerebral edema from mild TBI patients. A significant difference between deceased patients and surviving patients in terms of the HU distribution came from the proportion of pixels with HU=19 to HU=23 (P<0.01). The proportion of pixels with an HU value of 17 to 24 in the entire cerebral area of a non-enhanced CT image can be an effective basis for evaluating the severity of cerebral edema. Based on this result, we propose a novel approach for the early detection of severe cerebral edema.

  9. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  10. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  11. The tonic response to the infant knee jerk as an early sign of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Elisa G; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Boxum, Anke G; Dijkstra, Linze J; Hielkema, Tjitske; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2018-04-01

    Early identification of infants at risk of cerebral palsy (CP) is desirable in order to provide early intervention. We previously demonstrated differences in knee jerk responses between 3-month-old high risk and typically developing infants. To improve early identification by investigating whether the presence of tonic responses (continuous muscle activity occurring after the typical phasic response), clonus or contralateral responses to the knee jerk during infancy is associated with CP. Longitudinal EMG-study. We included 34 high-risk infants (median gestational age 31.9 weeks) who participated in the LEARN2MOVE 0-2 years trial. Video-recorded knee jerk EMG-assessments were performed during infancy (1-4 times). Developmental outcome was assessed at 21 months corrected age (CA). Binomial generalized estimating equations models with repeated measurements were fitted using predictor variables. Infants who later were diagnosed with CP (n = 18) showed more often than infants who were not diagnosed with CP i) tonic responses - from 4 months CA onwards, ii) clonus - from 13 months CA onwards, and iii) contralateral responses - from 15 months CA onwards. The main limitation is the relatively small sample size. The assessment of tonic responses to the knee jerk using EMG may be a valuable add-on tool to appraise a high risk of CP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ischemic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke is the most common type. It is usually ... are at risk for having a more serious stroke. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness ...

  13. [The optimization of an early rehabilitation program for cerebral stroke patients: the use of different methods of magneto- and laser therapy].

    PubMed

    Kochetkov, A V; Gorbunov, F E; Minenkov, A A; Strel'tsova, E N; Filina, T F; Krupennikov, A I

    2000-01-01

    Magnetotherapy and laser therapy were used in complex and complex-combined regimens in 75 patients after cerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke starting on the poststroke week 4-5. Clinico-neurologic, neurophysiological and cerebrohemodynamic findings evidence for the highest effectiveness of neurorehabilitation including complex magneto-laser therapy in hemispheric ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke of subcortical location in the absence of marked clinico-tomographic signs of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. Complex-combined magneto-laser therapy is more effective for correction of spastic dystonia. Mutual potentiation of magnetotherapy and laser therapy results in maximal development of collateral circulation and cerebral hemodynamic reserve (84% of the patients). Complex effects manifest in arteriodilating and venotonic effects. Complex magneto-laser therapy is accompanied by reduction of hyperthrombocythemia and hyperfibrinogenemia.

  14. Is impaired cerebral vasoreactivity an early marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis patients?

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aude; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy; Molino, François; Maréchal, Bénédicte; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Bauchet, Luc; Krainik, Alexandre; Labauge, Pierre; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity does not differ between multiple sclerosis patients and controls. • Cerebral vasoreactivity measure is linked to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity is linked to level of education in multiple sclerosis.

  15. Early primary biliary cholangitis is characterised by brain abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Grover, V P B; Southern, L; Dyson, J K; Kim, J U; Crossey, M M E; Wylezinska-Arridge, M; Patel, N; Fitzpatrick, J A; Bak-Bol, A; Waldman, A D; Alexander, G J; Mells, G F; Chapman, R W; Jones, D E J; Taylor-Robinson, S D

    2016-11-01

    Brain change can occur in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), potentially as a result of cholestatic and/or inflammatory processes. This change is linked to systemic symptoms of fatigue and cognitive impairment. To identify whether brain change occurs early in PBC. If the change develops early and is progressive, it may explain the difficulty in treating these symptoms. Early disease brain change was explored in 13 patients with newly diagnosed biopsy-proven precirrhotic PBC using magnetisation transfer, diffusion-weighted imaging and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results were compared to 17 healthy volunteers. Cerebral magnetisation transfer ratios were reduced in early PBC, compared to healthy volunteers, in the thalamus, putamen and head of caudate with no greater reduction in patients with greater symptom severity. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients were increased in the thalamus only. No 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy abnormalities were seen. Serum manganese levels were elevated in all PBC patients, but no relationship was seen with imaging or symptom parameters. There were no correlations between neuroimaging data, laboratory data, symptom severity scores or age. This is the first study to be performed in this precirrhotic patient population, and we have highlighted that neuroimaging changes are present at a much earlier stage than previously demonstrated. The neuroimaging abnormalities suggest that the brain changes seen in PBC occur early in the pathological process, even before significant liver damage has occurred. If such changes are linked to symptom pathogenesis, this could have important implications for the timing of second-line-therapy use. © 2016 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Diagnosing Early Ischemic Changes with the Latest-Generation Flat Detector CT: A Comparative Study with Multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Maier, I L; Leyhe, J R; Tsogkas, I; Behme, D; Schregel, K; Knauth, M; Schnieder, M; Liman, J; Psychogios, M-N

    2018-05-01

    One-stop management of mechanical thrombectomy-eligible patients with large-vessel occlusion represents an innovative approach in acute stroke treatment. This approach reduces door-to-reperfusion times by omitting multidetector CT, using flat detector CT as pre-mechanical thrombectomy imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of the latest-generation flat detector CT with multidetector CT. Prospectively derived data from patients with ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion and mechanical thrombectomy were analyzed in this monocentric study. All included patients underwent multidetector CT before referral to our comprehensive stroke center and flat detector CT in the angiography suite before mechanical thrombectomy. Diagnosis of early ischemic signs, quantified by the ASPECTS, was compared between modalities using cross tables, the Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman plots. The predictive value of multidetector CT- and flat detector CT-derived ASPECTS for functional outcome was investigated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 25 patients, 24 (96%) had flat detector CT with sufficient diagnostic quality. Median multidetector CT and flat detector CT ASPECTSs were 7 (interquartile range, 5.5-9 and 4.25-8, respectively) with a mean period of 143.6 ± 49.5 minutes between both modalities. The overall sensitivity was 85.1% and specificity was 83.1% for flat detector CT ASPECTS compared with multidetector CT ASPECTS as the reference technique. Multidetector CT and flat detector CT ASPECTS were strongly correlated ( r = 0.849, P < .001) and moderately predicted functional outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.738; P = .007 and .715; P = .069, respectively). Determination of ASPECTS on flat detector CT is feasible, showing no significant difference compared with multidetector CT ASPECTS and a similar predictive value for functional outcome. Our findings support the

  17. Different Alterations of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ke; Fang, Weidong; Zhu, Yingcheng; Shuai, Guangying; Zou, Dezhi; Su, Meilan; Han, Yu; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Eighteen EOPD, 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects participated in the resting state fMRI scans.Age at onset of PD modulates the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity during resting state.Disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in PD patients with a younger age of onset. Objective: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD) as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective of current paper is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD) and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age. Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; However, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. PMID:27462265

  18. Reduction in early stroke risk in carotid stenosis with transient ischemic attack associated with statin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Merwick, Áine; Albers, Gregory W; Arsava, Ethem M; Ay, Hakan; Calvet, David; Coutts, Shelagh B; Cucchiara, Brett L; Demchuk, Andrew M; Giles, Matthew F; Mas, Jean-Louis; Olivot, Jean Marc; Purroy, Francisco; Rothwell, Peter M; Saver, Jeffrey L; Sharma, Vijay K; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kelly, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins reduce stroke risk when initiated months after TIA/stroke and reduce early vascular events in acute coronary syndromes, possibly via pleiotropic plaque-stabilisation. Few data exist regarding acute statin use in TIA. We aimed to determine if statin pre-treatment at TIA onset modified early stroke risk in carotid stenosis. Methods We analyzed data from 2770 TIA patients from 11 centres, 387 with ipsilateral carotid stenosis. ABCD2 score, abnormal DWI, medication pre-treatment, and early stroke were recorded. Results In patients with carotid stenosis, 7-day stroke risk was 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7–11.1) compared with 2.7% [CI 2.0–3.4%] without stenosis (p<0.0001) (90-day risks 17.8% and 5.7% [p<0.0001]). Among carotid stenosis patients, non-procedural 7-day stroke risk was 3.8% [CI 1.2–9.7%] with statin treatment at TIA onset, compared to 13.2% [CI 8.5–19.8%] in those not statin pre-treated (p=0.01) (90-day risks 8.9% versus 20.8% [p=0.01]). Statin pre-treatment was associated with reduced stroke risk in carotid stenosis patients (OR for 90-day stroke 0.37, CI 0.17–0.82), but not non-stenosis patients (OR 1.3, CI 0.8–2.24) (p for interaction 0.008). On multivariable logistic regression, the association remained after adjustment for ABCD2 score, smoking, antiplatelet treatment, recent TIA, and DWI hyperintensity (adjusted p for interaction 0.054). Conclusion In acute symptomatic carotid stenosis, statin pre-treatment was associated with reduced stroke risk, consistent with findings from randomized trials in acute coronary syndromes. These data support the hypothesis that statins started acutely after TIA symptom onset may also be beneficial to prevent early stroke. Randomized trials addressing this question are required. PMID:23908061

  19. Role of nitric oxide synthases in early blood-brain barrier disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng; Li, Chun; Arrick, Denise M; Yang, Shu; Baluna, Alexandra E; Sun, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in early blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption was determined using a new mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was induced by ligating the middle cerebral artery (MCA) at its M2 segment and reperfusion was induced by releasing the ligation. The diameter alteration of the MCA, arterial anastomoses and collateral arteries were imaged and measured in real time. BBB disruption was assessed by Evans Blue (EB) and sodium fluorescein (Na-F) extravasation at 3 hours of reperfusion. The reperfusion produced an extensive vasodilation and a sustained hyperemia. Although expression of NOSs was not altered at 3 hours of reperfusion, L-NAME (a non-specific NOS inhibitor) abolished reperfusion-induced vasodilation/hyperemia and significantly reduced EB and Na-F extravasation. L-NIO (an endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitor) significantly attenuated cerebral vasodilation but not BBB disruption, whereas L-NPA and 7-NI (neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitors) significantly reduced BBB disruption but not cerebral vasodilation. In contrast, aminoguanidine (AG) (an inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor) had less effect on either cerebral vasodilation or BBB disruption. On the other hand, papaverine (PV) not only increased the vasodilation/hyperemia but also significantly reduced BBB disruption. Combined treatment with L-NAME and PV preserved the vasodilation/hyperemia and significantly reduced BBB disruption. Our findings suggest that nNOS may play a major role in early BBB disruption following transient focal cerebral ischemia via a hyperemia-independent mechanism.

  20. [Clinical efficiency of Vasonat in neurometabolic therapy of patients with ischemic stroke at early rehabilitation period].

    PubMed

    Abasova, G B; Tyksanbaeva, G U; Orazalieva, D B; Kasymova, S K

    2011-01-01

    Research of efficiency and safety of Vasonat has been carried out. 31 patients aged 46-75 years who had had hemispheric athero- thrombotic or hemodynamic schemic stroke with moderate severity and being treated in 2-5-month of early rehabilitation period have been observed. The control group of patients received placebo. Results of the study, 4 weeks treatment using Vasonat in the dosage of 500 mg/day have shown positive effect on common signs of the disease by decreasing headache intensity, dizziness, a nausea, and on focal neurological symptoms by decreasing hemiparesis degree; psychoemotional and mnestic activity (main memory and attention) improved as well. It was more distinct in patients with localization of the stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain. It was also noted more rapid improvement of motion function and quality of life of patients.

  1. Gualou Guizhi decoction reverses brain damage with cerebral ischemic stroke, multi-component directed multi-target to screen calcium-overload inhibitors using combination of molecular docking and protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juan; Pang, Wen-Sheng; Han, Jing; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Ji-Zhou; Chen, Li-Dian

    2018-12-01

    Stroke is a disease of the leading causes of mortality and disability across the world, but the benefits of drugs curative effects look less compelling, intracellular calcium overload is considered to be a key pathologic factor for ischemic stroke. Gualou Guizhi decoction (GLGZD), a classical Chinese medicine compound prescription, it has been used to human clinical therapy of sequela of cerebral ischemia stroke for 10 years. This work investigated the GLGZD improved prescription against intracellular calcium overload could decreased the concentration of [Ca 2+ ] i in cortex and striatum neurone of MCAO rats. GLGZD contains Trichosanthin and various small molecular that they are the potential active ingredients directed against NR2A, NR2B, FKBP12 and Calnodulin target proteins/enzyme have been screened by computer simulation. "Multicomponent systems" is capable to create pharmacological superposition effects. The Chinese medicine compound prescriptions could be considered as promising sources of candidates for discovery new agents.

  2. Design and Rationale of the Intima-Medial Thickness Sub-Study of the PreventIon of CArdiovascular Events in iSchemic Stroke Patients with High Risk of Cerebral hemOrrhage (PICASSO-IMT) Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Woo-Keun; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Juneyoung; Kwon, Sun U

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the main mechanisms of stroke and cardiovascular diseases and is associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. Intima-medial thickness (IMT) is a well-known surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and has been used to predict stroke and cardiovascular events. However, the clinical significance of IMT and IMT change in stroke has not been investigated in well-designed studies. The PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage-Intima-Media Thickness (PICASSO-IMT) sub-study is designed to investigate the effects of cilostazol, probucol, or both on IMT in patients with stroke. PICASSO-IMT is a prospective sub-study of the PICASSO study designed to measure IMT and plaque score at 1, 13, 25, 37, and 49 months after randomization. The primary outcome is the change in mean carotid IMT, which is defined as the mean of the far-wall IMTs of the right and left common carotid arteries, between baseline and 13 months after randomization. PICASSO-IMT will provide the largest IMT data set in a stroke population and will provide valuable information about the clinical significance of IMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence, severity and early outcomes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy among newborns at a tertiary hospital, in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Simiyu, Irene N; Mchaile, Deborah N; Katsongeri, Kahindo; Philemon, Rune N; Msuya, Sia E

    2017-05-25

    Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) remains a problem of great concern worldwide especially in developing countries. The occurrence of a neurological syndrome can be an indicator of insult to the brain. We aimed to determine the prevalence, HIE proportions, neurological signs and early outcomes of newborns that developed birth asphyxia at KCMC Tanzania. A prospective study was conducted at KCMC from November 2014 to April 2015 among newborns with birth asphyxia. Sarnat and Sarnat score was used to assess newborns immediately after birth to classify HIE and were later followed daily for 7 days or until discharge. Of the 1752 deliveries during the study period, 11.5% (n = 201) had birth asphyxia. Of the 201 newborns, 187 had HIE. Of these 187 with HIE; 39.0% had moderate HIE and 10.2% had severe HIE according to the Sarnat and Sarnat classification. Neurological signs that were observed during the study period were; weak/absent reflexes (46.0%), hypotonia (43.3%) and lethargy (42.2%). Mortality was 9.1% among the 187 newborns with HIE. Mortality was higher among newborns with severe HIE 84.2% (16/19) compared to those with moderate HIE 1.4% (1/73). On the 7th day after delivery, 17.1% (32/187) of the newborns did not show any change from the initial score at delivery. Prevalence of birth asphyxia is high in our setting and most of the newborns (49%) end up with moderate/severe HIE. Good obstetric care and immediate resuscitation of newborns are vital in reducing the occurrence of HIE and improving the general outcome of newborns.

  4. Role of Heat Shock Protein 90 and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase during Early Anesthetic and Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K.; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Billstrom, Amie R.; Zielonka, Jacek; Krolikowski, John G.; Bienengraeber, Martin W.; Warltier, David C.; Pratt, Philip F.; Kersten, Judy R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide is known to be essential for early anesthetic (APC) and ischemic (IPC) preconditioning of myocardium. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Hsp90-eNOS interactions modulate APC and IPC. Methods Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits after coronary occlusion and reperfusion in the absence or presence of preconditioning with 30 min of isoflurane (APC) or 5 min of coronary artery occlusion (IPC), and with or without pre-treatment with geldanamycin or radicicol, two chemically distinct Hsp90 inhibitors, or NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester, a non-specific NOS inhibitor. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells or mouse cardiomyocytes, in the absence or presence of Hsp90 inhibitors or NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester. Interactions between Hsp90 and eNOS, and eNOS activation were assessed with immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy. Results APC and IPC decreased infarct size (50% and 59%, respectively) and this action was abolished by Hsp90 inhibitors. NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester blocked APC but not IPC. Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells, concomitantly with an increase in Hsp90-eNOS interaction (immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry). Pretreatment with Hsp90 inhibitors abolished isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production and decreased Hsp90-eNOS interactions. Isoflurane did not increase nitric oxide production in mouse cardiomyocytes and eNOS was below the level of detection. Conclusion The results indicate that Hsp90 plays a critical role in mediating APC and IPC through protein-protein interactions, and suggest that endothelial cells are important contributors to nitric oxide-mediated signalling during APC. PMID:19194158

  5. Prediction of Early Childhood Outcome of Term Infants using Apgar Scores at 10 Minutes following Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; McDonald, Scott A.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    Context Death or severe disability is so common following an Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes in observational studies that the Neonatal Resuscitation Program suggests considering discontinuation of resuscitation after 10 minutes of effective CPR. Objective To determine if Apgar scores at 10 minutes are associated with death or disability in early childhood following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Design, Setting, and Patients This is a secondary analysis of infants enrolled in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network hypothermia trial. Infants ≥ 36 weeks gestation had clinical and/or biochemical abnormalities at birth, and encephalopathy at < 6 hours. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to determine associations between Apgar scores at 10 minutes and neurodevelopmental outcome adjusting for covariates. Associations are expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Main Outcome Measure Death or disability (moderate or severe) at 18–22 months of age. Results Twenty of 208 infants were excluded (missing data). More than 90% of infants had Apgar scores of 0–2 at 1 minute and Apgars at 5 and 10 minutes shifted to progressively higher values; at 10 minutes 27% of infants had Apgar scores of 0–2. After adjustment each point decrease in Apgar score at 10 minutes was associated with a 45% increase in the odds of death or disability (OR 1.45, CI 1.22–1.72). Death or disability occurred in 76, 82 and 80% of infants with Apgar scores at 10 minutes of 0, 1 and 2, respectively. CART analysis indicated that Apgar scores at 10 minutes were discriminators of outcome. Conclusion Apgar scores at 10 minutes provide useful prognostic data before other evaluations are available for infants with HIE. Death or moderate/severe disability is common but not uniform with Apgar scores < 3; caution is needed before adopting a specific time interval to guide duration of resuscitation. PMID:19948631

  6. Rivaroxaban vs Warfarin Sodium in the Ultra-Early Period After Atrial Fibrillation-Related Mild Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Kwon, Sun U; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong-Jae; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Eung-Gyu; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Sung, Sang Min; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bang, Oh Young; Seo, Woo-Keun; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kang, Hyun Goo; Yu, Kyung-Ho

    2017-10-01

    In atrial fibrillation (AF)-related acute ischemic stroke, the optimal oral anticoagulation strategy remains unclear. To test whether rivaroxaban or warfarin sodium is safer and more effective for preventing early recurrent stroke in patients with AF-related acute ischemic stroke. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, blinded end point evaluation, comparative phase 2 trial was conducted from April 28, 2014, to December 7, 2015, at 14 academic medical centers in South Korea among patients with mild AF-related stroke within the previous 5 days who were deemed suitable for early anticoagulation. Analysis was performed on a modified intent-to-treat basis. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive rivaroxaban, 10 mg/d for 5 days followed by 15 or 20 mg/d, or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0, for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the composite of new ischemic lesion or new intracranial hemorrhage seen on results of magnetic resonance imaging at 4 weeks. Primary analysis was performed in patients who received at least 1 dose of study medications and completed follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary end points were individual components of the primary end point and hospitalization length. Of 195 patients randomized, 183 individuals (76 women and 107 men; mean [SD] age, 70.4 [10.4] years) completed magnetic resonance imaging follow-up and were included in the primary end point analysis. The rivaroxaban group (n = 95) and warfarin group (n = 88) showed no differences in the primary end point (47 [49.5%] vs 48 [54.5%]; relative risk, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.69-1.20; P = .49) or its individual components (new ischemic lesion: 28 [29.5%] vs 31 of 87 [35.6%]; relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.26; P = .38; new intracranial hemorrhage: 30 [31.6%] vs 25 of 87 [28.7%]; relative risk, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.70-1.71; P = .68). Each group had 1 clinical ischemic stroke, and all new intracranial hemorrhages were asymptomatic

  7. Early pregnancy cerebral venous thrombosis and status epilepticus treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Ketola, Raimo A; Timonen, Susanna; Malm, Heli; Ruuskanen, Jori O

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke, accounting to less than 1% of all strokes. We describe a pregnant woman with a massive CVT in early pregnancy, complicated by status epilepticus. The mother was treated with levetiracetam, lacosamide, and enoxaparin throughout pregnancy. A male infant was born on pregnancy week 36, weighing 2.2kg. Both levetiracetam and and lacosamide were present in cord blood in levels similar to those in maternal blood. The infant was partially breast-fed and experienced poor feeding and sleepiness, starting to resolve after two first weeks. Milk samples were drawn 5 days after the delivery and a blood sample from the infant 3 days later. Lacosamide level in milk was low, resulting in an estimated relative infant dose of 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted daily dose in a fully breast-fed infant. This is the first case describing lacosamide use during pregnancy and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abeta42-driven cerebral amyloidosis in transgenic mice reveals early and robust pathology.

    PubMed

    Radde, Rebecca; Bolmont, Tristan; Kaeser, Stephan A; Coomaraswamy, Janaky; Lindau, Dennis; Stoltze, Lars; Calhoun, Michael E; Jäggi, Fabienne; Wolburg, Hartwig; Gengler, Simon; Haass, Christian; Ghetti, Bernardino; Czech, Christian; Hölscher, Christian; Mathews, Paul M; Jucker, Mathias

    2006-09-01

    We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model on a C57BL/6J genetic background that coexpresses KM670/671NL mutated amyloid precursor protein and L166P mutated presenilin 1 under the control of a neuron-specific Thy1 promoter element (APPPS1 mice). Cerebral amyloidosis starts at 6-8 weeks and the ratio of human amyloid (A)beta42 to Abeta40 is 1.5 and 5 in pre-depositing and amyloid-depositing mice, respectively. Consistent with this ratio, extensive congophilic parenchymal amyloid but minimal amyloid angiopathy is observed. Amyloid-associated pathologies include dystrophic synaptic boutons, hyperphosphorylated tau-positive neuritic structures and robust gliosis, with neocortical microglia number increasing threefold from 1 to 8 months of age. Global neocortical neuron loss is not apparent up to 8 months of age, but local neuron loss in the dentate gyrus is observed. Because of the early onset of amyloid lesions, the defined genetic background of the model and the facile breeding characteristics, APPPS1 mice are well suited for studying therapeutic strategies and the pathomechanism of amyloidosis by cross-breeding to other genetically engineered mouse models.

  9. Aβ42-driven cerebral amyloidosis in transgenic mice reveals early and robust pathology

    PubMed Central

    Radde, Rebecca; Bolmont, Tristan; Kaeser, Stephan A; Coomaraswamy, Janaky; Lindau, Dennis; Stoltze, Lars; Calhoun, Michael E; Jäggi, Fabienne; Wolburg, Hartwig; Gengler, Simon; Haass, Christian; Ghetti, Bernardino; Czech, Christian; Hölscher, Christian; Mathews, Paul M; Jucker, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model on a C57BL/6J genetic background that coexpresses KM670/671NL mutated amyloid precursor protein and L166P mutated presenilin 1 under the control of a neuron-specific Thy1 promoter element (APPPS1 mice). Cerebral amyloidosis starts at 6–8 weeks and the ratio of human amyloid (A)β42 to Aβ40 is 1.5 and 5 in pre-depositing and amyloid-depositing mice, respectively. Consistent with this ratio, extensive congophilic parenchymal amyloid but minimal amyloid angiopathy is observed. Amyloid-associated pathologies include dystrophic synaptic boutons, hyperphosphorylated tau-positive neuritic structures and robust gliosis, with neocortical microglia number increasing threefold from 1 to 8 months of age. Global neocortical neuron loss is not apparent up to 8 months of age, but local neuron loss in the dentate gyrus is observed. Because of the early onset of amyloid lesions, the defined genetic background of the model and the facile breeding characteristics, APPPS1 mice are well suited for studying therapeutic strategies and the pathomechanism of amyloidosis by cross-breeding to other genetically engineered mouse models. PMID:16906128

  10. Targeting neutrophils in ischemic stroke: translational insights from experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Jickling, Glen C; Liu, DaZhi; Ander, Bradley P; Stamova, Boryana; Zhan, Xinhua; Sharp, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils have key roles in ischemic brain injury, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. As such, neutrophils are of great interest as targets to treat and prevent ischemic stroke. After stroke, neutrophils respond rapidly promoting blood–brain barrier disruption, cerebral edema, and brain injury. A surge of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species, proteases, and cytokines are released as neutrophils interact with cerebral endothelium. Neutrophils also are linked to the major processes that cause ischemic stroke, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Thrombosis is promoted through interactions with platelets, clotting factors, and release of prothrombotic molecules. In atherosclerosis, neutrophils promote plaque formation and rupture by generating oxidized-low density lipoprotein, enhancing monocyte infiltration, and degrading the fibrous cap. In experimental studies targeting neutrophils can improve stroke. However, early human studies have been met with challenges, and suggest that selective targeting of neutrophils may be required. Several properties of neutrophil are beneficial and thus may important to preserve in patients with stroke including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective functions. PMID:25806703

  11. Automation of Classical QEEG Trending Methods for Early Detection of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia: More Work to Do.

    PubMed

    Wickering, Ellis; Gaspard, Nicolas; Zafar, Sahar; Moura, Valdery J; Biswal, Siddharth; Bechek, Sophia; OʼConnor, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Eric S; Westover, M Brandon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate automated implementations of continuous EEG monitoring-based detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on methods used in classical retrospective studies. We studied 95 patients with either Fisher 3 or Hunt Hess 4 to 5 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to the Neurosciences ICU and underwent continuous EEG monitoring. We implemented several variations of two classical algorithms for automated detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability. Of 95 patients, 43 (45%) developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Our automated implementation of the classical alpha-delta ratio-based trending method resulted in a sensitivity and specificity (Se,Sp) of (80,27)%, compared with the values of (100,76)% reported in the classic study using similar methods in a nonautomated fashion. Our automated implementation of the classical relative alpha variability-based trending method yielded (Se,Sp) values of (65,43)%, compared with (100,46)% reported in the classic study using nonautomated analysis. Our findings suggest that improved methods to detect decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability are needed before an automated EEG-based early delayed cerebral ischemia detection system is ready for clinical use.

  12. [Long-term effects of early hyperbaric oxygen therapy on neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Na; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Qin, Zhao-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2006-06-01

    The application and therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on the early pathological and biochemical outcomes and there is a lack of long-term functional evaluation. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term pathological and behavioral changes of early HBO therapy on neonatal rats with HIBD. Postnatal 7 days (PD7) rat pups were randomly assigned into Control (n=18), HIBD (n=17) and HBO treatment groups (n=17). HIBD was induced by ligating the left common carotid, followed by 2 hrs hypoxia exposure in the HIBD and HBO treatment groups. The Control group was sham-operated and was not subjected to hypoxia exposure. The HBO therapy with 2 atmosphere absolutes began 0.5-1 hr after HIBD in the HIBD treatment group, once daily for 2 days. The spatial learning and memory ability were evaluated by the Morris water maze test at PD37 to PD41. The morphological and histological changes of the brain, including brain weight, survival neurons, AchE positive unit and NOS positive neurons in hippocampal CA1 region, were detected at PD42. The rats in the HIBD group displayed significant morphological and histological deficits, as well as severe spatial learning and memory disability. In the Morris water maze test, the mean escape latency were longer (56.35 +/- 22.37 s vs 23.07 +/- 16.28 s; P < 0.05) and the probe time and probe length were shorter in the HIBD group (29.29 +/- 6.06 s vs 51.21 +/- 4.59 s and 548 +/- 92 cm vs 989 +/- 101 cm; both P < 0.05) compared with the Control group. The left brain weight in the HIBD group was lighter than that in the Control group (0.601 +/- 0.59 g vs 0.984 +/- 0.18 g; P < 0.05). The survival neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region were less (100 +/- 27/mm vs 183 +/- 8/mm; P < 0.05), as well as the AchE-positive unit and NOS-positive neurons (18.50 +/- 2.24% vs 27.50 +/- 2.18% and 19.25 +/- 4.33 vs 33.75 +/- 5.57 respectively; P < 0.05) after

  13. Neuroimaging patterns of cerebral hyperperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, S.; Portnov, Yu; Semenov, A.; Korotkevich, A.; Kokov, A.

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after revascularization is a rare phenomenon associated with post-ischemic (reactive) hyperemia and acute pathological hyperperfusion. First described on perfusion CT as a very often moderate CBF increase, MTT/TTP decrease within 30% like a temporary effect, according to a short-time deterioration of neurological symptoms (vestibular ataxia - 58%, vegetative dysfunction - 100%, asthenic syndrome - 100%) in early postoperative period in patients with cardiac ischemia who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. The acute pathological hyperperfusion carotid revascularization is a casuistic phenomenon with two- or three-fold CBV and MTT/TTP increase and high hemorrhage risk. Besides, we detected similar exchanges via perfusion CT called benign hyperemia, which marks extension of MTT/TTP and an increase of CBV from 27% to 48% (average 30%), but with normal CBF-parameters, indicating that venous stasis in acute venous ischemic stroke due cerebral venous sinus-trombosis (68%), only 6% in cardioembolic stroke and appears never in arterial stroke. Territorial coincidence registered for perifocal of necrosis zones of benign hyperemia and vasogenic edema accompanied on MRI (DWI, ADC). Secondary hemorrhagic transformation registered for primary non-hemorrhagic venous stroke in 27%, only in 9% for arterial stroke and in 60% for cardioembolic stroke. Probably, congestion is an increasingly predisposing factor secondary hemorrhaging than necrosis.

  14. Early Detection and Quantification of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Magnetic Resonance Black Blood Thrombus Imaging (MRBTI)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Duan, Jiangang; Fan, Zhaoyang; Qu, Xiaofeng; Xie, Yibin; Nguyen, Christopher; Du, Xiangying; Bi, Xiaoming; Li, Kuncheng; Ji, Xunming; Li, Debiao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Early diagnosis of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVT) is currently a major clinical challenge. We proposed a novel MR black-blood thrombus imaging technique(MRBTI) for detection and quantification of CVT. Methods MRBTI was performed on 23 patients with proven CVT and 24 patients with negative CVT confirmed by conventional imaging techniques. Patients were divided into two groups based on the duration of clinical onset: ≤ 7 days (group 1); between 7 and 30 days (group 2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated for the detected thrombus and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between thrombus and lumen, and also between thrombus and brain tisssue. The feasibility of using MRBTI for thrombus volume measurement was explored and total thrombus volume was calculated for each patient. Results In 23 patients with proven CVT, MRBTI correctly identified 113 out of 116 segments with a sensitivity of 97.4%. Thrombus SNR was 153±57 and 261±95 for group 1(n=10) and group 2(n=13), respectively(P<0.01). Thrombus to lumen CNR was 149±57 and 256±94 for group 1 and group 2. Thrombus to brain tissue CNR was 41±36 and 120±63 (P<0.01), respectively. Quantification of thrombus volume was successfully conducted in all patients with CVT, and mean volume of thrombus was 10.5±6.9cc. Conclusions The current findings support that with effectively suppressed blood signal, MRBTI allows selective visualization of thrombus as opposed to indirect detection of venous flow perturbation and can be used as a promising first line diagnostic imaging tool. PMID:26670082

  15. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Berman, S M; Voytek, B; Mandelkern, M A; Hassid, B D; Isaacson, A; Monterosso, J; Miotto, K; Ling, W; London, E D

    2008-09-01

    Changes in brain function during the initial weeks of abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse may substantially affect clinical outcome, but are not well understood. We used positron emission tomography with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to quantify regional cerebral glucose metabolism, an index of brain function, during performance of a vigilance task. A total of 10 methamphetamine-dependent subjects were tested after 5-9 days of abstinence, and after 4 additional weeks of supervised abstinence. A total of 12 healthy control subjects were tested at corresponding times. Global glucose metabolism increased between tests (P=0.01), more in methamphetamine-dependent (10.9%, P=0.02) than control subjects (1.9%, NS). Glucose metabolism did not change in subcortical regions of methamphetamine-dependent subjects, but increased in neocortex, with maximal increase (>20%) in parietal regions. Changes in reaction time and self-reports of negative affect varied more in methamphetamine-dependent than in control subjects, and correlated both with the increase in parietal glucose metabolism, and decrease in relative activity (after scaling to the global mean) in some regions. A robust relationship between change in self-reports of depressive symptoms and relative activity in the ventral striatum may have great relevance to treatment success because of the role of this region in drug abuse-related behaviors. Shifts in cortical-subcortical metabolic balance either reflect new processes that occur during early abstinence, or the unmasking of effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse that are obscured by suppression of cortical glucose metabolism that continues for at least 5-9 days after cessation of methamphetamine self-administration.

  16. Effect of early and late rehabilitation onset in a chronic rat model of ischemic stroke- assessment of motor cortex signaling and gait functionality over time.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rasmus K; Samson, Katrine L; Simonsen, Daniel; Jensen, Winnie

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ischemic stroke and onset of subsequent rehabilitation of gait function in rats. Nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with a 16-channel intracortical (IC) electrode array. An ischemic stroke was induced within the hindlimb area of the left motor cortex. The rehabilitation consisted of a repetitive training paradigm over 28 days, initiated on day one ("Early-onset", 5 rats) and on day seven, ("Late-onset", 4 rats). Data were obtained from IC microstimulation tests, treadmill walking tests, and beam walking tests. Results revealed an expansion of the hindlimb representation within the motor cortex area and an increased amount of cortical firing rate modulation for the "Early-onset" group but not for the "Late-onset" group. Kinematic data revealed a significant change for both intervention groups. However, this difference was larger for the "Early-onset" group. Results from the beam walking test showed functional performance deficits following stroke which returned to pre-stroke level after the rehabilitative training. The results from the present study indicate the existence of a critical time period following stroke where onset of rehabilitative training may be more effective and related to a higher degree of true recovery.

  17. Ischemic preconditioning protects neurons from damage and maintains the immunoreactivity of kynurenic acid in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JAE-CHUL; TAE, HYUN-JIN; CHO, GEUM-SIL; KIM, IN HYE; AHN, JI HYEON; PARK, JOON HA; CHEN, BAI HUI; CHO, JEONG-HWI; SHIN, BICH NA; CHO, JUN HWI; BAE, EUN JOO; PARK, JINSEU; KIM, YOUNG-MYEONG; CHOI, SOO YOUNG; WON, MOO-HO

    2015-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in region I of hippocampus proper (CA1) are particularly vulnerable to excitotoxic processes following transient forebrain ischemia. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a small molecule derived from tryptophan when this amino acid is metabolized through the kynurenine pathway. In the present study, we examined the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivity and protein levels of KYNA following 5 min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. The animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups (sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia-operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated group, we observed a significant loss of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 stratum pyramidale (SP) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia-operated group, the pyramidal neurons were well protected. KYNA immunoreactivity in the SP of the ischemia-operated group was significantly altered following ischemia-reperfusion and was very low 5 days following ischemia-reperfusion. In the IPC + ischemia-operated group, however, KYNA immunoreactivity was constitutively detected in the SP of the CA1 region after the ischemic insult. We also found that the alteration pattern of the KYNA protein level in the CA1 region following ischemia was generally similar to the immunohistochemical changes observed. In brief, our findings demonstrated that IPC maintained and even increased KYNA immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region following ischemia-reperfusion. The data from the present study thus indicate that the enhancement of KYNA expression by IPC may be necessary for neuronal survival following transient ischemic injury. PMID:25872573

  18. Does early communication mediate the relationship between motor ability and social function in children with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Lipscombe, Belinda; Boyd, Roslyn N; Coleman, Andrea; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Whittingham, Koa

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of experiencing restrictions in social activities negatively impacting their subsequent social functioning. Research has identified motor and communication ability as being unique determinants of social function capabilities in children with CP, to date, no research has investigated whether communication is a mediator of the relationship between motor ability and social functioning. To investigate whether early communication ability at 24 months corrected age (ca.) mediates the relationship between early motor ability at 24 months ca. and later social development at 60 months ca. in a cohort of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). A cohort of 71 children (43 male) diagnosed with CP (GMFCS I=24, 33.8%, II=9, 12.7%, III=12, 16.9%, IV=10, 14.1%, V=16, 22.5%) were assessed at 24 and 60 months ca. Assessments included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist and the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). A mediation model was examined using bootstrapping. Early communication skills mediated the relationship between early motor abilities and later social functioning, b=0.24 (95% CI=0.08-0.43 and the mediation model was significant, F (2, 68)=32.77, p<0.001, R(2)=0.49. Early communication ability partially mediates the relationship between early motor ability and later social function in children with CP. This demonstrates the important role of early communication in ongoing social development. Early identification of communication delay and enriched language exposure is crucial in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug Delivery to the Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia occurs when blood flow to the brain is insufficient to meet metabolic demand. This can result from cerebral artery occlusion that interrupts blood flow, limits CNS supply of oxygen and glucose, and causes an infarction/ischemic stroke. Ischemia initiates a cascade of molecular events inneurons and cerebrovascular endothelial cells including energy depletion, dissipation of ion gradients, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and accumulation of ions and fluid. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is associated with cerebral ischemia and leads to vasogenic edema, a primary cause of stroke-associated mortality. To date, only a single drug has received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for acute ischemic stroke treatment, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). While rt-PA therapy restores perfusion to ischemic brain, considerable tissue damage occurs when cerebral blood flow is re-established. Therefore, there is a critical need for novel therapeutic approaches that can “rescue” salvageable brain tissue and/or protect BBB integrity during ischemic stroke. One class of drugs that may enable neural cell rescue following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Understanding potential CNS drug delivery pathways for statins is critical to their utility in ischemic stroke. Here, we review molecular pathways associated with cerebral ischemia and novel approaches for delivering drugs to treat ischemic disease. Specifically, we discuss utility of endogenous BBB drug uptake transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/Oatps) and nanotechnology-based carriers for optimization of CNS drug delivery. Overall, this chapter highlights state-of-the-art technologies that may improve pharmacotherapy of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25307217

  20. CD38 exacerbates focal cytokine production, postischemic inflammation and brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Choe, Chi-un; Lardong, Kerstin; Gelderblom, Mathias; Ludewig, Peter; Leypoldt, Frank; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Gerloff, Christian; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that inflammatory processes significantly influence brain injury and clinical impairment in ischemic stroke. Although early studies suggested a key role of lymphocytes, recent data has emphasized the orchestrating function of innate immunity, i.e., macrophages and microglia. The bifunctional receptor and ectoenzyme CD38 synthesizes calcium-mobilizing second messengers (e.g., cyclic ADP-ribose), which have been shown to be necessary for activation and migration of myeloid immune cells. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of CD38 in stroke and the impact of CD38-deficiency on cytokine production, inflammation and cerebral damage in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We show that the local expression of the chemokine MCP-1 was attenuated in CD38-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. In contrast, no significant induction of MCP-1 expression was observed in peripheral blood after 6 hours. Flow cytometry analysis revealed less infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes in the ischemic hemisphere of CD38-deficient mice, whereas the amount of resident microglia was unaltered. An up-regulation of CD38 expression was observed in macrophages and CD8(+) cells after focal cerebral ischemia in wildtype mice, whereas CD38 expression was unchanged in microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that CD38-deficiency decreases the cerebral ischemic injury and the persistent neurological deficit after three days of reperfusion in this murine temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. CD38 is differentially regulated following stroke and its deficiency attenuates the postischemic chemokine production, the immune cell infiltration and the cerebral injury after temporary ischemia and reperfusion. Therefore CD38 might prove a therapeutic target in ischemic stroke.

  1. Early monitoring of cerebral hypoperfusion in rats by laser speckle imaging and functional photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Xiaoquan; Wang, Zhen; Deng, Zilin; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming

    2012-06-01

    Because cerebral hypoperfusion brings damage to the brain, prevention of cerebrovascular diseases correlative to hypoperfusion by studying animal models makes great sense. Since complicated cerebrovascular adaptive changes in hypoperfusion could not be revealed only by cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity imaging, we performed multi-parameter imaging by combining laser speckle imaging and functional photoacoustic microscopy. The changes in CBF, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2), and total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) in single blood vessels of ipsilateral cortex were observed during transient cerebral hypoperfusion by ligating the unilateral common carotid artery in rats. CBF, SO2, and HbT, respectively, decreased to 37+/-3%, 71+/-7.5%, and 92+/-1.3% of baseline in 6 s immediately after occlusion, and then recovered to 77+/-4.8%, 84+/-8%, and 96+/-2% of baseline in 60 s. These parameters presented the decrease with different degree and the following recovery over time after ligation, the recovery of SO2 lagged behind those of CBF and HbT, which had the similar response. The results demonstrated that complete monitoring of both cerebral hemodynamic response and oxygen metabolic changes occurred at the earliest period of cerebral hypoperfusion was possible by using the two image modalities with high temporal and spatial resolution.

  2. [Post-marketing re-evaluation of Kudiezi injection study on early treatment in patients with ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoqin; Wei, Xu; Xie, Yanming; Zou, Yihuai; Zhao, Xingquan; Han, Jianhua; Wang, Xinzhi; Ma, Yunzhi; Bi, Qi; Xie, Qingfan; Zhao, Jianjun; Cao, Xiaolan; Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Shizhong; Yan, Rongmei; Han, Zucheng; Yi, Danhui; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect and safety of Kudiezi injection on patients with acute ischemic stroke. Seven hundreds patients were divided into two groups by central randomization system. The study group, 346 cases, was treated with kudiezi injection plus traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) synthesis rehabilitation project, and the control group, 354 cases, was treated with synthetic rehabilitation project. The patients were treated for 10 to 21 days. Before treatment and at the 7th, 14th and 21th day of treatment, the indexes include NIHSS used for evaluating the neurological deficit degree and the motor function score (Fugl-Meyer) for evaluating motor function were observed. The safety index is defined by adverse observation event and laboratory test. The incidence of adverse events and laboratory tests results were observed before and after treatment at the same time. Application of generalized estimating equation model, we found that as the treatment time, NIHSS score and FMI score of the two groups showed a trend of improvement. And at the 14th days and 21th days of treatment, compared to the control group the treatment group showed significant statistical difference on the impact of NIHSS and FMI (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were observed. Kudiezi injection plus TCM rehabilitation project of ischemic stroke showed some superiority to western medicine rehabilitation program on improving the neurological deficit and motor function. Kudiezi injection is safe and effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  3. Relationship of neonatal cerebral blood flow velocity asymmetry with early motor, cognitive and language development in term infants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Chin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Yi; Peng, Shinn-Forng; Hung, Han-Yang; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Wei J; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) asymmetry measures with developmental outcomes in term infants. Doppler CBFV parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and mean velocity [MV]) of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 52 healthy term infants were prospectively examined on postnatal days 1-5, and then their motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The left CBFV asymmetry measure (PSV or MV) was calculated by subtracting the right-side value from the left-side value. Left CBFV asymmetry measures were significantly positively related to motor scores at 6 (r = 0.3-0.32, p < 0.05) and 12 (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) months of age, but were not related to cognitive or language outcome. Thus, the leftward hemodynamic status of the middle cerebral arteries, as measured by cranial Doppler ultrasound in the neonatal period, predicts early motor outcome in term infants. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Early Dysphagia Screening May Reduce Stroke-Related Pneumonia and Improve Stroke Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Binder, Andreas; Mudter, Jonas; Schattschneider, Joern; Pulkowski, Ulrich; Strohmaier, Tim; Niehoff, Torsten; Zybur, Roland; Eggers, Juergen; Valdueza, Jose M; Royl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. Studies investigating the association of dysphagia and early dysphagia screening (EDS) with outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are rare. The aims of our study are to investigate the association of dysphagia and EDS within 24 h with stroke-related pneumonia and outcomes. Over a 4.5-year period (starting November 2007), all consecutive AIS patients from 15 hospitals in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, were prospectively evaluated. The primary outcomes were stroke-related pneumonia during hospitalization, mortality, and disability measured on the modified Rankin Scale ≥2-5, in which 2 indicates an independence/slight disability to 5 severe disability. Of 12,276 patients (mean age 73 ± 13; 49% women), 9,164 patients (74%) underwent dysphagia screening; of these patients, 55, 39, 4.7, and 1.5% of patients had been screened for dysphagia within 3, 3 to <24, 24 to ≤72, and >72 h following admission. Patients who underwent dysphagia screening were likely to be older, more affected on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and to have higher rates of neurological symptoms and risk factors than patients who were not screened. A total of 3,083 patients (25.1%; 95% CI 24.4-25.8) had dysphagia. The frequency of dysphagia was higher in patients who had undergone dysphagia screening than in those who had not (30 vs. 11.1%; p < 0.001). During hospitalization (mean 9 days), 1,271 patients (10.2%; 95% CI 9.7-10.8) suffered from stroke-related pneumonia. Patients with dysphagia had a higher rate of pneumonia than those without dysphagia (29.7 vs. 3.7%; p < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that dysphagia was associated with increased risk of stroke-related pneumonia (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.8-4.2; p < 0.001), case fatality during hospitalization (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.1-3.7; p < 0.001) and disability at discharge (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.3; p < 0.001). EDS within 24 h of admission appeared to be

  5. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in differentiating early-stage subcortical ischemic vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing.

    PubMed

    Tu, Min-Chien; Lo, Chung-Ping; Huang, Ching-Feng; Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Wen-Hui; Deng, Jie Fu; Lee, Yung-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    To describe and compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters between patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosed using structuralized neuropsychiatric assessments, and investigate potential neuronal substrates related to cognitive performance. Thirty-five patients with SIVD, 40 patients with AD, and 33 cognitively normal control (NC) subjects matched by age and education level were consecutively recruited and underwent cognitive function assessments and DTI examinations. Comparisons among these three subgroups with regards to cognitive performance and DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were performed. Partial correlation analysis after controlling for age and education was used to evaluate associations between cognitive performance and DTI parameters. With regards to cognitive performance, the patients with SIVD had lower total scores in frontal assessment battery (FAB) compared to those with AD (p < 0.05) in the context of comparable Mini-Mental Status Examination and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scores. With regards to DTI parameters, there were more regions of significant differences in FA among these three subgroups compared with MD. Compared with NC group, the patients with SIVD had significant global reductions in FA (p < 0.001 ~ 0.05), while significant reductions in FA among the patients with AD were regionally confined within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and bilateral forceps major, and the anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum of the left side (p < 0.01 ~ 0.05). Analysis of FA values within the left forceps major, left anterior thalamic radiation, and genu of the corpus callosum revealed a 71.8% overall correct classification (p < 0.001) with sensitivity of 69.4%, specificity of 73.8%, positive predictive value of 69.4%, and negative predictive value of 73

  6. Reaction Time is a Marker of Early Cognitive and Behavioral Alterations in Pure Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

    PubMed

    Jouvent, Eric; Reyes, Sonia; De Guio, François; Chabriat, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of early and subtle cognitive and behavioral effects of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) requires specific and long-lasting evaluations performed by experienced neuropsychologists. Simpler tools would be helpful for daily clinical practice. To determine whether a simple reaction time task that lasts 5 minutes and can be performed without external supervision on any tablet or laptop can be used as a proxy of early cognitive and behavioral alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a monogenic form of pure SVD related to NOTCH3 mutations. Twenty-two genetically confirmed patients with CADASIL having preserved global cognitive abilities and without disability (MMSE >24 and modified Rankin's scale ≤1) were compared to 29 age-and-gender matched controls to determine group differences according to: 1) conventional neuropsychological and behavioral testing; 2) a computerized battery evaluating reaction time, processing speed, and executive functions. In a second step, correlations between reaction time and cognitive and behavioral alterations detected using both conventional and computerized testing were tested in patients. Reaction time was significantly higher in patients than in controls (mean in patients: 283 ms - in controls: 254 ms, p = 0.03). In patients, reaction time was significantly associated with conventional and chronometric tests of executive functions, working memory, and apathy. Reaction time obtained using a very simple task may serve as a proxy of early cognitive and behavioral alterations in SVD and could be easily used in daily clinical practice.

  7. Relationship of Early Spontaneous Type V Blood Pressure Fluctuation after Thrombolysis in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients and the Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lian; Wan, Ting; Xu, Xiahong; Liu, Feifeng; Li, Changsong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Huan; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between an early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation and the post-thrombolysis prognosis of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were admitted consecutively. All patients were categorized into the type V blood pressure fluctuation group or non-type V blood pressure group. Their blood pressure was monitored before thrombolysis and until 6 h after thrombolysis. Baseline data and clinical outcomes were compared. Of 170 patients, 43 (25.2%) had an early type V blood pressure fluctuation. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score before thrombolysis and 24 h after thrombolysis, and the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an unfavorable prognosis at 3 months was associated with the NIHSS score before thrombolysis (P = 0.000) but probably not with this blood pressure fluctuation (P = 0.058). An early spontaneous type V blood pressure fluctuation is common in patients with acute cerebral infarction who received venous thrombolysis, especially if they have a higher NIHSS score before thrombolysis. The type V blood pressure fluctuation may not influence patients’ prognosis; however, this needs to be confirmed in future trials. PMID:27278121

  8. [Cerebral protection].

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  9. Neurovascular regulation in the ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Katherine; Iadecola, Costantino

    2015-01-10

    The brain has high energetic requirements and is therefore highly dependent on adequate cerebral blood supply. To compensate for dangerous fluctuations in cerebral perfusion, the circulation of the brain has evolved intrinsic safeguarding measures. The vascular network of the brain incorporates a high degree of redundancy, allowing the redirection and redistribution of blood flow in the event of vascular occlusion. Furthermore, active responses such as cerebral autoregulation, which acts to maintain constant cerebral blood flow in response to changing blood pressure, and functional hyperemia, which couples blood supply with synaptic activity, allow the brain to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion in the face of varying supply or demand. In the presence of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, these protective processes are impaired and the susceptibility of the brain to ischemic injury is increased. One potential mechanism for the increased injury is that collateral flow arising from the normally perfused brain and supplying blood flow to the ischemic region is suppressed, resulting in more severe ischemia. Approaches to support collateral flow may ameliorate the outcome of focal cerebral ischemia by rescuing cerebral perfusion in potentially viable regions of the ischemic territory.

  10. Neurovascular Regulation in the Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The brain has high energetic requirements and is therefore highly dependent on adequate cerebral blood supply. To compensate for dangerous fluctuations in cerebral perfusion, the circulation of the brain has evolved intrinsic safeguarding measures. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: The vascular network of the brain incorporates a high degree of redundancy, allowing the redirection and redistribution of blood flow in the event of vascular occlusion. Furthermore, active responses such as cerebral autoregulation, which acts to maintain constant cerebral blood flow in response to changing blood pressure, and functional hyperemia, which couples blood supply with synaptic activity, allow the brain to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion in the face of varying supply or demand. In the presence of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, these protective processes are impaired and the susceptibility of the brain to ischemic injury is increased. One potential mechanism for the increased injury is that collateral flow arising from the normally perfused brain and supplying blood flow to the ischemic region is suppressed, resulting in more severe ischemia. Future Directions: Approaches to support collateral flow may ameliorate the outcome of focal cerebral ischemia by rescuing cerebral perfusion in potentially viable regions of the ischemic territory. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 149–160. PMID:24328757

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of multiple ischemic injury produced in an adult rat model of minor stroke followed by mild transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tuor, Ursula I; Qiao, Min

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether cumulative brain damage produced adjacent to a minor stroke that is followed by a mild transient ischemia is detectable with MRI and histology, and whether acute or chronic recovery between insults influences this damage. A minor photothrombotic (PT) stroke was followed acutely (1-2 days) or chronically (7 days) by a mild transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). MRI was performed after each insult, followed by final histology. The initial PT produced small hyperintense T 2 and DW infarct lesions and peri-lesion regions of scattered necrosis and modestly increased T 2 . Following tMCAO, in a slice and a region adjacent to the PT, a region of T 2 augmentation was observed when recovery between insults was acute but not chronic. Within the PT slice, a modest region of exacerbated T 2 change proximate to the PT was also observed in the chronic group. Corresponding histological changes within regions of augmented T 2 included increased vacuolation and cell death. Within regions adjacent to an experimental minor stroke, a recurrence of a mild transient cerebral ischemia augmented T 2 above increases produced by tMCAO alone, reflecting increased damage in this region. Exacerbation appeared broader with acute versus chronic recovery between insults.

  12. Nitric Oxide Donors as Neuroprotective Agents after an Ischemic Stroke-Related Inflammatory Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia initiates a cascade of detrimental events including glutamate-associated excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium accumulation, formation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane lipid degradation, and DNA damage, which lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis and structural damage of ischemic brain tissue. Cerebral ischemia also triggers acute inflammation, which exacerbates primary brain damage. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress (OS) and downregulating the inflammatory response are options that merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. Consequently, agents capable of modulating both elements will constitute promising therapeutic solutions because clinically effective neuroprotectants have not yet been discovered and no specific therapy for stroke is available to date. Because of their ability to modulate both oxidative stress and the inflammatory response, much attention has been focused on the role of nitric oxide donors (NOD) as neuroprotective agents in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Given their short therapeutic window, NOD appears to be appropriate for use during neurosurgical procedures involving transient arterial occlusions, or in very early treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and also possibly as complementary treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson or Alzheimer, where oxidative stress is an important promoter of damage. In the present paper, we focus on the role of NOD as possible neuroprotective therapeutic agents for ischemia/reperfusion treatment. PMID:23691263

  13. The ultrasound brain helmet: early human feasibility study of multiple simultaneous 3D scans of cerebral vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Whitman, John; Light, Edward; Fronheiser, Matthew; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe early stage experiments to test the feasibility of an ultrasound brain helmet to produce multiple simultaneous real-time 3D scans of the cerebral vasculature from temporal and suboccipital acoustic windows of the skull. The transducer hardware and software of the Volumetrics Medical Imaging real-time 3D scanner were modified to support dual 2.5 MHz matrix arrays of 256 transmit elements and 128 receive elements which produce two simultaneous 64° pyramidal scans. The real-time display format consists of two coronal B-mode images merged into a 128° sector, two simultaneous parasagittal images merged into a 128° × 64° C-mode plane, and a simultaneous 64° axial image. Real-time 3D color Doppler images acquired in initial clinical studies after contrast injection demonstrate flow in several representative blood vessels. An offline Doppler rendering of data from two transducers simultaneously scanning via the temporal windows provides an early visualization of the flow in vessels on both sides of the brain. The long-term goal is to produce real-time 3D ultrasound images of the cerebral vasculature from a portable unit capable of internet transmission, thus enabling interactive 3D imaging, remote diagnosis and earlier therapeutic intervention. We are motivated by the urgency for rapid diagnosis of stroke due to the short time window of effective therapeutic intervention.

  14. Design of the NL-ENIGMA study: Exploring the effect of Souvenaid on cerebral glucose metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scheltens, Nienke M E; Kuyper, Ingrid S; Boellaard, Ronald; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Broersen, Laus M; Lansbergen, Marieke M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Berckel, Bart N M; Scheltens, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with early synaptic loss. Specific nutrients are known to be rate limiting for synapse formation. Studies have shown that administering specific nutrients may improve memory function, possibly by increasing synapse formation. This Dutch study explores the Effect of a specific Nutritional Intervention on cerebral Glucose Metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease (NL-ENIGMA, Dutch Trial Register NTR4718, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4718). The NL-ENIGMA study is designed to test whether the specific multinutrient combination Fortasyn Connect present in the medical food Souvenaid influences cerebral glucose metabolism as a marker for improved synapse function. This study is a double-blind, randomized controlled parallel-group single-center trial. Forty drug-naive patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia with evidence of amyloid deposition are 1:1 randomized to receive either the multinutrient combination or placebo once daily. Main exploratory outcome parameters include absolute quantitative positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (including arterial sampling) and standard uptake value ratios normalized for the cerebellum or pons after 24 weeks. We expect the NL-ENIGMA study to provide further insight in the potential of this multinutrient combination to improve synapse function.

  15. The effect of cerebral palsy on arithmetic accuracy is mediated by working memory, intelligence, early numeracy, and instruction time.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Kathleen M; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C D M; Maathuis, Karel G B; Keus, Inge; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2007-01-01

    The development of addition and subtraction accuracy was assessed in first graders with cerebral palsy (CP) in both mainstream (16) and special education (41) and a control group of first graders in mainstream education (16). The control group out-performed the CP groups in addition and subtraction accuracy and this difference could not be fully explained by differences in intelligence. Both CP groups showed evidence of working memory deficits. The three groups exhibited different developmental patterns in the area of early numeracy skills. Children with CP in special education were found to receive less arithmetic instruction and instruction time was positively related to arithmetic accuracy. Structural equation modeling revealed that the effect of CP on arithmetic accuracy is mediated by intelligence, working memory, early numeracy, and instruction time.

  16. Early results of one-stage correction for hip instability in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui Taek; Jang, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Jae Min; Lee, Jong Seo; Kang, Dong Joon

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of one-stage correction for cerebral palsy patients. We reviewed clinical outcomes and radiologic indices of 32 dysplastic hips in 23 children with cerebral palsy (13 males, 10 females; mean age, 8.6 years). Ten hips had dislocation, while 22 had subluxation. Preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) scores of the patients were as follows; level V (13 patients), level IV (9), and level III (1). Acetabular deficiency was anterior in 5 hips, superolateral in 7, posterior in 11 and mixed in 9, according to 3 dimensional computed tomography. The combined surgery included open reduction of the femoral head, release of contracted muscles, femoral shortening varus derotation osteotomy and the modified Dega osteotomy. Hip range of motion, GMFCS level, acetabular index, center-edge angle and migration percentage were measured before and after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 months. Hip abduction (median, 40°), sitting comfort and GMFCS level were improved after surgery, and pain was decreased. There were two cases of femoral head avascular necrosis, but no infection, nonunion, resubluxation or redislocation. All radiologic indices showed improvement after surgery. A single event multilevel surgery including soft tissue, pelvic and femoral side correction is effective in treating spastic dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy.

  17. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Detected Ischemic Lesions following Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bond, K M; Brinjikji, W; Murad, M H; Kallmes, D F; Cloft, H J; Lanzino, G

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms is associated with the risk of thromboembolic ischemic complications. Many of these events are asymptomatic and identified only on diffusion-weighted imaging. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the incidence of DWI positive for thromboembolic events following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. A comprehensive literature search identified studies published between 2000 and April 2016 that reported postprocedural DWI findings in patients undergoing endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The primary outcome was the incidence of DWI positive for thromboembolic events. We examined outcomes by treatment type, sex, and aneurysm characteristics. Meta-analyses were performed by using a random-effects model. Twenty-two studies with 2148 patients and 2268 aneurysms were included. The overall incidence of DWI positive for thromboembolic events following endovascular treatment was 49% (95% CI, 42%-56%). Treatment with flow diversion trended toward a higher rate of DWI positive for lesions than coiling alone (67%; 95% CI, 46%-85%; versus 45%; 95% CI, 33%-56%; P = .07). There was no difference between patients treated with coiling alone and those treated with balloon-assisted (44%; 95% CI, 29%-60%; P = .99) or stent-assisted (43%; 95% CI, 24%-63%; P = .89) coiling. Sex, aneurysm rupture status, location, and size were not associated with the rate of DWI positive for lesions. One in 2 patients may have infarcts on DWI following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. There is a trend toward a higher incidence of DWI-positive lesions following treatment with flow diversion compared with coiling. Patient demographics and aneurysm characteristics were not associated with DWI-positive thromboembolic events. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Ischemic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Montessori, Gino; Liepa, Egils V.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty cases of ischemic colitis are reviewed; 19 were obtained from autopsy files and the diagnosis in one was made from a surgical specimen. The majority of the patients were elderly with generalized arteriosclerosis. In approximately two-thirds of the patients the ischemic colitis was precipitated by preceding trauma, operation or congestive heart failure. Clinically, ischemic colitis is characterized by abdominal pain, distension and bleeding per rectum. Perforation of large bowel may occur. The lesions tend to be localized around the splenic flexure and junction of the descending and sigmoid colon, and in cases following aortic graft surgery the rectum is involved. Microscopically, there is necrosis, hemorrhage and ulceration. In less severe cases the mucosa only is affected. Cases with perforation show necrosis of all layers. It is considered that ischemic colitis is comparatively frequent and should be distinguished from other inflammatory conditions of the colon. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:5308923

  19. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shibasaki, Jun; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one.

  20. Early metabolite changes after melatonin treatment in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury studied by in-vivo 1H MR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Axel K. G.; Morken, Tora Sund; Vettukattil, Riyas; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Widerøe, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is a promising neuroprotective agent after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We used in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate effects of melatonin treatment on brain metabolism after HI. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral HI brain injury were treated with either melatonin 10 mg/kg dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or vehicle (5% DMSO and/or PBS) directly and at 6 hours after HI. 1H MR spectra from the thalamus in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere were acquired 1 day after HI. Our results showed that injured animals had a distinct metabolic profile in the ipsilateral thalamus compared to sham with low concentrations of total creatine, choline, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and high concentrations of lipids. A majority of the melatonin-treated animals had a metabolic profile characterized by higher total creatine, choline, NAA and lower lipid levels than other HI animals. When comparing absolute concentrations, melatonin treatment resulted in higher glutamine levels and lower lipid concentrations compared to DMSO treatment as well as higher macromolecule levels compared to PBS treatment day 1 after HI. DMSO treated animals had lower concentrations of glucose, creatine, phosphocholine and macromolecules compared to sham animals. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effects of melatonin were reflected in a more favorable metabolic profile including reduced lipid levels that likely represents reduced cell injury. Neuroprotective effects may also be related to the influence of melatonin on glutamate/glutamine metabolism. The modulatory effects of the solvent DMSO on cerebral energy metabolism might have masked additional beneficial effects of melatonin. PMID:28934366

  1. [The evaluation of patients with ischemic cerebral lesions by CT, SPECT and qEEG in acute, subacute and chronic phases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, J J; Barroso, E; Cubero, L; González-González, J; Farach, M

    1998-08-01

    SPECT, EEG AND CT scan offer information with several pathophysiologic meanings. Their results vary with time and according to the vascular affected territory. We wanted to study how the sensibility varies and the relationship with the clinic of SPECT, qEEG and CT scan in the acute, subacute and chronic stages and according to the vascular affected territory. We also wanted to analyze the several pathophysiologic aspects of the cerebral ischemia. Thirty-six patients with symptoms of hemispheric stroke were evaluated with CT scan, qEEG, SPECT99mTc-HMPAO during the acute (0-5 days), subacute (0-15 days) and chronic (16 days to 1 year) stages. The decrease of ipsilateral CBF depend on the time (p = 0.0061), being not very frequent during the two first weeks. The qEEG was the most sensitive study in the first phase, its sensibility did not depend on the vascular affected territory and was dependent on the time (p = 0.0011), diminishing in the chronic phase. The slow activity was habitually ipsilateral. The CT scan was the less sensitive study. After 24 hours and until the second week, there is habitually an increase of the ipsilateral rCBF. The luxury perfusion could explain the fogging effect in the CT scan. The slow activity of the qEEG represents the alteration of the oxygen metabolism. The interpretation of the variation of the CBF and the qEEG allow us to define oligemia of the ischemia and between reactive hyperemia and the increase of CBF due to the necrotic tissue.

  2. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    PubMed Central

    Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Menon, David K.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1–6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs <55yrs. There was a significant decrease in early-phase atrophy-corrected whole-cortex SUV relative to cerebellar vermis (SUVR) in the CAA vs age-matched HC group. None of the age-matched controls fell below the lower 95% confidence limit derived from the young HCs, while 6/11 CAA patients did (sensitivity = 55%, specificity = 100%). Combining both early- and late-phase 11C-PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD. PMID:26439113

  3. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score-Time Score Predicts Outcome after Endovascular Therapy in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Todo, Kenichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Tomoyuki; Hoshi, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kohara, Nobuo

    2018-04-01

    Clinical outcomes after successful endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke are associated with several factors including onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT), the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The NIHSS-time score, calculated as follows: [NIHSS score] × [onset-to-treatment time (h)] or [NIHSS score] × [ORT (h)], has been reported to predict clinical outcomes after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy and endovascular therapy for acute stroke. The objective of the current study was to assess whether the combination of the ASPECTS and the ORT can predict the outcomes after endovascular therapy. The charts of 117 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with successful reperfusion after endovascular therapy were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the association of ORT, ASPECTS, and ASPECTS-time score with clinical outcome. ASPECTS-time score was calculated as follows: [11 - ASPECTS] × [ORT (h)]. Rates of good outcome for patients with ASPECTS-time scores of tertile values, scores 5.67 or less, scores greater than 5.67 to 10.40 or less, and scores greater than 10.40, were 66.7%, 56.4%, and 33.3%, respectively (P < .05). Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that the ASPECTS-time score (per category increase) was an independent predictor for better outcome (common odds ratio: .374; 95% confidence interval: .150-0.930; P < .05). A lower ASPECTS-time score may predict better clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase (ERK) 2 has duality in function between neuronal and astrocyte expression following neonatal hypoxia-ischemic cerebral injury.

    PubMed

    Thei, Laura; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Peebles, Donald; Raivich, Gennadij; Hristova, Mariya

    2018-06-06

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neonatal brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy, epilepsy, cognitive impairment and other neurological disabilities. The role of Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) isoforms and their MEK-dependent phosphorylation in HI has previously been explored but remains unresolved at cellular level. This is pertinent given the growing awareness of the role of non-neuronal cells in neuroprotection. Using a modified Rice-Vannuccci model of HI in the neonatal mouse we observed time and cell-dependent ERK phosphorylation (pERK), with strongly up-regulated pERK immunoreactivity first in periventricular white matter axons within 15-45 min of HI, followed by forebrain astrocytes and neurons (1-4 h post HI), and return to baseline by 16 h. We explored the effects of pharmacological ERK-blockade through the MEK inhibitor SL327 on neonatal HI-brain damage following HI alone (30 or 60 min) or LPS-sensitized HI insult (30 min). Global inhibition of ERK phosphorylation with systemically applied SL327 abolished forebrain pERK immunoreactivity, significantly reduced cell death and associated microglial activation at 48h post HI. We then explored the effects of cell specific ERK2 deletion alone or in combination with global ERK1 knockout under the same conditions of HI insult. Neuronal ERK2 deletion strongly decreased infarct size, neuronal cell death and microglial activation in grey matter following both HI alone or LPS-sensitised HI. ERK1 deletion attenuated the protective effect of neuronal ERK2 deletion. Removal of astroglial ERK2 produced a reverse response, with 3-4 fold increase in microglial activation and cell death. Our data suggests cell-specific and time-dependent role of ERK in neonatal HI, with a predominant, neurotoxic effect of neuronal ERK2, which is counteracted by neuroprotection by ERK1 and astrocytic ERK2. Overall, global pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation is strongly neuroprotective. This article

  5. Timely Visualization of the Collaterals Formed during Acute Ischemic Stroke with Fe3 O4 Nanoparticle-based MR Imaging Probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Hou, Yi; Bu, Bo; Wang, Wenxin; Ma, Tiancong; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Lan; Ma, Lin; Lou, Xin; Gao, Mingyuan

    2018-04-17

    Ischemic stroke is one of the major leading causes for long-term disability and mortality. Collateral vessels provide an alternative pathway to protect the brain against ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Aiming at visualizing the collaterals occurring during acute ischemic stroke, an integrin α v β 3 -specific Fe 3 O 4 -Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) nanoprobe is prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the collaterals. Rat models are constructed by occluding the middle cerebral artery for imaging studies of cerebral ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion on 7.0 Tesla MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging sequence. To show the binding specificity to the collaterals, the imaging results acquired with the Fe 3 O 4 -RGD nanoprobe and the Fe 3 O 4 mother nanoparticles, respectively, are carefully compared. In addition, an RGD blocking experiment is also carried out to support the excellent binding specificity of the Fe 3 O 4 -RGD nanoprobe. Following the above experiments, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion studies show the collateral dynamics upon reperfusion, which is very important for the prognosis of various revascularization therapies in the clinic. The current study has, for the first time, enabled the direct observation of collaterals in a quasi-real time fashion and further disclosed that the antegrade flow upon reperfusion dominates the blood supply of primary ischemic tissue during the early stage of infarction, which is significantly meaningful for clinical treatment of stroke. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Neuroprotection of early and short-time applying berberine in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia: up-regulated pAkt, pGSK and pCREB, down-regulated NF-κB expression, ameliorated BBB permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiangjian; Wang, Chaohui; Li, Yanhua; Dong, Lipeng; Cui, Lili; Wang, Lina; Liu, Zongjie; Qiao, Huimin; Zhu, Chunhua; Xing, Yinxue; Cao, Xiaoyun; Ji, Ye; Zhao, Kang

    2012-06-12

    Berberine (BBR) has gained attention for its vast beneficial biological effects through immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties. Inflammatory and apoptosis damage play an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment. The aim of this study was to explore BBR's effect in ischemic injury and the role of the Akt/GSK (glycogen synthase kinase) signaling cascade in mediating the anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects in the rat brain of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to pMCAO and randomly assigned into four groups: Sham (sham-operated) group, pMCAO (pMCAO+0.9% saline) group, BBR-L (pMCAO+BBR 10 mg/kg) and BBR-H (pMCAO+BBR 40 mg/kg) group. BBR was administered immediately after pMCAO and the neuroprotection was detected. Phospho-Akt (pAkt), phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (pGSK3β), phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and claudin-5 in ischemic cerebral cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Compared with pMCAO group, BBR dramatically lessened neurological deficits scores, brain water contents and infarct sizes, upregulated the expression of pAkt, pGSK3β, pCREB and claudin-5, and decreased the nuclear accumulation of NF-κB (P<0.05) in ischemic brain. The results showed that BBR reduced ischemic brain injury after pMACO, and this effect may be via the increasing the activation of Akt/GSK signaling and claudin-5, and decreasing NF-κB expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Off-label thrombolysis versus full adherence to the current European Alteplase license: impact on early clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Manuel; Moretto, Giuseppe; Micheletti, Nicola; Donato, Francesco; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Gulli, Giosuè; Carletti, Monica; Squintani, Giovanna Maddalena; Zanoni, Tiziano; Ottaviani, Sarah; Romito, Silvia; Tommasi, Giorgio; Musso, Anna Maria; Deotto, Luciano; Gambina, Giuseppe; Zimatore, Domenico Sergio; Bovi, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    According to current European Alteplase license, therapeutic-window for intravenous (IV) thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke has recently been extended to 4.5 h after symptoms onset. However, due to numerous contraindications, the portion of patients eligible for treatment still remains limited. Early neurological status after thrombolysis could identify more faithfully the impact of off-label Alteplase use that long-term functional outcome. We aimed to identify the impact of off-label thrombolysis and each off-label criterion on early clinical outcomes compared with the current European Alteplase license. We conducted an analysis on prospectively collected data of 500 consecutive thrombolysed patients. The primary outcome measures included major neurological improvement (NIHSS score decrease of ≤8 points from baseline or NIHSS score of 0) and neurological deterioration (NIHSS score increase of ≥4 points from baseline or death) at 24 h. We estimated the independent effect of off-label thrombolysis and each off-label criterion by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome measure. As the reference, we used patients fully adhering to the current European Alteplase license. 237 (47.4%) patients were treated with IV thrombolysis beyond the current European Alteplase license. We did not find significant differences between off- and on-label thrombolysis on early clinical outcomes. No off-label criteria were associated with decreased rate of major neurological improvement compared with on-label thrombolysis. History of stroke and concomitant diabetes was the only off-label criterion associated with increased rate of neurological deterioration (OR 5.84, 95% CI 1.61-21.19; p = 0.024). Off-label thrombolysis may be less effective at 24 h than on-label Alteplase use in patients with previous stroke and concomitant diabetes. Instead, the impact of other off-label criteria on early clinical outcomes was not different

  8. Early Coronary Reperfusion Facilitates Return of Spontaneous Circulation and Improves Cardiovascular Outcomes After Ischemic Cardiac Arrest and Extracorporeal Resuscitation in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hutin, Alice; Lamhaut, Lionel; Lidouren, Fanny; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Mongardon, Nicolas; Carli, Pierre; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan; Tissier, Renaud

    2016-12-22

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is widely proposed for the treatment of refractory cardiac arrest. It should be associated with coronary angiography if coronary artery disease is suspected. However, the prioritization of care remains unclear in this situation. Our goal was to determine whether coronary reperfusion should be instituted as soon as possible in such situations in a pig model. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented and submitted to coronary artery occlusion and ventricular fibrillation. After 5 minutes of untreated cardiac arrest, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started. Fifteen minutes later, ECPR was initiated for a total duration of 240 minutes. Animals randomly underwent either early or late coronary reperfusion at 20 or 120 minutes of ECPR, respectively. This timing was adapted to the kinetic of infarct extension in pigs. Return of spontaneous circulation was determined as organized electrocardiogram rhythm with systolic arterial pressure above 80 mm Hg. During conventional CPR, hemodynamic parameters were not different between groups. Carotid blood flow then increased by 70% after the onset of ECPR in both groups. No animal (0 of 7) elicited return of spontaneous circulation after late reperfusion versus 4 of 7 after early reperfusion (P=0.025). The hemodynamic parameters, such as carotid blood flow, were also improved in early versus late reperfusion groups (113±20 vs 43±17 mL/min after 240 minutes of ECPR, respectively; P=0.030), along with infarct size decrease (71±4% vs 84±2% of the risk zone, respectively; P=0.013). Early reperfusion improved hemodynamic status and facilitated return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine model of ischemic cardiac arrest treated by ECPR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Peptides during Ischemic Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2016-02-01

    Experiments on rats showed that neurospecific protein preparations reduce the severity of neurological deficit, restore the structure of individual behavior of the animals with different hypoxia tolerance, and exert antioxidant action during chronic ischemic damage to the brain unfolding during the early and late phases of ischemic preconditioning.

  10. The Effect of Diazoxide Upon Heat Shock Protein and Physiological Response to Hemorrhagic Shock and Cerebral Stroke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    ischemic kidney model [121]. Photothrombic brain injury elicits the expression of HSP70 and HSP27 . HSP70 expression as early as one hour post-trauma...delineated the area of necrosis at 24 hours post-thrombic injury in ipsilateral cortex. HSP27 expression also was found to be upregulated and in fact...more globally expressed in the entire ipsilateral cerebral cortex, primarily in astrocytes [122]. 25 HSP25 and HSP27 Research demonstrates

  11. Cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Lemere, Cynthia A; Oh, Jiwon; Stanish, Heather A; Peng, Ying; Pepivani, Imelda; Fagan, Anne M; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Westmoreland, Susan V; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. In addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. Numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human AD brain, including Apo E and ubiquitin. The amyloid precursor protein and its shorter fragment, Abeta, are homologous between humans and non-human primates. Cerebral Abeta deposition has been reported previously for rhesus monkeys, vervets, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, lemurs, cynomologous monkeys, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Here we report, for the first time, age-related neuropathological changes in cotton-top tamarins (CTT, Saguinus oedipus), an endangered non-human primate native to the rainforests of Colombia and Costa Rica. Typical lifespan is 13-14 years of age in the wild and 15-20+ years in captivity. We performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Abeta deposition and associated pathogenesis in archived brain sections from 36 tamarins ranging in age from 6-21 years. Abeta plaque deposition was observed in 16 of the 20 oldest tamarins (>12 years). Plaques contained mainly Abeta42, and in the oldest animals, were associated with reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, Apo E, and ubiquitin-positive dystrophic neurites, similar to human plaques. Vascular Abeta was detected in 14 of the 20 aged tamarins; Abeta42 preceded Abeta40 deposition. Phospho-tau labeled dystrophic neurites and tangles, typically present in human AD, were absent in the tamarins. In conclusion, tamarins may represent a model of early AD pathology.

  12. Early vibration assisted physiotherapy in toddlers with cerebral palsy - a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Stark, C; Herkenrath, P; Hollmann, H; Waltz, S; Becker, I; Hoebing, L; Semler, O; Hoyer-Kuhn, H; Duran, I; Hero, B; Hadders-Algra, M; Schoenau, E

    2016-09-07

    to investigate feasibility, safety and efficacy of home-based side-alternating whole body vibration (sWBV) to improve motor function in toddlers with cerebral palsy (CP). Randomized controlled trial including 24 toddlers with CP (mean age 19 months (SD±3.1); 13 boys). 14 weeks sWBV with ten 9-minute sessions weekly (non-individualized). Group A started with sWBV, followed by 14 weeks without; in group B this order was reversed. Feasibility (≥70% adherence) and adverse events were recorded; efficacy evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), at baseline (T0), 14 (T1) and 28 weeks (T2). Developmental change between T0 and T1 was similar in both groups; change scores in group A and B: GMFM-66 2.4 (SD±2.1) and 3.3 (SD±2.9) (p=0.412); PEDI mobility 8.4 (SD±6.6) and 3.5 (SD±9.2) (p=0.148), respectively. In two children muscle tone increased post-sWBV. 24 children received between 67 and 140 sWBV sessions, rate of completed sessions ranged from 48 to 100% and no dropouts were observed. A 14-week home-based sWBV intervention was feasible and safe in toddlers with CP, but was not associated with improvement in gross motor function.

  13. Early vibration assisted physiotherapy in toddlers with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Stark, C.; Herkenrath, P.; Hollmann, H.; Waltz, S.; Becker, I.; Hoebing, L.; Semler, O.; Hoyer-Kuhn, H.; Duran, I.; Hero, B.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Schoenau, E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate feasibility, safety and efficacy of home-based side-alternating whole body vibration (sWBV) to improve motor function in toddlers with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Randomized controlled trial including 24 toddlers with CP (mean age 19 months (SD±3.1); 13 boys). Intervention: 14 weeks sWBV with ten 9-minute sessions weekly (non-individualized). Group A started with sWBV, followed by 14 weeks without; in group B this order was reversed. Feasibility (≥70% adherence) and adverse events were recorded; efficacy evaluated with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), at baseline (T0), 14 (T1) and 28 weeks (T2). Results: Developmental change between T0 and T1 was similar in both groups; change scores in group A and B: GMFM-66 2.4 (SD±2.1) and 3.3 (SD±2.9) (p=0.412); PEDI mobility 8.4 (SD±6.6) and 3.5 (SD±9.2) (p=0.148), respectively. In two children muscle tone increased post-sWBV. 24 children received between 67 and 140 sWBV sessions, rate of completed sessions ranged from 48 to 100% and no dropouts were observed. Conclusion: A 14-week home-based sWBV intervention was feasible and safe in toddlers with CP, but was not associated with improvement in gross motor function. PMID:27609033

  14. Transient ischemic attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery surgery - discharge Stroke - discharge Taking warfarin (Coumadin) Images Endarterectomy Transient Ischemic attack (TIA) References Biller J, Ruland S, Schneck MJ. Ischemic cerebrovascular disease. In Daroff ...

  15. Early Effects of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest and Ischemic Postconditioning during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Cardiac and Brain Mitochondrial Function in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Timothy R; Bartos, Jason A; Tsangaris, Adamantios; Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Olson, Matthew D; Riess, Matthias L; Bienengraeber, Martin; Aufderheide, Tom P; Neumar, Robert W; Rees, Jennifer N; McKnite, Scott H; Dikalova, Anna E; Dikalov, Sergey I; Douglas, Hunter F; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2017-07-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) is a prevalent medical crisis resulting in severe injury to the heart and brain and an overall survival of less than 10%. Mitochondrial dysfunction is predicted to be a key determinant of poor outcomes following prolonged CA. However, the onset and severity of mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not fully understood. Ischemic postconditioning (IPC), controlled pauses during the initiation of CPR, has been shown to improve cardiac function and neurologically favorable outcomes after 15min of CA. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction develops during prolonged CA and can be rescued with IPC during CPR (IPC-CPR). A total of 63 swine were randomized to no ischemia (Naïve), 19min of ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA without CPR (Untreated VF), or 15min of CA with 4min of reperfusion with either standard CPR (S-CPR) or IPC-CPR. Mitochondria were isolated from the heart and brain to quantify respiration, rate of ATP synthesis, and calcium retention capacity (CRC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified from fresh frozen heart and brain tissue. Compared to Naïve, Untreated VF induced cardiac and brain ROS overproduction concurrent with decreased mitochondrial respiratory coupling and CRC, as well as decreased cardiac ATP synthesis. Compared to Untreated VF, S-CPR attenuated brain ROS overproduction but had no other effect on mitochondrial function in the heart or brain. Compared to Untreated VF, IPC-CPR improved cardiac mitochondrial respiratory coupling and rate of ATP synthesis, and decreased ROS overproduction in the heart and brain. Fifteen minutes of VF CA results in diminished mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, CRC, and increased ROS production in the heart and brain. IPC-CPR attenuates cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by prolonged VF CA after only 4min of reperfusion, suggesting that IPC-CPR is an effective intervention to reduce cardiac

  16. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    SciT

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned aftermore » intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.« less

  17. Cerebral activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases after circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Aharon, Alon S; Mulloy, Matthew R; Drinkwater, Davis C; Lao, Oliver B; Johnson, Mahlon D; Thunder, Megan; Yu, Chang; Chang, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are important intermediates in the signal transduction pathways involved in neuronal dysfunction following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. One subfamily, extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, has been heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of post-ischemic neuronal damage. However, the contribution of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 to neuronal damage following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass is unknown. We attempted to correlate the extent of neuronal damage present following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass with phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 expression in the cerebral vascular endothelium. Piglets underwent normal flow cardiopulmonary bypass (n=4) deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (n=6) and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass (n=5). Brains were harvested following 24 h of post-cardiopulmonary bypass recovery. Cerebral cortical watershed zones, hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, mesencephalon, pons and medulla were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. A section of ischemic cortex was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase 1/2. Compared to cardiopulmonary bypass controls, the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass piglets exhibited diffuse ischemic changes with overlapping severity and distribution. Significant neuronal damage occurred in the frontal watershed zones and basal ganglia of the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group (P<0.05). No detectable phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 immunoreactivity was found in the cardiopulmonary bypass controls; however, ERK 1/2 immunoreactivity was present in the cerebral vascular endothelium of the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass groups. Our results indicate that phosphorylated

  18. The Central Bright Spot Sign: A Potential New MR Imaging Sign for the Early Diagnosis of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy due to Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Remond, P; Attyé, A; Lecler, A; Lamalle, L; Boudiaf, N; Aptel, F; Krainik, A; Chiquet, C

    2017-07-01

    A rapid identification of the etiology of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is crucial because it determines therapeutic management. Our aim was to assess MR imaging to study the optic nerve head in patients referred with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, due to either giant cell arteritis or the nonarteritic form of the disease, compared with healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and 15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from 2 medical centers were prospectively included in our study between August 2015 and May 2016. Fifteen healthy subjects and patients had undergone contrast-enhanced, flow-compensated, 3D T1-weighted MR imaging. The bright spot sign was defined as optic nerve head enhancement with a 3-grade ranking system. Two radiologists and 1 ophthalmologist independently performed blinded evaluations of MR imaging sequences with this scale. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement. MR imaging scores were significantly higher in patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy than in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .05). All patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (15/15) and 7/15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy presented with the bright spot sign. No healthy subjects exhibited enhancement of the anterior part of the optic nerve. There was a significant relationship between the side of the bright spot and the side of the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .001). Interreader agreement was good for observers (κ = 0.815). Here, we provide evidence of a new MR imaging sign that identifies the acute stage of giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; patients without this central bright spot sign always had a nonarteritic pathophysiology and therefore did not require emergency corticosteroid

  19. Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

  20. Technetium-99m(Sn2+)pyrophosphate in ischemic and infarcted dog myocardium in early stages of acute coronary occlusion: histochemical and tissue-counting comparisons

    SciT

    Bianco, J.A.; Kemper, A.J.; Taylor, A.

    1983-06-01

    We have investigated the pattern of accumulation of Tc-99m(Sn2+)pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi) in myocardial tissue of dogs during the early stages of acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Three groups were studied after: (a) 40 min occlusion followed by 6 hr reperfusion (n . 6); (b) 6 hr occlusion followed by one hour reperfusion (n . 5); and (c) 7 hr occlusion with no reperfusion (n . 4). Areas of myocardial infarction were defined with triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and blood flow was determined with 9-mu radioactive microspheres. In Group C uptake in infarcted and peri-infarct areas wasmore » not enhanced, most likely owing to low flow. In Group B, with late reperfusion, Tc-99m PPi sequestration was increased in both infarcted and peri-infarcted tissues. In Group A, areas ischemic during occlusion but with normal flow and viability by TTC after 6 hr of reperfusion showed significant uptake of Tc-99m PPi (twice the uptake of nonischemic regions).« less

  1. Improvement in Cerebral and Ocular Hemodynamics Early after Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients of Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis with or without Contralateral Carotid Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Weici; Jin, Bi; Zhang, Yanrong; Xu, Ping; Xiang, Feixiang; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Juan; Sheng, Shi; Ouyang, Chenxi; Li, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the alternation in cerebral and ocular blood flow velocity (BFV) in patients of carotid stenosis (CS) with or without contralateral carotid occlusion (CO) early after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients and Methods. Nineteen patients underwent CEA for ≥50% CS. Fourteen patients had the unilateral CS, and five patients had the ipsilateral CS and the contralateral CO. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and Color Doppler Imaging (CDI) were performed before and early after CEA. Results. In patients with unilateral CS, significant improvements in BFV were observed in anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the ipsilateral side after CEA. In patients of ipsilateral CS and contralateral CO, significant improvements in BFV were observed in the ACA and MCA not only on the ipsilateral side but also on the contralateral side postoperatively. The ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OA) retrograde flows in two patients were recovered to anterograde direction following CEA. The BFV in short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) of the ipsilateral side significantly increased postoperatively irrespective of the presence of contralateral CO. Conclusions. CEA improved cerebral anterior circulation hemodynamics especially in patients of unilateral CS and contralateral CO, normalized the OA reverse flow, and increased the blood perfusion of SPCA.

  2. Early Methylprednisolone Treatment Can Stabilize the Blood-Optic Nerve Barrier in a Rat Model of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (rAION).

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Lun; Wen, Yao-Tseng; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Shu-Wen; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether methylprednisolone (MP) treatment halting retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and having anti-inflammatory effect over a narrow therapeutic window affects the integrity of the blood-optic nerve barrier (BOB) in a rat model of ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). The optic nerve (ON) vascular permeability was determined by Evans blue extravasation. Changes in the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from day 1 to day 5 post-rAION. Rats were treated with MP starting on days 0, 1, 2, and 7 post-rAION. The survival and apoptosis of the RGCs were determined by fluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, and the visual function was assessed with flash visual-evoked potentials (FVEPs) 4 weeks postinfarct. Inflammation of the ON was detected by immunohistochemical staining of ED1. Macrophage recruitment in the ON was significantly reduced, which was compatible with the reduction in ON vascular permeability, after MP treatment starting on days 0 and 1 postinsult compared to PBS treatment (both, P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β expression in MP-treated rats (all, P < 0.05). The survival number and antiapoptotic effect on RGCs, and the P1-N2 FVEP amplitude significantly improved with MP treatment starting on days 0 and 1 (all, P < 0.05). Early treatment with MP halts RGC death and mitigates macrophage infiltration with decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines in acute rAION. The very narrow therapeutic window is related to the quick stabilization of the disrupted BOB by early application of MP.

  3. Ischemic Strokes (Clots)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Ischemic Strokes (Clots) Updated:May 21,2018 Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87 percent of all cases. View a detailed animation of ischemic stroke . Ischemic strokes occur as a result of an ...

  4. [New developments in spastic unilateral cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, S; Roubertie, A; Allard, D; Bonhomme, C; Gautheron, V

    2010-01-01

    Hemiplegic (or spastic unilateral) cerebral palsy accounts for about 30% of all cases of cerebral palsy. With a population prevalence of 0.6 per 1000 live births, it is the most common type of cerebral palsy among term-born children and the second most common type after diplegia among preterm infants. Many types of prenatal and perinatal brain injury can lead to congenital hemiplegia and brain MRI is the most useful tool to classify them with accuracy and to provide early prognostic information. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke thus appears as the leading cause in term infants, whereas encephalopathy of prematurity is the most common cause in premature babies. Other causes include brain malformations, neonatal sinovenous thrombosis, parenchymal hemorrhage (for example due to coagulopathy or alloimmune thrombocytopenia) and the more recently described familial forms of porencephaly associated with mutations in the COL4A1 gene. In adjunction with pharmacologic treatment (botulinium neurotoxin injection), new evidence-based rehabilitational interventions, such as constraint-induced movement therapy and mirror therapy, are increasingly being used.

  5. Memantine mediates neuroprotection via regulating neurovascular unit in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-Zhen; Yang, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Zhan; Yan, Hui; Ji, Juan; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2016-04-01

    Memantine is a low-moderate affinity and uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, which is also a potential neuroprotectant in acute ischemic stroke for its particular action profiles. The present study was to reveal the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection of memantine. We used a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia via middle cerebral artery occlusion to verify our hypothesis. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to compare infarct size. The amount of astrocytes and the somal volume of the microglia cell body were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and stereological estimates. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expressions. Memantine prevented cerebral ischemia-induced brain infarct and neuronal injury, and reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, memantine reduced the amount of the damaged astrocytes and over activated microglia after 24h of ischemia. In the early phase of ischemia, higher production of MMP-9 was observed, and thereby collagen IV was dramatically disrupted. Meanwhile, the post-synaptic density protein 95(PSD-95) was also severely cleavaged. Memantine decreased MMP-9 secretion, prevented the degradation of collagen IV in mouse brain. PSD-95 cleavage was also inhibited by memantine. These results suggested that memantine exerted neuroprotection effects in acute ischemic brain damage, partially via improving the functions of neurovascular unit. Taking all these findings together, we consider that memantine might be a promising protective agent against ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mullen scales of early learning: the utility in assessing children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burns, Thomas G; King, Tricia Z; Spencer, Katherine S

    2013-01-01

    A group of 47 patients diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders were compared to 47 age-, gender-, and racially matched typically developing children to examine the frequency of impairment across domains of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). The MSEL is a comprehensive measure of cognitive functioning designed to assess infants and preschool children between the ages of birth to 68 months. In the neurodevelopmental group, the sample was composed of children 2 to 4 years of age who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 19), cerebral palsy (CP; n = 14), and epilepsy (EPI; n = 14). A sample of 47 matched controls, taken from the normative sample of the MSEL, was used as a comparison group. Each one of the clinical groups comprising the neurodevelopmental sample demonstrated statistically significant delays across domains relative to the respective matched control group (p < .001). Children failed to demonstrate a "signature" profile for a diagnosis of ASD, CP, or EPI. The clinical sensitivity of the MSEL and the need for obtaining specific intervention services for children diagnosed with these conditions are presented. Finally, these results are discussed within the context of the clinical sensitivity of the MSEL in working with these clinical populations.

  7. Early prediction of cerebral palsy by computer-based video analysis of general movements: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Adde, Lars; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Jensenius, Alexander R; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Grunewaldt, Kristine H; Støen, Ragnhild

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of a computer-based video analysis of the development of cerebral palsy (CP) in young infants. A prospective study of general movements used recordings from 30 high-risk infants (13 males, 17 females; mean gestational age 31wks, SD 6wks; range 23-42wks) between 10 and 15 weeks post term when fidgety movements should be present. Recordings were analysed using computer vision software. Movement variables, derived from differences between subsequent video frames, were used for quantitative analyses. CP status was reported at 5 years. Thirteen infants developed CP (eight hemiparetic, four quadriparetic, one dyskinetic; seven ambulatory, three non-ambulatory, and three unknown function), of whom one had fidgety movements. Variability of the centroid of motion had a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 71% in identifying CP. By combining this with variables reflecting the amount of motion, specificity increased to 88%. Nine out of 10 children with CP, and for whom information about functional level was available, were correctly predicted with regard to ambulatory and non-ambulatory function. Prediction of CP can be provided by computer-based video analysis in young infants. The method may serve as an objective and feasible tool for early prediction of CP in high-risk infants.

  8. Perinatal ischemic stroke: a five-year retrospective study in a level-III maternity

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Virgínia; Pimentel, Sónia; Pinto, Filomena; Nona, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, imaging diagnosis, and clinical outcome of perinatal stroke. Methods Data was retrospectively collected from full-term newborns admitted to the neonatal unit of a level III maternity in Lisbon with cerebral stroke, from January 2007 to December 2011. Results There were 11 cases of stroke: nine were arterial ischemic stroke and two were cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We estimated an incidence of arterial ischemic stroke of 1.6/5,000 births and of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis of 7.2/100,000 births. There were two cases of recurrent stroke. Eight patients presented with symptoms while the remaining three were asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. The most frequently registered symptoms (8/11) were seizures; in that, generalized clonic (3/8) and focal clonic (5/8). Strokes were more commonly left-sided (9/11), and the most affected artery was the left middle cerebral artery (8/11). Transfontanelle ultrasound was positive in most of the patients (10/11), and stroke was confirmed by cerebral magnetic resonance in all patients. Electroencephalographic recordings were carried out in five patients and were abnormal in three (focal abnormalities n=2, burst-suppression pattern n=1). Eight patients had previously identified risk factors for neonatal stroke which included obstetric and neonatal causes. Ten patients were followed up at outpatients setting; four patients developed motor deficits and one presented with epilepsy. Conclusions Although a modest and heterogeneous sample, this study emphasizes the need for a high level of suspicion when it comes to neonatal stroke, primarily in the presence of risk factors. The prevalence of neurological sequelae in our series supports the need of long-term follow-up and early intervention strategies. PMID:25993071

  9. Intermittent fasting attenuates inflammasome activity in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fann, David Yang-Wei; Santro, Tomislav; Manzanero, Silvia; Widiapradja, Alexander; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Lee, Seung-Yoon; Chunduri, Prasad; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Stranahan, Alexis M; Mattson, Mark P; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2014-07-01

    Recent findings have revealed a novel inflammatory mechanism that contributes to tissue injury in cerebral ischemia mediated by multi-protein complexes termed inflammasomes. Intermittent fasting (IF) can decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periphery and brain. Here we investigated the impact of IF (16h of food deprivation daily) for 4months on NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activities following cerebral ischemia. Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6J mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (I/R). IF decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, the expression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins, and both IL-1β and IL-18 in the ischemic brain tissue. These findings demonstrate that IF can attenuate the inflammatory response and tissue damage following ischemic stroke by a mechanism involving suppression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ABCD2 score and BNP level in patients with TIA and cerebral stroke.

    PubMed

    Mortezabeigi, H R; Taghizadeh, A; Talebi, M; Amini, K; Goldust, M

    2013-11-01

    Scoring systems have been designed to help physicians in early prediction of cerebral stroke following Transitional Ischemic Attack (TIA). ABCD2 system is one of these scoring systems. Considering increase of brain natriuretic peptide following cerebral ischemic stroke, BNP level may be associated with incidence of ischemic stroke following TIA. The present study evaluates ABCD2 score, BNP level in patients with TIA and incidence of cerebral stroke. This cross sectional-analytical study evaluated 78 patients with TIA. ABCD2 score was calculated for all patients based on some criteria including age, blood pressure, clinical manifestations (speech/motor disorder), symptoms duration and diabetes. BNP level was measured at the reference laboratory when the patient referred to the treatment center. The patients were followed up for 6 months considering incidence of cerebral stroke and TIA. Mean age of the patients was 66.53 +/- 13.08 years and the sample was consisted of 62.8% male and 37.2% female patients. Mean BNP level and mean ABCD2 score was 611.31 +/- 125.61 and 4.61 +/- 10.99 in all patients, respectively. During follow-up period, TIA recurrence and cerebral stroke were, respectively seen in 11.5 and 3.8% of cases. Mortality was reported in 5.1% of the patients. BNP was significantly higher in cases with recursive TIA (p = 0.03). But, there was not any difference considering ABCD2 score (p = 0.38). BNP is capable of predicting TIA recurrence following first TIA and it can be used in this case.

  11. Early Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Brain Volume, Cognition, and Gait

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric E; O'Donnell, Martin; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott A; Wielgosz, Andreas; Sharma, Mukul; Poirier, Paul; Stotts, Grant; Black, Sandra E; Strother, Stephen; Noseworthy, Michael D; Benavente, Oscar; Modi, Jayesh; Goyal, Mayank; Batool, Saima; Sanchez, Karla; Hill, Vanessa; McCreary, Cheryl R; Frayne, Richard; Islam, Shofiqul; DeJesus, Jane; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Objective Decline in cognitive function begins by the 40s, and may be related to future dementia risk. We used data from a community-representative study to determine whether there are age-related differences in simple cognitive and gait tests by the 40s, and whether these differences were associated with covert cerebrovascular disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Between 2010 and 2012, 803 participants aged 40 to 75 years in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, recruited from prespecified postal code regions centered on 4 Canadian cities, underwent brain MRI and simple tests of cognition and gait as part of a substudy (PURE-MIND). Results Mean age was 58 ± 8 years. Linear decreases in performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and Timed Up and Go test of gait were seen with each age decade from the 40s to the 70s. Silent brain infarcts were observed in 3% of 40- to 49-year-olds, with increasing prevalence up to 18.9% in 70-year-olds. Silent brain infarcts were associated with slower timed gait and lower volume of supratentorial white matter. Higher volume of supratentorial MRI white matter hyperintensity was associated with slower timed gait and worse performance on DSST, and lower volumes of the supratentorial cortex and white matter, and cerebellum. Interpretation Covert cerebrovascular disease and its consequences on cognitive and gait performance and brain atrophy are manifest in some clinically asymptomatic persons as early as the 5th decade of life. Ann Neurol 2015;77:251–261 PMID:25428654

  12. Sensorimotor Functional and Structural Networks after Intracerebral Stem Cell Grafts in the Ischemic Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Green, Claudia; Minassian, Anuka; Vogel, Stefanie; Diedenhofen, Michael; Beyrau, Andreas; Wiedermann, Dirk; Hoehn, Mathias

    2018-02-14

    Past investigations on stem cell-mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke. We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase. Functional and structural connectivity changes of the sensorimotor network were noninvasively monitored using magnetic resonance imaging for 3 months after stem cell implantation. A sharp decrease of the functional sensorimotor network extended even to the contralateral hemisphere, persisting for the whole 12 weeks of observation. In mice with stem cell implantation, functional networks were stabilized early on, pointing to a paracrine effect as an early supportive mechanism of the graft. This stabilization required the persistent vitality of the stem cells, monitored by bioluminescence imaging. Thus, we also observed deterioration of the early network stabilization upon vitality loss of the graft after a few weeks. Structural connectivity analysis showed fiber-density increases between the cortex and white matter regions occurring predominantly on the ischemic hemisphere. These fiber-density changes were nearly the same for both study groups. This motivated us to hypothesize that the stem cells can influence, via early paracrine effect, the functional networks, while observed structural changes are mainly stimulated by the ischemic event. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, research on strokes has made a shift away from a focus on immediate ischemic effects and towards an emphasis on the long-range effects of the lesion on the whole brain. Outcome improvements in stem cell therapies also require the understanding of

  13. The synergetic effect of edaravone and borneol in the rat model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Yin; Tang, Ying; Gao, Li-Yan; Sun, Wei-Xiang; Hua, Yao; Yang, Shi-Bao; Zhang, Zheng-Ping; Liao, Gao-Yong; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2014-10-05

    Free radical production contributes to the early ischemic response and the neuroinflammatory response to injury initiates the second wave of cell death following ischemic stroke. Edaravone is a free radical scavenger, and borneol has shown anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the synergistic effect of these two drugs in the rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Edaravone scavenged OH, NO and ONOO─ concentration-dependently, and borneol inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. In the rat model of transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, the combination of edaravone and borneol significantly ameliorated ischemic damage with an optimal proportion of 4:1. Emax (% inhibition) of edaravone, borneol and two drugs in combination was 55.7%, 65.8% and 74.3% respectively. ED50 of edaravone and borneol was 7.17 and 0.36 mg/kg respectively. When two drugs in combination, ED50 was 0.484 mg/kg, in which edaravone was 0.387 mg/kg (ineffective dose) and borneol was 0.097 mg/kg (ineffective dose). Combination index (CI)<1 among effects observed in experiments, suggesting a significant synergistic effect. Reduced levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and free radicals were probably associated with the synergistic effect of edaravone and borneol. The combination exhibited a therapeutic time window of 6h in ischemia/reperfusion model, and significantly ameliorated damages in permanent ischemia model. Moreover, two drugs in combination promoted long-term effect, including improved elemental vital signs, sensorimotor functions and spatial cognition. Our results suggest that the combination of edaravone and borneol have a synergistic effect for treating ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (<30 weeks' gestation or <1250 g) born between April 11, 2001, and April 26, 2004, and followed up at 7 years' corrected age. The setting was The Royal Women's Hospital and The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Of 224 VPT infants and 46 full-term (FT) infants, usable magnetic resonance imaging data at either infancy or 7 years were collected for 214 VPT children (95.5%) and 46 FT children (100%), while 126 VPT children (56.3%) and 31 FT children (67.4%) had usable magnetic resonance imaging data at both time points. Follow-up was conducted from April 28, 2008, to August 9, 2011. Our final analysis was on March 3, 2016. Prematurity. Absolute tissue growth, defined as change in absolute tissue volume, between infancy and 7 years was calculated for cortical gray matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV), and subcortical GMV. IQ, language, and motor function were measured at 7 years. The study cohort comprised 260 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 7.5 (0.2) years, and 49.2% (128 of 260) were female. Early GMV deficits in VPT infants were magnified by 7 years, with less growth than FT controls. Growth differences were 31.4 (95% CI, 14.8-48.1) cm3 for cortical GMV and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.5-2.8) cm3 for subcortical GMV. Within the VPT group, greater growth was observed in boys for cortical GMV (31.9; 95% CI, 16.8-46.9 cm3), WMV (31.7; 95% CI, 19.7-43.7 cm3), and subcortical GMV (1.8; 95% CI, 0.8-2.8 cm3). After controlling for sex and

  15. Comparison of CT perfusion summary maps to early diffusion-weighted images in suspected acute middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Salazar, Pascal; Jagadeesan, Bharathi; Palmer, Christopher S; Truwit, Charles L; McKinney, Alexander M

    2015-04-01

    To assess the accuracy and reliability of one vendor's (Vital Images, Toshiba Medical, Minnetonka, MN) automated CT perfusion (CTP) summary maps in identification and volume estimation of infarcted tissue in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) distribution infarcts. From 1085 CTP examinations over 5.5 years, 43 diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-positive patients were included who underwent both CTP and DWI <12 h after symptom onset, with another 43 age-matched patients as controls (DWI-negative). Automated delay-corrected postprocessing software (DC-SVD) generated both infarct "core only" and "core+penumbra" CTP summary maps. Three reviewers independently tabulated Alberta Stroke Program Early CT scores (ASPECTS) of both CTP summary maps and coregistered DWI. Of 86 included patients, 36 had DWI infarct volumes ≤70 ml, 7 had volumes >70 ml, and 43 were negative; the automated CTP "core only" map correctly classified each as >70 ml or ≤70 ml, while the "core+penumbra" map misclassified 4 as >70 ml. There were strong correlations between DWI volume with both summary map-based volumes: "core only" (r=0.93), and "core+penumbra" (r=0.77) (both p<0.0001). Agreement between ASPECTS scores of infarct core on DWI with summary maps was 0.65-0.74 for "core only" map, and 0.61-0.65 for "core+penumbra" (both p<0.0001). Using DWI-based ASPECTS scores as the standard, the accuracy of the CTP-based maps were 79.1-86.0% for the "core only" map, and 83.7-88.4% for "core+penumbra." Automated CTP summary maps appear to be relatively accurate in both the detection of acute MCA distribution infarcts, and the discrimination of volumes using a 70 ml threshold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early detection of cerebral microbleeds following traumatic brain injury using MRI in the hyper-acute phase.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Tim P; Pretorius, Pieter M; Ezra, Martyn; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom; Voets, Natalie L

    2017-08-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in people under 45. Advanced imaging techniques to identify injury and classify severity in the first few hours and days following trauma could improve patient stratification and aid clinical decision making. Traumatic cerebral microbleeds (TCMBs), detectable on magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), can be used as markers of long-term clinical outcome. However, the relationship between TCMBs and injury severity in the first few hours after injury, and their natural evolution, is unknown. We obtained SWI scans in 10 healthy controls, and 13 patients scanned 3-24h following TBI and again at 7-15days. TCMBs were identified and total volume quantified for every lesion in each scan. TCMBs were present in 6 patients, all with more severe injury classified by GCS. No lesions were identified in patients with an initial GCS of 15. Improvement in GCS in the first 15days following injury was significantly associated with a reduction in microbleed volume over the same time-period. MRI is feasible in severely injured patients in the first 24h after trauma. Detection of TCMBs using SWI provides an objective early marker of injury severity following trauma. TCMBs revealed in this time frame, offer the potential to help determine the degree of injury, improving stratification, in order to identify patients who require admission to hospital, transfer to a specialist center, or an extended period of intubation on intensive care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroprotective mechanism of BNG-1 against focal cerebral ischemia: a neuroimaging and neurotrophin study.

    PubMed

    Chi, Nai-Fang; Liu, Ho-Ling; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liao, Shu-Li; Peng, Bo-Han; Lee, Yen-Tung; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2014-01-01

    BNG-1 is a herb complex used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stroke. In this study, we attempted to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of BNG-1 by using neuroimaging and neurotrophin analyses of a stroke animal model. Rats were treated with either saline or BNG-1 for 7 d after 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion by filament model. The temporal change of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of brain was studied using a 7 Tesla MR imaging (MRI) system and the temporal expressions of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in brain were analyzed before operation and at 4 h, 2 d, and 7 d after operation. Compared with the saline group, the BNG-1 group exhibited a smaller infarction volume in the cerebral cortex in T2 image from as early as 4 h to 7 d, less edema in the cortex in diffusion weighted image from 2 to 7 d, earlier reduction of postischemic hyperperfusion in both the cortex and striatum in perfusion image at 4 h, and earlier normalization of the ischemic pattern in the striatum in susceptibility weighted image at 2 d. NT-3 and BDNF levels were higher in the BNG-1 group than the saline group at 7 d. We concluded that the protective effect of BNG-1 against cerebral ischemic injury might act through improving cerebral hemodynamics and recovering neurotrophin generation.

  18. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  19. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  20. Evaluation of urinary S100B protein level and lactate/creatinine ratio for early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zheng, Chong-Xun; Peng, Shu-Feng; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Su, Zu-You; He, Li; Ai, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and prevention of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns may reduce neonatal mortality and neurological dysfunction. To analyze the diagnostic and prognostic values of urinary S100B level and lactate/creatinine ratio in newborns with HIE. Seventy-eight full-term newborns with HIE and 25 normal newborns were enrolled. The Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) and Developmental Screening Test were scored. The concentration of urinary S100B protein was determined using the S100B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the levels of urinary lactate and creatinine were measured with the enzyme colorimetric method. Urinary S100B level on days 1-3 after birth and lactate/creatinine ratio on day 1 were significantly higher in newborns with HIE than those in the control group. Both indexes were positively correlated with the clinical grading of HIE. A cutoff value for the S100B level of 0.47 microg/l on day 3 after birth had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 92% for prediction of HIE. A lactate/creatinine ratio of more than 0.55 on day 1 showed the highest sensitivity (92%) and specificity (90%). A combination of both indexes improved the sensitivity and specificity to 99 and 97%, respectively. A negative correlation of both lactate/creatinine ratio on day 1 and S100B level on days 1-3 after birth with the NBNA score was identified on days 3, 7 and 14 after birth. The Developmental Screening Test score of 36 newborns with HIE within 6 months after birth showed that 65% of infants with moderate and high HIE had an abnormal developmental quotient. These data suggest that early measurement of both S100B level and lactate/creatinine ratio in the urine of newborns with HIE is a practical convenient and sensitive way to improve diagnosis on the third day of life and prognostic prediction of HIE. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Current Estimation of the Early Risk of Stroke after Transient Ischemic Attack: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Valls, Joan; Peiro-Chamarro, Maranta; Cambray, Serafí; Molina-Seguin, Jessica; Benabdelhak, Ikram; Purroy, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a decrease in the risk of subsequent stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA) when urgent care (UC) is administered. However, no meta-analysis has been developed with contemporaneous TIA studies. We perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis to establish the risk of early stroke recurrence (SR) considering data from studies that offered UC to TIA patients. We searched for studies, without language restriction, from January 2007 to January 2015 according to PRISMA guidelines. We included studies with TIA patients who underwent UC and reported the proportion of SR at 90 days. We excluded studies that were centered on less than 100 patients and cohorts including both stroke and TIA, if stroke risk after TIA was not described. For its relevance, we included the TIAregistry.org study published in 2016. We performed both fixed and random effects meta-analyses to determine SR and assess sources of heterogeneity. From 4,103 identified citations, we selected 15 papers that included 14,889 patients. There was great variation in terms of the number of patients included in each study, ranging from 115 to 4,160. Seven studies were TIA clinic based. The mean age and the percentage of men were similar among studies, ranging from 62.4 to 73.1 years and 45.1-62%, respectively. The reported risk of stroke ranged from 0 to 1.46% 2 days after TIA (9 studies included), 0-2.55% 7 days after TIA (11 studies included), 1.91-2.85% 30 days after TIA (4 studies included), and 0.62-4.76% 90 days after TIA (all studies included). The pooled stroke risk was 3.42% (95% CI 3.14-3.74) at 90 days, 2.78% (95% CI 2.47-3.12) at 30 days, 2.06% (95% CI 1.83-2.33) at 7 days and 1.36% (95% CI 1.15-1.59) at 2 days. Although we did not find statistically significant heterogeneity in SR among studies, those with a higher proportion of patients with motor weakness had a significantly higher risk of SR. No statistically significant association was

  2. [Ischemic brain injury and hepatocyte growth factor].

    PubMed

    Takeo, Satoshi; Takagi, Norio; Takagi, Keiko

    2007-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia causes an irreversible and neurodegenerative disorder that may lead to progressive dementia and global cognitive deterioration. Since the overall process of ischemic brain injuries is extremely complex, treatment with endogenous multifunctional factors would be better choices for preventing complicated ischemic brain injuries. Hepatocyte growth factor, HGF, is a multifunctional cytokine originally identified and purified as a potent mitogen for hepatocyte. The activation of the c-Met/HGF receptor evokes diverse cellular responses, including mitogenic, morphogenic, angiogenic and anti-apoptotic activities in various types of cell. Previous studies showed that HGF and c-Met were expressed in various brain regions under normal conditions and that HGF enhanced the survival of hippocampal and cortical neurons during the aging of cells in culture. The protective effects of HGF on in vivo ischemic brain injuries and their mechanisms have not fully understood. To elucidate therapeutic potencies of HGF for ischemic brain injuries, we examined effects of HGF on ischemia-induced learning and memory dysfunction, neuronal cell death and endothelial cell damage by using the 4-vessel occlusion model and the microsphere embolism model in rats. Our findings suggested that treatment with HGF was capable of protecting hippocampal neurons against ischemia-induced cell death through the prevention of apoptosis-inducing factor translocation to the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HGF had the ability to prevent tissue degeneration and improved learning and memory function after cerebral embolism, possibly through prevention of cerebral vessel injuries. As HGF has a potent cerebroprotective effect, it could be a prospective agent for the therapy against complicated ischemic brain diseases.

  3. Cerebral infarction caused by traumatic carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Bayır, Ayşegül; Aydoğdu Kıreşi, Demet; Söylemez, Ali; Demirci, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Traumatic carotid artery dissection, if not diagnosed and treated early, is a serious problem with permanent neurological deficit and a high mortality rate of up to 40%. We present a case with delayed diagnosis of traumatic carotid artery dissection in a 21-year-old female. While there were no ischemic infarct findings on the admission cerebral computerized tomography (CT), such findings were observed on two cerebral CTs taken because of the left hemiplegia noticed seven days later when the patient regained consciousness. The patient was referred to our emergency service, and definitive diagnosis was achieved with arterial Doppler ultrasonography, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI, and MR angiography. We did not consider invasive treatment since the neurological damage was permanent and dissection grade was IV according to angiography findings. The case was discharged within a week and physiotherapy was advised. Despite the advances in diagnostic methods, diagnosis of traumatic carotid artery dissection is still missed or delayed, as in the case presented here. Early diagnosis can ameliorate permanent neurological damage or even prevent it. However, the vital factors for early diagnosis are the obtained anamnesis leading to appropriate radiological examinations, detailed physical examination and high clinical suspicion.

  4. Early Cerebral Blood Volume Changes Predict Progression After Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Topotecan for Recurrent Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Krishna; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Yanagihara, Ted K; DeLaPaz, Robert; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether early changes in enhancing tumor volume (eTV) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) 1 month after convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan in patients with recurrent malignant glioma correlated with 6-month disease progression status. Sixteen patients were enrolled in a Phase Ib trial of convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan for recurrent malignant glioma. Each patient was evaluated with serial follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at 4- to 8-week intervals. Changes at 1 month compared with baseline in eTV and rCBV were evaluated as potential predictors of 6-month progression status, classified as either progressive disease or nonprogressive disease. Relationships between percent changes in eTV and rCBV at 1 month with the probability of progressive disease at 6 months were estimated by the use of logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves for varying percent change thresholds in eTV and rCBV were evaluated by the use of 6-month progressive disease as the reference. There was a significant difference in the percent change in rCBV at 1 month in patients with progressive disease compared with those with nonprogressive disease at 6 months (+12% vs. -29%, P = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated on average that a 10% increase in rCBV at 1 month after convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan was associated with 1.7 times the odds of developing progressive disease at 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.9 P = 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic analysis for determining progressive disease at 6 months showed a greater area under the curve with rCBV (0.867; 95% CI 0.66-1.00) than with change in enhancing tumor volume (0.767; 95% CI 0.51-1.00). In this selected population of patients with recurrent malignant glioma treated with convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan, early changes in rCBV at 4 weeks after therapy may help predict progression status at 6 months. Copyright

  5. [Value of early-stage cerebral oxygen utilization coefficient in predicting delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Li, W; Li, N; Xiao, Q M; He, J Q; Wang, W Z; Qi, H N; Wang, P

    2017-05-20

    Objective: To investigate the dynamic change in cerebral oxygen utilization coefficient (O(2)UCc) in the early stage of acute severe carbon monoxide poisoning (ASCMP) and its value in predicting delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) . Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for patients with ASCMP who were admitted to our hospital from November 2013 to March 2016, and their baseline features and physiological parameters were recorded. Observation ended at two months after acute poisoning; according to the presence or absence of DEACMP, the patients were divided into DEACMP group with 21 patients and non-DEACMP group with 64 patients. The change in O(2)UCc was monitored on admission and at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Spearman correlation was used to investigate the correlation between O(2)UCc and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the accuracy of O(2)UCc in predicting DEACMP. Results: Both groups had a significant increase in O(2)UCc on admission, and the DEACMP group had a significantly greater increase than the non-DEACMP group (52.57%±9.30% vs 41.46±%6.37%, P <0.05) . Then both groups tended to have a reduction in O(2)UCc, and the DEACMP group had a significantly higher O(2)UCc than the non-DEACMP group at 6, 24, and 48 hours (47.40%±7.92%, 39.38%±8.01%, and 32.29%±6.31% vs 34.51%±7.89%, 28.79%±5.4%, and 27.72%±5.46%, P <0.05) . On admission and at 6, 24, and 48 hours, O2UCc was positively correlated with APACHE II score ( r =0.304, 0.398, 0.426, and 0.300, P =0.005, 0.000, 0.000, and 0.005) . The ROC curve showed that O(2)UCc had a value in predicting DEACMP on admission and at 6, 24, and 48 hours, and 6-hour O2UCc had the highest predictive value with an area under the ROC curve of 0.870 (95% confidence interval 0.794-0.947, P <0.05) . Conclusion: The dynamic change in O(2)UCc has a reference value in

  6. Effects of edaravone, the free radical scavenger, on outcomes in acute cerebral infarction patients treated with ultra-early thrombolysis of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xian-Ru; Xiang, Gui-Ling

    2018-04-01

    Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, alleviates blood-brain barrier disruption in conjunction with suppression of the inflammatory reaction in acute cerebral infarction. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is an established therapy for acute cerebral infarction patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of edaravone on outcomes in acute cerebral infarction patients treated with ultra-early thrombolysis of iv-rt-PA. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the database of Ningbo First Hospital. We identified patients who were admitted with a primary diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction and treated with intravenous rtPA(iv-rtPA) within 3 h of symptom onset from March 1st in 2014 to October 31st in 2016.Thenceforth,the patients were divided into 2 groups by treatment with(edaravone group) or without edaravone(non-edaravone group). Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and mRS score at admission were used. Clinical background, risk factors for acute cerebral infarction hemorrhagic transformation, 7-day mortality, recanalization rate, bleeding complications and blood rheology indexes were collected. We also collected the following factors: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, barthel index. 136 patients treated without edaravone during hospitalization were selected in non-edaravone group while edaravone group included 132 patients treated with edaravone during hospitalization. The patient baseline distributions were well balanced between non-edaravone group and edaravone group. The rate of hemorrhagic transformation in non-edaravone group was higher than that in edaravone group (P < 0.05). The NIHSS scores 7 days and 14 days after symptom onset were higher in non-edaravone group than in edaravone group (both P < 0.05). Edaravone group showed a higher recanalization rate and a lower bleeding complications rate at discharge than the non-edaravone group (both P < 0.05). The differences of

  7. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures. PMID:26246694

  8. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Temple, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n = 172) or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 112) within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4) at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.

  9. Regulatory effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on astrocytic reactivity in a murine model of cerebral infarction by arterial embolization

    PubMed Central

    Rengifo Valbuena, Carlos Augusto; Ávila Rodríguez, Marco Fidel; Céspedes Rubio, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is essential for early diagnosis, neurologic recovery, the early onset of drug treatment and the prognosis of ischemic events. Experimental models of cerebral ischemia can be used to evaluate the cellular response phenomena and possible neurological protection by drugs. Objective: To characterize the cellular changes in the neuronal population and astrocytic response by the effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on a model of ischemia caused by cerebral embolism. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 5). The infarct was induced with α-bovine thrombin (40 NIH/Unit.). The treated group received 90 mg (100 μL) of DMSO in saline (1:1 v/v) intraperitoneally for 5 days; ischemic controls received only NaCl (placebo) and two non-ischemic groups (simulated) received NaCl and DMSO respectively. We evaluated the neuronal (anti-NeuN) and astrocytic immune-reactivity (anti-GFAP). The results were analyzed by densitometry (NIH Image J-Fiji 1.45 software) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Graph pad software (Prism 5). Results: Cerebral embolism induced reproducible and reliable lesions in the cortex and hippocampus (CA1)., similar to those of focal models. DMSO did not reverse the loss of post-ischemia neuronal immune-reactivity, but prevented the morphological damage of neurons, and significantly reduced astrocytic hyperactivity in the somato-sensory cortex and CA1 (p <0.001). Conclusions: The regulatory effect of DMSO on astrocyte hyperreactivity and neuronal-astroglial cytoarchitecture , gives it potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of thromboembolic cerebral ischemia in the acute phase. PMID:24892319

  10. Implied functional crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis and interhemispheric compensation during hand grasping more than 20 years after unilateral cerebellar injury in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Nakahachi, Takayuki; Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Iwase, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Crossed cerebello-cerebral diaschisis (CCCD) conventionally refers to decreased resting cerebral activity caused by injury to the contralateral cerebellum. We investigated whether functional activation of a contralesional cerebral cortical region controlling a specific task is reduced during task performance in a patient with a unilateral cerebellar lesion. We also examined functional compensation by the corresponding ipsilesional cerebral cortex. It was hypothesized that dysfunction of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) contralateral to the cerebellar lesion would be detected together with a compensatory increase in neural activity of the ipsilesional SM1. To test these possibilities, we conducted non-invasive functional neuroimaging techniques for bilateral SM1 during hand grasping, a task known to activate predominantly the SM1 contralateral to the grasping hand. Activity in SM1 during hand grasping was measured electrophysiologically by magnetoencephalography and hemodynamically by near-infrared spectroscopy in an adult with mild right hemiataxia associated with a large injury of the right cerebellum due to resection of a tumor in early childhood. During left hand grasping, increased neural activity was detected predominantly in the right SM1, the typical developmental pattern. In contrast, neural activity increased in the bilateral SM1 with slight right-side dominance during right (ataxic) hand grasping. This study reported a case that implied functional CCCD and compensatory neural activity in the SM1 during performance of a simple hand motor task in an adult with unilateral cerebellar injury and mild hemiataxia 24 years prior to the study without rehabilitative interventions. This suggests that unilateral cerebellar injuries in early childhood may result in persistent functional abnormalities in the cerebrum into adulthood. Therapeutic treatments that target functional CCCD and interhemispheric compensation might be effective for treating ataxia due to

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood ... The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). ...

  12. TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a TIA . The symptoms are similar to an ischemic stroke, but TIA symptoms usually last less than five ... treated for a blockage-related stroke (called an ischemic stroke), between 7 and 40% report experiencing a TIA ...

  13. The role of angiogenesis in damage and recovery from ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arenillas, Juan F; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Dávalos, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Ischemic stroke is burdened with a high morbidity and mortality in our society. However, there are few effective and largely available therapies for this devastating disease. In additon to advancing acute reperfusion therapies, there is a need to develop treatments aimed to promote repair and regeneration of brain tissue damaged by ischemia (neurorecovery). Therapeutic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis represent novel approaches of regenerative medicine that may help in the cure of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Translation of our knowledge about these processes from the bench to bedside is still underway. Although angiogenesis (the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular structures) is likely to contribute to neurorepair, the finality of the angiogenic response in acute ischemic stroke has not been fully elucidated. The first therapeutic approach to angiogenesis after ischemic stroke would be the modulation of the endogenous angiogenic response. In this setting, early instauration of physical activity, statins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists may enhance angiogenesis and neuroregeneration. Gene therapy with vascular growth factors has been successfully tested in patients affected by chronic myocardial and peripheral ischemia. Regarding brain ischemia, experiments in animal models have shown that the effect of these growth factors is critically affected by the dosage, route of delivery, and time of administration in relation to stroke onset. In addition, the optimal angiogenic substance is unknown. Finally, vectors for gene transfer should be further optimized. Therapeutic vasculogenesis consists of the administration of exogenous endothelial progenitor cells in order to enhance brain repair processes. Endothelial progenitor cells may be recruited in response to cerebral ischemia and participate in reparative vasculogenesis after acute ischemic stroke. Further research is needed to clarify their role and

  14. Prevalence, Incidence, Prognosis, Early Stroke Risk, and Stroke-Related Prognostic Factors of Definite or Probable Transient Ischemic Attacks in China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bin; Sun, Haixin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Dongling; Chen, Zhenghong; Liu, Hongmei; Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Limin; Wang, Linhong; Wu, Shengping; Wang, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in China are unclear. In 2013, we conducted a nationally representative, door-to-door epidemiological survey on TIA in China using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design. Results showed that the weighted prevalence of TIA in China was 103.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 83.9–127.2] per 100,000 in the population, 92.4 (75.0–113.8) per 100,000 among men, and 114.7 (87.2–151.0) per 100,000 among women. The weighted incidence of TIA was 23.9 (17.8–32.0) per 100,000 in the population, 21.3 (14.3–31.5) per 100,000 among men, and 26.6 (17.0–41.7) per 100,000 among women. No difference in average prognosis was found between TIA and stroke in the population. Weighted risk of stroke among TIA patients was 9.7% (6.5–14.3%), 11.1% (7.5–16.1%), and 12.3% (8.4–17.7%) at 2, 30, and 90 days, respectively. The risk of stroke was higher among male patients with a history of TIA than among female patients with a history of TIA (OR: 2.469; 95% CI: 1.172–5.201; P = 0.018), and higher among TIA patients with hypertension than among TIA patients without hypertension (OR: 2.671; 1.547–4.613; P < 0.001). It can be concluded that there are an estimated 1.35 million TIA patients nationwide, with 0.31 million new cases of TIA annually in China. TIA patients were not better managed prior to a stroke event. Early risk of stroke among TIA patients is high. Sex and hypertension may be stroke-associated prognostic factors among TIA patients. TIA clinics and surveillance should be integrated into the national health-care system. PMID:28713329

  15. Blood-brain barrier KCa3.1 channels: evidence for a role in brain Na uptake and edema in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Je; Wallace, Breanna K; Yuen, Natalie; Jenkins, David P; Wulff, Heike; O'Donnell, Martha E

    2015-01-01

    KCa3.1, a calcium-activated potassium channel, regulates ion and fluid secretion in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. It is also expressed on vascular endothelium where it participates in blood pressure regulation. However, the expression and physiological role of KCa3.1 in blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium has not been investigated. BBB endothelial cells transport Na(+) and Cl(-) from the blood into the brain transcellularly through the co-operation of multiple cotransporters, exchangers, pumps, and channels. In the early stages of cerebral ischemia, when the BBB is intact, edema formation occurs by processes involving increased BBB transcellular Na(+) transport. This study evaluated whether KCa3.1 is expressed on and participates in BBB ion transport. The expression of KCa3.1 on cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, isolated microvessels, and brain sections was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Activity of KCa3.1 on cerebral microvascular endothelial cells was examined by K(+) flux assays and patch-clamp. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI were used to measure brain Na(+) uptake and edema formation in rats with focal ischemic stroke after TRAM-34 treatment. KCa3.1 current and channel protein were identified on bovine cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and freshly isolated rat microvessels. In situ KCa3.1 expression on BBB endothelium was confirmed in rat and human brain sections. TRAM-34 treatment significantly reduced Na(+) uptake, and cytotoxic edema in the ischemic brain. BBB endothelial cells exhibit KCa3.1 protein and activity and pharmacological blockade of KCa3.1 seems to provide an effective therapeutic approach for reducing cerebral edema formation in the first 3 hours of ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Postoperative Cerebral Vasospasm Following Transsphenoidal Pituitary Adenoma Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eseonu, Chikezie I; ReFaey, Karim; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral vasospasm following a transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma is a devastating occurrence that can lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor neurologic outcome if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. The etiology of this condition is not well understood but can lead to significant arterial vasospasm that causes severe ischemic insults. In this paper, we identify common presenting symptoms and essential management strategies to treat this harmful disease. A retrospective case report and literature review of presentation, treatment, and outcome of cerebral vasospasm following transsphenoidal surgery. We present 1 case and review 12 known cases in the literature on vasospasm following transsphenoidal surgery. Mean age was 48 (±13.8) years. There were 46.2% male patients. Factors associated with vasospasm, such as cerebral spinal fluid leaks following surgery, were seen in 38.5% of cases, and postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was seen in 84.6% of cases. Hemiparesis was the presenting symptom of delayed cerebral ischemia in 61.5% of cases. For management, maintaining at least a euvolemic volume status was used in 76.9%, induced hypertension was used in 61.5%, and nimodipine was administered in 46.2% of cases. Patients returned to their neurologic baseline in 61.5% of cases, had new permanent deficits in 7.7% of cases, and died in 30.8% of cases. Cerebral vasospasm following transsphenoidal surgery is a dangerous disease that can lead to a high likelihood of mortality if not identified and treated. Early postoperative events, such as peritumoral subarachnoid hemorrhage and hemiparesis, may be factors associated with post-transsphenoidal surgery vasospasm. Effective treatment options used in patients that regained complete neurologic recovery were by inducing hypertension, maintaining euvolemia, and administering nimodipine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new strategy of CyberKnife treatment system based radiosurgery followed by early use of adjuvant bevacizumab treatment for brain metastasis with extensive cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Enmin; Pan, Li; Dai, Jiazhong; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Xiaoxia; Mei, Guanghai; Sheng, Xiaofang

    2014-09-01

    Bevacizumab blocks the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor in leakage-prone capillaries and has been suggested as a new treatment for cerebral radiation edema and necrosis. CyberKnife is a new, frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system. This work investigated the safety and efficacy of CyberKnife followed by early bevacizumab treatment for brain metastasis with extensive cerebral edema. The eligibility criteria of the patients selected for radiosurgery followed by early use of adjuvant bevacizumab treatment were: (1) brain tumors from metastasis with one solitary brain lesion and symptomatic extensive cerebral edema; (2) >18 years of age; (3) the patient refused surgery due to the physical conditions and the risk of surgery; (4) no contraindications for bevacizumab. (5) bevacizumab was applied for a minimum of 2 injections and a maximum of 6 injections with a 2-week interval between treatments, beginning within 2 weeks of the CyberKnife therapy; (6) Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥30. Tumor size and edema were monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dexamethasone dosage, KPS, adverse event occurrence and associated clinical outcomes were also recorded. Eight patients were accrued for this new treatment. Radiation dose ranged from 20 to 33 Gy in one to five sessions, prescribed to the 61-71 % isodose line. Bevacizumab therapy was administered 3-10 days after completion of CyberKnife treatment for a minimum of two cycles (5 mg/kg, at 2-week intervals). MRI revealed average reductions of 55.8 % (post-gadolinium) and 63.4 % (T2/FLAIR). Seven patients showed significant clinical neurological improvements. Dexamethasone was reduced in all patients, with five successfully discontinuing dexamethasone treatment 4 weeks after bevacizumab initiation. Hypertension, a bevacizumab-related adverse event, occurred in one patient. After 3-8 months, all patients studied were alive and primary brain metastases were under control, 2 developed new brain

  18. New perspectives on the pharmacotherapy of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, J Chris; Fagan, Susan C; Gray, David R; Moon, Yong S K

    2004-01-01

    To provide an overview of the impact of ischemic stroke and the steps that can be taken to reduce its burden through greater awareness of the disease, improved diagnosis and better treatment, with emphasis on the use of antiplatelet agents. Recent (1995-2003) published scientific literature, as identified by the authors through Medline searches, using the terms stroke, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular disease, atherothrombosis, risk factors, pharmacotherapy, prevention, and reviews on treatment. Recent systematic English-language review articles and reports of controlled randomized clinical trials were screened for inclusion. Ischemic stroke is generally the result of an atherothrombotic process leading to vessel obstruction or narrowing. Of the two types of ischemic stroke, thrombotic stroke is caused by a thrombus that develops within the cerebral vasculature, while embolic stroke arises from a distant embolus that lodges in a cerebral artery. The neurologic manifestations of stroke depend on the location of injury in the brain and the degree of ischemia or infarction. Symptoms may be reversible or irreversible and range from sensory deficits to hemiplegia. Risk factors for development of ischemic stroke include hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, atrial fibrillation, prior stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Tissue plasminogen activator is currently the only available drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke recurrence rates are high (about 40% over 5 years), and all ischemic stroke patients should receive antithrombotic therapy (unless contraindicated) for secondary prevention. Of the oral antiplatelet therapies, aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix--Bristol-Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Partnership), and the extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin combination are acceptable first-line agents, while anticoagulants (warfarin) are preferred in patients with atrial fibrillation. Lifestyle changes and drug therapy are important

  19. [Primary emergencies: management of acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Leys, Didier; Goldstein, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The emergency diagnostic strategy for acute ischemic stroke consists of:--identification of stroke, based on clinical examination (sudden onset of a focal neurological deficit);--identification of the ischemic or hemorrhagic nature by MRI or CT;--determination of the early time-course (clinical examination) and the cause. In all strokes (ischemic or hemorrhagic), treatment consists of:--the same general management (treatment of a life-threatening emergency, ensuring normal biological parameters except for blood pressure, and prevention of complications);--decompressive surgery in the rare cases of intracranial hypertension. For proven ischemic stroke, other therapies consist of: rt-PA for patients admitted with 4.5 hours of stroke onset who have no contraindications, and aspirin (160 to 300 mg) for patients who are not eligible for rt-PA. These treatments should be administered within a few hours. A centralized emergency call system (phone number 15 in France) is the most effective way of achieving this objective.