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Sample records for early chemical enrichment

  1. Impact of NLTE on research of early chemical enrichment of the dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila

    2015-08-01

    The individual stars observed in the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are presumably red giants. Their chemical abundances are commonly determined under the classical LTE assumption, despite its validity is questionable for atmospheres of giant, in particular, metal-poor stars. Exactly metal-poor objects are important for understanding the early chemical enrichment processes of the host galaxy and the onset of star formation. We selected a sample of the -4 < [Fe/H] < -2 stars in the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies Sculptor, Sextans, and Fornax and the ultra-faint galaxies Bootes I and Segue I, with the high-resolution observational data available, and revised abundances of up to 12 chemical species based on the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation. Stellar parameters taken from the literature were checked through the NLTE analysis of lines of iron observed in the two ionisation stages, Fe I and Fe II. For the Scl, Sex, and Fnx stars, with effective temperatures and surface gravities derived from the photometry and known distance (Jablonka et al. 2015; Tafelmeyer et al. 2010), the Fe I/Fe II ionisation equilibrium was found to be fulfilled, when applying a scaling factor of SH = 0.5 to the Drawinian rates of Fe+H collisions. Pronounced NLTE effects were calculated for lines of Na I and Al I resulting in up to 0.5 dex lower [Na/Fe] ratios and up to 0.65 dex higher [Al/Fe] ratios compared with the corresponding LTE values. For the six Scl stars, the scatter of data on Mg/Na is much smaller in NLTE, with the mean [Mg/Na] = 0.61 +- 0.11, than LTE, where [Mg/Na] = 0.42 +- 0.21. We computed a grid of the NLTE abundance corrections for an extensive list of the Ca I, Ti I-Ti II, and Fe I lines in the MARCS models of cool giants, 4000 K <= Teff <= 4750 K, 0.5 <= log g <= 2.5, -4 <= [M/H] <= 0.

  2. Early chemical enrichment of the Galactic dwarf satellites from a homogeneous and NLTE abundance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Jablonka, Pascale; Sitnova, Tatyana; Pakhomov, Yuri; North, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    We review recent abundance results for very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo comparison sample that were obtained based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets, homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters, and the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for 10 chemical species. A remarkable gain of using such an approach is the reduction, compared to a simple compilation of the literature data, of the spread in abundance ratios at given metallicity within each galaxy and from one to the other. We show that all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] \\simeq 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. In our classical dSphs, we observe the dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr at the earliest evolution stages of these galaxies. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≈ -1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≈ -1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] < -2, is the strongest.

  3. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sean; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Péroux, Celine

    2016-10-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyα (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than DLA absorbers at redshifts 0 < z < 3. It has also been suggested that DLA metallicity drops suddenly at z > 4.7. However, only three DLAs at z > 4.5 and no sub-DLAs at z > 3.5 have “dust-free” metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first quasar sub-DLA metallicity measurement at z > 3.5, from detections of undepleted elements in high-resolution data for a sub-DLA at z = 5.0. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyα forest. This absorber is metal-poor, with [O/H] = -2.00 ± 0.12, which is ≳4σ below the level expected from extrapolation of the trend for z < 3.5 sub-DLAs. The C/O ratio is {1.8}-0.3+0.4 times lower than in the Sun. More strikingly, Si/O is {3.2}-0.5+0.6 times lower than in the Sun, whereas Si/Fe is nearly (1.2{}-0.3+0.4 times) solar. This absorber does not display a clear alpha/Fe enhancement. Dust depletion may have removed more Si from the gas phase than is common in the Milky Way interstellar medium, which may be expected if high-redshift supernovae form more silicate-rich dust. C/O and Si/O vary substantially between different velocity components, indicating spatial variations in dust depletion and/or early stellar nucleosynthesis (e.g., population III star initial mass function). The higher velocity gas may trace an outflow enriched by early stars. Based on observations obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Chemical enrichment in Ultra-Faint Dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Donatella

    2016-08-01

    Our view of the Milky Way's satellite population has radically changed after the discovery, ten years ago, of the first Ultra-Faint Dwarf galaxies (UFDs). These extremely faint, dark-matter dominated, scarcely evolved stellar systems are found in ever-increasing number in our cosmic neighbourhood and constitute a gold-mine for studies of early star formation conditions and early chemical enrichment pathways. Here we show what can be learned from the measurements of chemical abundances in UFD stars read through the lens of chemical evolution studies, point out the limitations of the classic approach, and discuss the way to go to improve the models.

  5. The Effects of Early Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Ogston, Karen; Roberts, Gloria; Swenson, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Over two decades, six studies evaluated the effects of a home-based early language program on the development of 101 infants. Parents engaged in enrichment activities with their infants over a one-year period that began when the infants were between three and 13 months of age. Participants from families with varied levels of education were…

  6. The Populations of Carina. II. Chemical Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Casagrande, Luca

    Chemical abundances are presented for 19 elements in a sample of 63 red giants in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), based on homogeneous 1D/LTE model atmosphere analyses of our own observations (32 stars) and data available in the literature (a further 31 independent stars). The (Fe) metallicity and [ α /Fe] distribution functions have mean values and dispersions of −1.59 and 0.33 dex ([Fe/H] range: −2.68 to −0.64) and 0.07 and 0.13 dex ([ α /Fe] range: −0.27 to 0.25), respectively. We confirm the finding of Venn et al. that a small percentage (some 10% in the present investigation) of themore » sample shows clear evidence for significant enrichment by Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) ejecta. Calcium, with the most accurately determined abundance of the α -elements, shows an asymmetric distribution toward smaller values of [Ca/Fe] at all [Fe/H], most significantly over −2.0 < [Fe/H] < −1.0, suggestive of incomplete mixing of the ejecta of SNe Ia with the ambient medium of each of Carina’s generations. Approximate color–magnitude diagram age estimates are presented for the sample, and together with our chemical abundances, compared with the results of our previous synthetic color–magnitude diagram analysis, which reported the details of Carina’s four well-defined populations. We searched for the Na–O anticorrelation universally reported in the Galaxy’s globular clusters and confirm that this phenomenon does not exist in Carina. We also found that one of the 32 stars in our sample has an extremely enhanced lithium abundance— A (Li){sub NLTE} = +3.36, consistent with membership of the ∼1% group of Li-rich stars in dSph described by Kirby et al.« less

  7. The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysis. II. Early chemical enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, L.; Jablonka, P.; Sitnova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu.; North, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundances of up to 10 chemical species in a sample of 59 very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≾-2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo. Our results are based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets and homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters determined in Paper I. We show that once the NLTE effects are properly taken into account, all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] ≃ 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. The dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram is observed in the classical dSphs, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr. We show that Sr in the massive galaxies is well correlated with Mg suggesting a strong link to massive stars and that its origin is essentially independent of Ba, for most of the [Ba/H] range. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≃-1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≃-1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] <-2, is the strongest. Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to

  8. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  9. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidèle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas towards the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  10. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  11. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Edward D.

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  12. Chemical Enrichment History Of Abell 3112 Galaxy Cluster Out To The Virial Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, C.; Bulbul, E.; Ercan, E.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Loewenstein, M.; McDonald, M.; Miller, E.

    2017-10-01

    The deep potential well of the galaxy clusters confines all metals produced via supernova explosions within the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The radial distributions of these metals along the ICM are direct records of the metal enrichment history. In this work, we investigate the chemical enrichment history of Abell 3112 galaxy cluster from cluster's core to out to radius R_{200} (˜ 1470 kpc) by analyzing a deep 1.2 Ms Suzaku observations with overlapping 72 ks Chandra observations. The fraction of supernova explosions enriching the ICM is obtained by fitting the X-ray spectra with a robust snapec model implemented in XSPEC. The ratio of supernova type Ia explosions to the core collapse supernova explosions is found in the range 0.12 - 0.16 and uniformly distributed out to R_{200}. The uniform spatial distribution of supernova enrichment indicates an early metal enrichment between the epoch of z ˜ 2 - 3. We also observe that W7, CDD, and WDD SN Ia models equally better explain the highest signal-to-noise region compared to 2D delayed detonation model CDDT. We further report the first time temperature (3.37 ± 0.77 keV) and metallicity (0.22 ± 0.08 Z_{⊙}) measurements of this archetypal cluster at its virial radius.

  13. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management.

    PubMed

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  14. Chemical Enrichment and Physical Conditions in IZw18*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H I region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H I region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims. Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H I region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary obje ctive is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the HI and H II regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H I region. Methods. We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H I, CIII, CIIi*, N I, OI,...) and are compared to the abundances in the H II region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the HIi region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results. We find that H I region abundances are lower by a factor of approx 2 as compared to the H II region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H I and H II region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z(solar) (vs. 1/31 Z(solar) in the H II region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H I envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a

  15. Infrared Abundances and the Chemical Enrichment of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.

    Elements heavier than helium make up only a small fraction of the mass of the present day Universe, yet they heavily impact how galaxies and stars form and evolve. The chemical enrichment history of the Universe therefore forms an essential part of any complete understanding of galaxy evolution, and with the advent of incredibly sensitive IR/sub-mm/radio facilities, we are poised to begin unraveling it. Nonetheless, significant, decades-old problems plague even the most data-rich local methods of measuring gas phase metal abundance, with large (up to 10x) disagreements stemming principally from unknown and unseen temperature structure in ionized gas. The farinfared fine structure lines of oxygen offer a path out of this deadlock. Oxygen is the most important coolant of ionized gas, and the dominant metal abundance indicator. Its ground state fine structure lines, in particular [OIII] 88¼m, arise from such low-lying energy levels that they are insensitive to temperature. And unlike the faint "auroral" lines used by the gold-standard direct abundance method, they are bright, and readily observable at all metallicities. Indeed this crucial line has already been observed with ALMA in a number of galaxies directly in the era of reionization at z=7-9. Herschel has mapped and archived more than 150 nearby (d<25Mpc) galaxies on scales of 1 kiloparsec and below in the important [OIII] 88¼m line. We propose a comprehensive program to develop the far-infrared fine structure lines of oxygen into direct, empirical gas phase metal abundance measures. We will validate directly against the largest, deepest survey of direct spectroscopic optical metal abundances ever undertaken - the LBT/MODS program CHAOS. We will leverage spatially matched nebular emission lines ([NeII], [NeIII], [SIII], [SIV]) from Spitzer/IRS for ionization balance. We will employ our extensive optical IFU data (PPAK, MUSE, and VENGA) for strong line abundance comparisons, and to bridge the physical scales

  16. Isotopic and chemical studies of early crustal metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The aim, within the bounds of the Early Crustal Genesis Project, was the isotopic and chemical study of selected early crustal meta-sedimentary rocks. Western Australia was chosen as the first field area to examine, as the Yilgarn and Pilbara Blocks comprise one of the largest and most varied Precambrian terranes. Furthermore, the Western Gneiss Terrane (on the western flank of the Yilgarn Block) and the Pilbara Block are both non-greenstone in character; these types of terrane were relatively neglected, but are of great significance in the understanding of early crustal meta-sediments. The meta-sediments of aluminous or peraluminous character, commonly also enriched in Mg and/or Fe relative to the more common pelitic meta-sediments, and at many locations, deficient in one or more of the elements Ca, N, and K, were initially chosen.

  17. Formation, Heating And Chemical Enrichment Of The Intracluster Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) contains the majority of the baryons (80-90%) of galaxy clusters and groups. It has been progressively heated up by gravitational and non-gravitational processes since the cluster formation epoch (z 2-3) until it reaches the very high temperatures we see today, i.e. between 10 and 100 million degrees. The global properties of the ICM follow tight scaling laws with halo mass which are shaped both by gravitational and non-gravitational effects (in particular gas cooling and AGN feedback). Finally, we also know that the ICM is enriched in metals which have been ejected from cluster galaxies throughout the cluster formation history. I will give a review of what is currently known about the formation and evolution of the ICM, focusing on the heating processes (shocks, turbulence) and the metal enrichment history of the gas.

  18. Star formation history and chemical enrichment in the early Universe: clues from the rest-optical and rest-UV spectra of z~2-3 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Allison L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation (z~2-3) exhibit significantly higher star formation rates and gas fractions at fixed stellar mass than nearby galaxies. These z~2-3 galaxies are also distinct in terms of their nebular spectra, reflecting important differences not only in the physical conditions of their interstellar medium (e.g., electron density and gas-phase metallicity), but also in the details of their massive stellar populations, especially their ionizing radiation fields. Jointly observing galaxies' HII regions, at rest-UV and rest-optical wavelengths, and massive stars, at rest-UV wavelengths, is central to constructing a framework for understanding the differences between z~2-3 and z~0 star-forming galaxies and for self-consistently explaining the trends observed in the high-redshift population. My thesis is based on data from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS), which uniquely combines observations of individual galaxies in these two bandpasses. In total, the near-infrared component of the KBSS includes spectra of >700 z~2-3 galaxies obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. I will present these results along with a detailed analysis of the full rest-optical (3600-7000 Ang) nebular spectra of ~400 galaxies, showing that high-redshift galaxies exhibit uniformly high degrees of ionization and excitation with respect to most z~0 galaxies. Combined with observations of the same galaxies' rest-UV spectra (obtained with Keck/LRIS) and photoionization model predictions, these results suggest that the disparity arises from differences in the shape of the ionizing radiation field at fixed gas-phase oxygen abundance, most likely due to the effects of Fe-poor massive binary stars. My comprehensive spectroscopic study of an unprecedentedly large sample of z~2-3 galaxies offers compelling evidence that the distinct chemical abundance patterns observed in these galaxies are the result of systematic differences in their star formation histories.

  19. Uniform Contribution of Supernova Explosions to the Chemical Enrichment of Abell 3112 out to R{sub 200}

    SciTech Connect

    Ezer, Cemile; Ercan, E. Nihal; Bulbul, Esra

    2017-02-10

    The spatial distribution of the metals residing in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters records all the information on a cluster’s nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment history. We present measurements from a total of 1.2 Ms Suzaku XIS and 72 ks Chandra observations of the cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 3112 out to its virial radius (∼1470 kpc). We find that the ratio of the observed supernova type Ia explosions to the total supernova explosions has a uniform distribution at a level of 12%–16% out to the cluster’s virial radius. The observed fraction of type Ia supernova explosions is in agreementmore » with the corresponding fraction found in our Galaxy and the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy. The non-varying supernova enrichment suggests that the ICM in cluster outskirts was enriched by metals at an early stage before the cluster itself was formed during a period of intense star formation activity. Additionally, we find that the 2D delayed detonation model CDDT produce significantly worse fits to the X-ray spectra compared to simple 1D W7 models. This is due to the relative overestimate of Si, and the underestimate of Mg in these models with respect to the measured abundances.« less

  20. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of early environmental enrichment upon open-field behavior and timidity in the domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Jones, R B

    1982-03-01

    Early environmental enrichment was evaluated by its effect on the behavior of 7-day-old male and female domestic chicks in an open field or novel environment and in a hole-in-the-wall test of timidity. The chicks were housed in same-sex groups of 10. The bare environments contained wood litter, food, and water, whereas the enriched boxes also contained various objects. In the open field, immobility was lower while feeding, walking, jumping and vocalization were higher in the enriched birds than in those reared in the bare environment. Enrichment also decreased emergence latencies in the hole-in-the-wall box. The increased stimulation provided by environmental enrichment may decrease fearfulness in subsequent fear-inducing situations and may enhance the ability of animals to adapt to novelty.

  2. The history of chemical enrichment in the intracluster medium from cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Fabjan, D.; Rasia, E.; Murante, G.; Tornatore, L.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G. L.; Gaspari, M.; Beck, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters provides valuable information on their formation and evolution, on the connection with the cosmic star formation and on the effects of different gas processes. By analysing a sample of simulated galaxy clusters, we study the chemical enrichment of the ICM, its evolution, and its relation with the physical processes included in the simulation and with the thermal properties of the core. These simulations, consisting of re-simulations of 29 Lagrangian regions performed with an upgraded version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) gadget-3 code, have been run including two different sets of baryonic physics: one accounts for radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and supernova (SN) feedback, and the other one further includes the effects of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In agreement with observations, we find an anti-correlation between entropy and metallicity in cluster cores, and similar radial distributions of heavy-element abundances and abundance ratios out to large cluster-centric distances (˜R180). In the outskirts, namely outside of ˜0.2 R180, we find a remarkably homogeneous metallicity distribution, with almost flat profiles of the elements produced by either SNIa or SNII. We investigated the origin of this phenomenon and discovered that it is due to the widespread displacement of metal-rich gas by early (z > 2-3) AGN powerful bursts, acting on small high-redshift haloes. Our results also indicate that the intrinsic metallicity of the hot gas for this sample is on average consistent with no evolution between z = 2 and z = 0, across the entire radial range.

  3. Effects of undernourishment, recurrent seizures and enriched environment during early life in hippocampal morphology.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula Steffen; Simão, Fabrício; Hemb, Marta; Xavier, Léder Leal; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2014-04-01

    It has been recently shown that enriched environment led to a significant benefit in learning and retention of visual-spatial memory, being able to reverse the cognitive impairment generated by undernourishment and recurrent seizures. We investigated the hippocampal morphological effects of recurrent seizures and undernourishment early in life in Wistar rats and the possible benefits produced by the enriched environment in these conditions. The morphological parameters stereologically evaluated were hippocampal volume, thickness of pyramidal stratum of the CA1 subfield and neuronal and glial densities in the same subfield. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups including nourished, nourished+enriched environment, nourished+recurrent seizures, nourished+recurrent seizures+enriched environment, undernourished, undernourished+enriched environment, undernourished+recurrent seizures and undernourished+recurrent seizures+enriched environment. Undernourishment model consisted in nutritional deprivation regimen from post-natal day 2 (P2) to P15. From P8 to P10, recurrent seizures group were induced by flurothyl three times per day. Enriched environment groups were exposed between P21 and P51. Our main findings were: (1) animals submitted to the enriched environment showed an increased hippocampal volume; (2) enriched environment promotes increases in the thickness of the pyramidal layer in hippocampal CA1 subfield in animals nourished and undernourished with recurrent seizures; (3) undernourishment during early development decreased neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 subfields. Our findings show that these three conditions induces important changes in hippocampal morphology, the most deleterious changes are induced by undernourishment and recurrent seizures, while more beneficial morphological changes are produced by enriched environment. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical enrichment in cosmological, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Robert P. C.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Tornatore, Luca

    2009-10-01

    We present an implementation of stellar evolution and chemical feedback for smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. We consider the timed release of individual elements by both massive (Type II supernovae and stellar winds) and intermediate-mass stars (Type Ia supernovae and asymptotic giant branch stars). We illustrate the results of our method using a suite of cosmological simulations that include new prescriptions for radiative cooling, star formation and galactic winds. Radiative cooling is implemented element-by-element, in the presence of an ionizing radiation background, and we track all 11 elements that contribute significantly to the radiative cooling. While all simulations presented here use a single set of physical parameters, we take specific care to investigate the robustness of the predictions of chemodynamical simulations with respect to the ingredients, the methods and the numerical convergence. A comparison of nucleosynthetic yields taken from the literature indicates that relative abundance ratios may only be reliable at the factor of 2 level, even for a fixed initial mass function. Abundances relative to iron are even more uncertain because the rate of Type Ia supernovae is not well known. We contrast two reasonable definitions of the metallicity of a resolution element and find that while they agree for high metallicities, there are large differences at low metallicities. We argue that the discrepancy is indicative of the lack of metal mixing caused by the fact that metals are stuck to particles. We argue that since this is a (numerical) sampling problem, solving it by using a poorly constrained physical process such as diffusion could have undesired consequences. We demonstrate that the two metallicity definitions result in redshift z = 0 stellar masses that can differ by up to a factor of 2, because of the sensitivity of the cooling rates to the elemental abundances. Finally, we use several 5123 particle simulations to investigate the

  5. Silica Retention and Enrichment in Open-System Chemical Weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Thompson, L. M.; Berger, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical signatures of weathering are evident in the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) datasets from Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater. Comparisons across the landing sites show consistent patterns indicating silica retention and/or enrichment in open-system aqueous alteration.

  6. Detection of interstellar DNC - Difficulties of chemical equilibrium hypothesis for enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, P. D.; Brown, R. D.; Gunn, H. I.; Blackman, G. L.; Storey, J. W. V.

    1977-01-01

    The J = 1-0 transition of DNC at 76.3058 GHz has been observed in emission in NGC 2264. Comparison with previous observations of HN(C-13) indicates that deuterium is enriched in DNC similarly to the enrichment reported for DCO(+) in this source. The DNC/HNC ratio is estimated to be about 1/24. The results cannot readily be interpreted in terms of chemical equilibria relating to the formation of DNC. It is suggested that the explanation must be sought in isotope effects on rates of formation of interstellar molecules.

  7. Enriching early adult environment affects the copulation behaviour of a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Aluja, Martín

    2009-07-01

    Early adult experiences in enriched environments favours animal brain and behavioural development ultimately resulting in an increased fitness. However, measuring the effect of environmental enrichment in animal behaviour in nature is often a complicated task, considering the complexity of the natural environment. We expanded previous studies to evaluate how early experience in an enriched environment affects copulation behaviour when animals are confronted with a complex semi-natural environment. Anastrepha ludens flies are an ideal model system for studying these effects because their natural habitats differ significantly from the cage environments in which these flies are reared for biological control purposes. For example, in the field, males form leks of up to six individuals. Each male defends a territory represented by a tree leaf whereas in rearing cages, territories are completely reduced because of the high population density. In a series of three experiments, we observed that male density represented the most influential stimulus for A. ludens male copulation success. Males that experienced lower densities in early adulthood obtained the highest proportion of copulations. By contrast, female copulation behaviour was not altered by female density. However, exposure to natural or artificial leaves in cages in which flies were kept until tested influenced female copulation behaviour. Females that were exposed to enriched environments exhibited a shorter latency to mate and shorter copulation durations with males than females reared in poor environments. We discuss the influence of early experience on male copulation success and female-mating choosiness.

  8. Evaluating an Enrichment Program in Early Childhood: A Multi-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aswegen, Christa; Pendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of one topic in an enrichment program designed for children in their early years of learning. The program is responsive to an increased understanding of the benefits for very young children of programs that not only take advantage of the sensitive periods for learning but that also assist parents to a take a…

  9. The Supernova that Destroyed a Protogalaxy: Prompt Chemical Enrichment and Supermassive Black Hole Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Smidt, Joseph; Meiksin, Avery; Heger, Alexander; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.

    2013-09-01

    The first primitive galaxies formed from accretion and mergers by z ~ 15, and were primarily responsible for cosmological reionization and the chemical enrichment of the early cosmos. But a few of these galaxies may have formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner UV fluxes that sterilized them of H2, preventing them from forming stars or expelling heavy elements into the intergalactic medium prior to assembly. At masses of 108 M ⊙ and virial temperatures of 104 K, these halos began to rapidly cool by atomic lines, perhaps forming 104-106 M ⊙ Pop III stars and, later, the seeds of supermassive black holes. We have modeled the explosion of a supermassive Pop III star in the dense core of a line-cooled protogalaxy with the ZEUS-MP code. We find that the supernova (SN) expands to a radius of ~1 kpc, briefly engulfing the entire galaxy, but then collapses back into the potential well of the dark matter. Fallback fully mixes the interior of the protogalaxy with metals, igniting a violent starburst and fueling the rapid growth of a massive black hole at its center. The starburst would populate the protogalaxy with stars in greater numbers and at higher metallicities than in more slowly evolving, nearby halos. The SN remnant becomes a strong synchrotron source that can be observed with eVLA and eMERLIN and has a unique signature that easily distinguishes it from less energetic SN remnants. Such explosions, and their attendant starbursts, may well have marked the birthplaces of supermassive black holes on the sky.

  10. THE SUPERNOVA THAT DESTROYED A PROTOGALAXY: PROMPT CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Smidt, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The first primitive galaxies formed from accretion and mergers by z {approx} 15, and were primarily responsible for cosmological reionization and the chemical enrichment of the early cosmos. But a few of these galaxies may have formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner UV fluxes that sterilized them of H{sub 2}, preventing them from forming stars or expelling heavy elements into the intergalactic medium prior to assembly. At masses of 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} and virial temperatures of 10{sup 4} K, these halos began to rapidly cool by atomic lines, perhaps forming 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} Pop III starsmore » and, later, the seeds of supermassive black holes. We have modeled the explosion of a supermassive Pop III star in the dense core of a line-cooled protogalaxy with the ZEUS-MP code. We find that the supernova (SN) expands to a radius of {approx}1 kpc, briefly engulfing the entire galaxy, but then collapses back into the potential well of the dark matter. Fallback fully mixes the interior of the protogalaxy with metals, igniting a violent starburst and fueling the rapid growth of a massive black hole at its center. The starburst would populate the protogalaxy with stars in greater numbers and at higher metallicities than in more slowly evolving, nearby halos. The SN remnant becomes a strong synchrotron source that can be observed with eVLA and eMERLIN and has a unique signature that easily distinguishes it from less energetic SN remnants. Such explosions, and their attendant starbursts, may well have marked the birthplaces of supermassive black holes on the sky.« less

  11. Early Environmental Enrichment Enhances Abnormal Brain Connectivity in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Illa, Miriam; Brito, Verónica; Pla, Laura; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batallé, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Crispi, Fatima; Udina, Esther; Figueras, Francesc; Ginés, Silvia; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-10-12

    The structural correspondence of neurodevelopmental impairments related to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that persists later in life remains elusive. Moreover, early postnatal stimulation strategies have been proposed to mitigate these effects. Long-term brain connectivity abnormalities in an IUGR rabbit model and the effects of early postnatal environmental enrichment (EE) were explored. IUGR was surgically induced in one horn, whereas the contralateral one produced the controls. Postnatally, a subgroup of IUGR animals was housed in an enriched environment. Functional assessment was performed at the neonatal and long-term periods. At the long-term period, structural brain connectivity was evaluated by means of diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and by histological assessment focused on the hippocampus. IUGR animals displayed poorer functional results and presented altered whole-brain networks and decreased median fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Reduced density of dendritic spines and perineuronal nets from hippocampal neurons were also observed. Of note, IUGR animals exposed to enriched environment presented an improvement in terms of both function and structure. IUGR is associated with altered brain connectivity at the global and cellular level. A strategy based on early EE has the potential to restore the neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sensory, Physico-Chemical and Water Sorption Properties of Corn Extrudates Enriched with Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona; Ruszkowska, Millena

    2017-09-01

    This study compares the quality of extrudates made from corn grits with the addition of up to 8% of spirulina powder. The sensory properties (shape, color, aroma, taste and crispness), chemicals (content of water, protein, fat, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, carotenoids, chlorophyll and phycocyanin) and physical properties (color, water absorption index, expansion indices, texture and water sorption properties) were determined. It has been found that spirulina-enriched extrudates had slightly lower sensory scores, but the addition of spirulina improved their nutritional value. The contents of protein, ash, fiber and β-carotene increased in extrudates with 8% of spirulina by 34, 36, 140 and 1,260%, respectively. The increasing addition of spirulina caused a decrease in extrudates lightness, an increase in their greenness and yellowness accompanied by a decrease of expansion indices and an increase of softness. Only small differences were found in water sorption properties, suggesting a similar behavior of spirulina-enriched extrudates during storage.

  13. Implications of Barium Abundances for the Chemical Enrichment of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, Gina; Kirby, Evan N.

    2018-06-01

    There are many candidate sites of the r-process: core-collapse supernovae (including rare magnetorotational core-collapse supernovae), neutron star mergers (NSMs), and neutron star/black hole mergers. The chemical enrichment of galaxies—specifically dwarf galaxies—helps distinguish between these sources based on the continual build-up of r-process elements. The existence of several nearby dwarf galaxies allows us to measure robust chemical abundances for galaxies with different star formation histories. Dwarf galaxies are especially useful because simple chemical evolution models can be used to determine the sources of r-process material. We have measured the r-process element barium with Keck/DEIMOS medium-resolution spectroscopy. We will present the largest sample of barium abundances (more than 200 stars) in dwarf galaxies ever assembled. We measure [Ba/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] in this sample and compare with existing [alpha/Fe] measurements. We have found that a large contribution of barium needs to occur at timescales similar to Type Ia supernovae in order to recreate our observed abundances, namely the flat or slightly rising trend of [Ba/Fe] vs. [Fe/H]. We conclude that neutron star mergers are the main contribution of r-process enrichment in dwarf galaxies.

  14. Global Analysis Reveals Families of Chemical Motifs Enriched for hERG Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fang; Babcock, Joseph J.; Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Promiscuous inhibition of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel by drugs poses a major risk for life threatening arrhythmia and costly drug withdrawals. Current knowledge of this phenomenon is derived from a limited number of known drugs and tool compounds. However, in a diverse, naïve chemical library, it remains unclear which and to what degree chemical motifs or scaffolds might be enriched for hERG inhibition. Here we report electrophysiology measurements of hERG inhibition and computational analyses of >300,000 diverse small molecules. We identify chemical ‘communities’ with high hERG liability, containing both canonical scaffolds and structurally distinctive molecules. These data enable the development of more effective classifiers to computationally assess hERG risk. The resultant predictive models now accurately classify naïve compound libraries for tendency of hERG inhibition. Together these results provide a more complete reference map of characteristic chemical motifs for hERG liability and advance a systematic approach to rank chemical collections for cardiotoxicity risk. PMID:25700001

  15. Chemical and organoleptic characteristics of tomato purée enriched with lyophilized tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Previtera, Lucio; Fucci, Gabriella; De Marco, Anna; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have proved that tomato consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing several diseases (for example, certain types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration, age-related eye disease). Many micronutrients and bioactive compounds are mainly present in peel and seeds and are lost during the processing into sauce, purée, paste and juice. The addition of lyophilized and powdered tomato pomace enhances the properties of purée. In this paper we report the chemical and physicochemical characterization of a purée enriched with 2% dry pomace. Comparison of the analytical data of starting purée with the enriched purée showed a significant increase of all micronutrients, without the taste and appearance being compromised or altered negatively. The product obtained is an example of a functional food rich in health-promoting phytochemicals, with the significant aspect of recovering a waste fraction of the tomato processing that would normally be disposed of in landfill, with associated costs and environmental impact. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Tox21 Enricher: Web-based Chemical/Biological Functional Annotation Analysis Tool Based on Tox21 Toxicity Screening Platform.

    PubMed

    Hur, Junguk; Danes, Larson; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; McGregor, Brett; Krout, Dakota; Auerbach, Scott

    2018-05-01

    The US Toxicology Testing in the 21st Century (Tox21) program was established to develop more efficient and human-relevant toxicity assessment methods. The Tox21 program screens >10,000 chemicals using quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of assays that measure effects on toxicity pathways. To date, more than 70 assays have yielded >12 million concentration-response curves. The patterns of activity across assays can be used to define similarity between chemicals. Assuming chemicals with similar activity profiles have similar toxicological properties, we may infer toxicological properties based on its neighbourhood. One approach to inference is chemical/biological annotation enrichment analysis. Here, we present Tox21 Enricher, a web-based chemical annotation enrichment tool for the Tox21 toxicity screening platform. Tox21 Enricher identifies over-represented chemical/biological annotations among lists of chemicals (neighbourhoods), facilitating the identification of the toxicological properties and mechanisms in the chemical set. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment: From Theory to Practice in the Early Grades: The Effects of Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Elise A.

    2014-01-01

    Following identification as the school district with the highest special education population in Midwest County, the Midwest School District took bold measures to address the issue. In partnership with the Midwest Intermediate School District, educators trained all kindergarten and first grade teachers in Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment (FIE)…

  18. Using Star Clusters as Tracers of Star Formation and Chemical Evolution: The Chemical Enrichment History of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Igor V.; Asa’d, Randa

    2018-05-01

    The star formation (SFH) and chemical enrichment (CEH) histories of Local Group galaxies are traditionally studied by analyzing their resolved stellar populations in a form of color–magnitude diagrams obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Star clusters can be studied in integrated light using ground-based telescopes to much larger distances. They represent snapshots of the chemical evolution of their host galaxy at different ages. Here we present a simple theoretical framework for the chemical evolution based on the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA) model. We infer a CEH from an SFH and vice versa using observational data. We also present a more advanced model for the evolution of individual chemical elements that takes into account the contribution of supernovae type Ia. We demonstrate that ages, iron, and α-element abundances of 15 star clusters derived from the fitting of their integrated optical spectra reliably trace the CEH of the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained from resolved stellar populations in the age range 40 Myr < t < 3.5 Gyr. The CEH predicted by our model from the global SFH of the LMC agrees remarkably well with the observed cluster age–metallicity relation. Moreover, the present-day total gas mass of the LMC estimated by the IRA model (6.2× {10}8 {M}ȯ ) matches within uncertainties the observed H I mass corrected for the presence of molecular gas (5.8+/- 0.5× {10}8 {M}ȯ ). We briefly discuss how our approach can be used to study SFHs of galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc at the level of detail that is currently available only in a handful of nearby Milky Way satellites. .

  19. CHEERS: Chemical enrichment of clusters of galaxies measured using a large XMM-Newton sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Plaa, J.; Mernier, F.; Kaastra, J.; Pinto, C.

    2017-10-01

    The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample (CHEERS) is aimed to be a sample of the most optimal clusters of galaxies for observation with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton. It consists of 5 Ms of deep cluster observations of 44 objects obtained through a very large program and archival observations. The main goal is to measure chemical abundances in the hot Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) of clusters to provide constraints on chemical evolution models. Especially the origin and evolution of type Ia supernovae is still poorly known and X-ray observations could contribute to constrain models regarding the SNIa explosion mechanism. Due to the high quality of the data, the uncertainties on the abundances are dominated by systematic effects. By carefully treating each systematic effect, we increase the accuracy or estimate the remaining uncertainty on the measurement. The resulting abundances are then compared to supernova models. In addition, also radial abundance profiles are derived. In the talk, we present an overview of the results that the CHEERS collaboration obtained based on the CHEERS data. We focus on the abundance measurements. The other topics range from turbulence measurements through line broadening to cool gas in groups.

  20. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  1. Early repositioning through compound set enrichment analysis: a knowledge-recycling strategy.

    PubMed

    Temesi, Gergely; Bolgár, Bence; Arany, Adám; Szalai, Csaba; Antal, Péter; Mátyus, Péter

    2014-04-01

    Despite famous serendipitous drug repositioning success stories, systematic projects have not yet delivered the expected results. However, repositioning technologies are gaining ground in different phases of routine drug development, together with new adaptive strategies. We demonstrate the power of the compound information pool, the ever-growing heterogeneous information repertoire of approved drugs and candidates as an invaluable catalyzer in this transition. Systematic, computational utilization of this information pool for candidates in early phases is an open research problem; we propose a novel application of the enrichment analysis statistical framework for fusion of this information pool, specifically for the prediction of indications. Pharmaceutical consequences are formulated for a systematic and continuous knowledge recycling strategy, utilizing this information pool throughout the drug-discovery pipeline.

  2. Early natural stimulation through environmental enrichment accelerates neuronal development in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; He, Shan; Yu, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is the primary afferent into the hippocampal formation, with important functions in learning and memory. Granule cells, the principle neuronal type in the dentate gyrus, are mostly formed postnatally, in a process that continues into adulthood. External stimuli, including environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise and learning, have been shown to significantly accelerate the generation and maturation of dentate granule cells in adult rodents. Whether, and to what extent, such environmental stimuli regulate the development and maturation of dentate granule cells during early postnatal development is largely unknown. Furthermore, whether natural stimuli affect the synaptic properties of granule cells had been investigated neither in newborn neurons of the adult nor during early development. To examine the effect of natural sensory stimulation on the dentate gyrus, we reared newborn mice in an enriched environment (EE). Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that dentate granule cells from EE-reared mice exhibited earlier morphological maturation, manifested as faster peaking of doublecortin expression and elevated expression of mature neuronal markers (including NeuN, calbindin and MAP2) at the end of the second postnatal week. Also at the end of the second postnatal week, we found increased density of dendritic spines across the entire dentate gyrus, together with elevated levels of postsynaptic scaffold (post-synaptic density 95) and receptor proteins (GluR2 and GABA(A)Rγ2) of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, dentate granule cells of P14 EE-reared mice had lower input resistances and increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. Together, our results demonstrate that EE-rearing promotes morphological and electrophysiological maturation of dentate granule cells, underscoring the importance of natural environmental stimulation on development of the dentate gyrus.

  3. The extent of chemically enriched gas around star-forming dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae driven winds are often invoked to remove chemically enriched gas from galaxies to match the low metallicities of dwarf galaxies. In such shallow potential wells, outflows may produce massive amounts of enriched halo gas (circum-galactic medium or CGM) and pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM). I will present a survey of the CGM and IGM around 18 star-forming field dwarf galaxies with stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ ≈ 8 ‑ 9 at z ≈ 0.2. Eight of these have CGM probed by quasar absorption spectra at projected distances, d, less than the host virial radius, Rh. Ten are probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 to study the surrounding IGM. The absorption measurements include neutral hydrogen (H I), the dominant silicon ions for diffuse cool gas (T ∼ 104 K; Si II, Si III, and Si IV), more highly ionized carbon (C IV), and highly ionized oxygen (O VI). The metal absorption from the CGM of the dwarf galaxies is less common and ≈ 4× weaker compared to massive star-forming galaxies though O VI absorption is still common. None of the dwarfs probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 have definitive metal-line detections. Combining the available silicon ions, we estimate that the cool CGM accounts for only 2 ‑ 6% of the expected silicon budget. CGM absorption from O VI can account for ≈ 8% of the expected oxygen budget. As O VI traces an ion with expected equilibrium ion fractions of 0.2, this highly ionized phase of the CGM may represent a significant metal reservoir even for dwarf galaxies not expected to maintain gravitationally shock heated hot halos.

  4. The Extent of Chemically Enriched Gas around Star-forming Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean D.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John S.; Schaye, Joop; Straka, Lorrie A.

    2017-11-01

    Supernova driven winds are often invoked to remove chemically enriched gas from dwarf galaxies to match their low observed metallicities. In such shallow potential wells, outflows may produce massive amounts of enriched halo gas (circumgalactic medium, CGM) and pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present a survey of the CGM and IGM around 18 star-forming field dwarfs with stellar masses of {log} {M}* /{M}⊙ ≈ 8{--}9 at z≈ 0.2. Eight of these have CGM probed by quasar absorption spectra at projected distances, d, less than that of the host virial radius, {R}{{h}}. Ten are probed in the surrounding IGM at d/{R}{{h}}=1{--}3. The absorption measurements include neutral hydrogen, the dominant silicon ions for diffuse cool gas (T ˜ 104 K; Si II, Si III, and Si IV), moderately ionized carbon (C IV), and highly ionized oxygen (O VI). Metal absorption from the CGM of the dwarfs is less common and ≈ 4× weaker compared to massive star-forming galaxies, though O VI absorption is still common. None of the dwarfs probed at d/{R}{{h}}=1{--}3 have definitive metal-line detections. Combining the available silicon ions, we estimate that the cool CGM of the dwarfs accounts for only 2%-6% of the expected silicon budget from the yields of supernovae associated with past star formation. The highly ionized O VI accounts for ≈8% of the oxygen budget. As O VI traces an ion with expected equilibrium ion fractions of ≲0.2, the highly ionized CGM may represent a significant metal reservoir even for dwarfs not expected to maintain gravitationally shock heated hot halos.

  5. A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

    DOE PAGES

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; ...

    2015-09-24

    We present the first measurements of the abundances of α-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intracluster medium is consistent with being constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r 200). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core-collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measuredmore » metal abundance ratios are generally consistent with the solar value. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and SNe Ia contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2–3. Furthermore, we estimate the ratio between the number of SNe Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 12% and 37%, broadly consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy or with the SN Ia contribution estimated for the cluster cores.« less

  6. A UNIFORM CONTRIBUTION OF CORE-COLLAPSE AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE TO THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT PATTERN IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Simionescu, A.; Ichinohe, Y.; Werner, N.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first measurements of the abundances of α-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intracluster medium is consistent with being constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r{sub 200}). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core-collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measuredmore » metal abundance ratios are generally consistent with the solar value. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and SNe Ia contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2–3. We estimate the ratio between the number of SNe Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 12% and 37%, broadly consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy or with the SN Ia contribution estimated for the cluster cores.« less

  7. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designed or prepared electrochemical reduction cells to reduce uranium from one valence state to another for uranium enrichment using the chemical exchange process. The cell materials in contact with process solutions must be corrosion resistant to concentrated hydrochloric acid solutions. The cell cathodic...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... A major design concern is to avoid contamination of the process streams with certain metal ions... internal turbine mixers), especially designed or prepared for uranium enrichment using the chemical...) or glass. The stage residence time of the columns is designed to be short (30 seconds or less). (2...

  9. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    PubMed

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Meteoritic Evidence for Multiple Early Enriched Reservoirs in the Martian Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, R. M. G.; Debaille, V.; Brandon, A. D.; Agee, C. B.

    2018-05-01

    From isotopic systematics, the martian crustal reservoir represented by NWA 7034 cannot be the enriched end-member for the shergottites. This suggests multiple enriched reservoirs in the martian mantle formed by several differentiation events.

  11. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  12. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳ 103 M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes onto protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳ 106 and the gas accretion rate ≳ 105 M⊙/Myr, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This `conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

  13. Biocompatibility of Titania Nanotube Coatings Enriched with Silver Nanograins by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Piszczek, Piotr; Lewandowska, Żaneta; Radtke, Aleksandra; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata; Szubka, Magdalena; Talik, Ewa; Fiori, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity investigations of titania nanotube (TNT) coatings enriched with silver nanograins (TNT/Ag) have been carried out. TNT/Ag nanocomposite materials were produced by combining the electrochemical anodization and chemical vapor deposition methods. Fabricated coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The release effect of silver ions from TNT/Ag composites immersed in bodily fluids, has been studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The metabolic activity assay (MTT) was applied to determine the L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on the surface of TNT/Ag coatings. Moreover, the results of immunoassays (using peripheral blood mononuclear cells—PBMCs isolated from rats) allowed the estimation of the immunological activity of TNT/Ag surface materials. Antibacterial activity of TNT/Ag coatings with different morphological and structural features was estimated against two Staphylococcus aureus strains (ATCC 29213 and H9). The TNT/Ag nanocomposite layers produced revealed a good biocompatibility promoting the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. A desirable anti-biofilm activity against the S. aureus reference strain was mainly noticed for these TiO2 nanotube coatings, which contain dispersed Ag nanograins deposited on their surface. PMID:28914821

  14. Artificial muscles' enrichment text: Chemical Literacy Profile of pre-service teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernani, Ulum, Luthfi Lulul; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to determine the profile of chemical literacy abilities of pre-service teachers based on scientific attitudes and scientific competencies in PISA 2015 through individualized learning by using an artificial muscle context based-enrichment book. This research uses descriptive method, involving 20 of the 90 randomly selected population. This research uses a multiple-choice questions instrument. The result of this research are : 1) in the attitude aspects of interest in science and technology, valuing scientific approaches to inquiry, and environmental awareness, the results obtained respectively for 90%, 80%, and 30%. 2) for scientific competence of apply appropriate scientific knowledge, identify models and representations, make appropriate predictions, and explain the potential implications of scientific knowledge for society, the results obtained respectively for 30%, 50%, 60%, and 55%. 3) For scientific competence of identify the question explored in a given scientific study and distinguish questions that could be investigated scientifically, the results obtained respectively for 30 % and 50%. 4) For scientific competence of transform data from one representation to another and draw appropriate conclusions, the results obtained respectively for 60% and 45%. Based on the results, which need to be developed in pre-service chemistry teachers are environmental awareness, apply appropriate scientific knowledge, identify the question explored in a given scientific study, and draw appropriate conclusions.

  15. Early chemo-dynamical evolution of dwarf galaxies deduced from enrichment of r-process elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2017-04-01

    The abundance of elements synthesized by the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process elements) of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Local Group galaxies gives us clues to clarify the early evolutionary history of the Milky Way halo. The Local Group dwarf galaxies would have similarly evolved with building blocks of the Milky Way halo. However, how the chemo-dynamical evolution of the building blocks affects the abundance of r-process elements is not yet clear. In this paper, we perform a series of simulations using dwarf galaxy models with various dynamical times and total mass, which determine star formation histories. We find that galaxies with dynamical times longer than 100 Myr have star formation rates less than 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 and slowly enrich metals in their early phase. These galaxies can explain the observed large scatters of r-process abundance in EMP stars in the Milky Way halo regardless of their total mass. On the other hand, the first neutron star merger appears at a higher metallicity in galaxies with a dynamical time shorter than typical neutron star merger times. The scatters of r-process elements mainly come from the inhomogeneity of the metals in the interstellar medium whereas the scatters of α-elements are mostly due to the difference in the yield of each supernova. Our results demonstrate that the future observations of r-process elements in EMP stars will be able to constrain the early chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group galaxies.

  16. Production and application of O2 enriched air produced by fresh and salt water desorption in chemical plants.

    PubMed

    Galli, F; Previtali, D; Bozzano, G; Bianchi, C L; Manenti, F; Pirola, C

    2018-07-01

    Oxygen enriched air intensifies oxidation processes since smaller reactors reach the same conversion of typical unit operations that employ simple air as reactant. However, the cost to produce pure oxygen or oxygen enriched air with traditional methods, i.e. cryogenic separation or membrane technologies, may be unaffordable. Here, we propose a new continuous technology for gas mixture separation, focusing on the production of oxygen enriched air as a case study. This operation is an absorption-desorption process that takes advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to nitrogen. In a pressurized solubilisation tank, water absorbs air. Subsequently, reducing pressure desorbs oxygen enriched air. PRO/II 9.3 (Simsci-Scheider Electrics) simulated, optimized, and calculated the capital and operative expenses of this technology. Moreover, we tested for the first time salt water instead of distilled water as appealing possibility for chemical plant near sea and ocean. We varied the inlet water flowrate between 5 and 15 m 3 /h. The optimum operative absortion unit pressure is 15-35 barg. After degassing, water may be recycled. With salt water, the extracted quantity of enriched air decreases compared with the desorption from fresh water (20% less), while the concentration of oxygen is independent from the salt concentration. The cost of enriched air at the optimum condition is 2-3.35 EUR/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-layer solid-phase extraction and evaporation-enrichment methods for polar organic chemicals from aqueous matrices.

    PubMed

    Köke, Niklas; Zahn, Daniel; Knepper, Thomas P; Frömel, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of polar organic chemicals in the aquatic environment is exacerbated by the lack of suitable and widely applicable enrichment methods. In this work, we assessed the suitability of a novel combination of well-known solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials in one cartridge as well as an evaporation method and for the enrichment of 26 polar model substances (predominantly log D < 0) covering a broad range of physico-chemical properties in three different aqueous matrices. The multi-layer solid-phase extraction (mlSPE) and evaporation method were investigated for the recovery and matrix effects of the model substances and analyzed with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). In total, 65% of the model substances were amenable (> 10% recovery) to the mlSPE method with a mean recovery of 76% while 73% of the model substances were enriched with the evaporation method achieving a mean recovery of 78%. Target and non-target screening comparison of both methods with a frequently used reversed-phase SPE method utilizing "hydrophilic and lipophilic balanced" (HLB) material was performed. Target analysis showed that the mlSPE and evaporation method have pronounced advantages over the HLB method since the HLB material retained only 30% of the model substances. Non-target screening of a ground water sample with the investigated enrichment methods showed that the median retention time of all detected features on a HILIC system decreased in the order mlSPE (3641 features, median t R 9.7 min), evaporation (1391, 9.3 min), HLB (4414, 7.2 min), indicating a higher potential of the described methods to enrich polar analytes from water compared with HLB-SPE. Graphical abstract Schematic of the method evaluation (recovery and matrix effects) and method comparison (target and non-target analysis) of the two investigated enrichment methods for very polar chemicals in aqueousmatrices.

  18. Designing focused chemical libraries enriched in protein-protein interaction inhibitors using machine-learning methods.

    PubMed

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-03-05

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  19. Designing Focused Chemical Libraries Enriched in Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors using Machine-Learning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  20. Early enrichment in free-range laying hens: effects on ranging behaviour, welfare and response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2018-03-01

    concentrations within eggs from enriched birds (P<0.0001). Correspondingly, the enriched hens showing a greater increase in the number of visits following range area reduction compared to non-enriched hens (P=0.02). Only one rearing room per treatment was used but these preliminary data indicate 3 weeks of early enrichment had some long-term effects on hen ranging behaviour and enhanced hen's adaptability to environmental stressors.

  1. Enriched dairy fat matrix diet prevents early life lipopolysaccharide-induced spatial memory impairment at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Baudry, C; Fressange-Mazda, C; Le Ruyet, P; Nadjar, A; Pallet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events. In this work, we evaluated the protective effect of partial replacement of VL by DL, supplemented or not with DHA and ARA, on post-natal inflammation and its consequence on memory. Mice were fed with diets poor in vegetal n-3 PUFA (Def VL), balanced in vegetal n-3/n-6 PUFA (Bal VL), balanced in dairy lipids (Bal DL) or enriched in DHA and ARA (Supp VL; Supp DL) from the first day of gestation until adulthood. At post-natal day 14 (PND14), pups received a single administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and brain cytokine expression, microglia phenotype and neurogenesis were measured. In a second set of experiments, memory and neurogenesis were measured at adulthood. Overall, our data showed that lipid quality of the diet modulates early life LPS effect on microglia phenotype, brain cytokine expression and neurogenesis at PND14 and memory at adulthood. In particular, Bal DL diet protects from the adverse effect of early life LPS exposure on PND14 neurogenesis and adult spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hf and Nd Isotope Evidence for Production of an Incompatible Trace Element Enriched Crustal Reservoir in Early Earth (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Debaille, V.; Lapen, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    The final significant stage of accretion of the Earth was likely a collision between proto-Earth and a Mars sized impactor that formed the Moon. This event is thought to have produced enough thermal energy to melt all or most of the Earth, with a consequent magma ocean (MO). During subsequent cooling, the Earth would have formed its protocrust and corresponding mantle lithosphere, consisting of solidified basalt-komatiitic melt, in combination with buoyant cumulates and late stage residual melts from the MO. Relative to the convecting mantle, portions of this protolithosphere are likely to have been enriched in incompatible trace elements (ITE) in sufficient quantities to contain a significant amount of the bulk Earth’s budget for rare earth elements, U, Th, and Hf. If the protolithosphere was negatively buoyant, it may have overturned at or near the final stages of MO crystallization and a significant portion of that material may have been transported into the deep mantle where it resided and remixed into the convecting mantle over Earth history [1,2]. If the protolithosphere remained positively buoyant, its crust would have likely begun to erode from surface processes, and subsequently recycled back into the mantle over time as sediment and altered crust, once a subduction mechanism arose. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of Earth’s earliest rocks support the idea that an early-formed ITE-enriched reservoir was produced. The maxima in 142Nd/144Nd for 3.85 to 3.64 Ga rocks from Isua, Greenland decreases from +20 ppm to +12 ppm relative to the present day mantle value, respectively [3]. This indicates mixing of an early-formed ITE enriched reservoir back into the convecting mantle. In addition, zircons from the 3.1 Ga Jack Hills conglomerate indicate that material with an enriched 176Lu/177Hf of ~0.02 and an age of 4.4 Ga or greater was present at the Earth’s surface over the first 2 Ga of Earth history, supporting the scenario of a positively buoyant

  3. Early social enrichment rescues adult behavioral and brain abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-03-13

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases.

  4. The power metric: a new statistically robust enrichment-type metric for virtual screening applications with early recovery capability.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias; Dos Santos, Fábio Mendes; Martins-José, Andrelly; Augustyns, Koen; De Winter, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A new metric for the evaluation of model performance in the field of virtual screening and quantitative structure-activity relationship applications is described. This metric has been termed the power metric and is defined as the fraction of the true positive rate divided by the sum of the true positive and false positive rates, for a given cutoff threshold. The performance of this metric is compared with alternative metrics such as the enrichment factor, the relative enrichment factor, the receiver operating curve enrichment factor, the correct classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient and Cohen's kappa coefficient. The performance of this new metric is found to be quite robust with respect to variations in the applied cutoff threshold and ratio of the number of active compounds to the total number of compounds, and at the same time being sensitive to variations in model quality. It possesses the correct characteristics for its application in early-recognition virtual screening problems.

  5. Active galactic nuclei feedback, quiescence and circumgalactic medium metal enrichment in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenreich, Maximilian; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Emsellem, Eric

    2017-06-01

    We present three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations showing the effect of kinetic and radiative active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on a model galaxy representing a massive quiescent low-redshift early-type galaxy of M* = 8.41 × 1010 M⊙, harbouring an MBH = 4 × 108 M⊙ black hole surrounded by a cooling gaseous halo. We show that, for a total baryon fraction of ˜20 per cent of the cosmological value, feedback from the AGN can keep the galaxy quiescent for about 4.35 Gyr and with properties consistent with black hole mass and X-ray luminosity scaling relations. However, this can only be achieved if the AGN feedback model includes both kinetic and radiative feedback modes. The simulation with only kinetic feedback fails to keep the model galaxy fully quiescent, while one with only radiative feedback leads to excessive black hole growth. For higher baryon fractions (e.g. 50 per cent of the cosmological value), the X-ray luminosities exceed observed values by at least one order of magnitude, and rapid cooling results in a star-forming galaxy. The AGN plays a major role in keeping the circumgalactic gas at observed metallicities of Z/Z⊙ ≳ 0.3 within the central ˜30 kpc by venting nuclear gas enriched with metals from residual star formation activity. As indicated by previous cosmological simulations, our results are consistent with a model for which the black hole mass and the total baryon fraction are set at higher redshifts z > 1 and the AGN alone can keep the model galaxy on observed scaling relations. Models without AGN feedback violate both the quiescence criterion as well as circumgalactic medium metallicity constraints.

  6. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity.

  7. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavior, stress reactivity and synaptophysin/BDNF expression in hippocampus following early life stress.

    PubMed

    Dandi, Εvgenia; Kalamari, Aikaterini; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration). At approximately three months of age, adult rats underwent behavioral testing to evaluate anxiety (Elevated Plus Maze), locomotion (Open Field Test), spatial learning and memory (Morris Water Maze) as well as non-spatial recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test). After completion of behavioral testing, blood samples were taken for evaluation of stress-induced plasma corticosterone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while immunofluorescence was applied to evaluate hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin expression in dorsal hippocampus. We found that environmental enrichment protected against the effects of maternal separation as indicated by the lower anxiety levels and the reversal of spatial memory deficits compared to animals housed in standard conditions. These changes were associated with increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Regarding the neuroendocrine response to stress, while exposure to an acute stressor potentiated corticosterone increases in maternally-separated rats, environmental enrichment of these rats prevented this effect. The current study aimed at investigating the compensatory role of enriched environment against the negative outcomes of adverse experiences early in life concurrently on emotional and cognitive

  8. Chemical processes for the extreme enrichment of tellurium into marine ferromanganese oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwabara, Teruhiko; Oishi, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sugiyama, Toshiki; Usui, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    Tellurium, an element of growing economic importance, is extremely enriched in marine ferromanganese oxides. We investigated the mechanism of this enrichment using a combination of spectroscopic analysis and adsorption/coprecipitation experiments. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) analysis showed that in adsorption/coprecipitation systems, Te(IV) was oxidized on δ-MnO2 and not oxidized on ferrihydrite. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis showed that both Te(IV) and Te(VI) were adsorbed on the surface of δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite via formation of inner-sphere complexes. In addition, Te(VI) can be structurally incorporated into the linkage of Fe octahedra through a coprecipitation process because of its molecular geometry that is similar to the Fe octahedron. The largest distribution coefficient obtained in the adsorption/coprecipitation experiments was for the Te(VI)/ferrihydrite coprecipitation system, and it was comparable to those calculated from the distribution between natural ferromanganese oxides and seawater. Our XAFS and micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping of natural ferromanganese oxides showed that Te was structurally incorporated as Te(VI) in Fe (oxyhydr)oxide phases. We conclude that the main process for the enrichment of Te in ferromanganese oxides is structural incorporation of Te(VI) into Fe (oxyhydr)oxide phases through coprecipitation. This mechanism can explain the unique degree of enrichment of Te compared with other oxyanions, which are mainly enriched via adsorption on the surface of the solid structures. In particular, the great contrast in the distributions of Te and Se is caused by their oxidized species: (i) the similar geometry of the Te(VI) molecule to Fe octahedron, and (ii) quite soluble nature of Se(VI). Coexisting Mn oxide phases may promote structural incorporation of Te(VI) by oxidation of Te(IV), although the surface oxidation itself may not work as the critical enrichment process as

  9. CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF THE FIRST GALAXIES: CRITERIA FOR ONE-SHOT ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Bromm, Volker, E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu, E-mail: vbromm@astro.as.utexas.edu

    We utilize metal-poor stars in the local, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs; L {sub tot} {<=} 10{sup 5} L {sub Sun }) to empirically constrain the formation process of the first galaxies. Since UFDs have much simpler star formation histories than the halo of the Milky Way, their stellar populations should preserve the fossil record of the first supernova (SN) explosions in their long-lived, low-mass stars. Guided by recent hydrodynamical simulations of first galaxy formation, we develop a set of stellar abundance signatures that characterize the nucleosynthetic history of such an early system if it was observed in the present-day universe.more » Specifically, we argue that the first galaxies are the product of chemical 'one-shot' events, where only one (long-lived) stellar generation forms after the first, Population III, SN explosions. Our abundance criteria thus constrain the strength of negative feedback effects inside the first galaxies. We compare the stellar content of UFDs with these one-shot criteria. Several systems (Ursa Major II, and also Coma Berenices, Bootes I, Leo IV, Segue 1) largely fulfill the requirements, indicating that their high-redshift predecessors did experience strong feedback effects that shut off star formation. We term the study of the entire stellar population of a dwarf galaxy for the purpose of inferring details about the nature and origin of the first galaxies 'dwarf galaxy archaeology'. This will provide clues to the connection of the first galaxies, the surviving, metal-poor dwarf galaxies, and the building blocks of the Milky Way.« less

  10. Star Formation, Quenching And Chemical Enrichment In Local Galaxies From Integral Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Within the currently well-established ΛCDM cosmological framework we still lack a satisfactory understanding of the processes that trigger, regulate and eventually quench star formation on galactic scales. Gas flows (including inflows from the cosmic web and supernovae-driven outflows) are considered to act as self-regulatory mechanisms, generating the scaling relations between stellar mass, star formation rate and metallicity observed in the local Universe by large spectroscopic surveys. These surveys, however, have so far been limited by the availability of only one spectrum per galaxy. The aim of this dissertation is to expand the study of star formation and chemical abundances to resolved scales within galaxies by using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data, mostly from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. In the first part of this thesis I demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended low ionisation emission-line regions (LIERs) in both late- and early-type galaxies. By studying the Hα equivalent width and diagnostic line ratios radial profiles, together with tracers of the underlying stellar population, I show that LIERs are not due to a central point source but to hot evolved (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. In light of this, I suggest a new classification scheme for galaxies based on their line emission. By analysing the colours, star formation rates, morphologies, gas and stellar kinematics and environmental properties of galaxies with substantial LIER emission, I identify two distinct populations. Galaxies where the central regions are LIER-like, but show star formation at larger radii are late types in which star formation is slowly quenched inside-out. This transformation is associated with massive bulges. Galaxies dominated by LIER emission at all radii, on the other hand, are red-sequence galaxies harbouring a residual cold gas component, acquired mostly via external accretion. Quiescent galaxies devoid of line emission reside in denser

  11. Use of ToxPrint chemotypes for exploring chemical feature enrichments across the ToxCast chemical-assay landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxCast chemical library spans diverse chemical use-types, functionalities, structures and features potentially relevant to toxicity and environmental exposure. However, this structural diversity, along with assay noise and low average hit rates across the varied ToxCast h...

  12. SPECHT - single-stage phosphopeptide enrichment and stable-isotope chemical tagging: quantitative phosphoproteomics of insulin action in muscle.

    PubMed

    Kettenbach, Arminja N; Sano, Hiroyuki; Keller, Susanna R; Lienhard, Gustav E; Gerber, Scott A

    2015-01-30

    The study of cellular signaling remains a significant challenge for translational and clinical research. In particular, robust and accurate methods for quantitative phosphoproteomics in tissues and tumors represent significant hurdles for such efforts. In the present work, we design, implement and validate a method for single-stage phosphopeptide enrichment and stable isotope chemical tagging, or SPECHT, that enables the use of iTRAQ, TMT and/or reductive dimethyl-labeling strategies to be applied to phosphoproteomics experiments performed on primary tissue. We develop and validate our approach using reductive dimethyl-labeling and HeLa cells in culture, and find these results indistinguishable from data generated from more traditional SILAC-labeled HeLa cells mixed at the cell level. We apply the SPECHT approach to the quantitative analysis of insulin signaling in a murine myotube cell line and muscle tissue, identify known as well as new phosphorylation events, and validate these phosphorylation sites using phospho-specific antibodies. Taken together, our work validates chemical tagging post-single-stage phosphoenrichment as a general strategy for studying cellular signaling in primary tissues. Through the use of a quantitatively reproducible, proteome-wide phosphopeptide enrichment strategy, we demonstrated the feasibility of post-phosphopeptide purification chemical labeling and tagging as an enabling approach for quantitative phosphoproteomics of primary tissues. Using reductive dimethyl labeling as a generalized chemical tagging strategy, we compared the performance of post-phosphopeptide purification chemical tagging to the well established community standard, SILAC, in insulin-stimulated tissue culture cells. We then extended our method to the analysis of low-dose insulin signaling in murine muscle tissue, and report on the analytical and biological significance of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rumen Biohydrogenation and Microbial Community Changes Upon Early Life Supplementation of 22:6n-3 Enriched Microalgae to Goats

    PubMed Central

    Dewanckele, Lore; Vlaeminck, Bruno; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Ruiz-González, Alexis; Debruyne, Sieglinde; Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Fievez, Veerle

    2018-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched products inhibits the final step of biohydrogenation in the adult rumen, resulting in the accumulation of 18:1 isomers, particularly of trans(t)-11 18:1. Occasionally, a shift toward the formation of t10 intermediates at the expense of t11 intermediates can be triggered. However, whether similar impact would occur when supplementing DHA-enriched products during pregnancy or early life remains unknown. Therefore, the current in vivo study aimed to investigate the effect of a nutritional intervention with DHA in the early life of goat kids on rumen biohydrogenation and microbial community. Delivery of DHA was achieved by supplementing DHA-enriched microalgae (DHA Gold) either to the maternal diet during pregnancy (prenatal) or to the diet of the young offspring (postnatal). At the age of 12 weeks, rumen fluid was sampled for analysis of long-chain fatty acids and microbial community based on bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Postnatal supplementation with DHA-enriched microalgae inhibited the final biohydrogenation step, as observed in adult animals. This resulted particularly in increased ruminal proportions of t11 18:1 rather than a shift to t10 intermediates, suggesting that both young and adult goats might be less prone to dietary induced shifts toward the formation of t10 intermediates, in comparison with cows. Although Butyrivibrio species have been identified as the most important biohydrogenating bacteria, this genus was more abundant when complete biohydrogenation, i.e. 18:0 formation, was inhibited. Blautia abundance was positively correlated with 18:0 accumulation, whereas Lactobacillus spp. Dialister spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were more abundant in situations with greater t10 accumulation. Extensive comparisons made between current results and literature data indicate that current associations between biohydrogenation intermediates and rumen bacteria in young goats align with former

  14. The metallicity of the intracluster medium over cosmic time: further evidence for early enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; Simionescu, Aurora; Urban, Ondrej; Werner, Norbert; Zhuravleva, Irina

    2017-12-01

    We use Chandra X-ray data to measure the metallicity of the intracluster medium (ICM) in 245 massive galaxy clusters selected from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect surveys, spanning redshifts 0 < z < 1.2. Metallicities were measured in three different radial ranges, spanning cluster cores through their outskirts. We explore trends in these measurements as a function of cluster redshift, temperature and surface brightness 'peakiness' (a proxy for gas cooling efficiency in cluster centres). The data at large radii (0.5-1 r500) are consistent with a constant metallicity, while at intermediate radii (0.1-0.5 r500) we see a late-time increase in enrichment, consistent with the expected production and mixing of metals in cluster cores. In cluster centres, there are strong trends of metallicity with temperature and peakiness, reflecting enhanced metal production in the lowest entropy gas. Within the cool-core/sharply peaked cluster population, there is a large intrinsic scatter in central metallicity and no overall evolution, indicating significant astrophysical variations in the efficiency of enrichment. The central metallicity in clusters with flat surface brightness profiles is lower, with a smaller intrinsic scatter, but increases towards lower redshifts. Our results are consistent with other recent measurements of ICM metallicity as a function of redshift. They reinforce the picture implied by observations of uniform metal distributions in the outskirts of nearby clusters, in which most of the enrichment of the ICM takes place before cluster formation, with significant later enrichment taking place only in cluster centres, as the stellar populations of the central galaxies evolve.

  15. The metallicity of the intracluster medium over cosmic time: further evidence for early enrichment

    DOE PAGES

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; ...

    2017-08-26

    Here, we use Chandra X-ray data to measure the metallicity of the intracluster medium (ICM) in 245 massive galaxy clusters selected from X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) effect surveys, spanning redshifts 0 < z < 1.2. Metallicities were measured in three different radial ranges, spanning cluster cores through their outskirts. We explore trends in these measurements as a function of cluster redshift, temperature and surface brightness ‘peakiness’ (a proxy for gas cooling efficiency in cluster centres). The data at large radii (0.5–1 r500) are consistent with a constant metallicity, while at intermediate radii (0.1–0.5 r500) we see a late-time increase inmore » enrichment, consistent with the expected production and mixing of metals in cluster cores. In cluster centres, there are strong trends of metallicity with temperature and peakiness, reflecting enhanced metal production in the lowest entropy gas. Within the cool-core/sharply peaked cluster population, there is a large intrinsic scatter in central metallicity and no overall evolution, indicating significant astrophysical variations in the efficiency of enrichment. The central metallicity in clusters with flat surface brightness profiles is lower, with a smaller intrinsic scatter, but increases towards lower redshifts. Our results are consistent with other recent measurements of ICM metallicity as a function of redshift. They reinforce the picture implied by observations of uniform metal distributions in the outskirts of nearby clusters, in which most of the enrichment of the ICM takes place before cluster formation, with significant later enrichment taking place only in cluster centres, as the stellar populations of the central galaxies evolve.« less

  16. Early experience and results of bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel for recalcitrant nonunions of lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chao-Ching; Su, Chen-Yao; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan

    2007-09-01

    Refractory nonunions of the tibia or femur are physically and mentally devastating conditions for the patients, and the treatment is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of surgical treatment in recalcitrant nonunions of a lower extremity with bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel (APG). Twelve patients with four femoral and eight tibial atrophic nonunions after multiple prior procedures were included. All of them were treated with the bone grafting procedures with autograft complex enriched with APG. They were evaluated with radiographs, bone mineral density for bony healing process, and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey for functional outcome. Of the 12 patients, 11 healed at an average of 19.7 weeks after the first attempt and 1 healed after the second attempt at 21 weeks. The bone mineral density continued to increase steadily from early healing to the remodeling phase. Functional status was greatly improved at an average follow-up of 32.4 months. The results of this preliminary study implied the possible potential of bone graft enriched with APG in the treatment of recalcitrant nonunions of the lower extremity. More research is necessary to clarify its role in augmentation of bone graft to enhance healing of nonunion.

  17. Primary marine aerosol physical flux and chemical composition during a nutrient enrichment experiment in mesocosms in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, Allison N.; Sellegri, Karine; Mas, Sébastien; Charrière, Bruno; Pey, Jorge; Rose, Clémence; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Parin, David; Picard, David; Ribeiro, Mickael; Roberts, Greg; Sempéré, Richard; Marchand, Nicolas; D'Anna, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While primary marine aerosol (PMA) is an important part of global aerosol total emissions, its chemical composition and physical flux as a function of the biogeochemical properties of the seawater still remain highly uncharacterized due to the multiplicity of physical, chemical and biological parameters that are involved in the emission process. Here, two nutrient-enriched mesocosms and one control mesocosm, both filled with Mediterranean seawater, were studied over a 3-week period. PMA generated from the mesocosm waters were characterized in term of chemical composition, size distribution and size-segregated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as a function of the seawater chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, pigment composition, virus and bacteria abundances. The aerosol number size distribution flux was primarily affected by the seawater temperature and did not vary significantly from one mesocosm to the other. The aerosol number size distribution flux was primarily affected by the seawater temperature and did not vary significantly from one mesocosm to the other. Particle number and CCN aerosol fluxes increase by a factor of 2 when the temperature increases from 22 to 32 °C, for all particle submicron sizes. This effect, rarely observed in previous studies, could be specific to oligotrophic waters and/or to this temperature range. In all mesocosms (enriched and control mesocosms), we detected an enrichment of calcium (+500 %) and a deficit in chloride (-36 %) in the submicron PMA mass compared to the literature inorganic composition of the seawater. There are indications that the chloride deficit and calcium enrichment are linked to biological processes, as they are found to be stronger in the enriched mesocosms. This implies a non-linear transfer function between the seawater composition and PMA composition, with complex processes taking place at the interface during the bubble bursting. We found that the artificial phytoplankton bloom did not affect the CCN

  18. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium. II. Chemical enrichment and supernova yield models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.; Pols, O. R.; Vink, J.

    2016-11-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z 2-3). In this study, we compare the most accurate average X/Fe abundance ratios (compiled in a previous work from XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS observations of 44 galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals), representative of the chemical enrichment in the nearby ICM, to various SNIa and SNcc nucleosynthesis models found in the literature. The use of a SNcc model combined to any favoured standard SNIa model (deflagration or delayed-detonation) fails to reproduce our abundance pattern. In particular, the Ca/Fe and Ni/Fe ratios are significantly underestimated by the models. We show that the Ca/Fe ratio can be reproduced better, either by taking a SNIa delayed-detonation model that matches the observations of the Tycho supernova remnant, or by adding a contribution from the "Ca-rich gap transient" SNe, whose material should easily mix into the hot ICM. On the other hand, the Ni/Fe ratio can be reproduced better by assuming that both deflagration and delayed-detonation SNIa contribute in similar proportions to the ICM enrichment. In either case, the fraction of SNIa over the total number of SNe (SNIa+SNcc) contributing to the ICM enrichment ranges within 29-45%. This fraction is found to be systematically higher than the corresponding SNIa/(SNIa+SNcc) fraction contributing to the enrichment of the proto-solar environnement (15-25%). We also discuss and quantify two useful constraints on both SNIa (I.e. the initial metallicity on SNIa progenitors and the fraction of low-mass stars that result in SNIa) and SNcc (I.e. the effect of

  19. Wolf-Rayet nebulae - Chemical enrichment and effective temperatures of the exciting stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosa, Michael R.; Mathis, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive new spectrophotometric observations of five Wolf-Rayet nebulas are analyzed by means of models photoionized by plane-parallel and also WR atmosphere models. Abundance ratios O/H and Ne, S, Cl, and Ar relative to O are close to solar. N/H is enriched relative to solar and variable over the faces of the nebulas. He/H varies from one to three times solar. The O(+)/O - S(+)/S(2+) diagram is used in estimating T(eff) for the exciting stars. It indicates that S 308, NGC 3199, NGC 6888, and NGC 2359 are ionized by hot stars. RCW 58, RCW 104, MR 26, and MR 100 have such low-excitation spectra that their stellar T(eff) and nebular He/H cannot be reliably determined.

  20. An Evaluation of Early Reading First (ERF) Preschool Enrichment on Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Goetz, Ernest T.; Hall, Robert J.; Payne, Tara; Taylor, Aaron B.; Kim, Minjung; McCormick, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    Early Reading First (ERF) was created to address problems related to language and development among economically disadvantaged and language-minority preschool children through quality classroom processes, professional development, and instruction. More than any previous initiative, ERF specifies what early literacy instruction should look like in…

  1. Early time evolution of a chemically produced electron depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1995-01-01

    The early time evolution of an ionospheric electron depletion produced by a radially expanding electron attachment chemical release is studied with a two-dimensional simulation model. The model includes electron attachment chemistry, incorporates fluid electrons, particle ions and neutrals, and considers the evolution in a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field for a low beta plasma. Timescales considered are of the order of or less than the cyclotron period of the negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attacment reaction. This corresponds to time periods of tenths of seconds during recent experiemts. Simulation results show that a highly sheared azimuthal electron flow velocity develops in the radially expanding depletion boundary. This sheared electron flow velocity and the steep density gradients in the boundary give rise to small-scale irregulatities in the form of electron density cavities and spikes. The nonlinear evolution of these irregularities results in trapping and ultimately turbulent heating of the negative ions.

  2. Polyphenols-enriched Chardonnay white wine and sparkling Pinot Noir red wine identically prevent early atherosclerosis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Vanderlinde, Regina; Bornet, Aurélie; Décordé, Kelly; Lequeux, Nadine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2005-12-14

    The effects of a white wine enriched with polyphenols (PEWW) from Chardonnay grapes and of a sparkling red wine (SRW) from Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes were studied for the first time on early atherosclerosis in hamsters. Animals were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received by force-feeding PEWW, SRW, ethanol 12% (ETH), or water as control (mimicking a moderate consumption of approximately 2 red wine glasses per meal for a 70 kg human). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in groups that consumed PEWW and SRW accompanied by an increase in the ratio apo A-1/apo B. Liver-specific activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased by PEWW (38 and 16%, respectively) and by SRW (48 and 15%, respectively). PEWW and ETH significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity and vitamin A concentrations. Aortic fatty streak area (AFSA) was significantly strongly reduced in the groups receiving PEWW (85%) and SRW (89%) in comparison with the control. AFSA was reduced by ethanol to a lesser extent (58%). These data suggest that tannins from the phenolics-enriched white wine induce a protective effect against early atherosclerosis comparable to that produced by sparkling red wine containing tanins and anthocyanins and dissociated from the antioxidant action of these compounds.

  3. Dopamine Transporter Neuroimaging as an Enrichment Biomarker in Early Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trials: A Disease Progression Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Conrado, Daniela J; Nicholas, Timothy; Tsai, Kuenhi; Macha, Sreeraj; Sinha, Vikram; Stone, Julie; Corrigan, Brian; Bani, Massimo; Muglia, Pierandrea; Watson, Ian A; Kern, Volker D; Sheveleva, Elena; Marek, Kenneth; Stephenson, Diane T; Romero, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Given the recognition that disease-modifying therapies should focus on earlier Parkinson's disease stages, trial enrollment based purely on clinical criteria poses significant challenges. The goal herein was to determine the utility of dopamine transporter neuroimaging as an enrichment biomarker in early motor Parkinson's disease clinical trials. Patient-level longitudinal data of 672 subjects with early-stage Parkinson's disease in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) observational study and the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial (PRECEPT) clinical trial were utilized in a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The rate of worsening in the motor scores between subjects with or without a scan without evidence of dopamine transporter deficit was different both statistically and clinically. The average difference in the change from baseline of motor scores at 24 months between biomarker statuses was -3.16 (90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.96 to -5.42) points. Dopamine transporter imaging could identify subjects with a steeper worsening of the motor scores, allowing trial enrichment and 24% reduction of sample size. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  4. Early Social Enrichment Improves Social Motivation and Skills in a Monogenic Mouse Model of Autism, the Oprm1 (-/-) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Garbugino, Luciana; Centofante, Eleonora; D'Amato, Francesca R

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been proven to have positive effects on both behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rodent models of mental and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we used mice lacking the µ-opioid receptor gene (Oprm1 (-/-)), which has been shown to have deficits in social competence and communication, to assess the hypothesis that early enrichment can ameliorate sociability during development and adulthood. Due to the immaturity of sensory-motor capabilities of young pups, we chose as environmental stimulation a second lactating female, who provided extra maternal care and stimulation from birth. The results show that double mothering normalized the abnormal response to maternal separation in Oprm1 (-/-) pups and increased social motivation in juveniles and adult knockout mice. Additionally, we observed that Oprm1 (-/-) mice act as less attractive social partners than wild types, which suggests that social motivation can be modulated by the stimulus employed. This experiment supports previous findings suggesting that early social environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects, encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of social defects in neurodevelopmental diseases.

  5. A Detailed Study of Chemical Enrichment History of Galaxy Clusters out to Virial Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    The origin of the metal enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) represents a fundamental problem in extragalactic astrophysics, with implications for our understanding of how stars and galaxies form, the nature of Type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitors, and the thermal history of the ICM. These heavy elements are ultimately synthesized by supernova (SN) explosions; however, the details of the sites of metal production and mechanisms that transport metals to the ICM remain unclear. To make progress, accurate abundance profiles for multiple elements extending from the cluster core out to the virial radius (r180) are required for a significant cluster sample. We propose an X-ray spectroscopic study of a carefully-chosen sample of archival Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of 23 clusters: XMM-Newton data probe the cluster temperature and abundances out to (0.5-1)r500, while Suzaku data probe the cluster outskirts. A method devised by our team to utilize all elements with emission lines in the X-ray bandpass to measure the relative contributions of supernova explosions by direct modeling of their X-ray spectra will be applied in order to constrain the demographics of the enriching supernova population. In addition we will conduct a stacking analysis of our already existing Suzaku and XMM-Newton cluster spectra to search for weak emssion lines that are important SN diagnostics, and to look for trends with cluster mass and redshift. The funding we propose here will also support the data analysis of our recent Suzaku observations of the archetypal cluster A3112 (200 ks each on the core and outskirts). Our data analysis, intepreted using theoretical models we have developed, will enable us to constrain the star formation history, SN demographics, and nature of SNIa progenitors associated with galaxy cluster stellar populations - and, hence, directly addresess NASA s Strategic Objective 2.4.2 in Astrophysics that aims to improve the understanding of how the Universe works

  6. Editor's Highlight: Application of Gene Set Enrichment Analysis for Identification of Chemically Induced, Biologically Relevant Transcriptomic Networks and Potential Utilization in Human Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jeffry L; Zhao, Q Jay; Lambert, Jason C; Hawkins, Belinda S; Thomas, Russell S; Wesselkamper, Scott C

    2017-05-01

    The rate of new chemical development in commerce combined with a paucity of toxicity data for legacy chemicals presents a unique challenge for human health risk assessment. There is a clear need to develop new technologies and incorporate novel data streams to more efficiently inform derivation of toxicity values. One avenue of exploitation lies in the field of transcriptomics and the application of gene expression analysis to characterize biological responses to chemical exposures. In this context, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was employed to evaluate tissue-specific, dose-response gene expression data generated following exposure to multiple chemicals for various durations. Patterns of transcriptional enrichment were evident across time and with increasing dose, and coordinated enrichment plausibly linked to the etiology of the biological responses was observed. GSEA was able to capture both transient and sustained transcriptional enrichment events facilitating differentiation between adaptive versus longer term molecular responses. When combined with benchmark dose (BMD) modeling of gene expression data from key drivers of biological enrichment, GSEA facilitated characterization of dose ranges required for enrichment of biologically relevant molecular signaling pathways, and promoted comparison of the activation dose ranges required for individual pathways. Median transcriptional BMD values were calculated for the most sensitive enriched pathway as well as the overall median BMD value for key gene members of significantly enriched pathways, and both were observed to be good estimates of the most sensitive apical endpoint BMD value. Together, these efforts support the application of GSEA to qualitative and quantitative human health risk assessment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Chemical, mineral composition, and sensory acceptability of cocoyam-based recipes enriched with cowpea flour.

    PubMed

    Olayiwola, Ibiyemi; Folaranmi, Funmi; Adebowale, Abdul-Rasaq A; Oluseye, Onabanjo; Ajoke, Sanni; Wasiu, Afolabi

    2013-05-01

    The study was conducted to improve cocoyam-based recipes (steamed cocoyam paste [ ebiripo ], ikokore, and fried cocoyam balls [ ojojo ]) using different blends of cocoyam and cowpea flours (100:0, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50). The proximate composition, mineral composition, and sensory qualities of the recipes were determined using standard analytical procedures. The recipes had significantly ( P  <   0.05) higher contents of protein, fat, crude fiber, iron, zinc, sodium, and phosphorus compared with the control recipe (100% cocoyam flour). The protein content was highest in all recipes containing 50:50 cocoyam: cowpea flour (10.79%, 10.56%, 10.36% for ojojo, ikokore, and ebiripo , respectively). However, ikokore had higher iron (2.5 mg), phosphorus (92.5 mg), and zinc (1.92 mg) contents than ebiripo and ojojo . While the 80:20 recipe for ebiripo had significantly ( P  <   0.05) higher flavor and overall acceptability scores compared with other recipes. In conclusion, enrichment of cocoyam-based recipes with cowpea flour improved the proximate composition, mineral composition, and sensory acceptability of the foods.

  8. Growth and Chemical Responses to CO2 Enrichment Virginia Pine (Pinus Virginiana Mill.) (NDP-009)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Luxmoore, R. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Norby, R. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (USA); O'Neill, E. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Weller, D. G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Ells, J. M. [Agricultural Research Service, USDA; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (USA); Rogers, H. H. [Agricultural Research Service, USDA; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (USA)

    1985-01-01

    From June 28 to October 29 in 1982, Virginia pine seedlings were exposed to elevated CO2 levels in open-top growth chambers at one of four concentrations (75, 150, 300, and 600 ppm above ambient). Plant dry weight; height; stem diameter; and chemical contents of leaf, stem, and root tissues were measured before and after exposure. Soil variables were also characterized. These data illustrate the short-term physical and chemical response of Virginia pine seedlings to elevated levels of CO2. The data are in seven files: initial dry weights before exposure (844 kB), dry weights after exposure (4 kB), major nutrient concentrations after final harvest (12 kB), minor nutrient concentrations after final harvest (17 kB), soil nutrient concentrations after final harvest (4 kB), soil leachate elements after final harvest (5 kB), and soil leachate solutes after final harvest (4 kB).

  9. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3.

    PubMed

    Kabri, Tin-Hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-09-21

    Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  11. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design. PMID:21936893

  12. Reflections on the Development and Implementation of an Enrichment Program in Early Childhood: A Metaphorical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Prendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The profile of gifted education is being raised in Queensland (Australia) schools in recognition of the potential benefits to students of engaging in such programs. Little is known, however, about what types of programs are being delivered, especially in the early years. Since many programs are created by individuals, it is important to understand…

  13. Dopamine Transporter Neuroimaging as an Enrichment Biomarker in Early Parkinson's Disease Clinical Trials: A Disease Progression Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Timothy; Tsai, Kuenhi; Macha, Sreeraj; Sinha, Vikram; Stone, Julie; Corrigan, Brian; Bani, Massimo; Muglia, Pierandrea; Watson, Ian A.; Kern, Volker D.; Sheveleva, Elena; Marek, Kenneth; Stephenson, Diane T.; Romero, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given the recognition that disease‐modifying therapies should focus on earlier Parkinson's disease stages, trial enrollment based purely on clinical criteria poses significant challenges. The goal herein was to determine the utility of dopamine transporter neuroimaging as an enrichment biomarker in early motor Parkinson's disease clinical trials. Patient‐level longitudinal data of 672 subjects with early‐stage Parkinson's disease in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) observational study and the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP‐1347 Trial (PRECEPT) clinical trial were utilized in a linear mixed‐effects model analysis. The rate of worsening in the motor scores between subjects with or without a scan without evidence of dopamine transporter deficit was different both statistically and clinically. The average difference in the change from baseline of motor scores at 24 months between biomarker statuses was –3.16 (90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.96 to –5.42) points. Dopamine transporter imaging could identify subjects with a steeper worsening of the motor scores, allowing trial enrichment and 24% reduction of sample size. PMID:28749580

  14. Enrichment of Thorium (Th) and Lead (Pb) in the early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    We have been determining abundances of Th, Pb and other neutron-capture elements in metal-deficient cool giant stars to constrain the enrichment of heavy elements by the r- and s-processes. Our current sample covers the metallicity range between [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -1.0. (1) The abundance ratios of Pb/Fe and Pb/Eu of most of our stars are approximately constant, and no increase of these ratios with increasing metallicity is found. This result suggests that the Pb abundances of our sample are determined by the r-process with no or little contribution of the s-process. (2) The Th/Eu abundance ratios of our sample show no significant scatter, and the average is lower by 0.2 dex in the logarithmic scale than the solar-system value. This result indicates that the actinides production by the r-process does not show large dispersion, even though r-process models suggest high sensitivity of the actinides production to the nucleosynthesis environment.

  15. Climatic and Chemical Effects of Punctuated Volcanism on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The geological record of Mars shows a pronounced peak in volcanic activity during the transition between the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs. This peak appears coeval with profound climatic and chemical changes in the surface environment, including the formation of the majority of known valley networks, open-basin lakes and the deposition of massive sulfate-bearing deposits of aqueous origin. It has been suggested that volcanism maintained a warmer climate and an active hydrological cycle through the radiative effect of volcanically emitted greenhouse gases, such as CO2, H2O and SO2. However, previous model attempts at explaining overland flow with CO2-H2O greenhouse atmospheres required several bars of CO2, even including the warming effect of infrared scattering by CO2 ice clouds. This amount of CO2 is in apparent disagreement with recent estimates of volcanic outgassing on Mars. The net climatic effect of volcanic SO2 emissions into the atmosphere of early Mars has been the topic of recent debate, because it is unclear whether strong greenhouse warming by SO2 or strong cooling by scattering sulfate aerosols should dominate. To address this problem, we considered two previously neglected phenomena: i) the punctuated, rather than continuous, nature of volcanic eruptions, and ii) the role of preexisting dust grains and volcanic ash as condensation nuclei for sulfuric acid. For this purpose we developed a coupled model of volcanic eruption and atmospheric response, including detailed aerosol microphysics. We find that while SO2 concentrations increase rapidly and dramatically with the initiation of a strong volcanic eruption, the dynamics of sulfate aerosol formation in the martian atmosphere results in a delay of aerosol-related cooling by several months to years. Moreover, the existence of dust in the atmosphere prior to the volcanic eruption, as well as the emission and global distribution of fine volcanic ash particles, results in the formation of H2SO4

  16. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages of 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in either vegetation or soil of the early-successional catchment. The mean 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2800 yr. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) in upwelling ground water than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The 14C age and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC was partly mobilized from charred organic matter of the Quaternary substrate. In an experimental 70-days incubation experiment, 20% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable, irrespective of the water type. Origin of microbial communities (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) had only marginal effects on overall DOC utilization. Overall, these data suggest that the old DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession to some extent, although the largest fraction is recalcitrant DOC that is exported from the catchment once it has been mobilized.

  17. Parent-directed approaches to enrich the early language environments of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Leffel, Kristin; Suskind, Dana

    2013-11-01

    Children's early language environments are critical for their cognitive development, school readiness, and ultimate educational attainment. Significant disparities exist in these environments, with profound and lasting impacts upon children's ultimate outcomes. Children from backgrounds of low socioeconomic status experience diminished language inputs and enter school at a disadvantage, with disparities persisting throughout their educational careers. Parents are positioned as powerful agents of change in their children's lives, however, and evidence indicates that parent-directed intervention is effective in improving child outcomes. This article explores the efficacy of parent-directed interventions and their potential applicability to the wider educational achievement gap seen in typically developing populations of low socioeconomic status and then describes efforts to develop such interventions with the Thirty Million Words Project and Project ASPIRE (Achieving Superior Parental Involvement for Rehabilitative Excellence) curricula. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Elemental Abundances and their Implications for the Chemical Enrichment of the Boötes I Ultrafaint Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Monaco, Lorenzo; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and "carbon-normal." Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal P82.182.B-0372, PI: G. Gilmore).

  19. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS AS A DIRECT CONSTRAINT ON POPULATION III STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rollinde, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    ratios. We find that these distributions are anchored toward abundance ratios set by Population II supernova yields, but they exhibit a tail which depends significantly on the Population III IMF for z > 5. Thus, a sample of DLA metallicity and relative abundance measurements at high redshift holds the promise to constrain Population III enrichment and the Population III IMF. We find that a sample of just 10 DLAs with relative abundances measured to an accuracy of 0.1 dex is sufficient to constrain the Population III IMF at 4{sigma}. These constraints may prove stronger than other probes of Population III enrichment, such as metal-poor stars and individual metal-poor DLAs. Our results provide a global picture of the thermal, ionization, and chemical evolution of the universe, and have the potential to rule out certain Population III scenarios.« less

  20. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

    2013-07-01

    The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, stream water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages: 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in both vegetation and soil of the catchment. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR of DOC in upwelling ground water revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The average 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2900 yr, while organic matter of the Quaternary substrate of the catchment had a 14C age of 3000 to 16 000 yr. Both the 14C age data and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC partly derived from organic matter of the Quaternary substrate (about 40 to 90% of the C in the DOC), indicating that both recent and old C of the DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession. However, in a 70 day incubation experiment, only about 11% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable. This proportion was irrespective of the water type. Origin of the microbial communities within the catchment (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) also had only a marginal effect on overall DOC utilization.

  1. The Early Enrichment Project in Turkey = Le projet de renforcement precoce des potentialites de l'enfant en Turquie. Notes, Comments...No. 193.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagiteibasi, Cigdem

    This document provides a bilingual (English and French) report on the Turkish Early Enrichment Project, a four-year longitudinal study of the impact of educational day care combined with mother training on child development. This comprehensive approach was compared with custodial day care and home care, both with and without home intervention. The…

  2. The Effects of Soil Type and Chemical Treatment on Nickel Speciation in Refinery Enriched Soils: A Multi-Technique Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    McNear, Jr.,D.; Chaney, R.; Sparks, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aerial deposition of Ni from a refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada has resulted in the enrichment of 29 km{sup 2} of land with Ni concentrations exceeding the Canadian Ministry of the Environment's remedial action level of 200 mg kg{sup -1}. Several studies on these soils have shown that making the soils calcareous was effective at reducing chemically extractable Ni, as well as alleviating Ni phytotoxicity symptoms in vegetable crops grown in the vicinity of the refinery. Conversely, dolomitic limestone additions resulted in increased uptake of Ni in the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale 'Kotodesh', a plant whose use was proposedmore » as a remediation strategy for this area. In this paper we use multiple techniques to directly assess the role soil type and lime treatments play in altering the speciation of Ni in the Welland loam and Quarry muck soils around the refinery and relate these findings to Ni mobility and bioavailability. Stirred-flow dissolution experiments using pH 4 HNO{sub 3} showed that Ni release from the limed Quarry muck and Welland loam soils was reduced ({approx}0.10%) relative to the unlimed soils ({approx}2.0%). Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) identified approximately spherical NiO and Ni metal particles, which are associated with no other metals, and range from 5 to 50 {mu}m in diameter. Synchrotron micro-X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies showed that Ni and Al layered double hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) phases were present in both the limed and unlimed mineral soils, with a tendency towards more stable (e.g., aged-LDH and phyllosilicate) Ni species in the limed soil, possibly aided by the solubilization of Si with increasing pH. In the muck soils, Ni-organic complexes (namely fulvic acid) dominated the speciation in both limed and unlimed soils. The results reported herein show that both soil type and treatment have a pronounced effect on the speciation of Ni in the soils surrounding the Port

  3. The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils: A multi-technique investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNear, David H.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2007-05-01

    Aerial deposition of Ni from a refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada has resulted in the enrichment of 29 km 2 of land with Ni concentrations exceeding the Canadian Ministry of the Environment's remedial action level of 200 mg kg -1. Several studies on these soils have shown that making the soils calcareous was effective at reducing chemically extractable Ni, as well as alleviating Ni phytotoxicity symptoms in vegetable crops grown in the vicinity of the refinery. Conversely, dolomitic limestone additions resulted in increased uptake of Ni in the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale 'Kotodesh', a plant whose use was proposed as a remediation strategy for this area. In this paper we use multiple techniques to directly assess the role soil type and lime treatments play in altering the speciation of Ni in the Welland loam and Quarry muck soils around the refinery and relate these findings to Ni mobility and bioavailability. Stirred-flow dissolution experiments using pH 4 HNO 3 showed that Ni release from the limed Quarry muck and Welland loam soils was reduced (˜0.10%) relative to the unlimed soils (˜2.0%). Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) identified approximately spherical NiO and Ni metal particles, which are associated with no other metals, and range from 5 to 50 μm in diameter. Synchrotron micro-X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies showed that Ni and Al layered double hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) phases were present in both the limed and unlimed mineral soils, with a tendency towards more stable (e.g., aged-LDH and phyllosilicate) Ni species in the limed soil, possibly aided by the solubilization of Si with increasing pH. In the muck soils, Ni-organic complexes (namely fulvic acid) dominated the speciation in both limed and unlimed soils. The results reported herein show that both soil type and treatment have a pronounced effect on the speciation of Ni in the soils surrounding the Port Colborne refinery. We provide the first

  4. Paternal sperm DNA methylation associated with early signs of autism risk in an autism-enriched cohort.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Jason I; Bakulski, Kelly M; Jaffe, Andrew E; Tryggvadottir, Rakel; Brown, Shannon C; Goldman, Lynn R; Croen, Lisa A; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Newschaffer, Craig J; Fallin, M Daniele; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as altered DNA methylation have been suggested to play a role in autism, beginning with the classical association of Prader-Willi syndrome, an imprinting disorder, with autistic features. Here we tested for the relationship of paternal sperm DNA methylation with autism risk in offspring, examining an enriched-risk cohort of fathers of autistic children. We examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) in paternal semen biosamples obtained from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enriched-risk pregnancy cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) cohort, to estimate associations between sperm DNAm and prospective ASD development, using a 12-month ASD symptoms assessment, the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI). We analysed methylation data from 44 sperm samples run on the CHARM 3.0 array, which contains over 4 million probes (over 7 million CpG sites), including 30 samples also run on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip platform (∼485 000 CpG sites). We also examined associated regions in an independent sample of post-mortem human brain ASD and control samples for which Illumina 450K DNA methylation data were available. Using region-based statistical approaches, we identified 193 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in paternal sperm with a family-wise empirical P-value [family-wise error rate (FWER)] <0.05 associated with performance on the Autism Observational Scale for Infants (AOSI) at 12 months of age in offspring. The DMRs clustered near genes involved in developmental processes, including many genes in the SNORD family, within the Prader-Willi syndrome gene cluster. These results were consistent among the 75 probes on the Illumina 450K array that cover AOSI-associated DMRs from CHARM. Further, 18 of 75 (24%) 450K array probes showed consistent differences in the cerebellums of autistic individuals compared with controls. These data suggest that epigenetic differences in paternal

  5. BiNChE: a web tool and library for chemical enrichment analysis based on the ChEBI ontology.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pablo; Beisken, Stephan; Harsha, Bhavana; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Tudose, Ilinca; Dekker, Adriano; Dornfeldt, Stefanie; Taruttis, Franziska; Grosse, Ivo; Hastings, Janna; Neumann, Steffen; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2015-02-21

    Ontology-based enrichment analysis aids in the interpretation and understanding of large-scale biological data. Ontologies are hierarchies of biologically relevant groupings. Using ontology annotations, which link ontology classes to biological entities, enrichment analysis methods assess whether there is a significant over or under representation of entities for ontology classes. While many tools exist that run enrichment analysis for protein sets annotated with the Gene Ontology, there are only a few that can be used for small molecules enrichment analysis. We describe BiNChE, an enrichment analysis tool for small molecules based on the ChEBI Ontology. BiNChE displays an interactive graph that can be exported as a high-resolution image or in network formats. The tool provides plain, weighted and fragment analysis based on either the ChEBI Role Ontology or the ChEBI Structural Ontology. BiNChE aids in the exploration of large sets of small molecules produced within Metabolomics or other Systems Biology research contexts. The open-source tool provides easy and highly interactive web access to enrichment analysis with the ChEBI ontology tool and is additionally available as a standalone library.

  6. The hyper-enrichment of V and Zn in black shales of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Clinton T.; Slack, John F.; Kelley, Karen Duttweiler

    2017-01-01

    Black shales of the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Bakken Formation are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and the hyper-enrichment (> 500 to 1000s of mg/kg) of V and Zn. Deposition of black shales resulted from shallow seafloor depths that promoted rapid development of euxinic conditions. Vanadium hyper-enrichments, which are unknown in modern environments, are likely the result of very high levels of dissolved H2S (~ 10 mM) in bottom waters or sediments. Because modern hyper-enrichments of Zn are documented only in Framvaren Fjord (Norway), it is likely that the biogeochemical trigger responsible for Zn hyper-enrichment in Framvaren Fjord was also present in the Bakken basin. With Framvaren Fjord as an analogue, we propose a causal link between the activity of phototrophic sulfide oxidizing bacteria, related to the development of photic-zone euxinia, and the hyper-enrichment of Zn in black shales of the Bakken Formation.

  7. A familial risk enriched cohort as a platform for testing early interventions to prevent severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Uher, Rudolf; Cumby, Jill; MacKenzie, Lynn E; Morash-Conway, Jessica; Glover, Jacqueline M; Aylott, Alice; Propper, Lukas; Abidi, Sabina; Bagnell, Alexa; Pavlova, Barbara; Hajek, Tomas; Lovas, David; Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William; Levy, Adrian; Alda, Martin

    2014-12-02

    Severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression, is responsible for a substantial proportion of disability in the population. This article describes the aims and design of a research study that takes a novel approach to targeted prevention of SMI. It is based on the rationale that early developmental antecedents to SMI are likely to be more malleable than fully developed mood or psychotic disorders and that low-risk interventions targeting antecedents may reduce the risk of SMI. Families Overcoming Risks and Building Opportunities for Well-being (FORBOW) is an accelerated cohort study that includes a large proportion of offspring of parents with SMI and embeds intervention trials in a cohort multiple randomized controlled trial (cmRCT) design. Antecedents are conditions of the individual that are distressing but not severely impairing, predict SMI with moderate-to-large effect sizes and precede the onset of SMI by at least several years. FORBOW focuses on the following antecedents: affective lability, anxiety, psychotic-like experiences, basic symptoms, sleep problems, somatic symptoms, cannabis use and cognitive delay. Enrolment of offspring over a broad age range (0 to 21 years) will allow researchers to draw conclusions on a longer developmental period from a study of shorter duration. Annual assessments cover a full range of psychopathology, cognitive abilities, eligibility criteria for interventions and outcomes. Pre-emptive early interventions (PEI) will include skill training for parents of younger children and courses in emotional well-being skills based on cognitive behavioural therapy for older children and youth. A sample enriched for familial risk of SMI will enhance statistical power for testing the efficacy of PEI. FORBOW offers a platform for efficient and unbiased testing of interventions selected according to best available evidence. Since few differences exist between familial and 'sporadic' SMI, the

  8. Challenges to studying the health effects of early life environmental chemical exposures on children's health.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joseph M; Gray, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies play an important role in quantifying how early life environmental chemical exposures influence the risk of childhood diseases. These studies face at least four major challenges that can produce noise when trying to identify signals of associations between chemical exposure and childhood health. Challenges include accurately estimating chemical exposure, confounding from causes of both exposure and disease, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability to chemical exposures, and determining the effects of chemical mixtures. We provide recommendations that will aid in identifying these signals with more precision.

  9. Could Martian Strawberries Be? -- Prebiotic Chemical Evolution on an Early Wet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerman, L.

    2005-03-01

    The universality of chemical physics dictates the ubiquity of bubbles, aerosols, and droplets on planets with water and simple amphiphiles. Their ability to functionally support prebiotic chemical evolution seems critical: on the early Earth and Mars, and quite likely for Titan and Europa.

  10. Biomonitoring of human fetal exposure to environmental chemicals in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2014-01-01

    The first trimester of human fetal life, a period of extremely rapid development of physiological systems, represents the most rapid growth phase in human life. Interference in the establishment of organ systems may result in abnormal development that may be manifest immediately or programmed for later abnormal function. Exposure to environmental chemicals may be affecting development at these early stages, and yet there is limited knowledge of the quantities and identities of the chemicals to which the fetus is exposed during early pregnancy. Clearly, opportunities for assessing fetal chemical exposure directly are extremely limited. Hence, this review describes indirect means of assessing fetal exposure in early pregnancy to chemicals that are considered disrupters of development. Consideration is given to such matrices as maternal hair, fingernails, urine, saliva, sweat, breast milk, amniotic fluid and blood, and fetal matrices such as cord blood, cord tissue, meconium, placenta, and fetal liver. More than 150 articles that presented data from chemical analysis of human maternal and fetal tissues and fluids were reviewed. Priority was given to articles where chemical analysis was conducted in more than one matrix. Where correlations between maternal and fetal matrices were determined, these articles were included and are highlighted, as these may provide the basis for future investigations of early fetal exposure. The determination of fetal chemical exposure, at the time of rapid human growth and development, will greatly assist regulatory agencies in risk assessments and establishment of advisories for risk management concerning environmental chemicals.

  11. Metal Abundances at z<1.5: Fresh Clues to the Chemical Enrichment History of Damped Lyα Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max; Ellison, Sara L.; Steidel, Charles C.; Bowen, David V.

    1999-01-01

    We explore the redshift evolution of the metal content of damped Lyα systems (DLAs) with new observations of four absorbers at z<1.5 together with other recently published data, there is now a sample of 10 systems at intermediate redshifts for which the abundance of Zn has been measured. The main conclusion is that the column density-weighted mean metallicity, []=-1.03+/-0.23 (on a logarithmic scale), is not significantly higher at z<1.5 than at earlier epochs, despite the fact that the comoving star formation rate density of the universe was near its maximum value at this redshift. Gas of high column density and low metallicity dominates the statistics of present samples of DLAs at all redshifts. For three of the four DLAs, our observations include absorption lines of Si, Mn, Cr, Fe, and Ni, as well as Zn. We argue that the relative abundances of these elements are consistent with a moderate degree of dust depletion that, once accounted for, leaves no room for the enhancement of the α elements over iron seen in metal-poor stars in the Milky Way. This is contrary to previous assertions that DLAs have been enriched solely by Type II supernovae, but it can be understood if the rate of star formation in the systems studied proceeded more slowly than in the early history of our Galaxy. These results add to a growing body of data pointing to the conclusion that known DLAs do not trace the galaxy population responsible for the bulk of star formation. Possible reasons are that sight lines through metal-rich gas are systematically underrepresented, because the background QSOs are reddened, and that the most actively star-forming galaxies are also the most compact, presenting too small a cross-section to have been probed yet with the limited statistics of current samples. Most of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory

  12. Subgroup identification of early preterm birth (ePTB): informing a future prospective enrichment clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Garrard, Lili; Keighley, John; Carlson, Susan; Gajewski, Byron

    2017-01-10

    Despite the widely recognized association between the severity of early preterm birth (ePTB) and its related severe diseases, little is known about the potential risk factors of ePTB and the sub-population with high risk of ePTB. Moreover, motivated by a future confirmatory clinical trial to identify whether supplementing pregnant women with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has a different effect on the risk subgroup population or not in terms of ePTB prevalence, this study aims to identify potential risk subgroups and risk factors for ePTB, defined as babies born less than 34 weeks of gestation. The analysis data (N = 3,994,872) were obtained from CDC and NCHS' 2014 Natality public data file. The sample was split into independent training and validation cohorts for model generation and model assessment, respectively. Logistic regression and CART models were used to examine potential ePTB risk predictors and their interactions, including mothers' age, nativity, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, education, pre-pregnancy smoking status, pre-pregnancy BMI, pre-pregnancy diabetes status, pre-pregnancy hypertension status, previous preterm birth status, infertility treatment usage status, fertility enhancing drug usage status, and delivery payment source. Both logistic regression models with either 14 or 10 ePTB risk factors produced the same C-index (0.646) based on the training cohort. The C-index of the logistic regression model based on 10 predictors was 0.645 for the validation cohort. Both C-indexes indicated a good discrimination and acceptable model fit. The CART model identified preterm birth history and race as the most important risk factors, and revealed that the subgroup with a preterm birth history and a race designation as Black had the highest risk for ePTB. The c-index and misclassification rate were 0.579 and 0.034 for the training cohort, and 0.578 and 0.034 for the validation cohort, respectively. This study revealed 14 maternal characteristic

  13. Re-measurement of the 33S(α ,p )36Cl cross section for early solar system nuclide enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Tyler; Skulski, Michael; Clark, Adam; Nelson, Austin; Ostdiek, Karen; Collon, Philippe; Chmiel, Greg; Woodruff, Tom; Caffee, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) with half-lives less than 100 Myr are known to have existed around the time of the formation of the solar system around 4.5 billion years ago. Understanding the production sources for SLRs is important for improving our understanding of processes taking place just after solar system formation as well as their timescales. Early solar system models rely heavily on calculations from nuclear theory due to a lack of experimental data for the nuclear reactions taking place. In 2013, Bowers et al. measured 36Cl production cross sections via the 33S(α ,p ) reaction and reported cross sections that were systematically higher than predicted by Hauser-Feshbach codes. Soon after, a paper by Peter Mohr highlighted the challenges the new data would pose to current nuclear theory if verified. The 33S(α ,p )36Cl reaction was re-measured at five energies between 0.78 MeV/nucleon and 1.52 MeV/nucleon, in the same range as measured by Bowers et al., and found systematically lower cross sections than originally reported, with the new results in good agreement with the Hauser-Feshbach code talys. Loss of Cl carrier in chemical extraction and errors in determination of reaction energy ranges are both possible explanations for artificially inflated cross sections measured in the previous work.

  14. Physico-chemical quality and homogeneity of folic acid and iron in enriched flour using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Soeiro, Bruno T; Boen, Thaís R; Wagner, Roger; Lima-Pallone, Juliana A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine parameters of the corn and wheat flour matrix, such as protein, lipid, moisture, ash and carbohydrates, folic acid and iron contents. Three principal components explained 91% of the total variance. Wheat flours were characterized by high protein and moisture content. On the other hand, the corn flours had the greater carbohydrates, lipids and folic acid levels. The concentrations of folic acid were lower than the issued value for wheat flours. Nevertheless, corn flours presented extremely high values. The iron concentration was higher than that recommended in Brazilian legislation. Poor homogenization of folic acid and iron was observed in enriched flours. This study could be useful to help the governmental authorities in the enriched food programs evaluation.

  15. 13C cell wall enrichment and ionic liquid NMR analysis: progress towards a high-throughput detailed chemical analysis of the whole plant cell wall.

    PubMed

    Foston, Marcus; Samuel, Reichel; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2012-09-07

    The ability to accurately and rapidly measure plant cell wall composition, relative monolignol content and lignin-hemicellulose inter-unit linkage distributions has become essential to efforts centered on reducing the recalcitrance of biomass by genetic engineering. Growing (13)C enriched transgenic plants is a viable route to achieve the high-throughput, detailed chemical analysis of whole plant cell wall before and after pretreatment and microbial or enzymatic utilization by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a perdeuterated ionic liquid solvent system not requiring component isolation. 1D (13)C whole cell wall ionic liquid NMR of natural abundant and (13)C enriched corn stover stem samples suggest that a high level of uniform labeling (>97%) can significantly reduce the total NMR experiment times up to ~220 times. Similarly, significant reduction in total NMR experiment time (~39 times) of the (13)C enriched corn stover stem samples for 2D (13)C-(1)H heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR was found.

  16. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-06-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  17. Early IGF-1 primes visual cortex maturation and accelerates developmental switch between NKCC1 and KCC2 chloride transporters in enriched animals.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Laura; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Melani, Riccardo; Deidda, Gabriele; Landi, Silvia; Narducci, Roberta; Cancedda, Laura; Maffei, Lamberto; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has a remarkable impact on brain development. Continuous exposure to EE from birth determines a significant acceleration of visual system maturation both at retinal and cortical levels. A pre-weaning enriched experience is sufficient to trigger the accelerated maturation of the visual system, suggesting that factors affected by EE during the first days of life might prime visual circuits towards a faster development. The search for such factors is crucial not only to gain a better understanding of the molecular hierarchy of brain development but also to identify molecular pathways amenable to be targeted to correct atypical brain developmental trajectories. Here, we showed that IGF-1 levels are increased in the visual cortex of EE rats as early as P6 and this is a crucial event for setting in motion the developmental program induced by EE. Early intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of IGF-1 in standard rats was sufficient to mimic the action of EE on visual acuity development, whereas blocking IGF-1 signaling by i.c.v. injections of the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevented the deployment of EE effects. Early IGF-1 decreased the ratio between the expression of NKCC1 and KCC2 cation/chloride transporters, and the reversal potential for GABA A R-driven Cl - currents (E Cl ) was shifted toward more negative potentials, indicating that IGF-1 is a crucial factor in accelerating the maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission and promoting the developmental switch of GABA polarity from excitation to inhibition. In addition, early IGF-1 promoted a later occurring increase in its own expression, suggesting a priming effect of early IGF-1 in driving post-weaning cortical maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 20180311 - Use of ToxPrint chemotypes for exploring chemical feature enrichments across the ToxCast chemical-assay landscape (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxCast chemical library spans diverse chemical use-types, functionalities, structures and features potentially relevant to toxicity and environmental exposure. However, this structural diversity, along with assay noise and low average hit rates across the varied Tox...

  19. Enriching the Early Childhood Expertise of Elementary School Principals: Can a One-Shot College Course Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Julie J.; Barnett, Marion

    2004-01-01

    A summer course was specifically designed for principals and aspiring principals to help them become more expert in principles of early childhood education. During the pilot, 10 volunteer participants completed a survey of beliefs on early childhood education before and after the course and submitted a piece of reflective writing each day. Gains…

  20. Thresholds of Toxicological Concern for cosmetics-related substances: New database, thresholds, and enrichment of chemical space.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chihae; Barlow, Susan M; Muldoon Jacobs, Kristi L; Vitcheva, Vessela; Boobis, Alan R; Felter, Susan P; Arvidson, Kirk B; Keller, Detlef; Cronin, Mark T D; Enoch, Steven; Worth, Andrew; Hollnagel, Heli M

    2017-11-01

    A new dataset of cosmetics-related chemicals for the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach has been compiled, comprising 552 chemicals with 219, 40, and 293 chemicals in Cramer Classes I, II, and III, respectively. Data were integrated and curated to create a database of No-/Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL/LOAEL) values, from which the final COSMOS TTC dataset was developed. Criteria for study inclusion and NOAEL decisions were defined, and rigorous quality control was performed for study details and assignment of Cramer classes. From the final COSMOS TTC dataset, human exposure thresholds of 42 and 7.9 μg/kg-bw/day were derived for Cramer Classes I and III, respectively. The size of Cramer Class II was insufficient for derivation of a TTC value. The COSMOS TTC dataset was then federated with the dataset of Munro and colleagues, previously published in 1996, after updating the latter using the quality control processes for this project. This federated dataset expands the chemical space and provides more robust thresholds. The 966 substances in the federated database comprise 245, 49 and 672 chemicals in Cramer Classes I, II and III, respectively. The corresponding TTC values of 46, 6.2 and 2.3 μg/kg-bw/day are broadly similar to those of the original Munro dataset. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Blue-Enriched White Light Enhances Physiological Arousal But Not Behavioral Performance during Simulated Driving at Early Night

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morilla, Beatriz; Madrid, Juan A.; Molina, Enrique; Correa, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Vigilance usually deteriorates over prolonged driving at non-optimal times of day. Exposure to blue-enriched light has shown to enhance arousal, leading to behavioral benefits in some cognitive tasks. However, the cognitive effects of long-wavelength light have been less studied and its effects on driving performance remained to be addressed. We tested the effects of a blue-enriched white light (BWL) and a long-wavelength orange light (OL) vs. a control condition of dim light on subjective, physiological and behavioral measures at 21:45 h. Neurobehavioral tests included the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and subjective mood scale, recording of distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG, as index of physiological arousal), accuracy in simulated driving and reaction time in the auditory psychomotor vigilance task. The results showed that BWL decreased the DPG (reflecting enhanced arousal), while it did not improve reaction time or driving performance. Instead, blue light produced larger driving errors than OL, while performance in OL was stable along time on task. These data suggest that physiological arousal induced by light does not necessarily imply cognitive improvement. Indeed, excessive arousal might deteriorate accuracy in complex tasks requiring precision, such as driving. PMID:28690558

  2. Re-Os systematics of early proterozoic ferropicrites, Pechenga Complex, northwestern Russia: Evidence for ancient 187Os-enriched plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Richard J.; Morgan, John W.; Hanski, Eero J.; Smolkin, Valery F.

    1997-08-01

    The Re-Os isotopic systematics of various ferropicritic flows and sills of the Pechenga Complex, Russia, have been examined. During crystallization about 1.98 Ga ago, many of these bodies became highly differentiated. In addition, some of the larger igneous units are associated with major NiCu ore deposits. The melts that produced these rocks have been termed ferropicritic because of their high FeO and MgO contents. They are also enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), TiO 2, Zr, and many other incompatible trace elements. Previous studies have concluded that the ferropicrites were most likely derived from an Fe-rich mantle plume that had a complex history of long-term LREE depletion (initial ɛNd = + 1.4), but that also experienced a LREE enrichment event within 200 Ma of the generation of the rocks. Whole rock samples believed to be most representative of primary melt compositions indicate that initial melt concentrations of rhenium and osmium were approximately 1.1 ppb and 0.5 ppb, respectively. The high primary melt concentrations presumably made the osmium contained in the melts relatively immune to the effects of crustal contamination. Nonetheless, all ore-bearing intrusions examined show osmium isotopic evidence for crustal contamination. For example, the initial γOs for some primary magmatic sulfides from the Pilgujärvi intrusion average +46. Other ore-bearing intrusions, such as the Kammikivi sill, appear to have been similarly contaminated by crustal osmium during the injection of magma, with initial yo, values as high as +251. The seemingly high levels of crustal osmium may be attributed to the rapidly diminishing concentrations of osmium in the melts as the larger bodies differentiated, combined with localized in situ assimilation of the metasedimentary rocks that comprise the country rocks. The Re-Os systematics of some whole rock samples of both mineralized and sulfide-poor intrusions were affected by post-magmatic events, especially the

  3. No economic benefit of early knee reconstruction over optional delayed reconstruction for ACL tears: registry enriched randomised controlled trial data.

    PubMed

    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Frobell, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    To analyse 5-year cost-effectiveness of early versus optional delayed acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. 121 young, active adults with acute ACL injury to a previously uninjured knee were randomised to early ACL reconstruction (n=62, within 10 weeks of injury) or optional delayed ACL reconstruction (n=59; 30 with ACL reconstruction within 6-55 months); all patients received similar structured rehabilitation. Real life data on health care utilisation and sick leave were obtained from regional and national registers. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at 3%. Full-analysis set (based on study randomisation) and as-treated analysis (according to actual treatment over 5 years) principles were applied. Mean cost of early ACL reconstruction was €4695 higher than optional delayed ACL reconstruction (p=0.19) and provided an additional 0.13 QALYs (p=0.11). Full-analysis set showed incremental net benefit of early versus optional delayed ACL reconstruction was not statistically significantly different from zero at any level. As-treated analysis showed that costs for rehabilitation alone were €13 650 less than early ACL reconstruction (p<0.001). Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. In young active adults with acute ACL injury, a strategy of early ACL reconstruction did not provide extra economic value over a strategy of optional delayed ACL reconstruction over a 5-year period. Results from this and previous reports of the KANON-trial imply that early identification of individuals who would benefit from either early ACL reconstruction or rehabilitation alone might reduce resource consumption and decrease risk of unnecessary overtreatment. ISRCTN84752559. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Determination of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate concentration and enrichment in human plasma using chemical ionization gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Walker, Dillon K; Thaden, John J; Wierzchowska-McNew, Agata; Engelen, Marielle P K J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a quick and simplified method for the determination of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and ɑ-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) concentrations and enrichments by GC/MS/MS to determine the turnover rate of HMB in humans. In experiment 1, we provided a pulse of L-[5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine to younger adults in the postabsorptive state then collected blood samples over a 4h time period. In experiment 2, we provided a pulse of [3,4,methyl- 13 C 3 ]HMB to older adults in the postabsorptive state then collected blood samples over a 3h time period. Plasma concentrations of KIC and HMB and MPE of KIC and HMB were determined by GC/MS/MS. Plasma enrichment of leucine was determined by LC/MS/MS. To determine plasma enrichment of [5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]HMB and [3,4,methyl- 13 C 3 ]HMB, samples were derivatized using pentafluorobenzyl bromide and analyzed using chemical ionization mode. The final methods used included multiple reaction monitoring of transitions 117.3>59.3 for M+0 and 120.3>59.3 for M+3. In experiment 1, peak MPE of Leu peaked at 9.76% generating a peak MPE of KIC at 2.67% and a peak HMB MPE of 0.3%. In experiment 2, the rate of appearance for HMB was  0.66μmol/kg ffm/h. We calculated that production of HMB in humans accounts for 0.66% of total leucine turnover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate concentration and enrichment in human plasma using chemical ionization gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Dillon K.; Thaden, John J.; Wierzchowska-McNew, Agata; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a quick and simplified method for the determination of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) concentrations and enrichments by GC/MS/MS to determine the turnover rate of HMB in humans. In experiment 1, we provided a pulse of L-[5,5,5-2H3]leucine to younger adults in the postabsorptive state then collected blood samples over a 4 h time period. In experiment 2, we provided a pulse of [3,4,methyl-13C3]HMB to older adults in the postabsorptive state then collected blood samples over a 3 h time period. Plasma concentrations of KIC and HMB and MPE of KIC and HMB were determined by GC/MS/MS. Plasma enrichment of leucine was determined by LC/MS/MS. To determine plasma enrichment of [5,5,5-2H3]HMB and [3,4,methyl-13C3]HMB, samples were derivatized using pentafluorobenzyl bromide and analyzed using chemical ionization mode. The final methods used included multiple reaction monitoring of transitions 117.3 > 59.3 for M + 0 and 120.3 > 59.3 for M + 3. In experiment 1, peak MPE of Leu peaked at 9.76% generating a peak MPE of KIC at 2.67% and a peak HMB MPE of 0.3%. In experiment 2, the rate of appearance for HMB was 0.66 μmol/kg ffm/h. We calculated that production of HMB in humans accounts for 0.66% of total leucine turnover. PMID:27856194

  6. Young, metal-enriched cores in early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on colour gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urich, Linda; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; van de Ven, Glenn; Leaman, Ryan; Boselli, Alessandro; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Peletier, Reynier F.; den Brok, Mark; Hensler, Gerhard; Toloba, Elisa; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2017-10-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies are not simply featureless, old objects, but were found to be much more diverse, hosting substructures and a variety of stellar population properties. To explore the stellar content of faint early-type galaxies, and to investigate in particular those with recent central star formation, we study colours and colour gradients within one effective radius in optical (g - r) and near-infrared (I - H) bands for 120 Virgo cluster early-type galaxies with - 19 mag early-type galaxies. The metallicity gradients of these blue-cored early-type dwarf galaxies are, however, in the range of most normal faint early-type galaxies, which we find to have non-zero gradients with higher central metallicity. The blue central regions are consistent with star formation activity within the last few 100 Myr. We discuss whether these galaxies could be explained by environmental quenching of star formation in the outer galaxy regions while the inner star formation activity continued.

  7. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Dynamic Early Embryonic-like Programs during Chemical Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Fu, Yao; Zhu, Jialiang; Liu, Yifang; Zhang, Qian; Yi, Zexuan; Chen, Shi; Jiao, Zhonggang; Xu, Xiaochan; Xu, Junquan; Duo, Shuguang; Bai, Yun; Tang, Chao; Li, Cheng; Deng, Hongkui

    2018-06-12

    Chemical reprogramming provides a powerful platform for exploring the molecular dynamics that lead to pluripotency. Although previous studies have uncovered an intermediate extraembryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state during this process, the molecular underpinnings of pluripotency acquisition remain largely undefined. Here, we profile 36,199 single-cell transcriptomes at multiple time points throughout a highly efficient chemical reprogramming system using RNA-sequencing and reconstruct their progression trajectories. Through identifying sequential molecular events, we reveal that the dynamic early embryonic-like programs are key aspects of successful reprogramming from XEN-like state to pluripotency, including the concomitant transcriptomic signatures of two-cell (2C) embryonic-like and early pluripotency programs and the epigenetic signature of notable genome-wide DNA demethylation. Moreover, via enhancing the 2C-like program by fine-tuning chemical treatment, the reprogramming process is remarkably accelerated. Collectively, our findings offer a high-resolution dissection of cell fate dynamics during chemical reprogramming and shed light on mechanistic insights into the nature of induced pluripotency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Environmental Enrichment Reduce Acute Cell Death and Prevent Neurodevelopment and Memory Impairments in Rats Submitted to Neonatal Hypoxia Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Durán-Carabali, L E; Arcego, D M; Odorcyk, F K; Reichert, L; Cordeiro, J L; Sanches, E F; Freitas, L D; Dalmaz, C; Pagnussat, A; Netto, C A

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE. The offspring were euthanized at two different time points: 48 h after HIE for biochemical analyses or at PND 67 for histological analyses. Behavioral tests were performed at PND 7, 14, 21, and 60. Offspring from EE mothers had better performance in neurodevelopmental and spatial memory tests when compared to the SC groups. HIE animals showed a reduction of IGF-1 and VEGF in the parietal cortex, but no differences in BDNF and TrkB levels were found. EE-HIE animals showed reduction in cell death, lower astrocyte reactivity, and an increase in AKTp levels in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. In addition, the EE was also able to prevent the hippocampus tissue loss. Altogether, present findings point to the protective potential of the prenatal and early postnatal EE in attenuating molecular and histological damage, as well as the neurodevelopmental impairments and the cognitive deficit, caused by HIE insult at PND 3.

  9. The first year pre-service teachers' chemical literacy in individual learning case using the fuel cell technology based-chemical enrichment book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernani, Saefulloh, Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to analyze chemical literacy ability of pre-service teachers based on PISA 2015 scientific competency. This research used descriptive method. Instrument that used in this research is multiple choice question that built based on scientific competency of PISA 2015. The result is grouping by PISA 2015 competency and mapped by high, medium and low GPA classified. This research involves 19 the first year pre-service teachers of 90 population that randomly chosen. According to the result, chemical literacy ability of pre-service described as follows: 1) 35.5% of sample are able to explain phenomena scientifically. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 25.0%, 40.3% and 29.2%; 2) 31.6% of sample are able to evaluate and design scientific enquiry. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 16.7%, 35.4% and 31.3%; 3) 31.6% of sample are able to Interpret data and evidence scientifically. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 50.0%, 25.0% and 37.5%; For the attitude competency, 68.4% of sample able to showing PISA attitude competency that consist of interest in science, environment awareness and Valuing scientific approaches to enquiry attitude. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 77.8%, 63.9% and 75.0%. According to the data, chemical literacy ability of pre-service teachers in average are bellow to 50.0% thereby need to be given special attention while scientific attitude are above to 50.0%.

  10. Preemptive treatment of early donor specific antibodies with IgA- and IgM-enriched intravenous human immunoglobulins in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ius, Fabio; Verboom, Murielle; Sommer, Wiebke; Poyanmehr, Reza; Knoefel, Ann-Kathrin; Salman, Jawad; Kuehn, Christian; Avsar, Murat; Siemeni, Thierry; Erdfelder, Caroline; Hallensleben, Michael; Boethig, Dietmar; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Mueller, Carsten; Welte, Tobias; Falk, Christine; Haverich, Axel; Tudorache, Igor; Warnecke, Gregor

    2018-05-02

    This retrospective study presents our 4-year experience of preemptive treatment of early anti-HLA donor specific antibodies with IgA- and IgM-enriched immunoglobulins. We compared outcomes between patients with antibodies and treatment (case patients) and patients without antibodies (control patients). Records of patients transplanted at our institution between 03/2013 and 11/2017 were reviewed. The treatment protocol included one single 2g/kg immunoglobulin infusion followed by successive 0.5g/kg infusions for a maximum of 6 months, usually combined with a single dose of anti-CD20 antibody and, in case of clinical rejection or positive crossmatch, with plasmapheresis or immunoabsorption. Among the 598 transplanted patients, 128 (21%) patients formed the case group and 452 (76%) the control group. In 116 (91%) patients who completed treatment, 106 (91%) showed no antibodies at treatment end. Fourteen (13%) patients showed antibody recurrence thereafter. In case vs. control patients and at 4-year follow-up, respectively, graft survival (%) was 79 vs. 81 (p=0.59), freedom (%) from biopsy-confirmed rejection 57 vs. 53 (p=0.34) and from chronic lung allograft dysfunction 82 vs. 78 (p=0.83). After lung transplantation, patients with early donor specific antibodies and treated with IgA- and IgM-enriched immunoglobulins had 4-year graft survival similar to patients without antibodies and showed high antibody clearance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. A view of the H-band light-element chemical patterns in globular clusters under the AGB self-enrichment scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Mészáros, Sz; Masseron, T.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, B.; Shetrone, M.; Zamora, O.; Lucatello, S.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the self-enrichment scenario by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars for the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) by analysing data set of giant stars observed in nine Galactic GCs, covering a wide range of metallicities and for which the simultaneous measurements of C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are available. To this aim, we calculated six sets of AGB models, with the same chemical composition as the stars belonging to the first generation of each GC. We find that the AGB yields can reproduce the set of observations available, not only in terms of the degree of contamination shown by stars in each GC but, more important, also the observed trend with metallicity, which agrees well with the predictions from AGB evolution modelling. While further observational evidences are required to definitively fix the main actors in the pollution of the interstellar medium from which new generation of stars formed in GCs, the present results confirm that the gas ejected by stars of mass in the range 4 M_{⊙} ≤ M ≤ 8 M_{⊙} during the AGB phase share the same chemical patterns traced by stars in GCs.

  12. Post-weaning Environmental Enrichment, But Not Chronic Maternal Isolation, Enhanced Ethanol Intake during Periadolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Berardo, Luciana R.; Fabio, María C.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) during infancy (postnatal days 1–21, PD1–21) and environmental enrichment (EE) during adolescence (PD 21–42). Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE. The interactive effects between these treatments upon ethanol’s effects and intake have yet to be explored. We assessed chronic ethanol intake and preference (12 two-bottle daily sessions, spread across 30 days, 1st session on PD46) in rats exposed to MS and EE. The main finding was that male – but not female – rats that had been exposed to EE consumed more ethanol than controls given standard housing, an effect that was not affected by MS. Subsequent experiments assessed several factors associated with heightened ethanol consumption in males exposed to MS and EE; namely taste aversive conditioning and hypnotic-sedative consequences of ethanol. We also measured anxiety response in the light-dark box and in the elevated plus maze tests; and exploratory patterns of novel stimuli and behaviors indicative of risk assessment and risk-taking, via a modified version of the concentric square field (CSF) test. Aversive conditioning, hypnosis and sleep time were similar in males exposed or not to EE. EE males, however, exhibited heightened exploration of novel stimuli and greater risk taking behaviors in the CSF test. It is likely that the promoting effect of EE upon ethanol intake was due to these effects upon exploratory and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:27790100

  13. Early cements versus pore-water chemical composition in the subsurface of the sabkha of Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Andreas; Yuan, Peng; Court, Wesley M.; Lokier, Stephen W.; Dutton, Kirsten E.; Van der Land, Cees; Lessa Andrade, Luiza; Sherry, Angela; Head, Ian M.

    2017-04-01

    The coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi is a complex depositional system in an extremely arid climate. This depositional system is marked by the formation of primary carbonate and microbial deposits, and by the development of secondary evaporite and cement phases. A number of earlier studies have assessed the formation of these secondary phases, yet no research has established a relationship between lateral and vertical variations in the chemical composition of pore water and the nature of, in particular, the precipitating pore-filling cements, re-crystallisation features and dissolution. This study aims to establish an understanding of the environmental and sedimentary factors that control early post-depositional changes to sediment composition as a result of sediment - pore water interactions. A particular focus is to characterise changes in the chemistry of the pore water throughout a tidal cycle, aiming at understanding how the influx of 'fresh' lagoonal sea water influences the chemistry of the pore water, and which elements are replenished on a daily basis. The initial data presented here is based upon the relationship between the petrographic analysis of sediment samples and lateral and vertical variations in the chemistry of in-situ sampled pore water. The pore water is characterised with respect to pH, salinity, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and the concentrations of a variety of common metallic and non-metallic elements, including (but not limited to) Ca, Fe, Mg, P, S and Sr. Initial results show that concentrations of Mg, P, and V, and the ratios Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are highest at the seaward sampling locations. Contrastingly, individual concentrations for Ca, Sr, Fe, Si, and Cu are highest at the most landward locality. In particular the higher concentrations for Ca and Sr might indicate diagenetic processes and are thus enriched as a result of e.g. aragonite dissolution. A striking pattern in Mg concentrations show the highest values for this element

  14. Foamy Monocytes Are Enriched in cis-7-Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid (16:1n-9), a Possible Biomarker for Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Guijas, Carlos; Meana, Clara; Astudillo, Alma M; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2016-06-23

    Human monocytes respond to arachidonic acid, a secretory product of endothelial cells, by activating the de novo pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis, resulting in the acquisition of a foamy phenotype due to accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Recruitment of foamy monocytes to endothelium is a key step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Here we describe that lipid droplets of foamy monocytes are enriched in a rather uncommon fatty acid, cis-7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1n-9), a positional isomer of palmitoleic acid. 16:1n-9 was found to possess an anti-inflammatory activity both in vitro and in vivo that is comparable with that of omega-3 fatty acids and clearly distinguishable from the effects of palmitoleic acid. Selective accumulation in neutral lipids of phagocytic cells of an uncommon fatty acid reveals an early phenotypic change that may provide a biomarker of proatherogenicity, and a potential target for intervention in the early stages of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    PubMed

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at p<0.05. The high sensitivity of the 7-day-old test organisms to both chemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  16. Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-07-2 August 2007 Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species by J...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...heralding apoptosis . Data analysis. An apoptotic index (API) was established by calculating the percentage of embryos in each life stage with

  17. Early life influences on emotional reactivity: evidence that social enrichment has greater effects than handling on anxiety-like behaviors, neuroendocrine responses to stress and central BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Cirulli, Francesca; Berry, Alessandra; Bonsignore, Luca Tommaso; Capone, Francesca; D'Andrea, Ivana; Aloe, Luigi; Branchi, Igor; Alleva, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    During the early post-natal phases the brain is experience-seeking and provided by a considerable plasticity which allows a fine tuning between the external environment and the developing organism. Since the early work of Seymour Levine, an impressive amount of research has clearly shown that stressful experiences exert powerful effects on the brain and body development. These effects can last throughout the entire life span influencing brain function and increasing the risk for depression and anxiety disorders. The mechanisms underlying the effects of early stress on the developing organism have been widely studied in rodents through experimental manipulations of the post-natal environment, such as handling, which have been shown to exert important effects on the emotional phenotype and the response to stress. In the present paper we review the relevant literature and present some original data indicating that, compared to handling, which imposes an external manipulation on the mother-infant relationship, social enrichment, in the form of communal rearing, in mice has very profound effects on animal's emotionality and the response to stress. These effects are also accompanied by important changes in central levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The present data indicate that communal rearing has more pervasive effects than handling, strengthening previous data suggesting that it is a good animal model of reduced susceptibility to depression-like behavior. Overall, the availability of ever more sophisticated animal models represents a fundamental tool to translate basic research data into appropriate interventions for humans raised under traumatic or impoverished situations. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of chemical protection on the content of heavy metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing on the soil enriched with granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Wołejko, E; Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Konecki, R; Grobela, M

    2017-08-01

    The presence of heavy metals in Triticum aestivum L. growing on the soil enriched with granular sludge after chemical protection was observed. The five variants of treatments using herbicide (Chwastox Turbo 340SL) and four fungicides (Topsin M 500SC, Amistar 250SC, Artea 330EC, and Falcon 460EC) were performed. On control and experimental plots, the concentration of Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cu in wheat leaves were in the range 0.32-0.99, 0.92-1.57, 0.89-6.31, and 7.08-12.59 mg/kg and in grains 0.03 to 0.11, 0.14-0.25, 0.11-0.76, and 1.06-1.46 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in grain protected by MCPA and 2,4-D with thiophanate-methyl and azoxystrobin was higher than the maximum levels of 0.20 mg/kg D.M. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) differed and depended on chemical protection. The highest value of BCF was achieved for Cd. The statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between concentration of metals and quality parameters of wheat. One observed significant negative correlations between Ni/Zeleny sedimentation value (r = -0.51) and between Pb/starch content (r = -0.57). Positive correlations were observed between Cd/yield, the number of grains/ergosterol concentration (respectively, r = 0.41, r = 0.55, r = 0.56), and Zn/thousand grain weight (r = 0.50) at a p ≤ 0.05.

  19. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Hulsmans, Eva; Vanden Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  20. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide. PMID:28406910

  1. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review.

    PubMed

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2018-01-23

    Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.

  3. Exploring the Early Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way with LAMOST and Subaru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Zhao, Gang; Suda, Takuma; Christlieb, Norbert

    Extremely Metal-Poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] < -3.0) provide fundamental evidence on the nucleosynthesis and enrichment of the first stars and supernovae. LAMOST will observe 6 million Galactic stars through a 5-year spectroscopic survey, and thus provide an unprecedented chance to enlarge the EMP star sample. In 2014, a joint project on EMP stars was initiated with the LAMOST survey and Subaru follow-up observation. So far, more than 70 EMP stars have been found and confirmed, including identifications of a number of chemically interesting objects: three UMP (ultra metal-poor) stars with [Fe/H] ˜ -4.0, including the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection; a super Li-rich (A(Li) = +3) EMP giant, which is the most extreme example of Li enhancement in red giants known to date; a few EMP stars showing extreme enhancements in neutron-capture elements. Statistics of a large sample of EMP stars will constrain formation of the Milky Way halo.

  4. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Ryabchikova, T.; Bagnulo, S.; Alecian, E.; Grunhut, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G.

    2009-09-01

    Context: Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, the peculiarity of the composition of the photosphere, chemical stratification, the presence of a magnetic field, and its interplay with the stellar atmosphere and the circumstellar environment. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the “normal” A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. By contrast, this kind of study is paramount for eventually allowing one to correctly quantify the impact of the various physical processes that occur inside the atmospheres of A- and B-type stars. Aims: We wish to establish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. Methods: We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and π Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. Results: We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled a table of atomic data for more than 1100 measured lines that may be used in the future as a reference. The abundances we obtained for He, C, Al, S, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, and Zr are compatible with the solar ones derived with recent 3D radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of the solar photosphere. The abundances of the remaining studied elements show some degree of discrepancy compared to the solar photosphere. Those of N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Nd may well be ascribed to non-LTE effects; for P, Cl, Sc and

  5. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  6. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; ...

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  7. Weighted similarity-based clustering of chemical structures and bioactivity data in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Perualila-Tan, Nolen Joy; Shkedy, Ziv; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Moerbeke, Marijke Van; Kasim, Adetayo

    2016-08-01

    The modern process of discovering candidate molecules in early drug discovery phase includes a wide range of approaches to extract vital information from the intersection of biology and chemistry. A typical strategy in compound selection involves compound clustering based on chemical similarity to obtain representative chemically diverse compounds (not incorporating potency information). In this paper, we propose an integrative clustering approach that makes use of both biological (compound efficacy) and chemical (structural features) data sources for the purpose of discovering a subset of compounds with aligned structural and biological properties. The datasets are integrated at the similarity level by assigning complementary weights to produce a weighted similarity matrix, serving as a generic input in any clustering algorithm. This new analysis work flow is semi-supervised method since, after the determination of clusters, a secondary analysis is performed wherein it finds differentially expressed genes associated to the derived integrated cluster(s) to further explain the compound-induced biological effects inside the cell. In this paper, datasets from two drug development oncology projects are used to illustrate the usefulness of the weighted similarity-based clustering approach to integrate multi-source high-dimensional information to aid drug discovery. Compounds that are structurally and biologically similar to the reference compounds are discovered using this proposed integrative approach.

  8. Depleting high-abundant and enriching low-abundant proteins in human serum: An evaluation of sample preparation methods using magnetic nanoparticle, chemical depletion and immunoaffinity techniques.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; da Silva Fernandes, Rafael; de Souza Pessôa, Gustavo; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of three different depletion methods to remove the most abundant proteins, enriching those human serum proteins with low abundance is checked to make more efficient the search and discovery of biomarkers. These methods utilize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemical reagents (sequential application of dithiothreitol and acetonitrile, DTT/ACN), and commercial apparatus based on immunoaffinity (ProteoMiner, PM). The comparison between methods shows significant removal of abundant protein, remaining in the supernatant at concentrations of 4.6±0.2, 3.6±0.1, and 3.3±0.2µgµL -1 (n=3) for MNPs, DTT/ACN and PM respectively, from a total protein content of 54µgµL -1 . Using GeLC-MS/MS analysis, MNPs depletion shows good efficiency in removing high molecular weight proteins (>80kDa). Due to the synergic effect between the reagents DTT and ACN, DTT/ACN-based depletion offers good performance in the depletion of thiol-rich proteins, such as albumin and transferrin (DTT action), as well as of high molecular weight proteins (ACN action). Furthermore, PM equalization confirms its efficiency in concentrating low-abundant proteins, decreasing the dynamic range of protein levels in human serum. Direct comparison between the treatments reveals 72 proteins identified when using MNP depletion (43 of them exclusively by this method), but only 20 proteins using DTT/ACN (seven exclusively by this method). Additionally, after PM treatment 30 proteins were identified, seven exclusively by this method. Thus, MNPs and DTT/ACN depletion can be simple, quick, cheap, and robust alternatives for immunochemistry-based protein depletion, providing a potential strategy in the search for disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Evolution and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Benoit; JINA-CEE, NuGrid, ChETEC

    2018-06-01

    Stellar abundances in local dwarf galaxies offer a unique window into the nature and nucleosynthesis of the first stars. They also contain clues regarding how galaxies formed and assembled in the early stages of the universe. In this talk, I will present our effort to connect nuclear astrophysics with the field of galaxy formation in order to define what can be learned about galaxy evolution using stellar abundances. In particular, I will describe the current state of our numerical chemical evolution pipeline which accounts for the mass assembly history of galaxies, present how we use high-redshift cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to calibrate our models and to learn about the formation of dwarf galaxies, and address the challenge of identifying the dominant r-process site(s) using stellar abundances.

  10. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  11. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  12. The nucleosynthetic origins and chemical evolution of phosphorus in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the chemical evolution of the element phosphorus, despite its relatively large abundance in the Sun and its importance for biological life. The goal of this archive proposal is to establish the chemical evolution trend of phosphorus, extending our knowledge from solar metallicity to stars with less than 1/1000th the solar metallicity.Previous studies have used weak near-infrared P I lines to establish phosphorus abundance trends from -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0. We have identified a strong P I doublet in the UV at 2136 Angstroms, which is present in the spectra of 22 stars available in the HST archives. Our study will {1} improve on the limited observations of the abundance trend at high metallicity and extend it to metallicities lower by 2 dex and {2} determine whether [P/Fe] flattens out towards lower metallicities {like the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti} or whether it continues to increase {like Co and Zn}. Our results will provide the first tight constraints on the nucleosynthesis of phosphorus and its production sites in the early Universe.We request one semester of funding to support a graduate student to lead the spectral analysis work, one month of summer salary, and miscellaneous travel and publication costs.

  13. Aqueous Chemical Modeling of Sedimentation on Early Mars with Application to Surface-Atmosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catling, David C.

    2004-01-01

    This project was to investigate models for aqueous sedimentation on early Mars from fluid evaporation. Results focused on three specific areas: (1) First, a fluid evaporation model incorporating iron minerals was developed to compute the evaporation of a likely solution on early Mars derived from the weathering of mafic rock. (2) Second, the fluid evaporation model was applied to salts within Martian meteorites, specifically salts in the nakhlites and ALH84001. Evaporation models were found to be consistent with the mineralogy of salt assemblages-anhydrite, gypsum, Fe-Mg-Ca carbonates, halite, clays-- and the concentric chemical fractionation of Ca-to Mg-rich carbonate rosettes in ALH84001. We made progress in further developing our models of fluid concentration by contributing to updating the FREZCHEM model. (3) Third, theoretical investigation was done to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics involved in the formation of gray, crystalline hematite. This mineral, of probable ancient aqueous origin, has been observed in several areas on the surface of Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor. The "Opportunity" Mars Exploration Rover has also detected gray hematite at its landing site in Meridiani Planum. We investigated how gray hematite can be formed via atmospheric oxidation, aqueous precipitation and subsequent diagenesis, or hydrothermal processes. We also studied the geomorphology of the Aram Chaos hematite region using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images.

  14. On the origin and early evolution of biological catalysis and other studies on chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Lazcano, A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the lines of research in molecular evolution which we have developed for the past three years is related to the experimental and theoretical study of the origin and early evolution of biological catalysis. In an attempt to understand the nature of the first peptidic catalysts and coenzymes, we have achieved the non-enzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes ADPG, GDPG, and CDP-ethanolamine, under conditions considered to have been prevalent on the primitive Earth. We have also accomplished the prebiotic synthesis of histidine, as well as histidyl-histidine, and we have measured the enhancing effects of this catalytic dipeptide on the dephosphorylation of deoxyribonucleotide monophosphates, the hydrolysis of oligo A, and the oligomerization 2', 3' cAMP. We reviewed and further developed the hypothesis that RNA preceded double stranded DNA molecules as a reservoir of cellular genetic information. This led us to undertake the study of extant RNA polymerases in an attempt to discover vestigial sequences preserved from early Archean times. In addition, we continued our studies of on the chemical evolution of organic compounds in the solar system and beyond.

  15. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sourcesmore » together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  16. Early Recovery of Salmonella from Food Using a 6-Hour Non-selective Pre-enrichment and Reformulation of Tetrathionate Broth.

    PubMed

    Daquigan, Ninalynn; Grim, Christopher J; White, James R; Hanes, Darcy E; Jarvis, Karen G

    2016-01-01

    Culture based methods are commonly employed to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. These methods are time consuming and complex, requiring multiple non-selective and selective enrichment broths, and usually take at least 1 week to recover and identify pathogens. Improving pathogen detection in foods is a primary goal for regulatory agencies and industry. Salmonella detection in food relies on a series of culture steps in broth formulations optimized to resuscitate Salmonella and reduce the abundance of competitive bacteria. Examples of non-selective pre-enrichment broths used to isolate Salmonella from food include Lactose, Universal Pre-enrichment, BPW, and Trypticase Soy broths. Tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broths are employed after a 24-h non-selective enrichment to select for Salmonella and hamper the growth of competitive bacteria. In this study, we tested a new formulation of TT broth that lacks brilliant green dye and has lower levels of TT . We employed this TT broth formulation in conjunction with a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment period and determined that Salmonella recovery was possible one day earlier than standard food culture methods. We tested the shortened culture method in different non-selective enrichment broths, enumerated Salmonella in the non-selective enrichments, and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the proportional abundances of Salmonella in the TT and RV selective enrichments. Together these data revealed that a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment reduces the levels of competitive bacteria inoculated into the selective TT and RV broths, enabling the recovery of Salmonella 1 day earlier than standard culture enrichment methods.

  17. [New approaches to early diagnosis of chronic organophosphorus chemicals intoxication in workers at chemical weapons extermination objects].

    PubMed

    Babakov, V N; Goncharov, N V; Radilov, A S; Glashkina, E P; Podol'skaia, E P; Ermolaeva, E E; Shilov, V V; Prokof'eva, D S; Voĭtenko, N G; Egorov, N A

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrum analysis revealed differences in general contents of low-molecular peptides spectrums in chemical weapons extermination object staffers, in comparison with the reference group. Findings are that serum paraoxonase activity in chemical weapons extermination object staffers in significantly increased.

  18. Effects of chronic iTBS-rTMS and enriched environment on visual cortex early critical period and visual pattern discrimination in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Padilla, Diana V; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Early cortical critical period resembles a state of enhanced neuronal plasticity enabling the establishment of specific neuronal connections during first sensory experience. Visual performance with regard to pattern discrimination is impaired if the cortex is deprived from visual input during the critical period. We wondered how unspecific activation of the visual cortex before closure of the critical period using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect the critical period and the visual performance of the experimental animals. Would it cause premature closure of the plastic state and thus worsen experience-dependent visual performance, or would it be able to preserve plasticity? Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) were compared with those of an enriched environment (EE) during dark-rearing (DR) from birth. Rats dark-reared in a standard cage showed poor improvement in a visual pattern discrimination task, while rats housed in EE or treated with iTBS showed a performance indistinguishable from rats reared in normal light/dark cycle. The behavioral effects were accompanied by correlated changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and atypical PKC (PKCζ/PKMζ), two factors controlling stabilization of synaptic potentiation. It appears that not only nonvisual sensory activity and exercise but also cortical activation induced by rTMS has the potential to alleviate the effects of DR on cortical development, most likely due to stimulation of BDNF synthesis and release. As we showed previously, iTBS reduced the expression of parvalbumin in inhibitory cortical interneurons, indicating that modulation of the activity of fast-spiking interneurons contributes to the observed effects of iTBS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  20. Combined chemical and optical methods for monitoring the early decay stages of surrogate human models.

    PubMed

    Statheropoulos, M; Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Pallis, G C; Eliopoulos, C; Spiliopoulou, C

    2011-07-15

    useful and informative, uncovering hidden aspects of the early stages of decay and also guiding in the development of combined chemical and imaging methods for the detection of dead bodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Childhood Obesity and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormonally mediated processes critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy, or childhood. The fetus, infant, and child may have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors like EDCs due to rapid development and greater exposure to some EDCs that results from their developmentally appropriate behavior, anatomy, and physiology. This review summarizes epidemiological studies examining the relations of early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan, and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioral disorders and obesity. The available epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to several of these ubiquitous EDCs is associated with adverse neurobehavior (BPA and phthalates) and excess adiposity or increased risk of obesity/overweight (PFAS). Quantifying the effects of EDC mixtures, improving EDC exposure assessment, reducing bias from confounding, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability, and elucidating the presence and nature of sexually dimorphic EDC effects would result in stronger inferences from epidemiological studies. Ultimately, better estimates of the causal effects of EDC exposures on child health could help identify susceptible sub-populations and lead to public health interventions to reduce these exposures. PMID:27857130

  2. Small-scale hero: Massive-star enrichment in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Matteucci, Francesca; Feltzing, Sofia

    2012-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are often conjectured to be the sites of the first stars. The best current contenders for finding the chemical imprints from the enrichment by those massive objects are the ``ultrafaint dwarfs'' (UFDs). Here we present evidence for remarkably low heavy element abundances in the metal poor Hercules UFD. Combined with other peculiar abundance patterns this indicates that Hercules was likely only influenced by very few, massive explosive events - thus bearing the traces of an early, localized chemical enrichment with only very little other contributions from other sources at later times.

  3. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  4. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  5. Petrogenesis of siliceous high-Mg series rocks as exemplified by the Early Paleoproterozoic mafic volcanic rocks of the Eastern Baltic Shield: enriched mantle versus crustal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexeii

    2015-04-01

    The Early Paleoproterozoic stage in the Earth's evolution was marked by the initiation of global rift systems, the tectonic nature of which was determined by plume geodynamics. These processes caused the voluminous emplacement of mantle melts with the formation of dike swarms, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, and volcanic rocks. All these rocks are usually considered as derivatives of SHMS (siliceous high-magnesian series). Within the Eastern Baltic Shield, the SHMS volcanic rocks are localized in the domains with different crustal history: in the Vodlozero block of the Karelian craton with the oldest (Middle Archean) crust, in the Central Block of the same craton with the Neoarchean crust, and in the Kola Craton with a heterogeneous crust. At the same time, these rocks are characterized by sufficiently close geochemical characteristics: high REE fractionation ((La/Yb)N = 4.9-11.7, (La/Sm)N=2.3-3.6, (Gd/Yb)N =1.66-2.74)), LILE enrichment, negative Nb anomaly, low to moderate Ti content, and sufficiently narrow variations in Nd isotope composition from -2.0 to -0.4 epsilon units. The tectonomagmatic interpretation of these rocks was ambiguous, because such characteristics may be produced by both crustal contamination of depleted mantle melts, and by generation from a mantle source metasomatized during previous subduction event. Similar REE patterns and overlapping Nd isotope compositions indicate that the studied basaltic rocks were formed from similar sources. If crustal contamination en route to the surface would play a significant role in the formation of the studied basalts, then almost equal amounts of contaminant of similar composition are required to produce the mafic rocks with similar geochemical signatures and close Nd isotopic compositions, which is hardly possible for the rocks spaced far apart in a heterogeneous crust. This conclusion is consistent with analysis of some relations between incompatible elements and their ratios. In particular, the

  6. Gene Expression Patterns during the Early Stages of Chemically Induced Larval Metamorphosis and Settlement of the Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Motti, Cherie A.; Tebben, Jan; Harder, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenetic transition of motile coral larvae into sessile primary polyps is triggered and genetically programmed upon exposure to environmental biomaterials, such as crustose coralline algae (CCA) and bacterial biofilms. Although the specific chemical cues that trigger coral larval morphogenesis are poorly understood there is much more information available on the genes that play a role in this early life phase. Putative chemical cues from natural biomaterials yielded defined chemical samples that triggered different morphogenetic outcomes: an extract derived from a CCA-associated Pseudoalteromonas bacterium that induced metamorphosis, characterized by non-attached metamorphosed juveniles; and two fractions of the CCA Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich) that induced settlement, characterized by attached metamorphosed juveniles. In an effort to distinguish the genes involved in these two morphogenetic transitions, competent larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to these predictable cues and the expression profiles of 47 coral genes of interest (GOI) were investigated after only 1 hour of exposure using multiplex RT–qPCR. Thirty-two GOI were differentially expressed, indicating a putative role during the early regulation of morphogenesis. The most striking differences were observed for immunity-related genes, hypothesized to be involved in cell recognition and adhesion, and for fluorescent protein genes. Principal component analysis of gene expression profiles resulted in separation between the different morphogenetic cues and exposure times, and not only identified those genes involved in the early response but also those which influenced downstream biological changes leading to larval metamorphosis or settlement. PMID:24632854

  7. A new approach to phosphoserine and phosphothreonine analysis in peptides and proteins: chemical modification, enrichment via solid-phase reversible binding, and analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Florian; Valsasina, Barbara; Baldi, Rosario; Xie, Jin; Stewart, Albert; Isacchi, Antonella; Kalisz, Henryk M; Rusconi, Luisa

    2003-06-01

    beta-Elimination of the phosphate group on phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues and addition of an alkyldithiol is a useful tool for analysis of the phosphorylation states of proteins and peptides. We have explored the influence of several conditions on the efficiency of this PO(4)(3-) elimination reaction upon addition of propanedithiol. In addition to the described influence of different bases, the solvent composition was also found to have a major effect on the yield of the reaction. In particular, an increase in the percentage of DMSO enhances the conversion rate, whereas a higher amount of protic polar solvents, such as water or isopropanol, induces the opposite effect. We have also developed a protocol for enrichment of the modified peptides, which is based on solid-phase covalent capture/release with a dithiopyridino-resin. The procedure for beta-elimination and isolation of phosphorylated peptides by solid-phase capture/release was developed with commercially available alpha-casein. Enriched peptide fragments were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis before and after alkylation with iodoacetamide, which allowed rapid confirmation of the purposely introduced thiol moiety. Sensitivity studies, carried out in order to determine the detection limit, demonstrated that samples could be detected even in the low picomolar range by mass spectrometry. The developed solid-phase enrichment procedure based on reversible covalent binding of the modified peptides is more effective and significantly simpler than methods based on the interaction between biotin and avidin, which require additional steps such as tagging the modified peptides and work-up of the samples prior to the affinity capture step.

  8. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estuarine water quality in parks of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network: Development and early implementation of vital signs estuarine nutrient-enrichment monitoring, 2003-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopp, Blaine S.; Nielsen, Martha; Glisic, Dejan; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents results of pilot tests of a protocol for monitoring estuarine nutrient enrichment for the Vital Signs Monitoring Program of the National Park Service Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network. Data collected from four parks during protocol development in 2003-06 are presented: Gateway National Recreation Area, Colonial National Historic Park, Fire Island National Seashore, and Assateague Island National Seashore. The monitoring approach incorporates several spatial and temporal designs to address questions at a hierarchy of scales. Indicators of estuarine response to nutrient enrichment were sampled using a probability design within park estuaries during a late-summer index period. Monitoring variables consisted of dissolved-oxygen concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, water temperature, salinity, attenuation of downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and turbidity. The statistical sampling design allowed the condition of unsampled locations to be inferred from the distribution of data from a set of randomly positioned "probability" stations. A subset of sampling stations was sampled repeatedly during the index period, and stations were not rerandomized in subsequent years. These "trend stations" allowed us to examine temporal variability within the index period, and to improve the sensitivity of the monitoring protocol to detecting change through time. Additionally, one index site in each park was equipped for continuous monitoring throughout the index period. Thus, the protocol includes elements of probabilistic and targeted spatial sampling, and the temporal intensity ranges from snapshot assessments to continuous monitoring.

  10. The early stages of massive star formation: tracing the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Hannah

    2015-04-01

    Molecules are essential to the formation of stars, by allowing radiation to escape the cloud and cooling to occur. Over 180 molecules have been detected in interstellar environments, ranging from comets to interstellar clouds. Their spectra are useful probes of the conditions in which these molecules form. Comparison of rest frequencies to observed frequencies can provide information about the velocity of gas and indicate physical structures. The density, temperature, and excitation conditions of gas can be determined directly from the spectra of molecules. Furthermore, by taking a chemical inventory of a particular object, one can gain an understanding of the chemical processes occurring within a cloud. The class of molecules known as complex molecules (>6 atoms), are of particular interest when probing the conditions in massive starforming environments, as they are observed to trace a more compact region than smaller molecules. This thesis details the work of my PhD, to explore how complex molecules can be used to trace the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores (HCs), one of the earliest stages of massive star formation. This work combines both the observations and chemical modelling of several different massive star-forming regions. We identify molecular transitions observed in the spectra of these regions, and calculate column densities and rotation temperatures of these molecules (Chapters 2 and 3). In Chapter 4, we chemically model the HCs, and perform a comparison between observational column densities and chemical modelling column densities. In Chapter 5, we look at the abundance ratio of three isomers, acetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and methyl formate, to ascertain whether this ratio can be used as an indicator of HC evolution. Finally, we explore the chemistry of the HC IRAS 17233-3606, to identify emission features in the spectra, and determine column densities and rotation temperatures of the detected molecules.

  11. Detrital and early chemical remanent magnetization in redbeds and their rock magnetic signature: Zicapa Formation, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra-Rojas, Maria Isabel; Molina-Garza, Roberto Stanley

    2018-06-01

    Poles from continental redbeds are a large fraction of the world's palaeomagnetic database. Nonetheless, the time of acquisition and origin of the remanent magnetization of redbeds has been long debated. We report palaeomagnetic data, rock magnetic data and microscope observations for Lower Cretaceous redbeds in southern Mexico. These data allow us to discriminate between the hysteresis properties of remanent magnetizations of detrital and chemical origin, and to establish the early origin of a chemical remanence. Red sandstones of the Zicapa Formation contain a multicomponent remanence revealed by thermal demagnetization, and consisting of three stable components with partially overlapping laboratory unblocking temperatures of <250 °C, ˜300 to ˜500 °C and >600 °C, (low, intermediate and high temperature, respectively). They are interpreted as a viscous remanence residing in detrital magnetite, a chemical remanence residing in authigenic hematite and a depositional remanence residing in detrital hematite, respectively. The low-temperature component is nearly parallel to the recent dipole field. The tilt-corrected overall site means of the intermediate (chemical) and high temperature (depositional) components are indistinguishable (Dec = 282.0°, Inc = 12.4°, k = 13.33, α95 = 10.1°, N = 17, for the intermediate temperature; and Dec = 272.5°, Inc = 16.5°, k = 14.04, α95 = 11, N = 14, for the high temperature). Elongation/inclination analysis suggests that depositional and chemical components require applying an f = factor of approximately 0.4. Both of these components define a magnetic polarity zonation, but the polarity of the chemical and detrital components may or may not be the same. The chemical remanence coincides, more often than not, with the polarity of the depositional remanence of the overlying (younger) strata, suggesting a delay in remanence acquisition of tens to a few hundred ka for the chemical component. Pigmentary and detrital haematite

  12. Quantum mechanical model for the anticarcinogenic effect of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields on early chemical hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, Juan José; Torres-Vega, Gabino; López-Riquelme, Germán Octavio; López-Sandoval, Eduardo; Samana, Arturo Rodolfo; García Velasco, Fermín; Hernández-Aguilar, Claudia; Domínguez-Pacheco, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    Using the conventional Haberkorn approach, it is evaluated the recombination of the radical pair (RP) singlet spin state to study theoretically the cytoprotective effect of an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early stages of hepatic cancer chemically induced in rats. The proposal is that ELF-EMF modulates the interconversion rate of singlet and triplet spin states of the RP populations modifying the products from the metabolization of carcinogens. Previously, we found that the daily treatment with ELF-EMF 120 Hz inhibited the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in chemical carcinogenesis. The singlet spin population is evaluated diagonalizing the spin density matrix through the Lanczos method in a radical pair mechanism (RPM). Using four values of the interchange energy, we have studied the variations over the singlet population. The low magnetic field effect as a test of the influence over the enzymatic chemical reaction is evaluated calculating the quantum yield. Through a bootstrap technique the range is found for the singlet decay rate for the process. Applying the quantum measurements concept, we addressed the impact toward hepatic cells. The result contributes to improving our understanding of the chemical carcinogenesis process affected by charged particles that damage the DNA.

  13. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to early life stages of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratorys studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F), and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex) to early life stages of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in hard and soft water. Regardless of water type, swim-up fry and juveniles (60 and 90 d posthatch) exhibited similar sensitivities to each chemical and these life stages were more sensitive than eyed eggs. Foam suppressants were more toxic to each life stage than the fire retardants in both water types. The descending rank order of toxicity for these chemicals tested with swim-up fry and juveniles (range of 96-h median lethal concentrations [LC50s]) was Phos-Chek WD-881 (7–13 mg/L) > Ansul Silv-Ex (11–22 mg/L) > Phos-Chek D75-F (218–305 mg/L) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (218–412 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (685–1,195 mg/L). Water type had a minor effect on the toxicity of these chemicals. Comparison of acute toxicity values with recommended application concentrations indicates that accidental inputs of these chemicals into stream environments would require substantial dilution (237- to 1,429-fold) to reach concentrations equivalent to their 96-h LC50s.

  14. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER-SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose response relationships need to be determined in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this stud...

  15. Early History of the Concept of Chemical Transmission of the Nerve Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Horace W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the research efforts of scientists involved in discovering chemical transmission of the nerve impulse. The work includes that of J.N. Langley, George Oliver, Edward A. Schafer, Reid Hunt, Henry Dale, Henry Wellcome, Otto Loewi, and others. The discovery and the importance of both acetylcholine and adrenaline are also discussed. (84…

  16. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early physiological responses of Pinus pinea L. seedlings infected by Heterobasidion sp.pl. in an ozone-enriched atmospheric environment.

    PubMed

    Pollastrini, Martina; Luchi, Nicola; Michelozzi, Marco; Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Bussotti, Filippo; Capretti, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    The presence of the American root-rot disease fungus Heterobasidion irregulare Garbel. & Otrosina was detected in Italian coastal pine forests (Pinus pinea L.) in addition to the common native species Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld. High levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) as an atmospheric pollutant are usually experienced in Mediterranean pine forests. To explore the effect of interaction between the two Heterobasidion species and ozone pollution on P. pinea, an open-top chamber (OTC) experiment was carried out. Five-year-old P. pinea seedlings were inoculated with the fungal species considered (H. irregulare, H. annosum and mock-inoculation as control), and then exposed in charcoal-filtered open-top chambers (CF-OTC) and non-filtered ozone-enriched chambers (NF+) from July to the first week of August 2010 at the experimental facilities of Curno (North Italy). Fungal inoculation effects in an ozone-enriched environment were assessed as: (i) the length of the inoculation lesion; (ii) chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) responses; and (iii) analysis of resin terpenes. Results showed no differences on lesion length between fungal and ozone treatments, whereas the short-term effects of the two stress factors on ChlF indicate an increased photosynthetic efficiency, thus suggesting the triggering of compensation/repair processes. The total amount of resin terpenes is enhanced by fungal infection of both species, but depressed by ozone to the levels observed in mock-inoculated plants. Variations in terpene profiles were also induced by stem base inoculations and ozone treatment. Ozone might negatively affect terpene defences making plants more susceptible to pathogens and insects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  19. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  20. Development of chemically activated N-enriched carbon adsorbents from urea-formaldehyde resin for CO2 adsorption: Kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Deepak; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K

    2018-07-15

    Nitrogen enriched carbon adsorbents with high surface areas were successfully prepared by carbonizing the low-cost urea formaldehyde resin, followed by KOH activation. Different characterization techniques were used to determine the structure and surface functional groups. Maximum surface area and total pore volume of 4547 m 2  g -1 and 4.50 cm 3  g -1 were found by controlling activation conditions. The optimized sample denoted as UFA-3-973 possesses a remarkable surface area, which is found to be one of the best surface areas achieved so far. Nitrogen content of this sample was found to be 22.32%. Dynamic CO 2 uptake capacity of the carbon adsorbents were determined thermogravimetrically at different CO 2 concentrations (6-100%) and adsorption temperatures (303-373 K) which have a much more relevance for the flue gas application. Highest adsorption capacity of 2.43 mmol g -1 for this sample was obtained at 303 K under pure CO 2 flow. Complete regenerability of the adsorbent over four adsorption-desorption cycles was obtained. Fractional order kinetic model provided best description of adsorption over all adsorption temperatures and CO 2 concentrations. Heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface was confirmed from the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fits and isosteric heat of adsorption values. Exothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of adsorption process was confirmed from thermodynamic parameter values. The combination of high surface area and large pore volume makes the adsorbent a new promising carbon material for CO 2 capture from power plant flue gas and for other relevant applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the ??13C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on ??13C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the ??13C value of degraded wood. ?? 1987.

  2. In vitro early changes in intercellular junctions by treatment with a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, T; Kohno, Y; Matsui, Y; Yoshiki, S

    1986-06-01

    To examine early intercellular junction changes caused by treatment with 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA), rat lingual epithelium was cultivated in isolation and observed by electrophysiological, freeze-fracture and whole-mount electron microscopy. Electrophysiological measurements showed a transient decrease in membrane potential of -10.2 mV 6 h after the treatment. It returned to almost the same level as that of the control group 1 day later. Six hours after treatment, input resistance decreased rapidly to 5.3 M omega but increased to 18.0 M omega 12 h after treatment. Transient reduction of input resistance and membrane potential occurred prior to the decrease in the coupling ratio 6 h after treatment with DMBA. In freeze-fracture replicas, the number of gap junctions decreased by approximately 45% of the control value 6 h after treatment with DMBA. At 12 h and thereafter, the number and area of gap junctions subsequently decreased by 60-80% of the control value. Alterations in the number and area of desmosomes were similar to those of the gap junctions. The formation of epithelial cytoskeletons, partially devoid of the 2-4 and 5-8 nm filaments was also observed. A decrease in the density of filament networks beneath the plasma membranes was especially apparent. Treatment with a carcinogen brought about morphological cellular changes as early as 6 h after treatment, and such early changes might trigger metabolic cellular abnormalities. Affected cells appear to move away from normal cells in a process of repeated destruction and revision of intercellular junctions, and cytoskeletons.

  3. Varying strength of cognitive markers and biomarkers to predict conversion and cognitive decline in an early-stage-enriched mild cognitive impairment sample.

    PubMed

    Egli, Simone C; Hirni, Daniela I; Taylor, Kirsten I; Berres, Manfred; Regeniter, Axel; Gass, Achim; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, predictors might be more or less powerful depending on the characteristics of the MCI sample. To investigate which cognitive markers and biomarkers predict conversion to AD dementia and course of cognitive functioning in a MCI sample with a high proportion of early-stage MCI patients. Variables known to predict progression in MCI patients and hypothesized to predict progression in early-stage MCI patients were selected. Cognitive (long-delay free recall, regional primacy score), imaging (hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes, fornix fractional anisotropy), and CSF (Aβ1-42/t-tau, Aβ1-42) variables from 36 MCI patients were analyzed with Cox regression and mixed-effect models to determine their individual and combined abilities to predict time to conversion to AD dementia and course of global cognitive functioning, respectively. Those variables hypothesized to predict the course of early-stage MCI patients were most predictive for MCI progression. Specifically, regional primacy score (a measure of word-list position learning) most consistently predicted conversion to AD dementia and course of cognitive functioning. Both the prediction of conversion and course of cognitive functioning were maximized by including CSF Aβ1-42 and fornix integrity biomarkers, respectively, indicating the complementary information carried by cognitive variables and biomarkers. Predictors of MCI progression need to be interpreted in light of the characteristics of the respective MCI sample. Future studies should aim to compare predictive strengths of markers between early-stage and late-stage MCI patients.

  4. The role of the 5f valence orbitals of early actinides in chemical bonding

    PubMed Central

    Vitova, T.; Pidchenko, I.; Fellhauer, D.; Bagus, P. S.; Joly, Y.; Pruessmann, T.; Bahl, S.; Gonzalez-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Altmaier, M.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.

    2017-01-01

    One of the long standing debates in actinide chemistry is the level of localization and participation of the actinide 5f valence orbitals in covalent bonds across the actinide series. Here we illuminate the role of the 5f valence orbitals of uranium, neptunium and plutonium in chemical bonding using advanced spectroscopies: actinide M4,5 HR-XANES and 3d4f RIXS. Results reveal that the 5f orbitals are active in the chemical bonding for uranium and neptunium, shown by significant variations in the level of their localization evidenced in the spectra. In contrast, the 5f orbitals of plutonium appear localized and surprisingly insensitive to different bonding environments. We envisage that this report of using relative energy differences between the 5fδ/ϕ and 5fπ*/5fσ* orbitals as a qualitative measure of overlap-driven actinyl bond covalency will spark activity, and extend to numerous applications of RIXS and HR-XANES to gain new insights into the electronic structures of the actinide elements. PMID:28681848

  5. The role of the 5f valence orbitals of early actinides in chemical bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitova, T.; Pidchenko, I.; Fellhauer, D.; Bagus, P. S.; Joly, Y.; Pruessmann, T.; Bahl, S.; Gonzalez-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Altmaier, M.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.

    2017-07-01

    One of the long standing debates in actinide chemistry is the level of localization and participation of the actinide 5f valence orbitals in covalent bonds across the actinide series. Here we illuminate the role of the 5f valence orbitals of uranium, neptunium and plutonium in chemical bonding using advanced spectroscopies: actinide M4,5 HR-XANES and 3d4f RIXS. Results reveal that the 5f orbitals are active in the chemical bonding for uranium and neptunium, shown by significant variations in the level of their localization evidenced in the spectra. In contrast, the 5f orbitals of plutonium appear localized and surprisingly insensitive to different bonding environments. We envisage that this report of using relative energy differences between the 5fδ/φ and 5fπ*/5fσ* orbitals as a qualitative measure of overlap-driven actinyl bond covalency will spark activity, and extend to numerous applications of RIXS and HR-XANES to gain new insights into the electronic structures of the actinide elements.

  6. Probing the chemical environments of early star formation: A multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Emily Elizabeth

    Chemical compositions of prestellar and protostellar environments in the dense interstellar medium are best quantified using a multidisciplinary approach. For my dissertation, I completed two projects to measure molecular abundances during the earliest phases of star formation. The first project investigates gas phase CO depletion in molecular cloud cores, the progenitors of star systems, using infrared photometry and molecular line spectroscopy at radio wavelengths. Hydrogenation of CO depleted onto dust is an important first step toward building complex organic molecules. The second project constrains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances toward young stellar objects (YSO). Band strengths measured from laboratory spectroscopy of pyrene/water ice mixtures were applied to estimate abundances from features attributed to PAHs in observational YSO spectra. PAHs represent a distinct but important component of interstellar organic material that is widely observed but not well quantified in star-forming regions.

  7. Early social enrichment provided by communal nest increases resilience to depression-like behavior more in female than in male mice.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Ivana; Gracci, Fiorenza; Alleva, Enrico; Branchi, Igor

    2010-12-20

    Early experiences produce persistent changes in behavior and brain function. Being reared in a communal nest (CN), consisting of a single nest where three mouse mothers keep their pups together and share care-giving behavior from birth to weaning, provides an highly stimulating social environment to the developing pup since both mother-offspring and peer-to-peer interactions are markedly increased. Here we show that being reared in a CN affects adult behavior of CD-1 mice in a gender-dependent fashion, with reduced depression-like responses in females and increased anxiety-like behavior in males. In particular, CN females showed higher sucrose preference at baseline condition, drinking more sweet solution compared to female mice reared in a standard laboratory condition (SN). In the isolation test, both SN and CN females showed a reduction in sucrose preference after exposure to isolation stress. However, after 24h, only CN females significantly recovered. Finally, in the forced swim test, compared to SN, CN females spent longer time floating, a behavioral response that in the CN model has been inversely associated with display of endophenotypes of depression. With regard to the emotional response, CN males displayed an increased anxiety-like behavior in comparison to SN, spending less time in the open arms and displaying reduced head-dippings in the elevated plus-maze test. No difference was found in females. Overall, our findings show that gender and early experiences interact in modulating adult behavior. In particular, we show that early experiences modified developmental trajectories shaping adult endophenotypes of depression more markedly in females than in males. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and properties of shepherin I: a fungicidal peptide enriched in glycine-glycine-histidine motifs.

    PubMed

    Remuzgo, César; Oewel, Thaís S; Daffre, Sirlei; Lopes, Thiago R S; Dyszy, Fabio H; Schreier, Shirley; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M; Teresa Machini, M

    2014-11-01

    Although glycine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in animals and plants, very little has been reported on their chemistry, structure activity-relationship, and properties. We investigated those topics for Shepherin I (Shep I), a glycine-rich AMP with the unique amino acid sequence G(1)YGGHGGHGGHGGHGGHGGHGHGGGGHG(28). Shep I and analogues were synthesized by the solid-phase method at 60 °C using conventional heating. Purification followed by chemical characterization confirmed the products' identities and high purity. Amino acid analysis provided their peptide contents. All peptides were active against the clinically important Candida species, but ineffective against bacteria and mycelia fungi. Truncation of the N- or C-terminal portion reduced Shep I antifungal activity, the latter being more pronounced. Carboxyamidation of Shep I did not affect the activity against C. albicans or C. tropicalis, but increased activity against S. cerevisiae. Carboxyamidated analogues Shep I (3-28)a and Shep I (6-28)a were equipotent to Shep I and Shep Ia against Candida species. As with most cationic AMPs, all peptides had their activity significantly reduced in high-salt concentrations, a disadvantage that is defeated if 10 µM ZnCl2 is present. At 100 µM, the peptides were practically not hemolytic. Shep Ia also killed C. albicans MDM8 and ATCC 90028 cells. Fluo-Shep Ia, an analogue labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein, was rapidly internalized by C. albicans MDM8 cells, a salt-sensitive process dependent on metabolic energy and temperature. Altogether, such results shed light on the chemistry, structural requirements for activity, and other properties of candidacidal glycine-rich peptides. Furthermore, they show that Shep Ia may have strong potential for use in topical application.

  9. Composition of early planetary atmospheres - II. Coupled Dust and chemical evolution in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2017-08-01

    We present the next step in a series of papers devoted to connecting the composition of the atmospheres of forming planets with the chemistry of their natal evolving protoplanetary discs. The model presented here computes the coupled chemical and dust evolution of the disc and the formation of three planets per disc model. Our three canonical planet traps produce a Jupiter near 1 AU, a Hot Jupiter and a Super-Earth. We study the dependence of the final orbital radius, mass, and atmospheric chemistry of planets forming in disc models with initial disc masses that vary by 0.02 M⊙ above and below our fiducial model (M_{disc,0} = 0.1 M_{⊙}). We compute C/O and C/N for the atmospheres formed in our three models and find that C/Oplanet ˜ C/O_{disc}, which does not vary strongly between different planets formed in our model. The nitrogen content of atmospheres can vary in planets that grow in different disc models. These differences are related to the formation history of the planet, the time and location that the planet accretes its atmosphere, and are encoded in the bulk abundance of NH3. These results suggest that future observations of atmospheric NH3 and an estimation of the planetary C/O and C/N can inform the formation history of particular planetary systems.

  10. Primary differentiation in the early Earth: Nd and Sr isotopic evidence from diamondiferous eclogites for both old depleted and old enriched mantle, Yakutia, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Jerde, Eric A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.; Sobolev, Vladimir N.; Sobolev, Nickolai V.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Deines, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Ancient, stable, continental cratons possess thick, subcontinental-lithospheric mantle 'keels' which favor particularly the emplacement of diamondiferous kimberlites and included peridotites and eclogites. These refractory mantle samples of the roots provide hard constraints on the theories of formation, growth, and evolution of these cratons. Xenoliths containing only primary garnet and clinopyroxene (eclogites), although rare in most kimberlites, can retain the geochemical signatures of their parent protoliths (e.g., subducted oceanic crust, ancient mantle) thus offering the opportunity to address mantle processes which may have taken place at earlier times in the Earth's history. In fact, it has been postulated that some eclogites are residues from the accretion of the early Earth. Nd and Sr isotopic data are presented which may be interpreted as evidence of an early (greater than 4 Ga) mantle differentiation event. The kimberlites of Yakutia are located both marginal and central to the Siberian craton, and a wide variety of xenoliths are present within them. The Siberian mantle samples have received little attention in the western world, largely because suitable suites of Yakutian samples have not been readily available. Importantly, there is evidence that metasomatism of the Siberian lithosphere has been considerably less intense or extensive than for the Kaapvaal craton. Therefore, it should be considerably easier to elicit the igneous/metamorphic histories of Siberian kimberlitic xenoliths. One of the notable features of the Siberian eclogites is the common appearance of diamonds, especially in the Mir and Udachnaya pipes. In all, eight eclogite samples (eight garnet separates and eight clinopyroxene separates) have been analyzed to date on the Udachnaya pipe, seven from our group.

  11. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  12. Early time evolution of negative ion clouds and electron density depletions produced during electron attachment chemical release experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the early time evolution of electron depletions and negative ion clouds produced during electron attachment chemical releases in the ionosphere. The simulation model considers the evolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and a three-species plasma that contains electrons, positive ions, and also heavy negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attachment reaction. The early time evolution (less than the negative ion cyclotron period) of the system shows that a negative charge surplus initially develops outside of the depletion boundary as the heavy negative ions move across the boundary. The electrons are initially restricted from moving into the depletion due to the magnetic field. An inhomogenous electric field develops across the boundary layer due to this charge separation. A highly sheared electron flow velocity develops in the depletion boundary due to E x B and Delta-N x B drifts that result from electron density gradients and this inhomogenous electric field. Structure eventually develops in the depletion boundary layer due to low-frequency electrostatic waves that have growth times shorter than the negative ion cyclotron period. It is proposed that these waves are most likely produced by the electron-ion hybrid instability that results from sufficiently large shears in the electron flow velocity.

  13. On the Origin of the Canonical Nucleobases: An Assessment of Selection Pressures across Chemical and Early Biological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Andro C.

    2014-01-01

    The native bases of RNA and DNA are prominent examples of the narrow selection of organic molecules upon which life is based. How did nature “decide” upon these specific heterocycles? Evidence suggests that many types of heterocycles could have been present on the early Earth. It is therefore likely that the contemporary composition of nucleobases is a result of multiple selection pressures that operated during early chemical and biological evolution. The persistence of the fittest heterocycles in the prebiotic environment towards, for example, hydrolytic and photochemical assaults, may have given some nucleobases a selective advantage for incorporation into the first informational polymers. The prebiotic formation of polymeric nucleic acids employing the native bases remains, however, a challenging problem to reconcile. Hypotheses have proposed that the emerging RNA world may have included many types of nucleobases. This is supported by the extensive utilization of non-canonical nucleobases in extant RNA and the resemblance of many of the modified bases to heterocycles generated in simulated prebiotic chemistry experiments. Selection pressures in the RNA world could have therefore narrowed the composition of the nucleic acid bases. Two such selection pressures may have been related to genetic fidelity and duplex stability. Considering these possible selection criteria, the native bases along with other related heterocycles seem to exhibit a certain level of fitness. We end by discussing the strength of the N-glycosidic bond as a potential fitness parameter in the early DNA world, which may have played a part in the refinement of the alphabetic bases. PMID:25284884

  14. Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 2: an extended fish early-life stage test with an androgenic chemical in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rinus; De Vries-Buitenweg, Selinda; Van Gils, Mariëlle; Baltussen, Erik; Hargreaves, Adam; van de Waart, Beppy; De Roode, Daphne; Legler, Juliette; Murk, Albertinka

    2006-11-16

    The Endocrine Modulators Study Group (EMSG) of the European Chemical Industry has proposed an extended fish early-life stage (ELS) test based on OECD test guideline 210 in combination with a fish pair-breeding reproduction study as a possible alternative for fish full life cycle testing. In this paper the androgen methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) was tested in an extended ELS test with fathead minnow supplementary to such a test with the weak estrogen 4-tert-pentylphenol (4TPP). Main endpoints were secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) induction and gonadal development. Early blastula embryos were exposed to 0, 0.10, 0.32 and 1.0 microgMDHTl(-1) for up to 114 days post-hatch (dph). A batch of fish exposed to 1.0 microg l(-1) was transferred to clean water after 30 or 63 dph for the remainder of the study. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) was included as estrogenic reference substance at 0.01 microg l(-1). Exposure to MDHT had no significant effect on hatching success or survival, but significantly increased the condition factor of fish exposed for 63 and 114 dph (up to 150% of the control). At 63 dph MDHT exposure induced appearance of tubercles on the snout (a male SSC) of more than 80% of fish. Compared to the controls, plasma VTG was not detectable or significantly lower in fish exposed to MDHT at 0.10 microg/l, but not significantly affected at higher MDHT concentrations. Both lower levels of MDHT significantly inhibited the development of female gonads as of 30 dph. Fish exposed to MDHT at 0.32 and 1.0 microg l(-1) showed higher incidences of mixed sex gonads (10-25%) and smaller testes or dysplasia of gonadal tissue. Dysplasia was present in 80% of the fish continuously exposed to 1.0 microg l(-1) up to 114 dph, but reversible when fish were transferred to dilution water. Results indicate that suppression of ovarian development was the most sensitive endpoint for MDHT exposure after 30 dph. Other endpoints (e.g., growth and SSC) required

  15. Small Renal Masses in Close Proximity to the Collecting System and Renal Sinus Are Enriched for Malignancy and High Fuhrman Grade and Should Be Considered for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Correa, Andres F; Toussi, Amir; Amin, Milon; Hrebinko, Ronald L; Gayed, Bishoy A; Parwani, Anil V; Maranchie, Jodi K

    2018-02-05

    Recent reports show a correlation between renal tumor radiographic characteristics and pathologic features. We hypothesize that a more central location within the relatively hypoxic renal medulla might confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. To test this, radiographic tumor characteristics were compared with tumor grade and histology. We retrospectively reviewed renal masses <4 cm in diameter that underwent resection between 2008 and 2013. Tumor location was recorded using standard R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare independent anatomic features with incidence of malignancy and high nuclear grade. A total of 334 renal tumors had information available for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that increasing endophycity and proximity to the collecting system (<4 mm) were predictors of malignancy and high-grade features. In multivariate analysis, proximity to the collecting system <4 mm remained the as the only anatomical variable predictive of malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-12.05; P = .04) and high nuclear grade (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.44-5.51; P = .003). Malignancy and high tumor grade occur with much greater frequency when tumors are located deep in the kidney, in close proximity to the collecting system and renal sinus. Ninety-six percent of small renal masses in this region were cancers and nearly half were Fuhrman Grade 3 or 4, suggesting that these small centrally located tumors should be targeted for early intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Size-resolved aerosol chemical analysis of extreme haze pollution events during early 2013 in urban Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shili; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Yuesi

    2014-08-30

    Using size-resolved filter sampling and chemical characterization, high concentrations of water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species and heavy metals were found in both fine (PM2.1) and coarse (PM2.1-9) particles in Beijing during haze events in early 2013. Even on clear days, average mass concentration of submicron particles (PM1.1) was several times higher than that previously measured in most of abroad urban areas. A high concentration of particulate matter on haze days weakens the incident solar radiation, which reduces the generation rate of secondary organic carbon in PM1.1. We show that the peak mass concentration of particles shifted from 0.43-0.65μm on clear days to 0.65-1.1μm on lightly polluted days and to 1.1-2.1μm on heavily polluted days. The peak shifts were also found for the following species: organic carbon, elemental carbon, NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), K, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Our findings demonstrate that secondary inorganic aerosols (36%) and organic matter (26%) dominated the fine particle mass on heavily polluted days, while their contribution reduced to 29% and 18%, respectively, on clear days. Besides fine particles, anthropogenic chemical species also substantially accumulated in the coarse mode, which suggests that particles with aerodynamic diameter larger than 2.1μm cannot be neglected during severe haze events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enrichment of intergalactic matter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Siluk, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The primordial gas out of which the Galaxy condensed may have been significantly enriched in heavy elements. A specific mechanism of enrichment is described, in which quasi-stellar sources eject enriched matter into the intergalactic medium. This matter is recycled through successive generations of these sources, and is progressively enriched. The enriched intergalactic matter is accreted by the protogalaxy and we find, for rates of mass ejection by quasi-stellar sources equal to about one solar mass per year in heavy elements, that this mechanism can account for the heavy-element abundances in the oldest Population II stars. Expressions are given for the degree of enrichment of the intergalactic gas as a function of redshift, and we show that our hypothesis implies that the present density of intergalactic gas must be at least a factor 3 larger than the mean density in galaxies at the present epoch.

  18. Molecular and cellular effects of chemicals disrupting steroidogenesis during early ovarian development of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).

    PubMed

    a Marca Pereira, M L; Eppler, E; Thorpe, K L; Wheeler, J R; Burkhardt-Holm, P

    2014-02-01

    A range of chemicals found in the aquatic environment have the potential to influence endocrine function and affect sexual development by mimicking or antagonizing the effects of hormones, or by altering the synthesis and metabolism of hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effects of chemicals interfering with sex hormone synthesis may affect the regulation of early ovarian development via the modulation of sex steroid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems. To this end, ex vivo ovary cultures of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were exposed for 2 days to either 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD, a specific aromatase inhibitor), prochloraz (an imidazole fungicide), or tributyltin (TBT, a persistent organic pollutant). Further, juvenile female brown trout were exposed in vivo for 2 days to prochloraz or TBT. The ex vivo and in vivo ovarian gene expression of the aromatase (CYP19), responsible for estrogen production, and of IGF1 and 2 were compared. Moreover, 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) production from ex vivo ovary cultures was assessed. Ex vivo exposure to ATD inhibited ovarian E2 synthesis, while T levels accumulated. However, ATD did not affect ex vivo expression of cyp19, igf1, or igf2. Ex vivo exposure to prochloraz inhibited ovarian E2 production, but did not affect T levels. Further prochloraz up-regulated igf1 expression in both ex vivo and in vivo exposures. TBT exposure did not modify ex vivo synthesis of either E2 or T. However, in vivo exposure to TBT down-regulated igf2 expression. The results indicate that ovarian inhibition of E2 production in juvenile brown trout might not directly affect cyp19 and igf gene expression. Thus, we suggest that the test chemicals may interfere with both sex steroid and IGF systems in an independent manner, and based on published literature, potentially lead to endocrine dysfunction and altered sexual development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley

  19. USE OF WHOLE BODY CHEMICAL RESIDUE ANALYSIS AND LASER SCREENING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during fish ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relat...

  20. Polymerization of amino acids under high-pressure conditions: Implication to chemical evolution on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.; Ohara, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Abiko, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    2008-12-01

    Prebiotic polymerization of amino acids is the most fundamental reaction to promote the chemical evolution for origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids is the dehydration reaction. This questions as to if submarine hydrothermal conditions, thus hydrated enironments, were appropreate for peptide formations. Our previous experiments implied that non-aqueous and high-pressure environments (more than 20 MPa) would be suitable for polymerization of amino acids (Ohara et al., 2006). This leads to the hypothesis that the first peptides may have formed in the Hadean oceanic crustal environments, where dehydration proceeded with availability of appropriate temperatures and pressures. In the present study, experiments simulating the crustal conditions were performed with various pressures (1-175 MPa) and temperatures (100- 200 C degree) using autoclaves. Purified powders (100 mg) of alanine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid were used in the experiments without mixing water in order to examine the solid-solid reactions. The products were analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. Results indicate that: (1) longer time is required to form peptide compared to those of previous aqueous experiments; (2) pressure has a role to limit the production of melanoidine and cyclic amino acids, which are inhibitors for elongation of peptides; (3) glycine was polymerized up to 11-mer, which was not formed in any previous experiments without catalyses; (4) valine was polymerized up to 3-mer; and (5) aspartic acid was polymerized to 4-mer, accompanied with production of other amino acids. It is noteworthy that high-pressure environments favor all examined polymerization reactions. Such situations would have happened inside of deep oceanic crusts of the early Earth.

  1. The Role of Epigenetics in the Latent Effects of Early Life Exposure to Obesogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Stel, Jente

    2015-01-01

    Recent research supports a role for exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the global obesity epidemic. Obesogenic EDCs have the potential to inappropriately stimulate adipogenesis and fat storage, influence metabolism and energy balance and increase susceptibility to obesity. Developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs is proposed to interfere with epigenetic programming of gene regulation, partly by activation of nuclear receptors, thereby influencing the risk of obesity later in life. The goal of this minireview is to briefly describe the epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity and to evaluate the evidence of a mechanistic link between altered epigenetic gene regulation by early life EDC exposure and latent onset of obesity. We summarize the results of recent in vitro, in vivo, and transgenerational studies, which clearly show that the obesogenic effects of EDCs such as tributyltin, brominated diphenyl ether 47, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by the activation and associated altered methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, or its target genes. Importantly, studies are emerging that assess the effects of EDCs on the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in altered chromatin structure. These types of studies coupled with genome-wide rather than gene-specific analyses are needed to improve mechanistic understanding of epigenetic changes by EDC exposure. Current advances in the field of epigenomics have led to the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that can be detected at birth, providing an important basis to determine the effects of developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs in humans. PMID:26241072

  2. The Role of Epigenetics in the Latent Effects of Early Life Exposure to Obesogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Stel, Jente; Legler, Juliette

    2015-10-01

    Recent research supports a role for exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the global obesity epidemic. Obesogenic EDCs have the potential to inappropriately stimulate adipogenesis and fat storage, influence metabolism and energy balance and increase susceptibility to obesity. Developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs is proposed to interfere with epigenetic programming of gene regulation, partly by activation of nuclear receptors, thereby influencing the risk of obesity later in life. The goal of this minireview is to briefly describe the epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity and to evaluate the evidence of a mechanistic link between altered epigenetic gene regulation by early life EDC exposure and latent onset of obesity. We summarize the results of recent in vitro, in vivo, and transgenerational studies, which clearly show that the obesogenic effects of EDCs such as tributyltin, brominated diphenyl ether 47, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by the activation and associated altered methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, or its target genes. Importantly, studies are emerging that assess the effects of EDCs on the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in altered chromatin structure. These types of studies coupled with genome-wide rather than gene-specific analyses are needed to improve mechanistic understanding of epigenetic changes by EDC exposure. Current advances in the field of epigenomics have led to the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that can be detected at birth, providing an important basis to determine the effects of developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs in humans.

  3. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Causes Lifelong Molecular Reprogramming of the Hypothalamus and Premature Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Zama, Aparna M.; Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Gestational exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors reprograms expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive aging. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 μg/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were aged to 16–17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life exposure to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence. PMID:22016562

  4. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming) and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae) and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Balsam; Kruse, Inken; Graiff, Angelika; Winde, Vera; Lenz, Mark; Wahl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming (OAW) are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July-September) sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W). We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW), regional (nutrient enrichment) and local pressures (upwelling), both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects.

  5. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  6. Comparison of the structures of triacylglycerols from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil by liquid chromatography--atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-ITMS).

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Winterling, Nadine; Green, Angelika; Möbius, Michael; Schmitt, Joachim J; Boehm, Günther

    2007-04-01

    The sn position of fatty acids in seed oil lipids affects physiological function in pharmaceutical and dietary applications. In this study the composition of acyl-chain substituents in the sn positions of glycerol backbones in triacylglycerols (TAG) have been compared. TAG from native and transgenic medium-chain fatty acid-enriched rape seed oil were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with online atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. The transformation of summer rape with thioesterase and 3-ketoacyl-[ACP]-synthase genes of Cuphea lanceolata led to increased expression of 1.5% (w/w) caprylic acid (8:0), 6.7% (w/w) capric acid (10:0), 0.9% (w/w) lauric acid (12:0), and 0.2% (w/w) myristic acid (14:0). In contrast, linoleic (18:2n6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n3) levels decreased compared with the original seed oil. The TAG sn position distribution of fatty acids was also modified. The original oil included eleven unique TAG species whereas the transgenic oil contained sixty. Twenty species were common to both oils. The transgenic oil included trioctadecenoyl-glycerol (18:1/18:1/18:1) and trioctadecatrienoyl-glycerol (18:3/18:3/18:3) whereas the native oil included only the latter. The transgenic TAG were dominated by combinations of caprylic, capric, lauric, myrisitic, palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1n9), linoleic, arachidic (20:0), behenic (22:0), and lignoceric acids (24:0), which accounted for 52% of the total fat. In the original TAG palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids accounted for 50% of the total fat. Medium-chain triacylglycerols with capric and lauric acids combined with stearic, oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidic, and gondoic acids (20:1n9) accounted for 25% of the transgenic oil. The medium-chain fatty acids were mainly integrated into the sn-1/3 position combined with the essential linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids at the sn-2 position. Eight species

  7. Label-free proteomics assisted by affinity enrichment for elucidating the chemical reactivity of the liver mitochondrial proteome toward adduction by the lipid electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of oxidative stress-induced post-translational modifications remains challenging due to the chemical diversity of these modifications, the possibility of the presence of positional isomers and the low stoichiometry of the modified proteins present in a cell or tissue proteome. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a multifactorial disease in which mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been identified as being critically involved in the progression of the disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Ethanol metabolism leads to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation. Posttranslational modification of proteins by electrophilic products of lipid peroxidation has been associated with governing redox-associated signaling mechanisms, but also as contributing to protein dysfunction leading to organelle and liver injury. In particular the prototypical α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), has been extensively studied as marker of increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. In this study, we combined a LC-MS label-free quantification method and affinity enrichment to assess the dose-dependent insult by HNE on the proteome of rat liver mitochondria. We used a carbonyl-selective probe, the ARP probe, to label HNE-protein adducts and to perform affinity capture at the protein level. Using LC-MS to obtain protein abundance estimates, a list of protein targets was obtained with increasing concentration of HNE used in the exposure studies. In parallel, we performed affinity capture at the peptide level to acquire site-specific information. Examining the concentration-dependence of the protein modifications, we observed distinct reactivity profiles for HNE-protein adduction. Pathway analysis indicated that proteins associated with metabolic processes, including amino acid, fatty acid and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, bile acid synthesis and TCA cycle, showed enhanced reactivity to HNE

  8. Assessment of health risks resulting from early-life exposures: Are current chemical toxicity testing protocols and risk assessment methods adequate?

    PubMed

    Felter, Susan P; Daston, George P; Euling, Susan Y; Piersma, Aldert H; Tassinari, Melissa S

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Over the last couple of decades, the awareness of the potential health impacts associated with early-life exposures has increased. Global regulatory approaches to chemical risk assessment are intended to be protective for the diverse human population including all life stages. However, questions persist as to whether the current testing approaches and risk assessment methodologies are adequately protective for infants and children. Here, we review physiological and developmental differences that may result in differential sensitivity associated with early-life exposures. It is clear that sensitivity to chemical exposures during early-life can be similar, higher, or lower than that of adults, and can change quickly within a short developmental timeframe. Moreover, age-related exposure differences provide an important consideration for overall susceptibility. Differential sensitivity associated with a life stage can reflect the toxicokinetic handling of a xenobiotic exposure, the toxicodynamic response, or both. Each of these is illustrated with chemical-specific examples. The adequacy of current testing protocols, proposed new tools, and risk assessment methods for systemic noncancer endpoints are reviewed in light of the potential for differential risk to infants and young children.

  9. Epidemiologic evidence of health effects from long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) < 0.001) but not for the number of days in the Khamisiyah plume (p(trend) = 0.17). Exposure to low-level sarin nerve agent in fallout from bombing early in the air campaign contributed more to chronic illness than post-war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Comparative proteomic assessment of matrisome enrichment methodologies.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Lukas; Paul, Angela; Wai, Patty; Howard, Beatrice A; Natrajan, Rachael C; Huang, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    The matrisome is a complex and heterogeneous collection of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that play important roles in tissue development and homeostasis. While several strategies for matrisome enrichment have been developed, it is currently unknown how the performance of these different methodologies compares in the proteomic identification of matrisome components across multiple tissue types. In the present study, we perform a comparative proteomic assessment of two widely used decellularisation protocols and two extraction methods to characterise the matrisome in four murine organs (heart, mammary gland, lung and liver). We undertook a systematic evaluation of the performance of the individual methods on protein yield, matrisome enrichment capability and the ability to isolate core matrisome and matrisome-associated components. Our data find that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) decellularisation leads to the highest matrisome enrichment efficiency, while the extraction protocol that comprises chemical and trypsin digestion of the ECM fraction consistently identifies the highest number of matrisomal proteins across all types of tissue examined. Matrisome enrichment had a clear benefit over non-enriched tissue for the comprehensive identification of matrisomal components in murine liver and heart. Strikingly, we find that all four matrisome enrichment methods led to significant losses in the soluble matrisome-associated proteins across all organs. Our findings highlight the multiple factors (including tissue type, matrisome class of interest and desired enrichment purity) that influence the choice of enrichment methodology, and we anticipate that these data will serve as a useful guide for the design of future proteomic studies of the matrisome. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Comparative proteomic assessment of matrisome enrichment methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Krasny, Lukas; Paul, Angela; Wai, Patty; Howard, Beatrice A.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The matrisome is a complex and heterogeneous collection of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that play important roles in tissue development and homeostasis. While several strategies for matrisome enrichment have been developed, it is currently unknown how the performance of these different methodologies compares in the proteomic identification of matrisome components across multiple tissue types. In the present study, we perform a comparative proteomic assessment of two widely used decellularisation protocols and two extraction methods to characterise the matrisome in four murine organs (heart, mammary gland, lung and liver). We undertook a systematic evaluation of the performance of the individual methods on protein yield, matrisome enrichment capability and the ability to isolate core matrisome and matrisome-associated components. Our data find that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) decellularisation leads to the highest matrisome enrichment efficiency, while the extraction protocol that comprises chemical and trypsin digestion of the ECM fraction consistently identifies the highest number of matrisomal proteins across all types of tissue examined. Matrisome enrichment had a clear benefit over non-enriched tissue for the comprehensive identification of matrisomal components in murine liver and heart. Strikingly, we find that all four matrisome enrichment methods led to significant losses in the soluble matrisome-associated proteins across all organs. Our findings highlight the multiple factors (including tissue type, matrisome class of interest and desired enrichment purity) that influence the choice of enrichment methodology, and we anticipate that these data will serve as a useful guide for the design of future proteomic studies of the matrisome. PMID:27589945

  12. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  13. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  14. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U 3O 8 yellowcake into UF 6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  15. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    PubMed

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  17. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  18. ENRICHMENT - CLASSROOM CHALLENGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIBBONY, HAZEL L.

    SUGGESTIONS FOR ENRICHMENT TEACHING ARE PRESENTED. THE SUGGESTIONS ARE DIVIDED UNDER ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS. SOME OF THE SUGGESTIONS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ARE BULLETIN BOARDS, FIELD TRIPS, INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS, AND DISCUSSIONS. THESE SUGGESTIONS APPLY TO LANGUAGE ARTS, SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, ARITHMETIC AND FOREIGN…

  19. An Enriching Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  20. Reading Enrichment Art Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholler, Ruth; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A unit on Afro-American art was developed as part of the Reading Enrichment Art Development program. Elementary students from the program were concentrating on the concept of pattern in language. The unit was designed to reinforce this understanding via the reverse-fold pleating process used in a Nigerian tie-dye project. (AM)

  1. EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FUNK, JOHN H.

    THE EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - 1964 WAS A COOPERATIVE UNDERTAKING OF SIX INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN OR NEAR BOSTON AND A NUMBER OF INTERESTED ORGANIZATIONS THAT OFFERED THE USE OF THEIR FACILITIES AND PERSONNEL TO AN URBAN COMMUNITY DURING THE NONSCHOOL MONTHS. THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM WAS TO OFFER CHALLENGING AND EXPLORATORY STUDY WHICH COULD…

  2. Comparative effects of biological and chemical dispersants on the bioavailability and toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Mu, Jingli; Jin, Fei; Ma, Xindong; Lin, Zhongsheng; Wang, Juying

    2014-11-01

    The authors assessed the bioavailability and chronic toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil (WAFs) and 2 dispersants plus dispersed crude oil (chemical dispersant + crude oil [CE-WAF] and biological dispersant + crude oil [BE-WAF]) on the early life stages of marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. The results showed that the addition of the 2 dispersants caused a 3- and 4-fold increase in concentrations of summed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs with 3 or more benzene rings. The chemical and biological dispersants increased the bioavailability (as measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-dethylase activity) of crude oil 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Based on nominal concentrations, chronic toxicity (as measured by deformity) in WAFs exhibited a 10-fold increase in CE-WAF and a 3-fold increase in BE-WAF, respectively. When total petroleum hydrocarbon was measured, the differences between WAF and CE-WAF treatments disappeared, and CE-WAF was approximately 10 times more toxic than BE-WAF. Compared with the chemical dispersant, the biological dispersant possibly modified the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons because of the increase in the proportion of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs in water. The chemical and biological dispersants enhanced short-term bioaccumulation and toxicity, through different mechanisms. These properties should be considered in addition to their efficacy in degrading oil when oil spill management strategies are selected. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Early Assessment of Management Potential in a Mid-Size Chemical Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Robert L.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on development and concurrent validation of a competency instrument to identify potential leaders in a mid-size chemical company. Four competencies were identified: courageous problem solving, perceived energy, networking, and perceived motivation. Four different comparison groups were examined in logistic regression analyses.…

  4. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  5. Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 1. An extended fish early-life stage test for oestrogenic active chemicals in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Panter, G H; Hutchinson, T H; Hurd, K S; Bamforth, J; Stanley, R D; Duffell, S; Hargreaves, A; Gimeno, S; Tyler, C R

    2006-05-10

    An extended early-life stage test (based on OECD test guideline 210) was developed to allow the evaluation of a weak environmental oestrogen, 4-tert-pentyphenol (4TPP), on sexual differentiation and gonadal development. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos were exposed to three concentrations of 4TPP (56, 180 and 560 microg l(-1)) in a flow-through system, at 25+/-1 degrees C, for <107 days post-hatch (dph). In addition, some embryos were exposed to 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) until 30 or 60 dph, after which they were exposed to dilution water only until 107 dph. At 30, 60 and 107 dph fish were evaluated for growth and gonadal development (via histology), and at 107 dph fish were also evaluated for secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). There were no effects of 4TPP on hatching success or survival, however, there was a delay in the time taken for embryos to hatch (560 microg 4TPPl(-1)). No treatment-related effects were observed on fish growth, with the exception of at 107 dph when the condition factor in female fish was reduced in all 4TPP continuous exposure treatments. Plasma VTG was only elevated in female fish exposed to 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) and inhibition of gonadal growth (GSI) occurred only in females exposed to 560 microg 4TPPl(-1). Histological examination of the gonads revealed delays and disruption in male sexual differentiation and development (180 microg 4TPPl(-1)) and no testicular tissue was observed in any fish exposed to 560 microg 4TPPl(-1). Mixed gonads (predominately testes with a scattering of primary oocytes) were present in fish exposed to all doses of 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) at 107 dph. Feminisation of the reproductive ducts (formation of an ovarian like cavity) occurred in the testis of all males exposed to 180 microg l(-1), regardless of length of 4TPP exposure. Results indicate that the period of 30-60 dph appears to be the sensitive window for disruption of formation of the

  6. Idetification of the chemical sedimentary protolish of the early Paleoproterozoic banded iron formation from Wuyang area, in the southern margin of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, C.; Zhao, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic banded iron formation (BIF) from Wuyang area in the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) were metamorphosed under granulite facies, and are characterized with an assemblage of clinopyroxene, magnetite and orthopyroxene. Two types of iron ores can be identified on the basis of macro- and micro-textures: banded quartz-clinopyroxene (±othopyroxene) -magnetite ores and massive clinopyroxene-magnetite ores. Two-pyroxene geothermometry indicates that the primary counterparts of these ores have undergone metamorphism with a peak temperature of about 762±9°. Both the banded and massive ores have also similarly BIF-like REE+Y features, and thus are proposed to have all formed from chemical sediments. Similarly, clinopyroxenes from both types have BIF-like rare earth element compositions and are rich in Fe (16-23 wt.% FeOtotoal), further suggesting that they are primary Fe-Mg-Ca-rich chemical sediments during metamorphism. Slight enrichments of TiO2, Al2O3, Zr, Hf, Ta and Th of the Wuyang IF suggest relatively low detritus input. The massive ore have magnetite containing V, Cr and Ti much higher than those of the banded ores, suggesting that they may have undergone stronger secondary alteration possibly related to the intrusion of nearby pyroxenite plutons. Different ores have seawater-like REE+Y patterns with LREE depletions and positive anomalies of La, Eu, and Y, showing that granulite facies metamorphism did not essentially modify the primary compositions of the Wuyang IF deposited from paleo-seawater. Our results suggest less than 0.1% contribution from high-temperature hydrothermal fluids.

  7. Meteorological and intelligence evidence of long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Chemical Properties, Decomposition, and Methane Production of Tertiary Relict Plant Litters: Implications for Atmospheric Trace Gas Production in the Early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavitt, J. B.; Bartella, T. M.; Williams, C. J.

    2006-12-01

    Throughout the early Tertiary (ca. 65-38 Ma) Taxodiaceae-dominated (redwood) wetland forests occupied the high latitudes and were circumpolar in their distribution. Many of these forests had high standing biomass with moderate primary productivity. The geographic extent and amount of Tertiary coals and fossil forests throughout Arctic Canada suggests large areas of wetland forests that may have cycled substantial quantities of carbon, particularly methane until they were replaced by cold tolerant Pinus, Picea, and Larix following climatic cooling associated with the Terminal Eocene Event. To test this hypothesis we compared physiochemical properties, decomposition, and trace gas production of litter from extant Metasequoia, Pinus, Picea, and Larix. Initial results from plantation-grown trees indicate Metasequoia litter is a better source of labile organic substrate than pinaceous litter. Metasequoia litter contained the least lignin and highest amounts of water-soluble compounds of the four litter types studied. Analysis of the lignin structure using cupric oxide oxidation indicates that Metasequoia lignin is enriched in 4'-hydroxyacetophenone and 4'- Hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone relative to the pinaceous litter. In a 12-month decomposition study using litterbags, average litter mass loss was greater for Metasequoia litter (62%) compared to the pinaceous species (50%). Moreover, Metasequoia litter incubated under anoxic conditions produced nearly twice as much CO2 (ca. 4.2 umol/g.day) and CH4 (2.1 umol/g.day) as the pinaceous litter (2.4 umol/g.day for CO2; 1.2 umol/g.day for CH4). Our results support the idea of greater decomposability and palatability of Metasequoia litter as compared to Larix, Picea, or Pinus. Provided that the biochemical properties of Metasequoia have remained relatively stable through geologic time, it appears that early Tertiary Metasequoia-dominated wetland forests may have had higher microbial driven trace gas production than the

  9. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study) - protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health.

    PubMed

    de Cock, Marijke; Quaak, Ilona; Sugeng, Eva J; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-02-13

    The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to study associations between early life environmental exposures and child health, including growth and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this cohort. Recruitment for this cohort has started in 2011 in three Dutch areas and is still ongoing. To date over 300 mother-child pairs have been included. Women are preferably included during the first trimester of pregnancy. Major congenital anomalies and twin births are reasons for exclusion. To assess exposure to environmental chemicals, cord blood, placenta, meconium and vernix are collected. Parents collect urine of the child shortly after birth and breast milk in the second month of life. Exposure to a broad range of environmental chemicals are determined in cord plasma and breast milk. Furthermore various hormones, including leptin and cortisone, are determined in cord plasma, and in heel prick blood spots (thyroxine). Data on anthropometry of the child is collected through midwives and youth health care centres on various time points until the child is 18 months of age. Furthermore cognitive development is monitored by means of the van Wiechen scheme, and information on behavioral development is collected by means of the infant behavior questionnaire and the child behavior checklist. When the child is 12 months of age, a house visit is scheduled to assess various housing characteristics, as well as hand-to-mouth behavior of the child. At this visit exposure of the child to flame retardants (with endocrine

  10. Smell, learn and live: the role of chemical alarm cues in predator learning during early life history in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas H; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-03-01

    The speed with which individuals can learn to identify and react appropriately to predation threats when transitioning to new life history stages and habitats will influence their survival. This study investigated the role of chemical alarm cues in both anti-predator responses and predator identification during a transitional period in a newly settled coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Individuals were tested for changes in seven behavioural traits in response to conspecific and heterospecific skin extracts. Additionally, we tested whether fish could learn to associate a previously novel chemical cue (i.e. simulated predator scent) with danger, after previously being exposed to a paired cue combining the conspecific skin extract with the novel scent. Fish exposed to conspecific skin extracts were found to significantly decreased their feeding rate whilst those exposed to heterospecific and control cues showed no change. Individuals were also able to associate a previously novel scent with danger after only a single previous exposure to the paired conspecific skin extract/novel scent cue. Our results indicate that chemical alarm cues play a large role in both threat detection and learned predator recognition during the early post-settlement period in coral reef fishes. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Motif enrichment tool.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Polymer-Enriched 3D Graphene Foams for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Kit; Xiong, Gordon Minru; Zhu, Minmin; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Castro Neto, Antonio Helio; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-04-22

    Graphene foams (GFs) are versatile nanoplatforms for biomedical applications because of their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, the brittleness and inflexibility of pristine GF (pGF) are some of the important factors restricting their widespread application. Here, a chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted method was used to synthesize 3D GFs, which were subsequently spin-coated with polymer to produce polymer-enriched 3D GFs with high conductivity and flexibility. Compared to pGF, both poly(vinylidene fluoride)-enriched GF (PVDF/GF) and polycaprolactone-enriched GF (PCL/GF) scaffolds showed improved flexibility and handleability. Despite the presence of the polymers, the polymer-enriched 3D GF scaffolds retained high levels of electrical conductivity because of the presence of microcracks that allowed for the flow of electrons through the material. In addition, polymer enrichment of GF led to an enhancement in the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds when the scaffolds were exposed to simulated body fluid. Between the two polymers tested, PCL enrichment of GF resulted in a higher in vitro mineralization nucleation rate because the oxygen-containing functional group of PCL had a higher affinity for Ca-P deposition and formation compared to the polar carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond in PVDF. Taken together, our current findings are a stepping stone toward future applications of polymer-enriched 3D GFs in the treatment of bone defects as well as other biomedical applications.

  13. Following isotopes in pulse-chase enriched aspen seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, C. E.; Wasylishen, R. E.; Landhäusser, S.; Quideau, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    One method to quantitatively trace biogeochemical fluxes through ecosystems, such as organic matter decomposition, is to use plant material enriched with stable isotopes. However, as plant macromolecules are known to vary in their rate of formation and decomposition, both the enrichment levels and the location of enrichment within the plant material should be characterized prior to decomposition and tracing studies. Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a common tree species with a diverse organic matter chemical structure found in the western Canadian boreal forest. This study used a multi pulse and multi chase enrichment of stable isotopes (15N and 13C) on aspen seedlings to determine the seedling enrichment, isotope movement among plant tissues and translocation of isotopes within plant macromolecules e.g., carbohydrates and lignin. As expected, all tissues experienced increased enrichment with multiple pulses. An initial enrichment with 13C was observed in the leaves followed by translocation to the stems and roots while the 15N moved upward from the roots to leaves. The macromolecular chemistry of the organic carbon was further characterized using 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After the initial two hour chase period enrichment of the O-alkyl type (carbohydrate) carbon within the leaves was identified, followed by redistribution to more complex carbon compounds after the one week chase period. Root and stem tissues did not show the same pattern. Rather, changes in 13C enrichment were observed in shifting ethyl and methyl alkyl (lipid) carbon peak intensities for the stem samples while roots did not preferentially allocate 13C to a specific macromolecule. These results confirm that stable isotope enrichment of plants was non-uniform across macromolecules and tissue types. Enrichment of aspen seedlings was therefore dependant on the pulse-chase sequence used.

  14. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between male and female results for alkaline phosphatase, selenium, and zinc. Although there was a significant difference between male and female gamma-globulin values and the total albumin:globulin ratio, the overall values are much lower than those reported for other Rangifer species. Sexual differences should be interpreted with caution due to the low number of males compared to females. References ranges are presented combining male and female results for hematology and serum chemistry and separately for males and females for serum electrophoresis. No correlation was found between induction time and aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, glucose, cortisol, or total protein. Blood values were generally similar to those published for semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), but the effect of capture drugs, stress, season, and sample size should be considered with interpretation. This paper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  15. Student science enrichment training program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objectivemore » was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.« less

  16. Early Salt Stress Effects on the Changes in Chemical Composition in Leaves of Ice Plant and Arabidopsis. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jyisy; Yen, Hungchen E.

    2002-01-01

    A technique based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was developed to detect the corresponding changes in chemical composition associated with the rapid changes in sodium and water content in 200 mm NaCl-stressed halophyte ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). The changes in glycophyte Arabidopsis stressed with 50 mm NaCl were also examined for comparison. The obtained IR spectra were further processed by deconvolution and curve fitting to examine the chemical nature of the responding sources in the leaves. Using three stages of ice plant leaves, absorption bands corresponding to carbohydrates, cell wall pectin, and proteins were identified, with distinct IR spectra representing each developmental stage. Within 48 h of mild salt stress, the absorption band intensities in the fingerprint region increased continuously in both plants, suggesting that the carbon assimilation was not affected at the early stage of stress. The intensities of ester and amide I absorption bands decreased slightly in Arabidopsis but increased in ice plant, suggesting that the cell expansion and protein synthesis ceased in Arabidopsis but continued in ice plant. In both plants, the shift in amide I absorption band was observed hourly after salt stress, indicating a rapid conformational change of cellular proteins. Analyses of the ratio between major and minor amide I absorption band revealed that ice plant was able to maintain a higher-ordered form of proteins under stress. Furthermore, the changes in protein conformation showed a positive correlation to the leaf sodium contents in ice plant, but not in Arabidopsis. PMID:12376666

  17. Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

  18. Chemical modeling constraints on Martian surface mineralogies formed in an early, warm, wet climate, and speculations on the occurrence of phosphate minerals in the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian; Debraal, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of reports summarizing our chemical modeling studies of water-rock-gas interactions at the martian surface through time. The purpose of these studies is to place constraints on possible mineralogies formed at the martian surface and to model the geochemical implications of martian surficial processes proposed by previous researchers. Plumlee and Ridley summarize geochemical processes that may have occurred as a result of inferred volcano- and impact-driven hydrothermal activity on Mars. DeBraal et al. model the geochemical aspects of water-rock interactions and water evaporation near 0 C, as a prelude to future calculations that will model sub-0 C brine-rock-clathrate interactions under the current martian climate. In this report, we discuss reaction path calculations that model chemical processes that may have occurred at the martian surface in a postulated early, warm, wet climate. We assume a temperature of 25 C in all our calculations. Processes we model here include (1) the reaction of rainwater under various ambient CO2 and O2 pressures with basaltic rocks at the martian surface, (2) the formation of acid rain by volcanic gases such as HCl and SO2, (3) the reactions of acid rain with basaltic surficial materials, and (4) evaporation of waters resulting from rainwater-basalt interactions.

  19. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  20. How the First Stars Regulated Star Formation. II. Enrichment by Nearby Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wollenberg, Katharina M. J.

    Metals from Population III (Pop III) supernovae led to the formation of less massive Pop II stars in the early universe, altering the course of evolution of primeval galaxies and cosmological reionization. There are a variety of scenarios in which heavy elements from the first supernovae were taken up into second-generation stars, but cosmological simulations only model them on the largest scales. We present small-scale, high-resolution simulations of the chemical enrichment of a primordial halo by a nearby supernova after partial evaporation by the progenitor star. We find that ejecta from the explosion crash into and mix violently with ablativemore » flows driven off the halo by the star, creating dense, enriched clumps capable of collapsing into Pop II stars. Metals may mix less efficiently with the partially exposed core of the halo, so it might form either Pop III or Pop II stars. Both Pop II and III stars may thus form after the collision if the ejecta do not strip all the gas from the halo. The partial evaporation of the halo prior to the explosion is crucial to its later enrichment by the supernova.« less

  1. How the First Stars Regulated Star Formation. II. Enrichment by Nearby Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wollenberg, Katharina M. J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2017-08-01

    Metals from Population III (Pop III) supernovae led to the formation of less massive Pop II stars in the early universe, altering the course of evolution of primeval galaxies and cosmological reionization. There are a variety of scenarios in which heavy elements from the first supernovae were taken up into second-generation stars, but cosmological simulations only model them on the largest scales. We present small-scale, high-resolution simulations of the chemical enrichment of a primordial halo by a nearby supernova after partial evaporation by the progenitor star. We find that ejecta from the explosion crash into and mix violently with ablative flows driven off the halo by the star, creating dense, enriched clumps capable of collapsing into Pop II stars. Metals may mix less efficiently with the partially exposed core of the halo, so it might form either Pop III or Pop II stars. Both Pop II and III stars may thus form after the collision if the ejecta do not strip all the gas from the halo. The partial evaporation of the halo prior to the explosion is crucial to its later enrichment by the supernova.

  2. A Pharmacology-Based Enrichment Program for Undergraduates Promotes Interest in Science

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Perez, Tony; Barger, Michael M.; Snyder, Kate E.; Richman, Laura Smart; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need to increase the number of undergraduate students who pursue careers in science to provide the “fuel” that will power a science and technology–driven U.S. economy. Prior research suggests that both evidence-based teaching methods and early undergraduate research experiences may help to increase retention rates in the sciences. In this study, we examined the effect of a program that included 1) a Summer enrichment 2-wk minicourse and 2) an authentic Fall research course, both of which were designed specifically to support students' science motivation. Undergraduates who participated in the pharmacology-based enrichment program significantly improved their knowledge of basic biology and chemistry concepts; reported high levels of science motivation; and were likely to major in a biological, chemical, or biomedical field. Additionally, program participants who decided to major in biology or chemistry were significantly more likely to choose a pharmacology concentration than those majoring in biology or chemistry who did not participate in the enrichment program. Thus, by supporting students' science motivation, we can increase the number of students who are interested in science and science careers. PMID:26538389

  3. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. City model enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  5. The Development of Target-Specific Pose Filter Ensembles To Boost Ligand Enrichment for Structure-Based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hu, Huabin; Wu, Song; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2017-06-26

    Structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) has become an indispensable technique for hit identification at the early stage of drug discovery. However, the accuracy of current scoring functions is not high enough to confer success to every target and thus remains to be improved. Previously, we had developed binary pose filters (PFs) using knowledge derived from the protein-ligand interface of a single X-ray structure of a specific target. This novel approach had been validated as an effective way to improve ligand enrichment. Continuing from it, in the present work we attempted to incorporate knowledge collected from diverse protein-ligand interfaces of multiple crystal structures of the same target to build PF ensembles (PFEs). Toward this end, we first constructed a comprehensive data set to meet the requirements of ensemble modeling and validation. This set contains 10 diverse targets, 118 well-prepared X-ray structures of protein-ligand complexes, and large benchmarking actives/decoys sets. Notably, we designed a unique workflow of two-layer classifiers based on the concept of ensemble learning and applied it to the construction of PFEs for all of the targets. Through extensive benchmarking studies, we demonstrated that (1) coupling PFE with Chemgauss4 significantly improves the early enrichment of Chemgauss4 itself and (2) PFEs show greater consistency in boosting early enrichment and larger overall enrichment than our prior PFs. In addition, we analyzed the pairwise topological similarities among cognate ligands used to construct PFEs and found that it is the higher chemical diversity of the cognate ligands that leads to the improved performance of PFEs. Taken together, the results so far prove that the incorporation of knowledge from diverse protein-ligand interfaces by ensemble modeling is able to enhance the screening competence of SBVS scoring functions.

  6. Enrichment of clinical study populations.

    PubMed

    Temple, R

    2010-12-01

    Those who conduct clinical trials "enrich" study populations in a variety of ways in order to identify a population of patients in whom a drug effect, if present, is more likely to be demonstrable. The principal ways to do this are as follows: (i) practical enrichment, i.e., generally seeking to reduce noise (variability of measurement) and heterogeneity (by avoiding the enrollment of patients with other diseases and individuals in whom the disease disappears spontaneously), (ii) prognostic enrichment, i.e., finding patients who are likely to have the event of interest when enrolling for risk-reduction studies, and (iii) predictive enrichment, i.e., finding the individuals who are more likely to respond. Enrichment fits well into the growing interest in "individualization" of therapy but creates some tension with another trend, namely, the desire for "real-world studies" with less restrictive entry criteria and other requirements.

  7. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-03-01

    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  8. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, R.

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventionalmore » fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.« less

  9. The method for on-site determination of trace concentrations of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in air using a mobile mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, combined with a fast enrichment/separation system.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Andrey S; Makas, Alexey L; Troshkov, Mikhail L; Grachev, Mikhail А; Pod'yachev, Sergey P

    2014-06-01

    A method for fast simultaneous on-site determination of methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide in air was developed. The target compounds were actively collected on silica gel, followed by direct flash thermal desorption, fast separation on a short chromatographic column and detection by means of mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. During the sampling of ambient air, water vapor was removed with a Nafion selective membrane. A compact mass spectrometer prototype, which was designed earlier at Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, was used. The minimization of gas load of the atmospheric pressure ion source allowed reducing the power requirements and size of the vacuum system and increasing its ruggedness. The measurement cycle is about 3 min. Detection limits in a 0.6 L sample are 1 ppb for methyl mercaptan and 0.2 ppb for dimethyl sulfide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Aromatic-Hydrocarbon Toxicity to Fish Early Life Stages Using Passive-Dosing Methods and Target-Lipid and Chemical-Activity Models.

    PubMed

    Butler, Josh D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinski, Daniel J; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-08-02

    Aromatic hydrocarbons (AH) are known to impair fish early life stages (ELS). However, poorly defined exposures often confound ELS-test interpretation. Passive dosing (PD) overcomes these challenges by delivering consistent, controlled exposures. The objectives of this study were to apply PD to obtain 5 d acute embryo lethality and developmental data and 30 d chronic embryo-larval survival and growth-effects data using zebrafish with different AHs; to analyze study and literature toxicity data using target-lipid (TLM) and chemical-activity (CA) models; and to extend PD to a mixture and test the assumption of AH additivity. PD maintained targeted exposures over a concentration range of 6 orders of magnitude. AH toxicity increased with log Kow up to pyrene (5.2). Pericardial edema was the most sensitive sublethal effect that often preceded embryo mortality, although some AHs did not produce developmental effects at concentrations causing mortality. Cumulative embryo-larval mortality was more sensitive than larval growth, with acute-to-chronic ratios of <10. More-hydrophobic AHs did not exhibit toxicity at aqueous saturation. The relationship and utility of the TLM-CA models for characterizing fish ELS toxicity is discussed. Application of these models indicated that concentration addition provided a conservative basis for predicting ELS effects for the mixture investigated.

  11. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on early membrane events.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these early membrane events. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life: chemical exposure and the development of atopic disease and allergy.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A; Puangpet, P; Kimber, I

    2015-03-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells - is associated with the production of IgE antibody and atopic allergy, whereas, Th1 cells antagonize IgE responses and the development of allergic disease. In seeking to provide a mechanistic basis for this increased prevalence of allergic disease, one proposal has been the 'hygiene hypothesis', which argues that in Westernized societies reduced exposure during early childhood to pathogenic microorganisms favours the development of atopic allergy. Pregnancy is normally associated with Th2 skewing, which persists for some months in the neonate before Th1/Th2 realignment occurs. In this review, we consider the immunophysiology of Th2 immune skewing during pregnancy. In particular, we explore the possibility that altered and increased patterns of exposure to certain chemicals have served to accentuate this normal Th2 skewing and therefore further promote the persistence of a Th2 bias in neonates. Furthermore, we propose that the more marked Th2 skewing observed in first pregnancy may, at least in part, explain the higher prevalence of atopic disease and allergy in the first born. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for enriching a middle isotope using vibration-vibration pumping

    DOEpatents

    Rich, Joseph W.; Homicz, Gregory F.; Bergman, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    Method for producing isotopically enriched material by vibration-vibration excitation of gaseous molecules wherein a middle mass isotope of an isotopic mixture including lighter and heavier mass isotopes preferentially populates a higher vibrational mode and chemically reacts to provide a product in which it is enriched. The method can be used for vibration-vibration enrichment of .sup.17 O in a CO reactant mixture.

  15. Stepfamily Enrichment Program: A Preventive Intervention for Remarried Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Marcia L.

    2006-01-01

    The Stepfamily Enrichment Program is a multi-couple group intervention intended to help stepfamilies successfully negotiate the early stages of family formation. Theory, research, and clinical findings were integrated in this intervention designed specifically for remarried couples. Emphasis is placed on strengthening and improving family…

  16. Self-Enrichment Through Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Gerald J.; Boy, Angelo V.

    1979-01-01

    Following a brief discussion of the "occupational diseases" of teaching are some questions which teachers can ask themselves to help define for themselves how they might use the teaching process to enrich themselves as people. (KC)

  17. Age of Supergene oxidation and enrichment in the chilean porphyry copper province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sillitoe, R.H.; McKee, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of supergene alunite collected from deeply developed supergene profiles in porphyry copper deposits and prospects between latitudes 20?? and 27?? S in northern Chile yield K/Ar ages ranging from about 34 to 14 Ma. Therefore supergene oxidation and enrichment processes were active from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene, a minimum of 20 m.y. Supergene activity at individual deposits lasted for at least 0.4 to 6.2 m.y. The early Oligocene supergene activity affected deposits in the Paleocene porphyry copper belt, whereas early and middle Miocene supergene processes are documented in the Early Cretaceous, Paleocene, and late Eocene to early Oligocene porphyry copper belts. Middle Miocene oxidation also affected the oldest epithermal gold-silver deposits in the Maricunga belt farther east. Supergene activity commenced no less than 11 m.y. after generation of each porphyry copper deposit because of the time required to unroof the copper-bearing parts of the system. Supergene activity throughout northern Chile ceased at -14 Ma. The geologic features of deposits and prospects and their morphotectonic positions, present latitudes, and present elevations display no obvious correlations with the supergene chronology. Exploration for major cumulative enrichment blankets should not be carried out either beneath thick sequences of piedmont gravels (?? ignimbrites) of Oligocene through middle Miocene age unless their accumulation is demonstrably late in the documented history of supergene activity, or in porphyry copper provinces, such as those of central Chile and northwestern Argentina, which formed after ??? 14 Ma. The uplift responsible for efficient cumulative copper enrichment is difficult to correlate convincingly with the brief pulses of compressive tectonism postulated for northern Chile and contiguous areas unless their effects were much more prolonged. Intensifying aridity is confirmed as the likely reason for the cessation of supergene

  18. Enrichment in the Sucker and Weaner Phase Altered the Performance of Pigs in Three Behavioural Tests.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Cameron; Hebart, Michelle; Cronin, Greg M

    2018-05-14

    We tested the hypothesis that provision of enrichment in the form of enrichment blocks during the sucker and weaner phases would affect the behaviour of pigs. We measured the performance of pigs in an open field/novel object test, a maze test, an executive function test and the cortisol response of the pigs after exposure to an open field test. The provision of enrichment blocks altered the behaviour of the pigs in all three tests and these changes suggest an increased willingness to explore and possibly an increased ability to learn. The behavioural tests highlighted that young pigs have the capacity to learn complex tasks. Our findings support the notion that the benefits of enrichment cannot be evaluated by measuring the interactions the animal has with the enrichments in the home pen and it may simply be beneficial to live in a more complex environment. We have highlighted that the early rearing environment is important and that the management and husbandry at an early age can have long-term implications for pigs. The enrichment we used in this study was very simple, an enrichment block, and we provide evidence suggesting the provision of enrichment effected pig behavioural responses. Even the simplest of enrichments may have benefits for the welfare and development of young pigs and there is merit in developing enrichment devices that are suitable for use in pig production.

  19. Enrichment in the Sucker and Weaner Phase Altered the Performance of Pigs in Three Behavioural Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Cameron; Hebart, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Two important questions about the intensive housing of pigs concern whether young pigs require environmental enrichment to enhance their welfare, and from what age should enrichment be provided to pigs to achieve the benefit? We provided sucker and weaner pigs with enrichment in the form of blocks, which they could push around the floor of the pen, compared to no blocks (‘barren’ control). Behavioural and physiological responses of the pigs were then measured in a series of standard tests used to assess fear response, learning, and cognitive ability. Enrichment blocks modified the behavioural responses of pigs in the different tests, suggesting enriched pigs were more willing to explore novel environments and they had increased ability to learn. However, our enrichment treatment did not alter the pigs’ cortisol response, suggesting any differences due to enrichment were subtle. In contrast, the altered behavioural responses probably indicate that although pigs readily learned complex tasks and modify their behaviour to suit the current situation, there may be some potential benefits from enrichment when applied during the early weeks of a pig’s life that might have life-long benefits for the animal and its welfare. Abstract We tested the hypothesis that provision of enrichment in the form of enrichment blocks during the sucker and weaner phases would affect the behaviour of pigs. We measured the performance of pigs in an open field/novel object test, a maze test, an executive function test and the cortisol response of the pigs after exposure to an open field test. The provision of enrichment blocks altered the behaviour of the pigs in all three tests and these changes suggest an increased willingness to explore and possibly an increased ability to learn. The behavioural tests highlighted that young pigs have the capacity to learn complex tasks. Our findings support the notion that the benefits of enrichment cannot be evaluated by measuring

  20. Searching for self-enrichment in Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlanas, Sara R.; Herrero, Artemio; Comerón, Fernando; Pasquali, Anna; Simón-Díaz, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Cygnus OB2 is a rich and relatively close (d~1.4 kpc) OB association in our Galaxy. It represents an ideal testbed for our theories about self-enrichment processes produced by pollution of the interstellar medium by successive generations of massive stars. Comerón & Pasquali (2012, A&A, 543, A101) found a correlation between the age of young stellar groups in Cygnus OB2 and their Galactic longitude. If is associated with a chemical composition gradient, it could support these self-enrichment processes.

  1. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  2. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  3. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  4. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  5. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and... Related Products § 137.165 Enriched flour. Enriched flour conforms to the definition and standard of.... Enriched flour may be acidified with monocalcium phosphate within the limits prescribed by § 137.175 for...

  6. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and... Related Products § 137.165 Enriched flour. Enriched flour conforms to the definition and standard of.... Enriched flour may be acidified with monocalcium phosphate within the limits prescribed by § 137.175 for...

  7. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and... Related Products § 137.165 Enriched flour. Enriched flour conforms to the definition and standard of.... Enriched flour may be acidified with monocalcium phosphate within the limits prescribed by § 137.175 for...

  8. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and... Related Products § 137.165 Enriched flour. Enriched flour conforms to the definition and standard of.... Enriched flour may be acidified with monocalcium phosphate within the limits prescribed by § 137.175 for...

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  11. Physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of noodle enriched with oyster mushroom (Pleorotus ostreatus) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyono, A.; Novianti; Bakri, A.; Kasutjianingati

    2018-01-01

    Oyster Mushroom is a mushroom that can be used for food and medicine. It contains highly nutritious and functional substances such as statins and beta-glucan. A comprehensive evaluation of noodle-enriched with Oyster Mushroom powder has not been performed so far. In this study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of noodle-enriched with Oyster Mushroom powder. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of enrichment of Oyster Mushroom Powder (OMP) on the quality of noodle. The quality of noodle was evaluated based on physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics. This study was done by substituting wheat flour with OMP at the level of 0 (control); 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5; and 15%. The results showed that OMP significantly affected (P<0.05) the chemical, physical and sensorial quality of enriched noodles. Increased OMP level concurrently increased ash, crude fiber content and water activity (Aw) of resulting noodles. The enrichment was significantly raised the redness and yellowness of noodles, but decreased whiteness index. In addition, the enrichment of OMP significantly affected the sensorial properties of enriched noodles including color, taste, aroma and texture. OMP enrichment can be done at the level of 5% without compromising color, aroma, and texture of noodle, but 12.5% for taste attribute. Thus, OMP enrichment is feasible to enhance the nutritional values of noodle.

  12. Microsatellite DNA capture from enriched libraries.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Zardoya, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites are DNA sequences of tandem repeats of one to six nucleotides, which are highly polymorphic, and thus the molecular markers of choice in many kinship, population genetic, and conservation studies. There have been significant technical improvements since the early methods for microsatellite isolation were developed, and today the most common procedures take advantage of the hybrid capture methods of enriched-targeted microsatellite DNA. Furthermore, recent advents in sequencing technologies (i.e., next-generation sequencing, NGS) have fostered the mining of microsatellite markers in non-model organisms, affording a cost-effective way of obtaining a large amount of sequence data potentially useful for loci characterization. The rapid improvements of NGS platforms together with the increase in available microsatellite information open new avenues to the understanding of the evolutionary forces that shape genetic structuring in wild populations. Here, we provide detailed methodological procedures for microsatellite isolation based on the screening of GT microsatellite-enriched libraries, either by cloning and Sanger sequencing of positive clones or by direct NGS. Guides for designing new species-specific primers and basic genotyping are also given.

  13. Interstellar Processes Leading to Molecular Deuterium Enrichment and Their Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large deuterium (D) enrichments in meteoritic materials indicate that interstellar organic materials survived incorporation into parent bodies within the forming Solar System. These enrichments are likelier due to one or more of four distinct astrochemical processes. These are (1) low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions; (2) low temperature gas-grain reactions; (3) gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and (4) ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes should be associated with molecular carriers having, distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.). These processes are reviewed and specific spectroscopic signatures for the detection of these processes in space are identified and described.

  14. Late Early-Cretaceous quartz diorite-granodiorite-monzogranite association from the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau: Chemical variations and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical variations in granitic rocks may be controlled by their source rocks, melting reactions and subsequent magmatic processes, which resulted from various geodynamic processes related to subduction, collision, or slab break-off. Here we report new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes for the late Early Cretaceous quartz diorite, granodiorite and monzogranite in the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau. The zircon U-Pb dating yield ages of 113.9 ± 1.6, 111.7 ± 0.8, and 112.8 ± 1.7 Ma for the quartz diorite, granodiorite, and monzogranite, respectively, which are coeval with bimodal magmatism in the central and northern Lhasa sub-terrane. There are the distinct sources regions for the quartz diorite and granodiorite-monzogranite association. The quartz diorites are sodic, calc-alkaline and have high Mg# (52-54) values. They also have elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.707019 to 0.709176) and low εNd(t) (- 5.16 to - 7.63), with variable zircon εHf(t) values (+ 5.65 to - 9.02). Zircon chemical data indicate a typical crustal-derived character with high Th (142-1260 ppm) and U (106-1082 ppm) and moderate U/Yb ratios (0.30 to 2.32) and Y content (705-1888 ppm). Those data suggest that the quartz diorites were derived from partial melting of ancient basaltic lower crust by a mantle-derived magma in source region. The granodiorite-monzogranite association has high-K calc-alkaline, weakly peraluminous characters. They show lower Nb/Ta (5.57 to 13.8), CaO/Na2O (0.62 to 1.21), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (24.4 to 44.4) ratios, more evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures, all of which suggest derivation from mixed basaltic and metasedimentary source rocks in a deep crustal zone. We propose that the granitic magmatisms at ca. 113-110 Ma in the Gaologong belt was triggered by the slab break-off of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Supplementary Dataset Table 2. Single-grain zircon Hf isotopic data

  15. Early Benefits of a Starter Formula Enriched in Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Gut Microbiota of Healthy Infants Born to HIV+ Mothers: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Peter; Bolton, Keith D.; Velaphi, Sithembiso; de Groot, Nanda; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Pecquet, Sophie; Steenhout, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota of infants is shaped by both the mode of delivery and the type of feeding. The gut of vaginally and cesarean-delivered infants is colonized at different rates and with different bacterial species, leading to differences in the gut microbial composition, which may persist up to 6 months. In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial conducted in South Africa, we tested the effect of a formula supplemented with a prebiotic (a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides [BMOS] generated from whey permeate and containing galactooligosaccharides and milk oligosaccharides such as 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose) and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain CNCM I-3446 on the bifidobacteria levels in the gut of infants born vaginally or via cesarean section in early life. Additionally, the safety of the new formulation was evaluated. A total of 430 healthy, full-term infants born to HIV-positive mothers who had elected to feed their child beginning from birth (≤3 days old) exclusively with formula were randomized into this multicenter trial of four parallel groups. A total of 421 infants who had any study formula intake were included in the full analysis set (FAS). The first two groups consisted of cesarean-delivered infants assigned to the Test formula (n = 92) (a starter infant formula [IF] containing BMOS at a total oligosaccharide concentration of 5.8 ± 1.0 g/100 g of powder formula [8 g/L in the reconstituted formula] + B. lactis [1 × 107 colony-forming units {cfu}/g]) or a Control IF (n = 101); the second two groups consisted of vaginally delivered infants randomized to the same Test (n = 115) or Control (n = 113) formulas from the time of enrollment to 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome was fecal bifidobacteria count at 10 days, and the primary safety outcome was daily weight gain (g/d) between 10 days and 4 months. At 10 days, fecal bifidobacteria counts were significantly higher in the Test

  16. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  17. TOWARD AN ENRICHED CULTURAL FUTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST IN WORTHWHILE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES HAS BEEN ONE OF IMPORTANT EMPHASES OF THE HIGH HORIZONS PROGRAM. THE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT TEACHER HAS HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEACHING MUSIC AND/OR ART IN ADDITION TO CORRELATING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WITH ALL FACETS OF THE CURRICULUM TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND NEW EXPERIENCES AS WELL AS TO…

  18. Clues about Reading Enrichment (CARE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Nancy Jo; And Others

    Compiled by members of the Reading Committee of the North Middlesex Regional School District (Massachusetts), this illustrated guide provides tips, suggestions, and activities that parents can follow at home to help their children read. The Clues about Reading Enrichment (CARE) guide notes that regularly reading aloud to and with children is an…

  19. Novel meat-enriched foods for older consumers.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Hamid, Nazimah S A; Staincliffe, Maryann; Davies, Briar; Knowles, Scott O

    2018-02-01

    Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (p<0.05). Bread volume and spaghetti tensile strength increased and ice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (p<0.05). The overall acceptability/liking of bread, flavoured ice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p>0.05) but that of non-flavoured ice cream and yoghurt went down (p<0.05) with meat enrichment. 75% of the 940 panellist who ate the meat-enriched chocolates either loved or slightly-liked them. The outcome of the present study would assist in making the nutrition of meat available in a wider range of product categories, helping the meat industry stretch its established business models, and encouraging further development of novel food choices for elderly and other groups of consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal Enrichment during Pregnancy Accelerates Retinal Development of the Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Alessandro; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Ciucci, Francesca; Putignano, Elena; Chierzi, Sabrina; Maffei, Lamberto

    2007-01-01

    The influence of maternal environment on fetal development is largely unexplored, the available evidence concerns only the deleterious effects elicited by prenatal stress. Here we investigated the influence of prenatal enrichment on the early development of the visual system in the fetus. We studied the anatomical development of the rat retina, by analyzing the migration of neural progenitors and the process of retinal ganglion cell death, which exerts a key role in sculpturing the developing retinal system at perinatal ages. The number of apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer was analyzed using two distinct methods: the presence of pyknotic nuclei stained for cresyl violet and the appearance of DNA fragmentation (Tunel method). We report that environmental enrichment of the mother during pregnancy affects the structural maturation of the retina, accelerating the migration of neural progenitors and the dynamics of natural cell death. These effects seem to be under the control of insulin-like growth factor-I: its levels, higher in enriched pregnant rats and in their milk, are increased also in their offspring, its neutralization abolishes the action of maternal enrichment on retinal development and chronic insulin-like growth factor-I injection to standard-reared females mimics the effects of enrichment in the fetuses. Thus, the development of the visual system is sensitive to environmental stimulation during prenatal life. These findings could have a bearing in orienting clinical research in the field of prenatal therapy. PMID:18000533

  1. Chemical Applications for Enhanced World Security

    SciTech Connect

    Leibman, Christopher Patrick

    The purpose of this project is to reduce complexity of chemical analysis by combining chemical and physical processing steps into on package; develop instrumentation that cost less and is easy to use in a field laboratory by non-experts; and develop this "chemical application" so uranium enrichment can be measured onsite, eliminating the need for radioactive sample transport.

  2. R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Alexander P; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D

    2016-03-31

    Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this 'r-process galaxy' is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers.

  3. Spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE).

    PubMed

    Frost, H Robert; Li, Zhigang; Moore, Jason H

    2015-03-03

    Gene set testing is typically performed in a supervised context to quantify the association between groups of genes and a clinical phenotype. In many cases, however, a gene set-based interpretation of genomic data is desired in the absence of a phenotype variable. Although methods exist for unsupervised gene set testing, they predominantly compute enrichment relative to clusters of the genomic variables with performance strongly dependent on the clustering algorithm and number of clusters. We propose a novel method, spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE), for unsupervised competitive testing of the association between gene sets and empirical data sources. SGSE first computes the statistical association between gene sets and principal components (PCs) using our principal component gene set enrichment (PCGSE) method. The overall statistical association between each gene set and the spectral structure of the data is then computed by combining the PC-level p-values using the weighted Z-method with weights set to the PC variance scaled by Tracy-Widom test p-values. Using simulated data, we show that the SGSE algorithm can accurately recover spectral features from noisy data. To illustrate the utility of our method on real data, we demonstrate the superior performance of the SGSE method relative to standard cluster-based techniques for testing the association between MSigDB gene sets and the variance structure of microarray gene expression data. Unsupervised gene set testing can provide important information about the biological signal held in high-dimensional genomic data sets. Because it uses the association between gene sets and samples PCs to generate a measure of unsupervised enrichment, the SGSE method is independent of cluster or network creation algorithms and, most importantly, is able to utilize the statistical significance of PC eigenvalues to ignore elements of the data most likely to represent noise.

  4. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  5. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensatemore » system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.« less

  6. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  7. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.305 Enriched farina. (a) Enriched farina conforms to the definition and standard of...

  8. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.305 Enriched farina. (a) Enriched farina conforms to the definition and standard of...

  9. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.305 Enriched farina. (a) Enriched farina conforms to the definition and standard of...

  10. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.305 Enriched farina. (a) Enriched farina conforms to the definition and standard of...

  11. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section 540.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  12. Mobile Learning to Enrich Vocabulary in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The study enlightens the impact of Mobile learning in enriching the vocabulary in English at standard VIII. Objectives of the study: 1. To find out the problems in enriching vocabulary in English at standard VIII. 2. To find out the impact of Mobile learning in enriching vocabulary in English. Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in…

  13. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  14. CHEMICAL DIVERSITY IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXY TUCANA II

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Ezzeddine, Rana

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Tucana II, based on high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of four red giant stars. The metallicities of these stars range from [Fe/H] = −3.2 to −2.6, and all stars are low in neutron-capture abundances ([Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] < −1). However, a number of anomalous chemical signatures are present. One star is relatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] = −2.6) and shows [Na, α , Sc/Fe] < 0, suggesting an extended star formation history with contributions from AGB stars and SNe Ia. Two stars with [Fe/H] < −3 are mildly carbon-enhanced ([C/Fe] ∼more » 0.7) and may be consistent with enrichment by faint supernovae, if such supernovae can produce neutron-capture elements. A fourth star with [Fe/H] = −3 is carbon-normal, and exhibits distinct light element abundance ratios from the carbon-enhanced stars. This carbon-normal star implies that at least two distinct nucleosynthesis sources, both possibly associated with Population III stars, contributed to the early chemical enrichment of this galaxy. Despite its very low luminosity, Tucana II shows a diversity of chemical signatures that preclude it from being a simple “one-shot” first galaxy yet still provide a window into star and galaxy formation in the early universe.« less

  15. Coupled Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 Isotopic Data from 3.6-3.9 Ga Rocks: New Constraints on the Timing of Early Terrestrial Chemical Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Vickie C.; Brandon, alan D.; Hiess, Joe; Nutman, Allen P.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly precise data from a range of isotopic decay schemes, including now extinct parent isotopes, from samples of the Earth, Mars, Moon and meteorites are rapidly revising our views of early planetary differentiation. Recognising Nd-142 isotopic variations in terrestrial rocks (which can only arise from events occurring during the lifetime of now extinct Sm-146 [t(sub 1/2)=103 myr]) has been an on-going quest starting with Harper and Jacobsen. The significance of Nd-142 variations is that they unequivocally reflect early silicate differentiation processes operating in the first 500 myr of Earth history, the key time period between accretion and the beginning of the rock record. The recent establishment of the existence of Nd-142 variations in ancient Earth materials has opened a new range of questions including, how widespread is the evidence of early differentiation, how do Nd-142 compositions vary with time, rock type and geographic setting, and, combined with other types of isotopic and geochemical data, what can Nd-142 isotopic variations reveal about the timing and mechanisms of early terrestrial differentiation? To explore these questions we are determining high precision Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 isotopic compositions from the oldest well preserved (3.63- 3.87 Ga), rock suites from the extensive early Archean terranes of southwest Greenland and western Australia.

  16. Chemical variations observed on Aeolis Mons in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydenvang, Jens; Gasda, Patrick J.; Thompson, Lucy; Hurowitz, Joel; Grotzinger, John P.; Blaney, Diana L.; Gellert, Ralf; Wiens, Roger; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The extraordinarily extensive exposure of hematite-, clay-, sulfate-bearing stratigraphic layers in the lower part of Aeolis Mons was the primary reason Gale Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. 753 martian solar days (sols) after the Curiosity rover landed in Gale Crater in August 2012, and after driving more than 9 km, the Curiosity rover arrived at the first exposure of the Murray formation, the basal layer of Aeolis Mons. The Murray formation is a thinly laminated lacustrine mudstone showing stratification down to the millimeter scale. This supports the idea that the stratigraphic layers of Aeolis Mons are sedimentary, and likely deposited in a series of long-lived lakes extending into the early Hesperian time, as recently described by Grotzinger et al. (Science, vol. 350, 2015). The chemical variations observed throughout the Murray formation by the ChemCam and APXS instruments in the 600+ sols since first arriving at Aeolis Mons will be presented. While Murray remains thinly laminated throughout the 30+ vertical meters of stratigraphy explored, large chemical variations are observed. The most extreme variations arise from likely co-located detrital and diagenetic silica enrichments in Murray. Remarkably, an associated diagenetic silica enrichment is also observed in the unconformably overlying eolian sandstone of the Stimson formation in that location. The detrital enrichment provides evidence of how the source region chemistry varied as the sedimentary layers of Aeolis Mons were deposited. Conversely, the diagenetic enrichment observed across both the Murray and Stimson formations provides compelling evidence for the presence of subsurface fluids in Gale Crater, thousands to millions of years after the crater lakes disappeared. This evidence of liquid water greatly extends the timescale in which Gale Crater might have been habitable.

  17. Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in CAIS: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a CAI is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.

  18. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early Solar System as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part II - Laboratory evaporation of potential CMS-1 precursor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Williams, Curtis D.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Richter, Frank M.; Valley, John W.; Fedkin, Alexei V.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of laboratory experiments in which a forsterite-rich melt estimated to be a potential precursor of Allende CMS-1 FUN CAI was evaporated into vacuum for different lengths of time at 1900 °C. The evaporation of this melt resulted in residues that define trajectories in chemical as well as magnesium, silicon and oxygen isotopic composition space and come very close to the measured properties of CMS-1. The isotopic composition of the evaporation residues was also used to determine the kinetic isotopic fractionation factors [α2,1 (vapor-melt) defined as the ratio of isotopes 2 and 1 of a given element in the evaporating gas divided by their ratio in the evaporating source] for evaporation of magnesium (α25,24 for 25Mg/24Mg), silicon (α29,28 for 29Si/28Si) and oxygen (α18,16 for 18O/16O) from the forsterite-rich melt at 1900 °C. The values of α25,24 = 0.98383 ± 0.00033 and α29,28 = 0.99010 ± 0.00038 are essentially independent of change in the melt composition as evaporation proceeds. In contrast, α18,16 changes from 0.9815 ± 0.0016 to ∼0.9911 when the residual melt composition changes from forsteritic to melilitic. Using the determined values of α25,24 and α29,28 and present-day bulk chemical composition of the CMS-1, the composition of the precursor of the inclusion was estimated to be close to the clinopyroxene + spinel + forsterite assemblage condensed from a solar composition gas. The correspondence between the chemical composition and isotopic fractionation of experimental evaporation residues and the present-day bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of CMS-1 is evidence that evaporation played a major role in the chemical evolution of CMS-1.

  19. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  20. Observational and modeling constraints on global anthropogenic enrichment of mercury.

    PubMed

    Amos, Helen M; Sonke, Jeroen E; Obrist, Daniel; Robins, Nicholas; Hagan, Nicole; Horowitz, Hannah M; Mason, Robert P; Witt, Melanie; Hedgecock, Ian M; Corbitt, Elizabeth S; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2015-04-07

    Centuries of anthropogenic releases have resulted in a global legacy of mercury (Hg) contamination. Here we use a global model to quantify the impact of uncertainty in Hg atmospheric emissions and cycling on anthropogenic enrichment and discuss implications for future Hg levels. The plausibility of sensitivity simulations is evaluated against multiple independent lines of observation, including natural archives and direct measurements of present-day environmental Hg concentrations. It has been previously reported that pre-industrial enrichment recorded in sediment and peat disagree by more than a factor of 10. We find this difference is largely erroneous and caused by comparing peat and sediment against different reference time periods. After correcting this inconsistency, median enrichment in Hg accumulation since pre-industrial 1760 to 1880 is a factor of 4.3 for peat and 3.0 for sediment. Pre-industrial accumulation in peat and sediment is a factor of ∼ 5 greater than the precolonial era (3000 BC to 1550 AD). Model scenarios that omit atmospheric emissions of Hg from early mining are inconsistent with observational constraints on the present-day atmospheric, oceanic, and soil Hg reservoirs, as well as the magnitude of enrichment in archives. Future reductions in anthropogenic emissions will initiate a decline in atmospheric concentrations within 1 year, but stabilization of subsurface and deep ocean Hg levels requires aggressive controls. These findings are robust to the ranges of uncertainty in past emissions and Hg cycling.

  1. Phytoalexin-enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E

    2009-04-08

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functional foods. This has led to the creation of functional foods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functional foods. These phytoalexin-enriched functional foods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods.

  2. Enantiomerically enriched, polycrystalline molecular sieves

    DOE PAGES

    Brand, Stephen K.; Schmidt, Joel E.; Deem, Michael W.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Zeolite and zeolite-like molecular sieves are being used in a large number of applications such as adsorption and catalysis. Achievement of the long-standing goal of creating a chiral, polycrystalline molecular sieve with bulk enantioenrichment would enable these materials to perform enantioselective functions. Here, we report the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched samples of a molecular sieve. For this study, enantiopure organic structure directing agents are designed with the assistance of computational methods and used to synthesize enantioenriched, polycrystalline molecular sieve samples of either enantiomer. Computational results correctly predicted which enantiomer is obtained, and enantiomeric enrichment is proven by high-resolution transmission electronmore » microscopy. The enantioenriched and racemic samples of the molecular sieves are tested as adsorbents and heterogeneous catalysts. The enantioenriched molecular sieves show enantioselectivity for the ring opening reaction of epoxides and enantioselective adsorption of 2-butanol (the R enantiomer of the molecular sieve shows opposite and approximately equal enantioselectivity compared with the S enantiomer of the molecular sieve, whereas the racemic sample of the molecular sieve shows no enantioselectivity).« less

  3. Enantiomerically enriched, polycrystalline molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Stephen K.; Schmidt, Joel E.; Deem, Michael W.

    Zeolite and zeolite-like molecular sieves are being used in a large number of applications such as adsorption and catalysis. Achievement of the long-standing goal of creating a chiral, polycrystalline molecular sieve with bulk enantioenrichment would enable these materials to perform enantioselective functions. Here, we report the synthesis of enantiomerically enriched samples of a molecular sieve. For this study, enantiopure organic structure directing agents are designed with the assistance of computational methods and used to synthesize enantioenriched, polycrystalline molecular sieve samples of either enantiomer. Computational results correctly predicted which enantiomer is obtained, and enantiomeric enrichment is proven by high-resolution transmission electronmore » microscopy. The enantioenriched and racemic samples of the molecular sieves are tested as adsorbents and heterogeneous catalysts. The enantioenriched molecular sieves show enantioselectivity for the ring opening reaction of epoxides and enantioselective adsorption of 2-butanol (the R enantiomer of the molecular sieve shows opposite and approximately equal enantioselectivity compared with the S enantiomer of the molecular sieve, whereas the racemic sample of the molecular sieve shows no enantioselectivity).« less

  4. MOEX: Solvent extraction approach for recycling enriched 98Mo/ 100Mo material

    DOE PAGES

    Tkac, Peter; Brown, M. Alex; Momen, Abdul; ...

    2017-03-20

    Several promising pathways exist for the production of 99Mo/ 99mTc using enriched 98Mo or 100Mo. Use of Mo targets require a major change in current generator technology, and the necessity for an efficient recycle pathway to recover valuable enriched Mo material. High recovery yields, purity, suitable chemical form and particle size are required. Results on the development of the MOEX– molybdenum solvent extraction – approach to recycle enriched Mo material are presented. Furthermore, the advantages of the MOEX process are very high decontamination factors from potassium and other elements, high throughput, easy scalability, automation, and minimal waste generation.

  5. MOEX: Solvent extraction approach for recycling enriched 98Mo/ 100Mo material

    SciTech Connect

    Tkac, Peter; Brown, M. Alex; Momen, Abdul

    Several promising pathways exist for the production of 99Mo/ 99mTc using enriched 98Mo or 100Mo. Use of Mo targets require a major change in current generator technology, and the necessity for an efficient recycle pathway to recover valuable enriched Mo material. High recovery yields, purity, suitable chemical form and particle size are required. Results on the development of the MOEX– molybdenum solvent extraction – approach to recycle enriched Mo material are presented. Furthermore, the advantages of the MOEX process are very high decontamination factors from potassium and other elements, high throughput, easy scalability, automation, and minimal waste generation.

  6. Comprehensive Chemical Fingerprinting of High-Quality Cocoa at Early Stages of Processing: Effectiveness of Combined Untargeted and Targeted Approaches for Classification and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Magagna, Federico; Guglielmetti, Alessandro; Liberto, Erica; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Allegrucci, Elena; Gobino, Guido; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2017-08-02

    This study investigates chemical information of volatile fractions of high-quality cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Malvaceae) from different origins (Mexico, Ecuador, Venezuela, Columbia, Java, Trinidad, and Sao Tomè) produced for fine chocolate. This study explores the evolution of the entire pattern of volatiles in relation to cocoa processing (raw, roasted, steamed, and ground beans). Advanced chemical fingerprinting (e.g., combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry allows advanced pattern recognition for classification, discrimination, and sensory-quality characterization. The entire data set is analyzed for 595 reliable two-dimensional peak regions, including 130 known analytes and 13 potent odorants. Multivariate analysis with unsupervised exploration (principal component analysis) and simple supervised discrimination methods (Fisher ratios and linear regression trees) reveal informative patterns of similarities and differences and identify characteristic compounds related to sample origin and manufacturing step.

  7. Status of stable isotope enrichment, products, and services at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Aaron, W.; Tracy, Joe G.; Collins, Emory D.

    1997-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 y. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations to be conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) will be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; ISO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capablities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies.

  8. EXTERNAL PHOTOEVAPORATION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA: JUPITER's NOBLE GAS ENRICHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Monga, Nikhil; Desch, Steven

    We present a model explaining the elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne, and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments (∼3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from H{sub 2}. We argue that external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed H{sub 2}, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough (≲ 30 K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. Asmore » the solar nebula lost H, it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot and Hueso. We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production is also necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water vapor in regions ≲ 30 K to trap gas-phase species in amorphous water ice in solar proportions. We find more efficient chemical fractionation in the outer disk: whereas the model of Guillot and Hueso predicts a factor of three enrichment when only <2% of the disk mass remains, we find the same enrichments when 30% of the disk mass remains. Finally, we predict the presence of ∼0.1 M {sub ⊕} of water vapor in the outer solar nebula and protoplanetary disks in H II regions.« less

  9. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  10. Chemical Peel

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical peel: Your doctor will use a brush, cotton ball, gauze or sponge to apply a chemical ... medium chemical peel: Your doctor will use a cotton-tipped applicator or gauze to apply a chemical ...

  11. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    .... 10-899-02-ML-BD01] In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in... Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  12. Capture, enrichment, and mass spectrometric detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers with nanoporous silicon microparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhao, Wei-Jie; Yu, Jie-Kai; Ma, Sai; Sailor, Michael J; Wu, Jian-Min

    2012-11-01

    Mining the disease information contained in the low-molecular-weight range of a proteomic profile is becoming of increasing interest in cancer research. This work evaluates the ability of nanoporous silicon microparticles (NPSMPs) to capture, enrich, protect, and detect low-molecular-weight peptides (LMWPs) sieved from a pool of highly abundant plasma proteins. The average pore size and porosity of NPSMPs are controlled by the electrochemical preparation conditions, and the critical parameters for admission or exclusion of protein with a definite molecular weight are determined by reflectometric-interference Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of the proteins captured by the NPSMPs show that the chemical nature of the NPSMPs surface and the solution pH also play vital roles in determining the affinity of NPSMPs for target analytes. It is found that carboxyl-terminated porous microparticles with a porosity of 26% (pore diameter around 9.0 nm) specifically fractionate, enrich and protect LMWPs sieved from either simulated samples or human serum samples. Moreover, NPSMPs containing captured peptides can be directly spotted onto a MALDI plate. When placed in a conventional MALDI matrix, laser irradiation of the particles results in the release of the target peptides confined in the nanopores, which are then ionized and detected in the MALDI experiment. As a proof-of-principle test case, mass spectra of NPSMPs prepared using serum from colorectal cancer patients and from control patients can be clearly distinguished by statistical analysis. The work demonstrates the utility of the method for discovery of biomarkers in the untapped LMWP fraction of human serum, which can be of significant value in the early diagnosis and management of diseases. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enriching the hot circumgalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2013-07-01

    Simple models of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe predict that massive galaxies are surrounded by a hot, quasi-hydrostatic circumgalactic corona of slowly cooling gas, predominantly accreted from the intergalactic medium (IGM). This prediction is borne out by the recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Crain et al., which reproduce observed scaling relations between the X-ray and optical properties of nearby disc galaxies. Such coronae are metal poor, but observations of the X-ray emitting circumgalactic medium (CGM) of local galaxies typically indicate enrichment to near-solar iron abundance, potentially signalling a shortcoming in current models of galaxy formation. We show here that, while the hot CGM of galaxies formed in the simulations is typically metal poor in a mass-weighted sense, its X-ray luminosity-weighted metallicity is often close to solar. This bias arises because the soft X-ray emissivity of a typical ˜0.1 keV corona is dominated by collisionally excited metal ions that are synthesized in stars and recycled into the hot CGM. We find that these metals are ejected primarily by stars that form in situ to the main progenitor of the galaxy, rather than in satellites or external galaxies. The enrichment of the hot CGM therefore proceeds in an `inside-out' fashion throughout the assembly of the galaxy: metals are transported from the central galaxy by supernova-driven winds and convection over several Gyr, establishing a strong negative radial metallicity gradient. Whilst metal ions synthesized by stars are necessary to produce the X-ray emissivity that enables the hot CGM of isolated galaxies to be detected with current instrumentation, the electrons that collisionally excite them are equally important. Since our simulations indicate that the electron density of hot coronae is dominated by the metal-poor gas accreted from the IGM, we infer that the hot CGM observed via X-ray emission is the outcome of both hierarchical

  14. Centrifugal partition chromatography enables selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric proanthocyanidins for biomaterial development.

    PubMed

    Phansalkar, Rasika S; Nam, Joo-Won; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Leme, Ariene A; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana-Karina; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-02-02

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). This CPC method aims at developing PAC based biomaterials, particularly for their application in restoring and repairing dental hard tissue. A general separation scheme beginning with the depletion of polymeric PACs, followed by the removal of monomeric flavan-3-ols and a final enrichment step produced PAC trimer and tetramer enriched fractions. A successful application of this separation scheme is demonstrated for four polyphenol rich plant sources: grape seeds, pine bark, cinnamon bark, and cocoa seeds. Minor modifications to the generic DESIGNER CCS method were sufficient to accommodate the varying chemical complexities of the individual source materials. The step-wise enrichment of PAC trimers and tetramers was monitored using normal phase TLC and Diol-HPLC-UV analyses. CPC proved to be a reliable tool for the selective enrichment of medium size oligomeric PACs (OPACs). This method plays a key role in the development of dental biomaterials considering its reliability and reproducibility, as well as its scale-up capabilities for possible larger-scale manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) December 17, 2010... construction and operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  16. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity...

  17. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity...

  18. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity...

  19. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  20. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  2. Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: Bulk chemical characterization using solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Ronald; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-07-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) leaves during decomposition in tropical estuarine waters were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental (CHNO) analysis. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the leaves accounting for about 50 wt% of senescent tissues. Tannins were estimated to account for about 20 wt% of leaf tissues, and lipid components, cutin, and possibly other aliphatic biopolymers in leaf cuticles accounted for about 15 wt%. Carbohydrates were generally less resistant to decomposition than the other constituents and decreased in relative concentration during decomposition. Tannins were of intermediate resistance to decomposition and remained in fairly constant proportion during decomposition. Paraffinic components were very resistant to decomposition and increased in relative concentration as decomposition progressed. Lignin was a minor component of all leaf tissues. Standard methods for the colorimetric determination of tannins (Folin-Dennis reagent) and the gravimetric determination of lignin (Klason lignin) were highly inaccurate when applied to mangrove leaves. The N content of the leaves was particularly dynamic with values ranging from 1.27 wt% in green leaves to 0.65 wt% in senescent yellow leaves attached to trees. During decomposition in the water the N content initially decreased to 0.51 wt% due to leaching, but values steadily increased thereafter to 1.07 wt% in the most degraded leaf samples. The absolute mass of N in the leaves increased during decomposition indicating that N immobilization was occurring as decomposition progressed.

  3. Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: Bulk chemical characterization using solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benner, R.; Hatcher, P.G.; Hedges, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves during decomposition in tropical estuarine waters were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental (CHNO) analysis. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the leaves accounting for about 50 wt% of senescent tissues. Tannins were estimated to account for about 20 wt% of leaf tissues, and lipid components, cutin, and possibly other aliphatic biopolymers in leaf cuticles accounted for about 15 wt%. Carbohydrates were generally less resistant to decomposition than the other constituents and decreased in relative concentration during decomposition. Tannins were of intermediate resistance to decomposition and remained in fairly constant proportion during decomposition. Paraffinic components were very resistant to decomposition and increased in relative concentration as decomposition progressed. Lignin was a minor component of all leaf tissues. Standard methods for the colorimetric determination of tannins (Folin-Dennis reagent) and the gravimetric determination of lignin (Klason lignin) were highly inaccurate when applied to mangrove leaves. The N content of the leaves was particularly dynamic with values ranging from 1.27 wt% in green leaves to 0.65 wt% in senescent yellow leaves attached to trees. During decomposition in the water the N content initially decreased to 0.51 wt% due to leaching, but values steadily increased thereafter to 1.07 wt% in the most degraded leaf samples. The absolute mass of N in the leaves increased during decomposition indicating that N immobilization was occurring as decomposition progressed. ?? 1990.

  4. Collective evolution of submicron hillocks during the early stages of anisotropic alkaline wet chemical etching of Si(1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, P.; Vázquez, Luis; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Sarkar, Subhendu

    2017-11-01

    We address experimentally the large-scale dynamics of Si(1 0 0) surfaces during the initial stages of anisotropic wet (KOH) chemical etching, which are characterized through atomic force microscopy. These systems are known to lead to the formation of characteristic pyramids, or hillocks, of typical sizes in the nanometric/micrometer scales, thus with the potential for a large number of applications that can benefit from the nanotexturing of Si surfaces. The present pattern formation process is very strongly disordered in space. We assess the space correlations in such a type of rough surface and elucidate the existence of a complex and rich morphological evolution, featuring at least three different regimes in just 10 min of etching. Such a complex time behavior cannot be consistently explained within a single formalism for dynamic scaling. The pyramidal structure reveals itself as the basic morphological motif of the surface throughout the dynamics. A detailed analysis of the surface slope distribution with etching time reveals that the texturing process induced by the KOH etching is rather gradual and progressive, which accounts for the dynamic complexity. The various stages of the morphological evolution can be accurately reproduced by computer-generated surfaces composed by uncorrelated pyramidal structures. To reach such an agreement, the key parameters are the average pyramid size, which increases with etching time, its distribution and the surface coverage by the pyramidal structures.

  5. Early events in photodynamic therapy: chemical and physical changes in a POPC:cholesterol bilayer due to hematoporphyrin IX-mediated photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Santos, António; Rodrigues, António M; Sobral, Abílio J F N; Monsanto, Paula V; Vaz, Winchil L C; Moreno, Maria João

    2009-01-01

    We studied the interaction of hematoporphyrin IX (HpIX) with bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) containing cholesterol at a molar fraction between 0 and 0.5. The membrane-associated fraction of HpIX decreases significantly over a period of hours, for porphyrin concentrations in the aqueous phase above 50 nM. This was attributed to self-aggregation of HpIX and was well described by a dimerization process. A model was developed to correct for aggregation and obtain the true partition coefficient which is dependent on the molar fraction of cholesterol with a maximum at 20 mol%. The chemical and physical effects on the lipid bilayer upon irradiation of HpIX were studied for lipid bilayers with POPC:Chol 1:1. Exposure of these bilayers to visible light in the presence of HpIX leads to several cholesterol oxidation products that were identified using GC-MS. A dramatic increase in the membrane leakiness was also observed, even for short irradiation times and small light intensities, as evaluated from the rate of pH equilibration and dithionite permeability. The relevance of these results for the mechanism of photodynamic therapy is discussed.

  6. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEAmore » chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.« less

  7. Magnesium enriched lactic acid bacteria as a carrier for probiotic ice cream production.

    PubMed

    Góral, Małgorzata; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula; Góral, Dariusz

    2018-01-15

    The following strains of bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 442, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1937, and Lactococcus lactis JBB 500 were enriched with magnesium ions using Pulsed Electric Fields. The potentially probiotic strains were added to the mixture in the DVS process and applied for the production of ice cream which were then analyzed physicochemically and microbiologically. Results showed that addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium did not change chemical parameters of the ice cream and did not affect the freezing process, meltability, and hardness. No significant differences were noted in colour of the samples. The ice cream with addition of bacteria enriched with magnesium had higher adhesiveness. The results of viability determination showed that the total number of microorganisms in the ice cream was higher than in the starter cultures. Viability of the bacteria enriched with magnesium in the obtained ice cream was lower in comparison to the control samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enrichment programs to create a pipeline to biomedical science careers.

    PubMed

    Cregler, L L

    1993-01-01

    The Student Educational Enrichment Programs at the Medical College of Georgia in the School of Medicine were created to increase underrepresented minorities in the pipeline to biomedical science careers. Eight-week summer programs are conducted for high school, research apprentice, and intermediate and advanced college students. There is a prematriculation program for accepted medical, dental, and graduate students. Between 1979 and 1990, 245 high school students attended 12 summer programs. Of these, 240 (98%) entered college 1 year later. In 1986, after eight programs, 162 (68%) high school participants graduated from college with a baccalaureate degree, and 127 responded to a follow-up survey. Sixty-two (49%) of the college graduates attended health science schools, and 23 (18%) of these matriculated to medical school. Of college students, 504 participated in 13 summer programs. Four hundred (79%) of these students responded to a questionnaire, which indicated that 348 (87%) of the 400 entered health science occupations and/or professional schools; 179 (45%) of these students matriculated to medical school. Minority students participating in enrichment programs have greater success in gaining acceptance to college and professional school. These data suggest that early enrichment initiatives increase the number of underrepresented minorities in the biomedical science pipeline.

  9. Numerical study of the origin and stability of chemically distinct reservoirs deep in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Thienen, P.; van Summeren, J.; van der Hilst, R. D.; van den Berg, A. P.; Vlaar, N. J.

    Seismic tomography is providing mounting evidence for large scale compositional heterogeneity deep in Earth's mantle; also, the diverse geochemical and isotopic signatures observed in oceanic basalts suggest that the mantle is not chemically homogeneous. Isotopic studies on Archean rocks indicate that mantle inhomogeneity may have existed for most of the Earth's history. One important component may be recycled oceanic crust, residing at the base of the mantle. We investigate, by numerical modeling, if such reservoirs may have been formed in the early Earth, before plate tectonics (and subduction) were possible, and how they have survived—and evolved—since then. During Earth's early evolution, thick basaltic crust may have sunk episodically into the mantle in short but vigorous diapiric resurfacing events. These sections of crust may have resided at the base of the mantle for very long times. Entrainment of material from the enriched reservoirs thus produced may account for enriched mantle and high-μ signatures in oceanic basalts, whereas deep subduction events may have shaped and replenished deep mantle reservoirs. Our modeling shows that (1) convective instabilities and resurfacing may have produced deep enriched mantle reservoirs before the era of plate tectonics; (2) such formation is qualitatively consistent with the geochemical record, which shows multiple distinct ocean island basalt sources; and (3) reservoirs thus produced may be stable for billions of years.

  10. Chemical ablation of the Purkinje system causes early termination and activation rate slowing of long-duration ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, Derek J; Tabereaux, Paul B; Kim, Jong J; Walcott, Gregory P; Rogers, Jack M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Huang, Jian; Robertson, Peter G; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E

    2008-08-01

    Endocardial mapping has suggested that Purkinje fibers may play a role in the maintenance of long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF). To determine the influence of Purkinje fibers on LDVF, we chemically ablated the Purkinje system with Lugol solution and recorded endocardial and transmural activation during LDVF. Dog hearts were isolated and perfused, and the ventricular endocardium was exposed and treated with Lugol solution (n = 6) or normal Tyrode solution as a control (n = 6). The left anterior papillary muscle endocardium was mapped with a 504-electrode (21 x 24) plaque with electrodes spaced 1 mm apart. Transmural activation was recorded with a six-electrode plunge needle on each side of the plaque. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced, and perfusion was halted. LDVF spontaneously terminated sooner in Lugol-ablated hearts than in control hearts (4.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 9.2 +/- 3.2 min, P = 0.01). After termination of VF, both the control and Lugol hearts were typically excitable, but only short episodes of VF could be reinduced. Endocardial activation rates were similar during the first 2 min of LDVF for Lugol-ablated and control hearts but were significantly slower in Lugol hearts by 3 min. In control hearts, the endocardium activated more rapidly than the epicardium after 4 min of LDVF with wave fronts propagating most often from the endocardium to epicardium. No difference in transmural activation rate or wave front direction was observed in Lugol hearts. Ablation of the subendocardium hastens VF spontaneous termination and alters VF activation sequences, suggesting that Purkinje fibers are important in the maintenance of LDVF.

  11. Enrichment Zoning Options for the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2010-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. In NASA’s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study (NASA-SP-2009-566, July 2009), nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (-900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effortmore » was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. Past activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center have included development of highly detailed MCNP Monte Carlo transport models of the SNRE and other small engine designs. Preliminary core configurations typically employ fuel elements with fixed fuel composition and fissile material enrichment. Uniform fuel loadings result in undesirable radial power and temperature profiles in the engines. Engine performance can be improved by some combination of propellant flow control at the fuel element level and by varying the fuel composition. Enrichment zoning at the fuel element level with lower enrichments in the higher power elements at the core center and on the core periphery is particularly effective. Power flattening by enrichment zoning typically results in more uniform propellant exit temperatures and improved engine performance. For the SNRE, element enrichment zoning provided very flat radial power profiles with 551 of

  12. Star trapping and metallicity enrichment in quasars and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel; Lin, D. N. C.; Wampler, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the metallicity in quasars within a wide range of redshifts, in particular in gas flowing out of the nuclear regions, may be approximately redshift-independent and comparable with or larger than solar. It is plausible that the nuclear metallicity can be internally generated and maintained at approximately time-stationary values in quasars. We identify and estimate efficiency of a mechanism for rapid metallicity enrichment of quasar nuclear gas (in general, in active galactic nuclei) based on star-gas interactions and equivalent to an unusual mode of massive star formation. The mechanism involves capture of low-mass stars from the host galaxy's nucleus by the assemblages of clouds or by accretion disks orbiting the central massive objects (e.g., black holes). Trapping of stars within gaseous disks/clouds occurs through resonant density and bending wave excitation, as well as by hydrodynamical drag. The time scale for trapping stars with total mass equal to that of disk fragment/cloud is of order Hubble time and is remarkably model-independent. Our results show that the described mechanism can produce features suggested by observations, for example, the (super) solar gas metallicity in the nucleus. Thus the observed metallicities in high-redshift quasars do not necessarily imply that global star formation and efficient chemical changes have occurred in their host galaxies at very early cosmological epochs.

  13. Heavy-ion beam induced effects in enriched gadolinium target films prepared by molecular plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorov, D. A.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Werke, T. A.; Frey, M. M.; Folden, C. M.

    2017-09-01

    A series of enriched gadolinium (Gd, Z = 64) targets was prepared using the molecular plating process for nuclear physics experiments at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. After irradiation with 48Ca and 45Sc projectiles at center-of-target energies of Ecot = 3.8-4.7 MeV/u, the molecular films displayed visible discoloration. The morphology of the films was examined and compared to the intact target surface. The thin films underwent a heavy-ion beam-induced density change as identified by scanning electron microscopy and α-particle energy loss measurements. The films became thinner and more homogenous, with the transformation occurring early on in the irradiation. This transformation is best described as a crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition induced by atomic displacement and destruction of structural order of the original film. The chemical composition of the thin films was surveyed using energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the results confirming the complex chemistry of the molecular films previously noted in other publications.

  14. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) of this section), enriched farina, or enriched flour. They may be added in a harmless carrier, such... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched...

  15. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products. 139.115 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched macaroni products. (a) Description. Enriched macaroni products...

  16. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products. 139.115 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched macaroni products. (a) Description. Enriched macaroni products...

  17. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) of this section), enriched farina, or enriched flour. They may be added in a harmless carrier, such... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched...

  18. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products. 139.115 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched macaroni products. (a) Description. Enriched macaroni products...

  19. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) of this section), enriched farina, or enriched flour. They may be added in a harmless carrier, such... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched...

  20. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products. 139.115 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched macaroni products. (a) Description. Enriched macaroni products...

  1. Environmental enrichment imparts disease-modifying and transgenerational effects on genetically-determined epilepsy and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dezsi, Gabi; Ozturk, Ezgi; Salzberg, Michael R; Morris, Margaret; O'Brien, Terence J; Jones, Nigel C

    2016-09-01

    The absence epilepsies are presumed to be caused by genetic factors, but the influence of environmental exposures on epilepsy development and severity, and whether this influence is transmitted to subsequent generations, is not well known. We assessed the effects of environmental enrichment on epilepsy and anxiety outcomes in multiple generations of GAERS - a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy that manifests comorbid elevated anxiety-like behaviour. GAERS were exposed to environmental enrichment or standard housing beginning either prior to, or after epilepsy onset, and underwent EEG recordings and anxiety testing. Then, we exposed male GAERS to early enrichment or standard housing and generated F1 progeny, which also underwent EEG recordings. Hippocampal CRH mRNA expression and DNA methylation were assessed using RT-PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively. Early environmental enrichment delayed the onset of epilepsy in GAERS, and resulted in fewer seizures in adulthood, compared with standard housed GAERS. Enrichment also reduced the frequency of seizures when initiated in adulthood. Anxiety levels were reduced by enrichment, and these anti-epileptogenic and anxiolytic effects were heritable into the next generation. We also found reduced expression of CRH mRNA in GAERS exposed to enrichment, but this was not due to changes in DNA methylation. Environmental enrichment produces disease-modifying effects on genetically determined absence epilepsy and anxiety, and these beneficial effects are transferable to the subsequent generation. Reduced CRH expression was associated with these phenotypic improvements. Environmental stimulation holds promise as a naturalistic therapy for genetically determined epilepsy which may benefit subsequent generations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-09-05

    Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises as the null distribution in this context. NEAT can be applied not only to undirected, but to directed and partially directed networks as well. Our simulations indicate that NEAT is considerably faster than alternative resampling-based methods, and that its capacity to detect enrichments is at least as good as the one of alternative tests. We discuss applications of NEAT to network analyses in yeast by testing for enrichment of the Environmental Stress Response target gene set with GO Slim and KEGG functional gene sets, and also by inspecting associations between functional sets themselves. NEAT is a flexible and efficient test for network enrichment analysis that aims to overcome some limitations of existing resampling-based tests. The method is implemented in the R package neat, which can be freely downloaded from CRAN ( https://cran.r-project.org/package=neat ).

  3. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation - after Tazortene, hydroquinone, and salicylic acid chemical peels Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ... after treatment with hydroquinone, TCA chemical peel, and salicylic acid chemical peel. Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ...

  5. The role of targeted chemical proteomics in pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Chris W

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, proteomics is the high-throughput characterization of the global complement of proteins in a biological system using cutting-edge technologies (robotics and mass spectrometry) and bioinformatics tools (Internet-based search engines and databases). As the field of proteomics has matured, a diverse range of strategies have evolved to answer specific problems. Chemical proteomics is one such direction that provides the means to enrich and detect less abundant proteins (the ‘hidden’ proteome) from complex mixtures of wide dynamic range (the ‘deep’ proteome). In pharmacology, chemical proteomics has been utilized to determine the specificity of drugs and their analogues, for anticipated known targets, only to discover other proteins that bind and could account for side effects observed in preclinical and clinical trials. As a consequence, chemical proteomics provides a valuable accessory in refinement of second- and third-generation drug design for treatment of many diseases. However, determining definitive affinity capture of proteins by a drug immobilized on soft gel chromatography matrices has highlighted some of the challenges that remain to be addressed. Examples of the different strategies that have emerged using well-established drugs against pharmaceutically important enzymes, such as protein kinases, metalloproteases, PDEs, cytochrome P450s, etc., indicate the potential opportunity to employ chemical proteomics as an early-stage screening approach in the identification of new targets. PMID:22074351

  6. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S

    2018-02-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Quantitative chemical tagging, stellar ages and the chemo-dynamical evolution of the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitschang, A. W.; De Silva, G.; Zucker, D. B.; Anguiano, B.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.

    2014-03-01

    The early science results from the new generation of high-resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys, such as Galactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) and the Gaia European Southern Observatory survey (Gaia-ESO), will represent major milestones in the quest to chemically tag the Galaxy. Yet this technique to reconstruct dispersed coeval stellar groups has remained largely untested until recently. We build on previous work that developed an empirical chemical tagging probability function, which describes the likelihood that two field stars are conatal, that is, they were formed in the same cluster environment. In this work, we perform the first ever blind chemical tagging experiment, i.e. tagging stars with no known or otherwise discernible associations, on a sample of 714 disc field stars with a number of high-quality high-resolution homogeneous metal abundance measurements. We present evidence that chemical tagging of field stars does identify coeval groups of stars, yet these groups may not represent distinct formation sites, e.g. as in dissolved open clusters, as previously thought. Our results point to several important conclusions, among them that group finding will be limited strictly to chemical abundance space, e.g. stellar ages, kinematics, colours, temperature and surface gravity do not enhance the detectability of groups. We also demonstrate that in addition to its role in probing the chemical enrichment and kinematic history of the Galactic disc, chemical tagging represents a powerful new stellar age determination technique.

  8. Enrichment Wastes' Processing of Manganiferous Ores with the Use of Mechanochemical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubekova, Sholpan N.; Kapralova, Viktoria I.; Ibraimova, Gulnur T.; Batyrbayeva, Aigul A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is the study of the chemical and phase composition of enrichment wastes of manganiferous ore in Ushkatyn-III deposit and the synthesis of new materials by mechanochemical activation and subsequent heat treatment of the mechanical activation products. The use of XFA, infrared spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis…

  9. Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization

    DOEpatents

    Dubrin, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

  10. MHD performance calculations with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Staiger, P. J.; Seikel, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air on the generator and overall plant performance was studied for the ECAS-scale MHD/steam plants. A channel optimization technique is described and the results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented. Performance maps were generated to assess the impact of various generator parameters. Directly and separately preheated plant performance with varying O2 enrichment was calculated. The optimal level of enrichment was a function of plant type and preheat temperature. The sensitivity of overall plant performance to critical channel assumptions and oxygen plant performance characteristics was also examined.

  11. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffsmore » are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).« less

  12. How Home Enrichment Mediates the Relationship between Maternal Education and Children's Achievement in Reading and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Farnia, Fataneh; Ungerleider, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This article addresses the mediating role of early childhood home enrichment in the association between maternal education and academic achievement in the reading and math of 1,093 children aged 7 (Grade 1). Data were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development database. We used the bootstrapping…

  13. An enrichment, amplification, and sequence-based typing (EAST) approach for foodborne pathogen detection and surveillance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Detection of foodborne pathogens typically involves microbiological enrichment with subsequent isolation and identification of a pure culture. This is typically followed by strain typing, which provides information critical to outbreak and source investigations. In the early 1990’s pul...

  14. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  15. Management's Ecstasy and Disparity Over Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1976-01-01

    A case study analyzing job enrichment schemes and manager expectations of increased productivity is presented. It was found that it was the managers' expectations of increased productivity, not the reorganization of work, that led to higher productivity. (EC)

  16. Primary Prevention and the Marital Enrichment Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauber, S. Richard

    1974-01-01

    Mental illness constitutes a major hazard to public health. The author advodates the implementation of programs of primary prevention, using the marital enrichment group as a model to follow in promoting mental health and specific protection. (Author)

  17. Toward a predictive theory for environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V

    2009-11-01

    There have been many applications of and successes with environmental enrichment for captive animals. The theoretical spine upon which much enrichment work hangs largely describes why enrichment should work. Yet, there remains no clear understanding of how enrichment should be applied to achieve the most beneficial results. This lack of understanding may stem in part from the assumptions that underlie the application of enrichment by practitioners. These assumptions are derived from an understanding that giving animals choice and control in their environment stimulates their motivation to perform behaviors that may indicate a heightened state of well-being. Learning theory provides a means to question the manner in which these constructs are routinely applied, and converting learning theory's findings to optimality predictions suggests a particularly vexing paradox-that motivation to perform appears to be maintained best when acquiring a payoff for expressing the behavior is uncertain. This effect occurs even when the actual value of the payoff is the same for all schedules of certainty of payoff acquisition. The paradox can be resolved by invoking rewards of an alternative type, such as cognitive rewards, or through an understanding of how the average payoff changes with changes in the probability of reward. This model, with measures of the average change of the payoff, suggests testable scenarios by which practitioners can measure the quality of environmental uncertainty in enrichment programs.

  18. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving database enrichment through ensemble docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shashidhar; Sanschagrin, Paul C.; Greenwood, Jeremy R.; Repasky, Matthew P.; Sherman, Woody; Farid, Ramy

    2008-09-01

    While it may seem intuitive that using an ensemble of multiple conformations of a receptor in structure-based virtual screening experiments would necessarily yield improved enrichment of actives relative to using just a single receptor, it turns out that at least in the p38 MAP kinase model system studied here, a very large majority of all possible ensembles do not yield improved enrichment of actives. However, there are combinations of receptor structures that do lead to improved enrichment results. We present here a method to select the ensembles that produce the best enrichments that does not rely on knowledge of active compounds or sophisticated analyses of the 3D receptor structures. In the system studied here, the small fraction of ensembles of up to 3 receptors that do yield good enrichments of actives were identified by selecting ensembles that have the best mean GlideScore for the top 1% of the docked ligands in a database screen of actives and drug-like "decoy" ligands. Ensembles of two receptors identified using this mean GlideScore metric generally outperform single receptors, while ensembles of three receptors identified using this metric consistently give optimal enrichment factors in which, for example, 40% of the known actives outrank all the other ligands in the database.

  20. Microfluidic droplet enrichment for targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Huang, Yong; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Sciambi, Adam; Ptáček, Louis J.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted sequence enrichment enables better identification of genetic variation by providing increased sequencing coverage for genomic regions of interest. Here, we report the development of a new target enrichment technology that is highly differentiated from other approaches currently in use. Our method, MESA (Microfluidic droplet Enrichment for Sequence Analysis), isolates genomic DNA fragments in microfluidic droplets and performs TaqMan PCR reactions to identify droplets containing a desired target sequence. The TaqMan positive droplets are subsequently recovered via dielectrophoretic sorting, and the TaqMan amplicons are removed enzymatically prior to sequencing. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by generating an average 31.6-fold sequence enrichment across 250 kb of targeted genomic DNA from five unique genomic loci. Significantly, this enrichment enabled a more comprehensive identification of genetic polymorphisms within the targeted loci. MESA requires low amounts of input DNA, minimal prior locus sequence information and enriches the target region without PCR bias or artifacts. These features make it well suited for the study of genetic variation in a number of research and diagnostic applications. PMID:25873629

  1. Atrazine and its metabolites degradation in mineral salts medium and soil using an enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anup; Singh, Neera

    2016-03-01

    An atrazine-degrading enrichment culture was used to study degradation of atrazine metabolites viz. hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in mineral salts medium. Results suggested that the enrichment culture was able to degrade only hydroxyatrazine, and it was used as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Hydroxyatrazine degradation slowed down when sucrose and/or ammonium hydrogen phosphate were supplemented as the additional sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The enrichment culture could degrade high concentrations of atrazine (up to 110 μg/mL) in mineral salts medium, and neutral pH was optimum for atrazine degradation. Further, except in an acidic soil, enrichment culture was able to degrade atrazine in three soil types having different physico-chemical properties. Raising the pH of acidic soil to neutral or alkaline enabled the enrichment culture to degrade atrazine suggesting that acidic pH inhibited atrazine-degrading ability. The study suggested that the enrichment culture can be successfully utilized to achieve complete degradation of atrazine and its persistent metabolite hydroxyatrazine in the contaminated soil and water.

  2. Transgenerational marking of freshwater fishes with enriched stable isotopes: a tool for fisheries management and research.

    PubMed

    Munro, A R; Gillanders, B M; Thurstan, S; Crook, D A; Sanger, A C

    2009-08-01

    A promising new method of marking larval freshwater fishes with enriched stable isotopes by means of injecting the maternal parent with the marking agent was investigated. The (138)Ba:(137)Ba ratios in the otoliths of larval golden perch Macquaria ambigua were compared to determine the effect of injecting female broodstock with different dosages of enriched (137)Ba at various times before spawning. There was 100% mark success in the progeny of fish injected with 20 microg g(-1) of enriched (137)Ba 24 h before inducing spawning with hormones and 40 microg g(-1) administered at the same time as inducement of spawning. Injection of 40 microg g(-1) enriched (137)Ba 21 days before spawning resulted in only 81% mark success and suggests rapid elimination of barium in M. ambigua. Injection with enriched (137)Ba did not significantly affect the fertilization rate, number of fertilized eggs or hatching rate compared with long-term hatchery records. These results suggest that transgenerational marking is an effective and affordable means of mass-marking larval fishes. Thousands of larval fishes can be permanently marked with a unique artificial isotopic mark via a single injection into the maternal parent, thus avoiding the handling of individual fishes or having to deal with chemical baths. Because no single mark or tagging method is suitable for all situations, transgenerational marking with enriched stable isotopes provides another method for researchers and managers to discriminate both hatchery-reared and wild fishes.

  3. Chemical Evolution of Presolar Organics in Astromaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, Scott; Keller, L. P.

    2010-01-01

    Sub-micron, hollow organic globules reported from several carbonaceous chondrites, interplanetary dust particles, and comet Wild-2 samples returned by NASA?s Stardust mission are enriched in N-15/N-14 and D/H compared with terrestrial materials and the parent materials [1-4]. These anomalies are ascribed to the preservation of presolar cold molecular cloud material from where H, C, and N isotopic constraints point to chemical fractionation near 10 K [5]. An origin well beyond the planet forming region and their survival in meteorites suggests submicrometer organic globules were once prevalent throughout the solar nebula. The survival of the membrane structures indicates primitive meteorites and cometary dust particles would have delivered these organic precursors to the early Earth as well as other planets and satellites. The physical, chemical, and isotopic properties of the organic globules varies to its meteorite types and its lithologies. For example, organic globules in the Tagish Lake meteorite are always embedded in fined grained (poorly crystallized) saponite, and hardly encapsulated in coarse grained serpentine, even though saponite and serpentine are both main components of phyllosilicate matrix of the Tagish Lake meteorite. The organic globules are commonly observed in the carbonate-poor lithology but not in the carbonate-rich one. In Tagish Lake, isolated single globules are common, but in the Bells (CM2) meteorite, globules are mostly aggregated. We will review the evolutions of the organic globules from its birth to alteration in the parent bodies in terms of its own physical and chemical properties as well as its associated minerals.

  4. Early Forest Soils and Their Role in Devonian Global Change

    PubMed

    Retallack

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time.

  5. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  6. The Challenge of Family Relationships in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This second chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" presents four articles that deal with family relationships in early adolescence. "Teen-Parent Relationship Enrichment Through Choice Awareness," by Richard Nelson and Marsha Link, describes a process through which counselors may help to enrich relationships between teenagers…

  7. Differential effects of social and novelty enrichment on individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maya Zhe; Marshall, Andrew T; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-06-01

    Early life experience profoundly impacts behavior and cognitive functions in rats. The present study investigated how the presence of conspecifics and/or novel objects, could independently influence individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility. Twenty-four rats were reared in an isolated condition, an isolated condition with a novel object, a pair-housed social condition, or a pair-housed social condition with a novel object. The rats were then tested on an impulsive choice task, a behavioral flexibility task, and an impulsive action task. Novelty enrichment produced an overall increase in impulsive choice, while social enrichment decreased impulsive choice in the absence of novelty enrichment and also produced an overall increase in impulsive action. In the behavioral flexibility task, social enrichment increased regressive errors, whereas both social and novelty enrichment reduced never-reinforced errors. Individual differences analyses indicated a significant relationship between performance in the behavioral flexibility and impulsive action tasks, which may reflect a common psychological correlate of action inhibition. Moreover, there was a relationship between delay sensitivity in the impulsive choice task and performance on the DRL and behavioral flexibility tasks, suggesting a dual role for timing and inhibitory processes in driving the interrelationship between these tasks. Overall, these results indicate that social and novelty enrichment produce distinct effects on impulsivity and adaptability, suggesting the need to parse out the different elements of enrichment in future studies. Further research is warranted to better understand how individual differences in sensitivity to enrichment affect individuals' interactions with and the resulting consequences of the rearing environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of social and novelty enrichment on individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Maya Zhe; Marshall, Andrew T.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Early life experience profoundly impacts behavior and cognitive functions in rats. The present study investigated how the presence of conspecifics and/or novel objects, could independently influence individual differences in impulsivity and behavioral flexibility. Twenty-four rats were reared in an isolated condition, an isolated condition with a novel object, a pair-housed social condition, or a pair-housed social condition with a novel object. The rats were then tested on an impulsive choice task, a behavioral flexibility task, and an impulsive action task. Novelty enrichment produced an overall increase in impulsive choice, while social enrichment decreased impulsive choice in the absence of novelty enrichment and also produced an overall increase in impulsive action. In the behavioral flexibility task, social enrichment increased regressive errors, whereas both social and novelty enrichment reduced never reinforced errors. Individual differences analyses indicated a significant relationship between performance in the behavioral flexibility and impulsive action tasks, which may reflect a common psychological correlate of action inhibition. Moreover, there was a relationship between delay sensitivity in the impulsive choice task and performance on the DRL and behavioral flexibility tasks, suggesting a dual role for timing and inhibitory processes in driving the interrelationship between these tasks. Overall, these results indicate that social and novelty enrichment produce distinct effects on impulsivity and adaptability, suggesting the need to parse out the different elements of enrichment in future studies. Further research is warranted to better understand how individual differences in sensitivity to enrichment affect individuals’ interactions with and the resulting consequences of the rearing environment. PMID:28341610

  9. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Carbon Dioxide Enrichment on Radish Production Using Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Ruffe, L. M.; Yorio, N. C.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cvs. Cherry Belle, Giant White Globe, and Early Scarlet Globe) were grown in four different CO2 enriched environments, 0.04, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 kPa (400, 1000, 5000, 10000 ppm). Cultivar responses to CO2 treatments varied, where cv. Cherry Belle showed no significant response to CO2 enrichment, cv. Giant White Globe was moderately affected and Early Scarlet Globe was strongly affected. Enrichment at 0.10 kPa led to greater root dry matter (DM) than 1.00 kPa for cv. Giant White Glove, whereas 0.10 kPa produced greater storage root, shoot, and root DM than 1.00 kPa for cv. Early Scarlet Globe. The data suggest that 1.00 kPa CO2 may be detrimental to the growth of certain radish cultivars. Root:shoot ratios tended to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. Water use efficiency (g biomass/kg H2O) increased with increasing CO2 enrichment, up to 0.5 kPa but then declined at the 1.00 kPa treatment. The total nitric acid used to maintain nutrient solution pH was lowest at the 1.00 kPa treatment as well, suggesting a decreased demand of nutrients by the plants at the highest CO2 level.

  11. Tissue enrichment analysis for C. elegans genomics.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Albores, David; N Lee, Raymond Y; Chan, Juancarlos; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-13

    Over the last ten years, there has been explosive development in methods for measuring gene expression. These methods can identify thousands of genes altered between conditions, but understanding these datasets and forming hypotheses based on them remains challenging. One way to analyze these datasets is to associate ontologies (hierarchical, descriptive vocabularies with controlled relations between terms) with genes and to look for enrichment of specific terms. Although Gene Ontology (GO) is available for Caenorhabditis elegans, it does not include anatomical information. We have developed a tool for identifying enrichment of C. elegans tissues among gene sets and generated a website GUI where users can access this tool. Since a common drawback to ontology enrichment analyses is its verbosity, we developed a very simple filtering algorithm to reduce the ontology size by an order of magnitude. We adjusted these filters and validated our tool using a set of 30 gold standards from Expression Cluster data in WormBase. We show our tool can even discriminate between embryonic and larval tissues and can even identify tissues down to the single-cell level. We used our tool to identify multiple neuronal tissues that are down-regulated due to pathogen infection in C. elegans. Our Tissue Enrichment Analysis (TEA) can be found within WormBase, and can be downloaded using Python's standard pip installer. It tests a slimmed-down C. elegans tissue ontology for enrichment of specific terms and provides users with a text and graphic representation of the results.

  12. The Learning Enrichment Service: A Triad-Based Secondary School Model for Enrichment Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Elizabeth; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Three secondary teachers describe a school-wide support system for meeting the needs of gifted students in and beyond the regular classroom. A management team coordinates enrichment within the school and community while a computerized data bank of enrichment resources is accessible to all learners. (CL)

  13. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  14. Chemical pneumonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems. DO NOT siphon gas, kerosene, or other toxic liquid chemicals. Alternative Names Aspiration pneumonia - chemical Images Lungs Respiratory system References Blanc PD. Acute responses to toxic exposures. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, ...

  15. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

  16. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

  17. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

  18. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

  19. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

  20. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

  1. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

  2. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

  3. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

  4. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thereof, including any wheat germ or partly defatted wheat germ in any enriched flour used, shall not be more than 5 percent of the flour ingredient. (5) Enriched flour may be used, in whole or in part, instead of flour. As used in this section, the term “enriched flour” includes enriched bromated flour. (6...

  5. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... carbon dioxide evolved under ordinary conditions of use of the enriched self-rising flour is not less...

  6. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the substances prescribed in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155... Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched noodle products. (a) Enriched noodle products are the class of food...

  7. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thereof, including any wheat germ or partly defatted wheat germ in any enriched flour used, shall not be more than 5 percent of the flour ingredient. (5) Enriched flour may be used, in whole or in part, instead of flour. As used in this section, the term “enriched flour” includes enriched bromated flour. (6...

  8. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to the..., prescribed for enriched flour by § 137.165, except that potassium bromate is added in a quantity not...

  9. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the substances prescribed in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155... Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched noodle products. (a) Enriched noodle products are the class of food...

  10. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... carbon dioxide evolved under ordinary conditions of use of the enriched self-rising flour is not less...

  11. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... carbon dioxide evolved under ordinary conditions of use of the enriched self-rising flour is not less...

  12. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... carbon dioxide evolved under ordinary conditions of use of the enriched self-rising flour is not less...

  13. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to the..., prescribed for enriched flour by § 137.165, except that potassium bromate is added in a quantity not...

  14. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to the..., prescribed for enriched flour by § 137.165, except that potassium bromate is added in a quantity not...

  15. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to the..., prescribed for enriched flour by § 137.165, except that potassium bromate is added in a quantity not...

  16. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thereof, including any wheat germ or partly defatted wheat germ in any enriched flour used, shall not be more than 5 percent of the flour ingredient. (5) Enriched flour may be used, in whole or in part, instead of flour. As used in this section, the term “enriched flour” includes enriched bromated flour. (6...

  17. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the substances prescribed in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155... Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched noodle products. (a) Enriched noodle products are the class of food...

  18. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... farina, or enriched flour, or through the direct additions of any of the substances prescribed in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155... Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched noodle products. (a) Enriched noodle products are the class of food...

  19. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to the..., prescribed for enriched flour by § 137.165, except that potassium bromate is added in a quantity not...

  20. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thereof, including any wheat germ or partly defatted wheat germ in any enriched flour used, shall not be more than 5 percent of the flour ingredient. (5) Enriched flour may be used, in whole or in part, instead of flour. As used in this section, the term “enriched flour” includes enriched bromated flour. (6...

  1. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  2. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Catherine E; Ball, Marilyn C; Martin, Katherine C; C Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  3. Metal enrichments in solid bitumens: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, J.

    1988-07-01

    The association of oils and solid bitumens with ore deposits is widely recorded. The oils and bitumens may actually be enriched with metals. Unlike oils, metal enrichments within bitumens do not reflect the role of petroleum as a transporting agent for metals. By contrast, they may be a result of the reduction of metal ions on contact with bitumen, and may reach levels so high that ore mineral inclusions are precipitated. Metal determinations of British bitumens suggest that new metal anomalies can be detected by this approach, that some metal anomalies within bitumens may be related to ore mineralization, and that bitumens from different sources may be distinguished by their metal contents. The potential use of bitumen distribution and/or metal enrichment within bitumen for ore exploration is dependent on the metal concerned, and in particular whether the metal is transported by association with organic materials or reduced in the presence of organic materials.

  4. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  5. Cosmological Simulations with Molecular Astrochemistry: Water in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Brandon K.; Smidt, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Water is required for the rise of life as we know it throughout the universe, but its origin and the circumstances of its first appearance remain a mystery. The abundance of deuterated water in solar system bodies cannot be explained if all the water in the solar system were created in the protoplanetary disk (Cleeves et al. 2014), suggesting that as much of half of Earth’s water predates the Sun. Water has been observed as early as one sixth the current universe’s age in MG J0414+0534 (Imprellizzeri et al. 2008). It was recently shown that water could, in principle, appear in hot halos barely enriched with heavy elements such as oxygen and carbon (Bialy et al. 2015). So far, no self-consistent calculation of cosmology physics carried out in line with a large chemical reaction network has been carried out to study the first sites of water formation in the universe. We present initial results the first such series of cosmological calculations with a 26 species low metallicity molecular chemical reaction network with Enzo (Bryan et al. 2014) to understand the role of hydrodynamics and radiative feedback on molecule formation in the early universe and to shed light on the cosmological history of this life-giving substance.

  6. Chemical and isotopic fractionations by evaporation and their cosmochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2001-07-01

    dust enrichment (η = 0.001-10) and cooling rates of less than ˜5°C/min. The extent of decoupling between isotopic and chemical fractionations of various elements in chondrules and matrix minerals may constrain the time scale and the conditions of heating and cooling processes in the early solar nebula.

  7. Enrichment of Zinc in Galactic Chemodynamical Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Wanajo, Shinya

    2018-03-01

    The heaviest iron-peak element Zinc (Zn) has been used as an important tracer of cosmic chemical evolution. Spectroscopic observations of the metal-poor stars in Local Group galaxies show an increasing trend of [Zn/Fe] ratios toward lower metallicity. However, the enrichment of Zn in galaxies is not well understood due to poor knowledge of astrophysical sites of Zn, as well as metal mixing in galaxies. Here we show possible explanations for the observed trend by taking into account electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe) as one of the sources of Zn in our chemodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies. We find that the ejecta from ECSNe contribute to stars with [Zn/Fe] ≳ 0.5. We also find that scatters of [Zn/Fe] in higher metallicities originate from the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. On the other hand, it appears difficult to explain the observed trends if we do not consider ECSNe as a source of Zn. These results come from an inhomogeneous spatial metallicity distribution due to the inefficiency of the metal mixing. We find that the optimal value of the scaling factor for the metal diffusion coefficient is ∼0.01 in the shear-based metal mixing model in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. These results suggest that ECSNe could be one of the contributors of the enrichment of Zn in galaxies.

  8. Rye flour enriched with arabinoxylans in rye bread making.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał; Gambuś, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate physical and chemical properties of preparations of water soluble arabinoxylans (arabinoxylan-enriched flour) obtained by industrial method and their derivatives (obtained by hydrolysis and cross-linking of aranbinoxylans), as well as their impact on baking properties of rye flours. Additionally, these results were compared with highly purified arabinoxylans prepared by laboratory method and well characterized in the literature. Flour enriched with arabinoxylans was obtained by industrial method involving air separation of flour particles. It was characterized by 8.6% arabinoxylan content, lack of insoluble material and substantial residue (67%) of starch and dextrins. The addition of all industrial method preparations in amount of 10% (i.e. approx. 1% water soluble arabinoxylans), to rye flours resulted in an increase in water absorption, bread volume and decrease in hardness of the bread crumb and the effect was especially strong in the case of flour type 720. Due to the easiness of isolation procedure, industrial method preparation could be advised as an improver for rye bread making. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    PubMed

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  11. STOP for Science! A School-Wide Science Enrichment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, P.; Slane, R.; Arcand, K. K.; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.

    2012-08-01

    Young students are often natural scientists. They love to poke and prod, and they live to compare and contrast. What is the fastest animal? Where is the tallest mountain on Earth (or in the Solar System)? Where do the colors in a rainbow come from? And why do baseball players choke up on their bats? Educators work hard to harness this energy and enthusiasm in the classroom but, particularly at an early age, science enrichment - exposure outside the formal classroom - is crucial to help expand science awareness and hone science skills. Developed under a grant from NASA's Chandra X-ray Center, "STOP for Science!" is a simple but effective (and extensible) school-wide science enrichment program aimed at raising questions about science topics chosen to capture student interest. Created through the combined efforts of an astrophysicist and an elementary school principal, and strongly recommended by NASA's Earth & Space Science product review, "STOP for Science" combines aesthetic displays of science topics accompanied by level-selected questions and extensive facilitator resources to provide broad exposure to familiar, yet intriguing, science themes.

  12. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations.

  13. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of Valanginian environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2017-01-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous) includes an episode of significant environmental changes, which are well defined by a positive δ13C excursion. This globally recorded excursion indicates important perturbations in the carbon cycle, which has tentatively been associated with a pulse in volcanic activity and the formation of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP). Uncertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental changes. Here we report that in Valanginian sediments recovered from a drill core in Wąwał (Polish Basin, Poland), and from outcrops in the Breggia Gorge (Lombardian Basin, southern Switzerland), and Orpierre and Angles (Vocontian Basin, SE France), intervals at or near the onset of the positive δ13C excursion are significantly enriched in mercury (Hg). The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC, Hg/phyllosilicate, and Hg/Fe ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals or hydrous iron oxides only played a limited role. Volcanic outgassing was most probably the primary source of the Hg enrichments, which demonstrate that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental perturbations. PMID:28106091

  14. Enrichment and characterization of ferritin for nanomaterial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Mutskova, Radina; Schwartz, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitous iron storage protein utilized as a nanomaterial for labeling biomolecules and nanoparticle construction. Commercially available preparations of horse spleen ferritin, widely used as a starting material, contain a distribution of ferritins with different iron loads. We describe a detailed approach to the enrichment of differentially loaded ferritin molecules by common biophysical techniques such as size exclusion chromatography and preparative ultracentrifugation, and characterize these preparations by dynamic light scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation. We demonstrate a combination of methods to standardize an approach for determining the chemical load of nearly any particle, including nanoparticles and metal colloids. Purification and characterization of iron content in monodisperse ferritin species is particularly critical for several applications in nanomaterial science.

  15. Mothers' work–family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship

    PubMed Central

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work–family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. Methods In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results/Conclusion Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work–family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. PMID:24673505

  16. Mothers' work-family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-03-01

    Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work-family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work-family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Metabolomic analysis can detect the composition of pasta enriched with fibre after cooking.

    PubMed

    Beleggia, Romina; Menga, Valeria; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Fares, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that metabolomics has a definite place in food quality, nutritional value, and safety issues. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the metabolites in different pasta samples with fibre, and to investigate the modifications induced in these different kinds of pasta during cooking, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach. Differences were seen for some of the amino acids, which were absent in control pasta, while were present both in the commercially available high-fibre pasta (samples A-C) and the enriched pasta (samples D-F). The highest content in reducing sugars was observed in enriched samples in comparison with high-fibre pasta. The presence of stigmasterol in samples enriched with wheat bran was relevant. Cooking decreased all of the metabolites: the high-fibre pasta (A-C) and Control showed losses of amino acids and tocopherols, while for sugars and organic acids, the decrease depended on the pasta sample. The enriched pasta samples (D-F) showed the same decreases with the exception of phytosterols, and in pasta with barley the decrease of saturated fatty acids was not significant as for tocopherols in pasta with oat. Principal component analysis of the metabolites and the pasta discrimination was effective in differentiating the enriched pasta from the commercial pasta, both uncooked and cooked. The study has established that such metabolomic analyses provide useful tools in the evaluation of the changes in nutritional compounds in high-fibre and enriched pasta, both before and after cooking. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Chances and challenges of forest scale CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Rising CO2 is changing the biosphere's diet. As with any dietary change, both amount and quality of food matter. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is clearly providing a rather one-sided, C-rich diet. Hence, the reaiistic experimental simulation of its effect on the single biggest C reservoir of the biosphere, that is forest, requires experimental conditions that resemble exactly that situation. In the past, trees where most commonly exposed to elevated CO2 while provided with ample other constituents of a plant's diet (soil nutrients), yielding exaggerated growth stimulation, unlikely to reflect real world responses. So, by either selecting fertile soils, disturbing the system by fire or planting activities, offering ample soil space to isolated individuals or even adding fertilizer, almost any CO2-response can be 'designed'. The 'art' of designing future Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments will be to avoid exactly these pitfalls. Plants can incorporate additional C only to the extent the provision of chemical elements other than C will permit, given the stoichiometry of life. Site selection (soil fertility), degree of canopy closure, recent disturbance regime or successional stage will influence CO2 effects. It is the fundamental dilemma in CO2-enrichment research that simple, homogenous, artificial test systems offer statistical power, while systems that account for 'naturalness' and species diversity do not. Any new FACE program needs to handle that tradeoff between precision and relevance. In this presentation I will advocate a pragmatic approach that will inevitably have to lean on individual tree responses, across a wide as possible range of neighborhoods, age and growth conditions, with the statistical power depending in obtaining the best possible pre-treatment traits and responses. By illustrating the results of 15 years of FACE with 30-40 m tall forest trees, I will caution against over-optimistic ecosystem scale approaches with just ONE technology

  19. Identification of Chemical Toxicity Using Ontology Information of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhanpeng; Xu, Rui; Dong, Changchun

    2015-01-01

    With the advance of the combinatorial chemistry, a large number of synthetic compounds have surged. However, we have limited knowledge about them. On the other hand, the speed of designing new drugs is very slow. One of the key causes is the unacceptable toxicities of chemicals. If one can correctly identify the toxicity of chemicals, the unsuitable chemicals can be discarded in early stage, thereby accelerating the study of new drugs and reducing the R&D costs. In this study, a new prediction method was built for identification of chemical toxicities, which was based on ontology information of chemicals. By comparing to a previous method, our method is quite effective. We hope that the proposed method may give new insights to study chemical toxicity and other attributes of chemicals.

  20. Novel High-Fidelity Screening of Environmental Chemicals and Carcinogens and Mechanisms in Colorectal Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Chemical Promiscuity, Pharmacokinetics, Colorectal Cancer, N , N ’-disalicylidene-1,2-diaminopropane, Pyraclostrobin, Paclobutrazol, Vitamin D Receptor, Wnt...Environmental Chemicals, TOX-TMFS, CPTM, Cancer Cellular Network Model, Chemical Reactivity, Chemical Promiscuity, Pharmacokinetics, Colorectal Cancer, N , N ...network models were further enriched with oncologic disease OMIM profiles to create cancer-specific networks. The ECs N , N ’-disalicylidene- 1,2

  1. Enrichment dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and the associated microbiome from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Andrea; Ramachandran, Padmini; Reed, Elizabeth; White, James R; Hasan, Nur; Subramanian, Poorani; Ryan, Gina; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Christopher; Daquiqan, Ninalynn; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc; Colwell, Rita; Brown, Eric; Chen, Yi

    2016-11-16

    Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally greater at hour 0 than when tested 4, 8, and 12 h later with all three enrichment schemes. The corresponding increase in Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus spp.indicated these taxa co-enriched in competition with L. monocytogenes during early enrichment hours. L. monocytogenes became dominant after 24 h in all three enrichments. DNA sequences obtained from shotgun metagenomic data of Listeria monocytogenes at 48 h were assembled to produce a consensus draft genome which appeared to have a similar tracking utility to pure culture isolates of L. monocytogenes. All three methods performed equally well for enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes. The observation of potential competitive exclusion of L. mono by Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus in early enrichment hours provided novel information that may be used to further optimize enrichment formulations. Application of Resphera Insight for high-resolution analysis of 16S amplicon sequences accurately identified L. monocytogenes

  2. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  3. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  4. Books to Expand and Enrich Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1983-01-01

    Books are briefly described that parents can read and discuss with their children to enrich travel and cultural activities. Books on the nation's capital city, the Liberty Bell, the Statue of Liberty, architecture, zoos, dinosaurs, and other subjects are included. (PP)

  5. Parents as Partners in Art Education Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a parent art program, how it works, and ways to implement it. She emphasizes the strengths of parent programs as a way to support and enrich existing arts education, not as a replacement. Hansen describes the art kit--the adult's teaching resource--and the basic four-part process: presentation, demonstration, an art activity,…

  6. Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ethna R.

    The Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE) program was designed to establish a model for teaching parents, teachers, and other care providers how to develop the oral language, thinking abilities and motor skills of young children (ages six months to three years). ECLE trainers instruct the parents or other care providers by first modeling…

  7. Computer Enrichment Handbook [and] Supplement A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bonnie Roe, Ed.; And Others

    This handbook contains computer-related, classroom-tested ideas that were contributed by business education teachers and administrators to fuse computer information into computer and noncomputer courses. An alphabetical listing of contributors identifies the category/categories in which their enrichment idea can be found. The contributions are…

  8. Drama in English: An Enriching Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Mitzi

    1998-01-01

    Examines the rationale behind using musical drama in English-as-a-Second-Language classes, explaining that it is an enjoyable experience that enriches students' English while they are relaxed, working as a team, and having fun with their imaginations. The article explains the process of putting on a play and evaluates the effect such a project had…

  9. The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Diane; Raggi, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness (POWER's) unique and innovative curriculum recruits and sustains nontraditional students interested in preparing for employment or continued studies in an institution of higher education. The program specifically targets persons in mental health recovery. Students attend college during a regular…

  10. Enriching Science and Math through Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen; Scott, Margaret; Jordan, Pat; Dockers, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This case study reviewed the collaborative efforts of university engineers, teacher educators, and middle school teachers to advance sixth- and seventh-grade students' learning through a series of project-based engineering activities. This two-year project enriched regular school curricula by introducing real-world applications of science and…

  11. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  12. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  13. Using Synchronous Technology to Enrich Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Jaeger, David; Liu, Jinxia; Guo, Xiaoning; Xie, Nan

    2013-01-01

    To explore the potential applications of synchronous technology to enrich student learning, faculty members from an American regional state university and a Chinese regional university collaborated to find appropriate ways to integrate synchronous technology (e.g., Adobe Connect) into an educational technology program in the American university…

  14. Metacognitive Enrichment for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyre, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research was conducted to explore how introducing metacognitive enrichment into courses containing implicit or explicit critical thinking goals would affect the students' personal epistemological maturity. At the beginning of a fall semester at a moderate sized community college in the southeastern United States, 733 students were divided…

  15. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the high school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: applications of the microcomputer in mathematics; the fourth dimension and…

  16. Enriching and Assessing Young Children's Multimodal Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel-Powell, Christy; Kargin, Tolga; Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides primary teachers with assessment tools and curricular examples to expand writers' workshop by adding a multimodal storytelling unit on drama and filmmaking, allowing students to create engaging off-the-page stories through films and play performances that enrich writing. Too often, children's literacy abilities are assessed…

  17. Adhesion and enrichment of metals on human hands from contaminated soil at an Arctic urban brownfield.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Steven D; James, K; Zhang, Guiyin; Schafer, Alexis N; Peak, J Derek

    2009-08-15

    Human exposure to contaminated soils drives clean up criteria at many urban brownfields. Current risk assessment guidelines assume that humans ingest some fraction of soil smaller than 4 mm but have no estimates of what fraction of soil is ingested by humans. Here, we evaluated soil adherence to human hands for 13 agricultural soils from Saskatchewan, Canada and 17 different soils from a brownfield located in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. In addition, we estimated average particle size adhering to human hands for residents of a northern urban setting. Further, we estimated how metal concentrations differed between the adhered and bulk (< 4 mm) fraction of soil. The average particle size for adhered agricultural soils was 34 microm, adhered brownfield soils was 105 microm, and particles adhered to human residentswas 36 microm. Metals were significantly enriched in these adhered fractions with an average enrichment [(adhered-bulk)/bulk] in metal concentration of 184% (113% median) for 24 different elements. Enrichment was greater for key toxicological elements of concern such as chromium (140%), copper (140%), nickel (130%), lead (110%), and zinc (130%) and was highest for silver (810%), mercury (630%), selenium (500%), and arsenic (420%). Enrichment were positively correlated with carbonate complexation constants (but not bulk solubility products) and suggests that the dominant mechanism controlling metal enrichment in these samples is a precipitation of carbonate surfaces that subsequently adsorb metals. Our results suggest that metals of toxicological concern are selectively enriched in the fraction of soil that humans incidentally ingest. Investigators should likely process soil samples through a 45 microm sieve before estimating the risk associated with contaminated soils to humans. The chemical mechanisms resulting in metal enrichment likely differ between sites but at our site were linked to surface complexation with carbonates.

  18. Bacterial Community Profiling of H2/CO2 or Formate-Utilizing Acetogens Enriched from Diverse Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, R.; Zhang, L.; Fu, B.; Liu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic gases are usually generated from either cellulosic agricultural waste combustion or industrial release and could be subsequently transformed into acetate, ethanol, and/or butyrate by homoacetogenic bacteria, which commonly possess reductive acetyl-CoA synthesis pathway. Homoacetogen-based syngas fermentation technology provides an alternative solution to link greenhouse gas emission control and cellulosic solid waste treatment with biofuels production. The objective of our current project is to hunt for homoacetogens with capabilities of highly efficiently converting syngases to chemical solvents. In this study, we evaluated homoacetogens population dynamics during enrichments and pinpointed dominant homoacetogens representing diverse ecosystems enriched by different substrates. We enriched homoacetogens from four different samples including waste activate sludge, freshwater sediment, anaerobic methanogenic sludge, and cow manure using H2/CO2 (4:1) or formate as substrate for homoacetogen enrichment. Along with the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene (fhs gene)-specific real time qPCR assay and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, 16S rRNA based 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied to reveal the population dynamic and community structure during enrichment from different origins. Enrichment of homoacetogenic populations coincided with accumulations of short chain fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed Firmicutes and Spirochaetes populations became dominant while the overall microbial diversity decreased after enrichment. The most abundant sequences among the four origins belonged to the following phyla: Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 62.1%-99.1% of the total reads. The major putative homoacetogenic species enriched on H2/CO2 or formate belonged to Clostridium spp., Acetobacterium spp., Acetoanaerobium spp

  19. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  20. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten-free pasta enriched with resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Foschia, Martina; Beraldo, Paola; Peressini, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine the potential use of resistant starch (RS) as a fibre-enriching ingredient in gluten-free pasta. Pasta was enriched with commercial RS type II (Hi-Maize™ 260) at 100-200 g kg -1 substitution of rice flour. The effects on the rheological properties of dough and pasta quality as a result of RS addition and the loss in RS due to the process were evaluated. Dough water absorption was not influenced by the addition of RS. The cooking loss (CL) of RS-enriched samples was 30% lower than reference without fibre. The addition of RS significantly increased firmness of cooked pasta, and above 100 g kg -1 RS level of substitution samples showed a lower stickiness value. Dynamic rheological tests on pasta dough showed a higher storage modulus for fibre samples, indicating a higher number of elastically physical interactions. Loss in RS in uncooked pasta was about 31% compared with the initial amount added to the product. The addition of RS improved the quality of gluten-free pasta owing to its ability to increase the firmness and decrease the CL and stickiness of cooked pasta. The product enriched with 200 g kg -1 RS can be considered a source of DF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Autoantigens targeted in scleroderma patients with vascular disease are enriched in endothelial lineage cells

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Cottrell, Tricia R.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Antiochos, Brendan; Zambidis, Elias T.; Park, Tea Soon; Halushka, Marc K.; Gutierrez-Alamillo, Laura; Cimbro, Raffaello; Rosen, Antony; Casciola-Rosen, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Scleroderma patients with autoantibodies to centromere proteins (CENPs) and/or interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) are at increased risk of severe vascular complications. We set out to define whether these autoantigens are enriched in cells of the vasculature. Methods Successive stages of embryoid bodies (EBs) as well as vascular progenitors were used to evaluate the expression of scleroderma autoantigens IFI16 and CENP by immunoblotting. CD31 was included to mark early blood vessels. IFI16 and CD31 expression were defined in skin paraffin sections from scleroderma patients and from healthy controls. IFI16 expression was determined by flow cytometry in circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). Results Expression of CENP-A, IFI16 and CD31 was enriched in EBs at days 10 and 12 of differentiation, and particularly in cultures enriched in vascular progenitors (IFI16, CD31, CENPs A and-B). This pattern was distinct from that of comparator autoantigens. Immunohistochemical staining of skin paraffin sections showed enrichment of IFI16 in CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells in biopsies from scleroderma patients and normal controls. Flow cytometry analysis revealed IFI16 expression in CPCs, but minimal expression in CECs. Conclusion Expression of scleroderma autoantigens IFI16 and CENPs, which are associated with severe vascular disease, is increased in vascular progenitors and mature endothelial cells. High level, lineage-enriched expression of autoantigens may explain the striking association between clinical phenotypes and the immune targeting of specific autoantigens. PMID:27159521

  2. Sex differences after environmental enrichment and physical exercise in rats when solving a navigation task.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, V D; Rodríguez, C A; Sánchez, J; Mármol, F

    2016-09-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) and voluntary wheel running on the preference for using a landmark or pool geometry when solving a simple spatial task in adult male and female rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in same-sex pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of these two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals, and males and females did not differ. Enriched rats also performed better on subsequent test trials without the platform with the cues individually presented (either pool geometry or landmark). However, on a preference test without the platform, a clear sex difference was found: Females spent more time in an area of the pool that corresponded to the landmark, whereas males spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool. The present EE protocol did not alter females' preference for the landmark cue. The results agree with the claim that environmental enrichment is a consequence of a reduced anxiety response (measured by thigmotaxis) during cognitive testing. A possible implication of ancestral selection pressures is discussed.

  3. Chemical microsensors

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  4. Alarms, Chemical

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  5. Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; Fernández, José M. García

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut.

  6. Family, employment, and individual resource-based antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Family, Employment, and Individual Resource-Based Antecedents of Maternal Work-Family Enrichment from Infancy through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,019) to examine family, employment, and individual antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment from infancy through middle childhood. Work-family conflict and important confounding factors were controlled. From the family domain, higher income-to-needs ratio and social support were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the employment domain, greater job rewards, benefits of employment for children, and work commitment were associated with higher work-family enrichment. From the individual domain, higher maternal education and extroversion were associated with higher work-family enrichment. No family, employment, and individual characteristics were associated with work-family conflict across time except for partner intimacy. In general, the results supported antecedents of work-family enrichment that supply needed resources. The present study contributed to the literature by identifying antecedents of maternal work-family enrichment across early child developmental stages, which goes beyond examinations of particular life stages and a work-family conflict perspective. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26641483

  8. Mammalian DNA enriched for replication origins is enriched for snap-back sequences.

    PubMed

    Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M; Kaufmann, G; Martin, R G

    1984-11-15

    Using the instability of replication loops as a method for the isolation of double-stranded nascent DNA, extruded DNA enriched for replication origins was obtained and denatured. Snap-back DNA, single-stranded DNA with inverted repeats (palindromic sequences), reassociates rapidly into stem-loop structures with zero-order kinetics when conditions are changed from denaturing to renaturing, and can be assayed by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Origin-enriched nascent DNA strands from mouse, rat and monkey cells growing either synchronously or asynchronously were purified and assayed for the presence of snap-back sequences. The results show that origin-enriched DNA is also enriched for snap-back sequences, implying that some origins for mammalian DNA replication contain or lie near palindromic sequences.

  9. The Military Significance of Small Uranium Enrichment Facilities Fed with Low-Enrichment Uranium (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-12-01

    a five-year supply of enriched uranium for reactor fuel . Nevertheless, it seems clear that some foreign enrichment developments are approaching a...produc- tion of fissile material could powerfully influence the assessment of risks and benefits of a nuclear weapons development program . Since... program is likely to include the production of its own relatively pure fissile plutonium. This would involve more rapid cycling and reprocessing of fuel

  10. An enrichment method based on synergistic and reversible covalent interactions for large-scale analysis of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haopeng; Chen, Weixuan; Smeekens, Johanna M; Wu, Ronghu

    2018-04-27

    Protein glycosylation is ubiquitous in biological systems and essential for cell survival. However, the heterogeneity of glycans and the low abundance of many glycoproteins complicate their global analysis. Chemical methods based on reversible covalent interactions between boronic acid and glycans have great potential to enrich glycopeptides, but the binding affinity is typically not strong enough to capture low-abundance species. Here, we develop a strategy using dendrimer-conjugated benzoboroxole to enhance the glycopeptide enrichment. We test the performance of several boronic acid derivatives, showing that benzoboroxole markedly increases glycopeptide coverage from human cell lysates. The enrichment is further improved by conjugating benzoboroxole to a dendrimer, which enables synergistic benzoboroxole-glycan interactions. This robust and simple method is highly effective for sensitive glycoproteomics analysis, especially capturing low-abundance glycopeptides. Importantly, the enriched glycopeptides remain intact, making the current method compatible with mass-spectrometry-based approaches to identify glycosylation sites and glycan structures.

  11. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Carolyn

    1985-01-01

    Describes an enrichment program for preschool children which includes hands-on experiences with animals. Includes a chart with suggestions (large group activities, outdoor activities, science center activities, language and mathematics center activities, and arts/craft center activities) for the study of birds, insects, reptiles, mammals, trees…

  12. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  13. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Mármol, F; Sánchez, J; Torres, M N; Chamizo, V D

    2017-11-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  15. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  16. Chemical preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

  17. Chemical modification

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    Wood is a hygroscopic resource that was designed to perform, in nature, in a wet environment. Nature is programmed to recycle wood in a timely way through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradations. In simple terms, nature builds wood from carbon dioxide and water and has all the tools to recycle it back to the starting chemicals...

  18. Chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna

    2014-02-01

    Chemical peels are a method of resurfacing with a long-standing history of safety in the treatment of various skin conditions. This article reviews the classification of different chemical agents based on their depth of injury. The level of injury facilitates cell turnover, epidermal thickening, skin lightening, and new collagen formation. Preprocedural, periprocedural, and postprocedural skin care are briefly discussed. To select the appropriate chemical peel, the provider should evaluate the patient's expectations, medical history, skin type, and possible complications to determine the best chemical peel to achieve the desired results. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI have increased risk of dyspigmentation, hypertrophic, and keloid scarring. These individuals respond well to superficial and medium-depth chemical peels. Advances in the use of combination peels allow greater options for skin rejuvenation with less risk of complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Chemical Mapping of Proterozoic Organic Matter at Sub-Micron Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Robert, Francois; Mostefaoui, Smail; Meibom, Anders; Selo, Madeleine; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    We have used a NanoSIMS ion microprobe to map sub-micron-scale distributions of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, and oxygen in organic microfossils and laminae from the approximately 0.85 Ga Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. The data provide clues about the original chemistry of the microfossils, the silicification process, and biosignatures of specific microorganisms and microbial communities. Chemical maps of fossil unicells and filaments reveal distinct wall-and sheath-like structures enriched in C, N and S, consistent with their accepted biological origin. Surprisingly, organic laminae, previously considered to be amorphous, also exhibit filamentous and apparently compressed spheroidal structures defined by strong enrichments in C, N and S. By analogy to data from the well-preserved microfossils, these structures are interpreted as being of biological origin, most likely representing densely packed remnants of microbial mats. Because the preponderance of organic matter in Precambrian sediments is similarly "amorphous," our findings open a large body of generally neglected material to in situ structural, chemical, and isotopic study. Our results also offer new criteria for assessing biogenicity of problematic kerogenous materials and thus can be applied to assessments of poorly preserved or fragmentary organic residues in early Archean sediments and any that might occur in meteorites or other extraterrestrial samples.

  20. Development Issues on Linked Data Weblog Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rube, Iván; Cornejo, Carlos M.; Dodero, Juan Manuel; García, Vicente M.

    In this paper, we describe the issues found during the development of LinkedBlog, a Linked Data extension for WordPress blogs. This extension enables to enrich text-based and video information contained in blog entries with RDF triples that are suitable to be stored, managed and exploited by other web-based applications. The issues have to do with the generality, usability, tracking, depth, security, trustiness and performance of the linked data enrichment process. The presented annotation approach aims at maintaining web-based contents independent from the underlying ontological model, by providing a loosely coupled RDFa-based approach in the linked data application. Finally, we detail how the performance of annotations can be improved through a semantic reasoner.

  1. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  2. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  3. Bioactive compounds from orange epicarp to enrich fish burgers.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Sara; Lecce, Lucia; Likyova, Desislava; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2018-05-01

    The orange industry produces considerable amounts of by-products, traditionally used for animal feed or fuel production. Most of these by-products could be used as functional ingredients. To assess the potential food application of orange epicarp, different percentages of micro-encapsulated orange extract were added to fresh fish burgers. Then, an in vitro digestion was also carried out, before and after micro-encapsulation, to measure the bio-accessibility of the active compounds. A significant increase of bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds has been observed in the orange epicarp extract after micro-encapsulation by spray-drying. From the sensory point of view, the fish sample enriched with 50 g kg -1 micro-encapsulated extract was the most comparable to the control burger, even if it showed a higher phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid bio-accessibility. Orange epicarp may be used as a food additive to enhance the health content of food products. The micro-encapsulation is a valid technique to protect the bioactive compounds and increase their bio-accessibility. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

  5. Reconstruction of early Cambrian ocean chemistry from Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanjie; Fan, Haifeng; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Carignan, Jean

    2015-09-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian transition was a key time interval in the history of the Earth, especially for variations in oceanic and atmospheric chemical composition. However, two conflicting views exist concerning the nature of ocean chemistry across the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Abundant geochemical evidence suggests that oceanic basins were fully oxygenated by the late Ediacaran, while other studies provide seemingly conflicting evidence for anoxic deep waters, with ferruginous conditions [Fe(II)-enriched] persisting into the Cambrian. Here, two early Cambrian sedimentary platform and shelf-slope sections in South China were investigated to trace early Cambrian ocean chemistry from Mo isotopes. The results reveal that early Cambrian sediments deposited under oxic to anoxic/euxinic conditions have δ98/95Mo values ranging from -0.28‰ to 2.29‰, which suggests that early Cambrian seawater may have had δ98/95Mo values of at least 2.29‰, similar to modern oceans. The heaviest and relatively homogeneous δ98/95Mo values were recorded in siltstone samples formed under completely oxic conditions, which is considered that Mn oxide-free shuttling was responsible for such heavy δ98/95Mo value. Further, combined with Fe species data and the accumulation extent of Mo and U, the variation of δ98/95Mo values in the two studied sections demonstrate a redox-stratified ocean with completely oxic shallow water and predominantly anoxic (even euxinic) deeper water having developed early on, which eventually became completely oxygenated. This suggests that oceanic circulation at the time became reorganized, and such changes in oceanic chemistry may have been responsible for triggering the "Cambrian Explosion" of biological diversity.

  6. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel onmore » December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.« less

  7. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  8. Enriching Earthdata by Improving Content Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwell, R.; Wong, M. M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the launch of Earthdata in the later part of 2011, there has been an emphasis on improving the user experience and providing more enriched content to the user, ultimately with the focus to bring the "pixels to the people" or to ensure that a user clicks the fewest amount of times to get to the data, tools, or information which they seek. Earthdata was founded to be a single source of information for Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) components and services as a conglomeration between over 15 different websites. With an increased focus on access to Earth science data, the recognition is now on transforming Earthdata from a static website to one that is a dynamic, data-driven site full of enriched content.In the near future, Earthdata will have a number of components that will drive the access to the data, such as Earthdata Search, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR), and a redesign of the Earthdata website. The focus on content curation will be to leverage the use of these components to provide an enriched content environment and a better overall user experience, with an emphasis on Earthdata being "powered by EOSDIS" components and services.

  9. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  10. DNA-Encoded Dynamic Combinatorial Chemical Libraries.

    PubMed

    Reddavide, Francesco V; Lin, Weilin; Lehnert, Sarah; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-06-26

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions. Its application in the discovery of protein binders is largely limited by difficulties in the analysis of complex reaction mixtures. DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) technology allows the selection of binders from a mixture of up to billions of different compounds; however, experimental results often show low a signal-to-noise ratio and poor correlation between enrichment factor and binding affinity. Herein we describe the design and application of DNA-encoded dynamic combinatorial chemical libraries (EDCCLs). Our experiments have shown that the EDCCL approach can be used not only to convert monovalent binders into high-affinity bivalent binders, but also to cause remarkably enhanced enrichment of potent bivalent binders by driving their in situ synthesis. We also demonstrate the application of EDCCLs in DNA-templated chemical reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Consequences of an unstable chemical stratification on mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2013-04-01

    Early in the history of terrestrial planets, the fractional crystallization of primordial magma oceans may have led to the formation of large scale chemical heterogeneities. These may have been preserved over the entire planetary evolution as suggested for Mars by the isotopic analysis of the so-called SNC meteorites. The fractional crystallization of a magma ocean leads to a chemical stratification characterized by a progressive enrichment in heavy elements from the core-mantle boundary to the surface. This results in an unstable configuration that causes the overturn of the mantle and the subsequent formation of a stable chemical layering. Assuming scaling parameters appropriate for Mars, we first performed simulations of 2D thermo-chemical convection in Cartesian geometry with the numerical code YACC [1]. We investigated systems heated either solely from below or from within by varying systematically the buoyancy ratio B, which measures the relative importance of chemical to thermal buoyancy, and the mantle rheology, by considering systems with constant, strongly temperature-dependent and plastic viscosity. We ran a large set of simulations spanning a wide parameter space in order to understand the basic physics governing the magma ocean cumulate overturn and its consequence on mantle dynamics. Moreover, we derived scaling laws that relate the time over which chemical heterogeneities can be preserved (mixing time) and the critical yield stress (maximal yield stress that allows the lithosphere to undergo brittle failure) to the buoyancy ratio. We have found that the mixing time increases exponentially with B, while the critical yield stress shows a linear dependence. We investigated then Mars' early thermo-chemical evolution using the code GAIA in a 2D cylindrical geometry [2] and assuming a detailed magma ocean crystallization sequence as obtained from geochemical modeling [3]. We used an initial composition profile adapted from [3], accounted for an exothermic

  12. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  13. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50%more » defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.« less

  14. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has pioneered the use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology for use in personnel dosimetry and high dose radiation processing dosimetry. PNNL has developed and patented an alumina-based OSL dosimeter that is being used by the majority of medical X-ray and imaging technicians worldwide. PNNL has conceived of using OSL technology to passively measure the level of UF6 enrichment by attaching the prototype OSL monitor to pipes containing UF6 gas within an enrichment facility. The prototype OSL UF6 monitor utilizes a two-element approach with the first element open and unfiltered to measure both themore » low energy and high energy gammas from the UF6, while the second element utilizes a 3-mm thick tungsten filter to eliminate the low energy gammas and pass only the high energy gammas from the UF6. By placing a control monitor in the room away from the UF6 pipes and other ionizing radiation sources, the control readings can be subtracted from the UF6 pipe monitor measurements. The ratio of the shielded to the unshielded net measurements provides a means to estimate the level of uranium enrichment. PNNL has replaced the commercially available MicroStar alumina-based dosimeter elements with a composite of polyethylene plastic, high-Z glass powder, and BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor powder at various concentrations. The high-Z glass was added in an attempt to raise the average “Z” of the composite dosimeter and increase the response. Additionally, since BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor is optimally excited and emits light at different wavelengths compared to alumina, the commercially available MicroStar reader was modified for reading BaFBr:Eu in a parallel effort to increase reader sensitivity. PNNL will present the design and performance of our novel OSL uranium enrichment monitor based on a combination of laboratory and UF6 test loop measurements. PNNL will also report on the optimization effort to achieve the highest

  15. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can

  16. Review of remediation practices regarding cadmium-enriched farmland soil with particular reference to China.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Li, Q; Wu, M; Lin, L; Scholz, M

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium-enrichment of farmland soil greatly threatens the sustainable use of soil resources and the safe cultivation of grain. This review paper briefly introduces the status of farmland soil as well as grain, which are both often polluted by cadmium (Cd) in China, and illustrates the major sources of Cd contaminants in farmland soil. In order to meet soil environmental quality standards and farmland environmental quality evaluation standards for edible agricultural products, Cd-enriched farmland soil is frequently remediated with the following prevailing techniques: dig and fill, electro-kinetic remediation, chemical elution, stabilisation and solidification, phytoremediation, field management and combined remediation. Most remediation techniques are still at the stage of small-scale trial experiments in China and few techniques are assessed in field trials. After comparing the technical and economical applicability among different Cd-enriched farmland soil remediation techniques, a novel ecological and hydraulic remediation technique has been proposed, which integrated the advantages of chemical elution, solidification and stabilisation, phytoremediation and field management. The ecological and hydraulic remediation concept is based on existing irrigation and drainage facilities, ecological ditches (ponds) and agronomic measures, which mainly detoxify the Cd-enriched soil during the interim period of crop cultivation, and guarantee the grain safety during its growth period. This technique may shift the challenge from soil to water treatment, and thus greatly enhances the remediation efficiency and shortens the remediation duration. Moreover, the proposed ecological and hydraulic remediation method matches well with the practical choice of cultivation while remediation for Cd-enriched soil in China, which has negligible impacts on the normal crop cultivation process, and thus shows great potential for large area applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Enriching the Housing Environment for Mice Enhances Their NK Cell Antitumor Immunity via Sympathetic Nerve-Dependent Regulation of NKG2D and CCR5.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanfang; Gan, Yu; Wang, Qing; Meng, Zihong; Li, Guohua; Shen, Yuling; Wu, Yufeng; Li, Peiying; Yao, Ming; Gu, Jianren; Tu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Mice housed in an enriched environment display a tumor-resistant phenotype due to eustress stimulation. However, the mechanisms underlying enriched environment-induced protection against cancers remain largely unexplained. In this study, we observed a significant antitumor effect induced by enriched environment in murine pancreatic cancer and lung cancer models. This effect remained intact in T/B lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 -/- mice, but was nearly eliminated in natural killer (NK) cell-deficient Beige mice or in antibody-mediated NK-cell-depleted mice, suggesting a predominant role of NK cells in enriched environment-induced tumor inhibition. Exposure to enriched environment enhanced NK-cell activity against tumors and promoted tumoral infiltration of NK cells. Enriched environment increased the expression levels of CCR5 and NKG2D (KLRK1) in NK cells; blocking their function effectively blunted the enriched environment-induced enhancement of tumoral infiltration and cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, blockade of β-adrenergic signaling or chemical sympathectomy abolished the effects of enriched environment on NK cells and attenuated the antitumor effect of enriched environment. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanism by which eustress exerts a beneficial effect against cancer. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1611-22. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  19. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food...

  1. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food...

  4. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 139.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... by § 139.160. Because they are apt to impart an egg-yolk color, carrots are not used in enriched... prescribed by this section is “Enriched ___ noodle product”, “Enriched ___ egg noodle product”, or...

  5. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 139.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... by § 139.160. Because they are apt to impart an egg-yolk color, carrots are not used in enriched... prescribed by this section is “Enriched ___ noodle product”, “Enriched ___ egg noodle product”, or...

  6. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  7. Identification of OBO nonalignments and its implications for OBO enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bada, Michael; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-06-15

    Existing projects that focus on the semiautomatic addition of links between existing terms in the Open Biomedical Ontologies can take advantage of reasoners that can make new inferences between terms that are based on the added formal definitions and that reflect nonalignments between the linked terms. However, these projects require that these definitions be necessary and sufficient, a strong requirement that often does not hold. If such definitions cannot be added, the reasoners cannot point to the nonalignments through the suggestion of new inferences. We describe a methodology by which we have identified over 1900 instances of nonredundant nonalignments between terms from the Gene Ontology (GO) biological process (BP), cellular component (CC) and molecular function (MF) ontologies, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and the Cell Type Ontology (CL). Many of the 39.8% of these nonalignments whose object terms are more atomic than the subject terms are not currently examined in other ontology-enrichment projects due to the fact that the necessary and sufficient conditions required for the inferences are not currently examined. Analysis of the ratios of nonalignments to assertions from which the nonalignments were identified suggests that BP-MF, BP-BP, BP-CL and CC-CC terms are relatively well-aligned, while ChEBI-MF, BP-ChEBI and CC-MF terms are relatively not aligned well. We propose four ways to resolve an identified nonalignment and recommend an analogous implementation of our methodology in ontology-enrichment tools to identify types of nonalignments that are currently not detected. The nonalignments discussed in this article may be viewed at http://compbio.uchsc.edu/Hunter_lab/Bada/nonalignments_2008_03_06.html. Code for the generation of these nonalignments is available upon request. mike.bada@uchsc.edu.

  8. Biomineralization of strontianite(SrCO3) by aerobic microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and fate of trace metals and radionuclides in natural environments are controlled by physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Especially, microbially induced precipitation of carbonates has drawn much attention in recent decades because of its numerous implications such as atmospheric CO2 fixation through mineral carbonation and solid phase capture of inorganic contaminants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential for microbially induced precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) using microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths and to identify mineralogical characteristics of the precipitates of strontianite. Carbonate forming microorganisms were enriched from rhodoliths, which were sampled at Seogwang-ri coast in the western part of Wu Island, Jeju-do, Korea. Microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths were aerobically cultured at 25Ć in D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate, and the microorganisms were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene DGGE analysis to confirm microbial diversity. Mineralogical characteristics of the carbonate minerals precipitated by the enriched microorganisms were determined by XRD, TEM-EDS, and SEM-EDS analyses. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained carbonate forming microorganisms such as Proteus mirailis. The enriched microorganisms precipitated carbonate minerals using D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate and mineralogy of the precipitate was strontianite (SrCO3). SEM/TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a spherical shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. These results indicate that the microorganisms induce precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Sr ions on the cells. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate minerals may play one of important

  9. Isotopomer enrichment assay for very short chain fatty acids and its metabolic applications.

    PubMed

    Tomcik, Kristyen; Ibarra, Rafael A; Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Han, Yong; Tochtrop, Gregory P; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2011-03-01

    The present work illustrated an accurate GC/MS measurement for the low isotopomer enrichment assay of formic acid, acetic acid, propionic aicd, butyric acid, and pentanoic acid. The pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatives of these very short chain fatty acids have high sensitivity of isotopoic enrichment due to their low natural isotopomer distribution in negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric mode. Pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization reaction was optimized in terms of pH, temperature, reaction time, and the amount of pentafluorobenzyl bromide versus sample. The precision, stability, and accuracy of this method for the isotopomer analysis were validated. This method was applied to measure the enrichments of formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid in the perfusate from rat liver exposed to Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer only, 0-1mM [3,4-(13)C(2)]-4-hydroxynonanoate, and 0-2mM [5,6,7-(13)C(3)]heptanoate. The enrichments of acetic acid and propionic acid in the perfusate are comparable to the labeling pattern of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA in the rat liver tissues. The enrichment of the acetic acid assay is much more sensitive and precise than the enrichment of acetyl-CoA by LC-MS/MS. The reversibility of propionyl-CoA from succinyl-CoA was confirmed by the low labeling of M1 and M2 of propionic acid from [5,6,7-(13)C(3)]heptanoate perfusates. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A compact tritium enrichment unit for large sample volumes with automated re-filling and higher enrichment factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Han, L-F; Wassenaar, L I; Klaus, P M; Kainz, G G; Hillegonds, D; Brummer, D; Ahmad, M; Belachew, D L; Araguás, L; Aggarwal, P

    2016-12-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) in natural waters is a powerful tracer of hydrological processes, but its low concentrations require electrolytic enrichment before precise measurements can be made with a liquid scintillation counter. Here, we describe a newly developed, compact tritium enrichment unit which can be used to enrich up to 2L of a water sample. This allows a high enrichment factor (>100) for measuring low 3 H contents of <0.05TU. The TEU uses a small cell (250mL) with automated re-filling and a CO 2 bubbling technique to neutralize the high alkalinity of enriched samples. The enriched residual sample is retrieved from the cell under vacuum by cryogenic distillation at -20°C and the tritium enrichment factor for each sample is accurately determined by measuring pre- and post- enrichment 2 H concentrations with laser spectrometry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Enrichment in Pre-Kindergarten Life Predicts Initiation of Cigarette Smoking in Asian American and Hispanic/Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Weiss, Jie Wu

    2007-01-01

    The risk of tobacco use during adolescence may be traced back to early childhood, the time when a child is most vulnerable to environmental influence. We examined daily-life enrichment during pre-kindergarten period as a predictor of initiation of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Hispanic/Latino children during adolescence. Survey data…

  12. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  13. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W.

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile {sup 238}U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technologymore » retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC.« less

  14. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  15. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  16. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defensemore » Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.« less

  17. Enriching the Context for Musical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Nam-Hee; Chung, Shunah

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate how Korea's current educational policy's emphasis on artistic expression, and therefore music education, has been realized in the praxis of early childhood education. The authors view policy as discourses and texts that early childhood educators interpret and reinterpret within specific contexts. Policy…

  18. To enrich or not to enrich: providing shelter does not complicate handling of laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Moons, Christel P H; Van Wiele, Peggy; Odberg, Frank O

    2004-07-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is used in laboratory animal housing to provide stimuli exceeding those of barren cages and is intended to improve the welfare of captive animals. It is argued that when laboratory mice can routinely retreat in sheltering objects when humans are present, they do not habituate to humans and continue to shy away, thereby increasing the time needed for husbandry and testing procedures. To this date very limited research has been carried out to determine whether providing EE in the form of shelter interferes with the habituation of mice to humans and thus complicates catching and handling them. We housed 20 FVB (inbred) and 20 NMRI (outbred) male mice in standard cages and another 20 FVB and 20 NMRI male mice in cages enriched with two PVC conduits. When the mice were 10 weeks old, measurements of food and water consumption, weight, latency of catching, and a behavior score in response to handling during a sham subcutaneous injection were performed weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. Food and water consumption and weight were influenced by strain, but the presence of EE in the home cage did not affect these parameters as much. Outbred mice ate, drank, and weighed more than did the inbred animals, but they did not significantly gain weight during the course of the 4 testing weeks. Cage enrichment in the form of PVC conduits decreased the time needed to catch outbred animals and did not increase the time needed to catch mice from the inbred strain. Furthermore, no differences in resistance to being held during the sham injection could be detected between animals from the enriched versus non-enriched group. These results indicate that EE in the form of sheltering objects does not complicate catching or handling mice and that allowing access to enrichment in the laboratory cage, which has been shown to have positive effects on welfare, does not interfere with the management or cost of laboratory animals. Copyright 2004 American Association for

  19. Nitrogen enrichment regulates calcium sources in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hynicka, Justin D.; Pett-Ridge, Julie C.; Perakis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient that shapes cycles of other essential elements in forests, including calcium (Ca). When N availability exceeds ecosystem demands, excess N can stimulate Ca leaching and deplete Ca from soils. Over the long term, these processes may alter the proportion of available Ca that is derived from atmospheric deposition vs. bedrock weathering, which has fundamental consequences for ecosystem properties and nutrient supply. We evaluated how landscape variation in soil N, reflecting long-term legacies of biological N fixation, influenced plant and soil Ca availability and ecosystem Ca sources across 22 temperate forests in Oregon. We also examined interactions between soil N and bedrock Ca using soil N gradients on contrasting basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock that differed 17-fold in underlying Ca content. We found that low-N forests on Ca-rich basaltic bedrock relied strongly on Ca from weathering, but that soil N enrichment depleted readily weatherable mineral Ca and shifted forest reliance toward atmospheric Ca. Forests on Ca-poor sedimentary bedrock relied more consistently on atmospheric Ca across all levels of soil N enrichment. The broad importance of atmospheric Ca was unexpected given active regional uplift and erosion that are thought to rejuvenate weathering supply of soil minerals. Despite different Ca sources to forests on basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock, we observed consistent declines in plant and soil Ca availability with increasing N, regardless of the Ca content of underlying bedrock. Thus, traditional measures of Ca availability in foliage and soil exchangeable pools may poorly reflect long-term Ca sources that sustain soil fertility. We conclude that long-term soil N enrichment can deplete available Ca and cause forests to rely increasingly on Ca from atmospheric deposition, which may limit ecosystem Ca supply in an increasingly N-rich world.

  20. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.